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CHAPTER 5 :

SOIL
IMPROVEMENTS
PREPARED BY : SHAMILAH ANUDAI@ANUAR
INTRODUCTION

• GROUND IMPROVEMENT IS THE MOST IMAGINATIVE FIELD OF GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING.


• IT INVOLVE THE ALTERATION OF THE NATURAL STATE OF SOIL INSTEAD OF HAVING TO ALTER
THE DESIGN IN RESPONSE TO THE GROUNDS NATURAL LIMITATIONS TO SUIT THE PROJECTS
REQUIREMENTS.
• THE RESULTS USUALLY INCLUDE SAVING IN CONSTRUCTION COST AND REDUCTION OF
IMPLEMENTATION TIME.
DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES OF SOIL STABILIZATION
Types of soil stabilization
techniques

Mechanical Stabilization Chemical Stabilization /


a) Soil – aggregate Stabilization by additives
mixture such as :-
b) Soil – clay mixture- a) Lime
cement b) Sodium silicate
c) Sand – gravel mixture c) Calcium chloride
d) Stabilization of soil with d) Bituminous material
soil aggregates
e) Resinous material
PROCESS OF VIBRO COMPACTION
VIBROFLOTATION

• METHOD TO DENSIFYING GRANULAR SOILS WITH LESS THAN 10-15% SILT PRESENT
• THE PROCESS IS DONE ‘IN SITU’, USING AN ELECTRIC OR HYDRAULIC DRIVEN VIBRATORY UNIT
KNOWN AS A VIBROFLOT
• UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF SIMULTANEOUS VIBRATION AND SATURATION, LOOSE SAND AND
OR GRAVRL PARTICLES ARE REPACKED INTO A DENSER STATE AND HENCE THE LATERAL
CONFINING PRESSURE WITHIN THE SOIL MASS IS INCREASED.
METHOD OF VIBROFLOTATION
• STAGE 1 : THE JET AT THE BOTTOM OF THE VIBROFLOT IS
TURNED ON AND LOWERED INTO THE GROUND
• STAGE 2 : THE WATER JET CREATES A QUICK CONDITION IN THE
SOIL. IT ALLOWS THE VIBRATING UNIT TO SINK INTO THE
GROUND
• STAGE 3 : GRANULAR MATERIAL IS POURED FROM THE TOP OF
THE HOLE. THE WATER FROM THE LOWER JET IS TRANSFERRED
TO THE JET AT THE TOP OF THE VIBRATING UNIT. THIS WATER
CARRIES THE GRANULAR MATERIAL DOWN THE HOLE.
• STAGE 4 : THE VIBRATING UNIT IS GRADUALLY RAISED IN ABOUT 1 2 3 4
0.3M LIFTS AND HELD VIBRATING FOR ABOUT 30 SECONDS AT
EACH LIFT. THIS PROCESS COMPACTS THE SOIL TO THE DESIRED
UNIT WEIGHT.
PRE-COMPRESSION

Removed before construction of building


• PRECOMPRESSION/PRELOADING IS A TEMPORARY
LOADING APPLIED AT A CONSTRUCTION SITE TO
REMOVE PORE WATER OVER TIME
• THE PORE WATER DISSIPATION REDUCES THE TOTAL Surcharge
VOLUME CAUSING SETTLEMENT.
• SURCHARGING IS AN ECONOMICAL METHOD FOR
GROUND IMPROVEMENT Soft ground consolidated under load

• HOWEVER, THE CONSOLIDATION OF THE SOILS IS


TIME DEPENDENT, DELAYING CONSTRUCTION
PROJECTS MAKING IT A NON-FEASIBLE ALTERNATIVE
PRE-COMPRESSION (CONT’)
Sand
SAND DRAINS Drain

Sand
• A SAND DRAIN IS A SIMPLE PROCESS, EMPLOYING A
COLUMN OF AT LEAST 10 INCHES IN WIDTH AUGERED
Groundwater
INTO GROUND TO BE SURCHARGED AND
level
CONSOLIDATED.
• THE COLUMN IS THEN FILLED WITH SAND AND
CONNECTED TO A FREE-DRAINING BLANKET OF
GRANULAR SOIL.

