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Finding remainders is one of important concept in arithmetic. For example, in finding units digit of an expression, Email: ramakrishna.salagrama@gmail.co
H.C.F etc finding remainder is very important.
When 100 is divided by 8, we get 4 as remainder. This can be represented as 100 = 8×k + 4. Here k = 12 and Submit placement questions Click H
remainder is 4.
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In competitive exams, the problems are not straight forward. So learn the following rules and techniques carefully.
The following rules are very important: Join our discussion forum: Click Here

Rule 1: If N = A × B × C. . . . then the remainder when N is divided by D is equal to the product of the remainders
when A, B, C ... are divided by D.

⇒ () () () ()
N
D R
=
A
D R
×
B
D R
×
C
D R
...

Here () N
D R
means the remainder when N is divided by D

Solved Example 1:
Find the remainder when 1201 × 1203 ×1205 × 1207 is divided by 6.
Explanation:
If you don't know the above rule, this problem is really calculation intensive.
But by applying the above rule, when 1201, 1201, 1203, 1204 divided by 6, leaves remainders 1, 3, 5, 1. The product
of these remainders = 15.
When 15 is divided by 6, Remainder is 3.

Rule 2: If N = A + B + C. . . . then the remainder when N is divided by D is equal to the sum of the remainders
when A, B, C ... are divided by D.

⇒ () () () ()
N
D R
=
A
D R
+
B
D R
+
C
D R
...

Solved Example 2:
Find the remainder when 1! + 2! + 3! + 4! + 5! + .......100! is divided by 24.
Explanation:
By applying rule 2, we divide the terms of the above expression individually, and add them to get the final remainder.
But from 4! onwards all the terms leave a remainder 0 when divided by 24.
So the remainder = 1 + 2 + 6 + 0 + 0....... = 9

General Divisibility rules:

Let us a take a number ABCDEF. In decimal system this number can be written as
100,000A + 10,000B + 1000C + 100D + 10E + F

Divisibility Rule for 2:


We can easily observe that from rule 2, if ABCDEF has to be divisible by 2, 2 must divide all the six terms above. It is
evident that except F remaining numbers are divisible by 2. So if F is divisible by 2 then the number ABCDEF is
divisible by 2.

Divisibility Rule for 5:

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Since all the terms except F is divisible by 5, the number is divisible when F is divisible by 5, or F must be 0 or 5.

Divisibility Rule for 4:


We can see that Except last two terms 10E and F, the remaining terms are divisible by 4. so If the last two digits are
divisible by 4, the entire number is divisble by 4.

Divisibility Rule for 8:


Except last three terms the remaining terms are divisible by 8. So if the last three digits are divisible by 8 then the
number is divisible by 8.
Thumb Rule: for 2, 4, 8, 16... we need to check the last 1, 2, 3, 4 ... digits. Observer there 1, 2, 3, 4 are the powers of
the divisor with base 2.

Divisibility Rule for 3, 9:


100,000A + 10,000B + 1000C + 100D + 10E + F = 99999A + 9999B + 999C + 99D + 9E + (A + B + C + D + E + F)
We can see that Except (A + B + C + D + E + F) remaining terms are divisible by 3, 9. If the digit sum is divisible by
3, 9 then the number ABCDEF is divisible by 3, 9. (A + B + C + D + E + F) is called digit sum of a number.

Divisibility Rule for 11:


100,000A + 10,000B + 1000C + 100D + 10E + F = 100,001A + 9,999B + 1,001C + 99D + 11E + (-A + B - C + D - E +
F)
From above we know that except (-A + B - C + D - E + F) the remaining digits are divisible by 11. So if the difference
between the sum of the digists in the even places and odd places is 0 or multiple of 11 then the number is divisible by
11.

Divisibility Rule for 6, 12 or any composite number:


If a composite divisor can be written as a product of co-primes and each of these co-primes divide the given number
exactly, then that number is divisible by the divisor. So if 2, 3 divide the given number exactly then 6 divides that
number exactly. Similarly, divisibility for 12 is to check divisibility for 3, 4.

Divisibility for 7, 13, 17...:


The existing seed method rule is not good enough to solve problems given in examination. So we learn some
important formulas to solve questions easily.

Fermat's little theorem:

A number a p − 1 is divided by p, then remainder is 1. Here P is prime.