10” Diameter
STONE COLUMNS

• ALSO KNOWN AS VIBRO-REPLACEMENT OR VIBRO-DISPLACEMENT, IS A GROUND IMPROVEMENT PROCESS


WHERE VERTICAL COLUMNS OF COMPACTED AGGREGATE ARE FORMED THROUGH THE SOILS TO BE
IMPROVED
• THE VIBRATOR FIRST PENETRATES TO THE REQUIRED DEPTH BY VIBRATION AND AIR/WATER JETTING/BY
VIBRATION ALONE.
• GRAVEL IS THEN ADDED AT THE TIP OF THE VIBRATOR AND PROGRESSIVE RAISING AND RE-PENETRATION OF
THE VIBRATOR RESULTS IN THE GRAVEL BEING PUSHED INTO THE SURROUNDING SOIL.
• THE SOIL-COLUMN MATRIX RESULTS IN AN OVERALL MASS HAVING A HIGH SHEAR STRENGTH AND A LOW
COMPRESSIBILITY.
• OBJECTIVE : TO IMPROVE THE LOAD BEARING CAPACITY AND REDUCE THE SETTLEMENT OF THE SOIL
Vibrator is reintroduced, Successive charges and
The vibrator is the stone is compacted compacting of stone
withdrawn and a to form an interlocking significantly improve
Vibrator penetrates
charge of stone or matrix between the the load bearing and
weak soils. stone columns and the settlement
recycled material is
placed in to the hole. surrounding confining characteristics of the
soils. ground
STABILIZATION BY ADMIXTURES

• APPLICATIONS
• ADMIXTURES
- LIME FOR HIGHLY PLASTIC SOILS
- LIME (QUICK LIME/CAO, HYDRATED - CEMENT FOR NON-PLASTIC SOILS, TYPICALLY
LIME/CA(OH2)
- FLYASH FOR SOILS WITH LITTLE OR NO PLASTIC FINES
- CEMENT - LIME AND KILN DUST (CKD) ALSO FOR TREATING
EXPANSIVE SOILS
- FLYASH, CEMENT KILN DUST (CKD)
- TYPICALLY TO A DEPTH OF 6 TO 12 IN
- FOR DEEPER STABILIZATION, USE OF PUGMILL
JET GROUTING

• IN JET GROUTING THE SOIL IS MIXED WITH CEMENT GROUNT INJECTED HORIZONTALLY UNDER
HIGH PRESSURE IN A PREVIOUSLY DRILLED BORE HOLE.
• JET GROUTING USES A SPECIAL PIPE EQUIPPED WITH HORIZONTAL JETS THAT INJECT GROUT
INTO THE SOIL AT HIGH PRESSURE. THE PIPES ARE FIRST INSERTED TO THE DESIRED DEPTH, THEN
THEY ARE RAISED AND ROTATED WHILE THE INJECTION OS ON PROGRESS., THUS FORMING A
COLUMN OF TREATED SOIL.
• DUE TO HIGH PRESSURE, THIS METHOD IS USABLE ON A WIDE RANGE OF SOIL TYPES.
SAND COMPACTION PILES
WORKED EXAMPLE

DURING CONSTRUCTION OF A HIGHWAY BRIDGE, IT IS EXPECTED THAT THE AVERAGE


PERMANENT LOAD ON THE CLAY LAYER WILL INCREASE ABOUT 115KN/M2. THE AVERAGE
EFFECTIVE OVERBURDEN PRESSURE AT THE MIDDLE OF THE CLAY LAYER IS 210KN/M2. GIVEN HC =
6M, CC=0.28. 𝑒° = 0.9AND CV=0.36M2/MONTH. THE CLAY IS NORMALLY CONSOLIDATED.
A) DETERMINE THE TOTAL PRIMARY CONSOLIDATION SETTLEMENT OF THE BRIDGE WITHOUT
PRECOMPRESSION

B) DETERMINE THE SURCHARGE, ∆𝜎′(𝑓) THAT WILL BE REQUIRED TO ELIMINATE BY


PRECOMPRESSION THE ENTIRE PRIMARY CONSOLIDATION SETTLEMENT IN 9 MONTHS.
CONCLUSION

• SOIL CONDITIONS CAN FREQUENTLY BE IMPROVED USING SOIL IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES.


• A VARIETY OF SOIL IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED.
• HOWEVER, SUITABLE TECHNIQUE HAS TO BE ADOPTED ACCORDING TO NECESSITY OF THE
STRUCTURE AND ECONOMY
• APPLICATION OF GROUND IMPROVEMENT IS NOT ONLY CHEAPER BUT REDUCE THE
CONSTRUCTION TIME SIGNIFICANTLY