Simbolically,
( )
ap − 1
p R
=1

or a p − 1 ≡ 1(mod P)
The advantage of using above format is that we can add, subtract, multiply and raise to some power to the
numbers on the both sides of equivalent sign.

Solved Example 3:
What is the remainder when 8 100 is divisible by 17.

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Explanation:
This is an extremely difficult problem to solve with out Fermat's little theorem. By applying Fermat's little theorem ,
We know that 8 16 when divided by 17, the remainder is 1.
So divide 100 by 16 and find the remainder. Remainder = 4
Therefore, 100 = (16 × 6) + 4

8 100 8 16 × 6 + 4 (8 )
16 6
× 84
Now this problem can be written as = =
17 17 17
6 4 4
(1) × 8 8
Now this problem simply boils down to =
17 17
8 4 = 8 2 × 8 2, we need to find the remainder when 64 × 64 is divisible by 17. Or 13 × 13 = 169. When 169 is divided
by 17, remainder is 16.
Note: When you divide 100 by 16, find only remainder because what ever be the quotient, one power anything will
become 1.

Wilson's theorem:

If P is a prime number then (P - 1)! + 1 is divided by P the remainder is 0. or ( (P − 1) ! + 1


P ) R
=0

or (p − 1) ! + 1 ≡ 0(mod P)

Simplifying using congruence mod m:

a ≡ b( mod m) or ()
a
m
R
=b

The above expression can be read as, 'a' is congruent to b, mod m.


This means, when a is divided by 'm' the remainder is b. (or) a, b gives same remainder when divided by m.
Now the following rules follows,

1. ( )
a+k
m R
=b+k

If you add a value k on both sides and continue your calculation

2. ( )
a×k
m R
=b×k

3.
()
ak
m R
= bk

Important: Never divided a, b with a number k.

Solved Example 4:
Find the remainder when 39! is divided by 41.
Explanation:
Substituting p = 41 in the wilson's theorem, we get
40 ! + 1
=0
41
40 × 39 ! + 1
=0
41
− 1 × 39 !
= −1
41
Cancelling -1 on both sides,
39 !
=1
41

Alternatively:
By using congruent method
(41 − 1) ! + 1 ≡ 0(mod 41)
40! +1 = 0 (mod 41)
40 × 39! = -1 (mod 41)
- 1×39! = -1 (mod 41)
Now by dividing the left hand expression by 41,
0 -1×39! = -1 (mod 41)
Cancelling -1 on both sides,
39! = 1 (mod 41)

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So the remainder when 39! is divided by 41 is 1.

Euler's Totient theorem:

If the divisor is not a prime number we cannot apply fermat little theorem. So we learn Euler Totient theorem.

The remainder when N ϕ ( N ) is divided by N is 1. Here ϕ(N) = N 1 − ( )( )( )


1
a
1−
1
b
1−
1
c
...

a, b, c .. are prime factors of the number N when N is written in prime factorization format. N = a p. b q. c r. . .

Solved Example 6:
Find the remainder when 5 100 when divided by 18.
Explanation:
Here N = 18 = 2 × 3 2

ϕ(18) = 18 1 − ( )( )1
2
1−
1
3
=6

So 5 6 when divided by 18, remainder is 1.

So we can write the given expression 5 100 = 5 6 ( ) 16


× 5 4 = (1) 16 × 5 4 = 5 2 × 5 2 = 7 × 7 = 49

Now 49 when divided by 18, remainder is 13.

Solved Example 7:
34
Find the remainder when 30 32 is divided by 11.
Explanation:
We know that as per fermat little theorem, 30 10 when divided by 11 leaves remainder 1.
So We try to write the given expression in this format. i.e., 32 34 = 10k + r where k is some quotient and r is remainder.
You can use Euler totient theorem to find the remainder. But the remainder when any number when divided by 10, is
the units digit of that number.
32 34 units digit is same as 2 34

We know that cyclicity for 2 is 4. So 2 34 = 2 4 ( ) 8


× 2 2 = (6) 8 × 4 = 6 × 4 = 4

(Read this chapter for better understanding)


34
So 30 32 = 30 ( 10k + 4 ) = 30 10 ( ) k
× 30 4 = (1) k × 30 4 = 8 4 = 2 12 = 2 10 × 2 2 = 4

Solved Example 8:
What is the remainder when 2222^5555 + 5555^2222 is divided by 7?
Explanation:
Let us take each part of the above expression and find the remainder.
2222 5555 3 5555
=
7 7

Now we apply Fermat's little theorem.


[ ]
ap − 1
p Rem
=1

5555 when divided by 6, remainder is 5


So 5555 = 6k + 5

3 5555 3 6k + 5 3 6k × 3 5
= = =
(3 )
6 k
× 35
=
(1) k × 3 5 3 2 × 3 2 × 3 2 × 2 × 3
= = =5
7 7 7 7 7 7 7
Now take the second part of the expression.
5555 2222 4 2222
=
7 7
Again we apply Fermat's little theorem. Divide 2222 by 6 and find remainder.
2222 = 6k + 2

4 2222
=
(4 ) × 4
6 k 2
(1) k × 4 2 4 2
= = =2
7 7 7 7
2222 5555 + 5555 2222 5 + 2
Finally, = =0
7 7

Solved Example 9:
If the first 99 natural numbers are written side by side to form a new number 123456..........9899, then find the
remainder when this number is divided by 11.
Explanation:

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Any number that is divided by 11 leaves remainder which is equal to the difference of sum of digits in odd places and
Sum of the digits in even places
Sum of the digits at odd places:
123456789101112131415161718192021 ...........................96979899
= (1+3+5+7+9) + (1+2+3+4+.....9) × 9 = 430
(From 11 to 99, 1 to 9 occurs 9 times)
Sum of digits at even places:
123456789101112131415161718192021 ...........................96979899
= (2 + 4 + 6 + 8 ) + 1 × 10 + 2 × 10 ..........9 × 10 = 20 + 450 = 470
Difference = 470 - 430 = 40
So remainder = 40/11 = 7

Solved Example 10:


123456789101112.... . 434445 . Find the remainder when divided by 45?
Explanation:
Divisibility for 45 is, the given number should be divisible by 9 as well as with 5.
Let the given number is N.
N has unit digit 5 so it is divisible by 5.
Now the divisibility for 9 is sum of the digits of N should be divisible by 9.
Digit sum of N = (1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 9) + 1 × 10 + (1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 9) + 2 × 10 + (1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 9) + 3 × 10 + (1 + 2 + 3
+ ... + 9) + 4 × 6 + (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5)
= 45 + 10 + 45 + 20 + 45 + 30 + 45 + 24 + 15 = 279
279 when divided by 9, remainder 0. So N can be written as 9m
So, N = 5k = 9m
So the given N is both multiple of 5 and 9. So it is exactly divisible by 45. So remainder = 0

Aptitude

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sahitya sai • 3 months ago


excellent explanation sir.....
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Sushma235 Bvs • 6 months ago


sir tq for proving in detail
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Sushma235 Bvs • 6 months ago


how is 2222/7 is 3?
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Naveen Kakani • 8 months ago


Eulers totient theorem: a^ phi(n) = 1 mod n
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Swapnil Banerjee • 8 months ago


How is 2222^5555=3^5555 ??
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Ramakrishna Salagrama Admin > Swapnil Banerjee • 8 months ago


Remainder when 2222 is divided by 7 is 3. So 2222^5555 / 7 = 3^5555 / 7
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Shadab Eqbal • a year ago


Diksha Divide 64 by 17, you will get remainder 13
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Diksha Gupta • a year ago


sir... in eg-3 ..how can 64*64 be written as 13*13?
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Lakshman Kumar > Diksha Gupta • a year ago


here we want remqinder,when 64 is divided by 17 then we get 13 as remainder so 64*64 can
be written as 13*13
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girish • a year ago


sir in question no.4 how u can write -1 in placeof 40*39!
thanxx in advance
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Ramakrishna Salagrama Admin > girish • a year ago


40 = 41 - 1.
When divided by 41, remainder = 0 - 1 = - 1
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girish > Ramakrishna Salagrama • a year ago


sir why u r taking 41-1

.see,
(40!+1)/41=0
(40*39!+1)/41=0
((41-1)*39!+1)/41=0
(41*39!-1*39!)/41=-1/41
so further how u calculate
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Aritra B • a year ago


30^32^34 = 30^(10k+4)=(30^10)k×30^4 = (1)^k×30^4 = 8^4.

Can anyone please explain me how (1)^k×30^4 is 8^4?


Thank You in advance.
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Ramakrishna Salagrama Admin > Aritra B • a year ago


Divide 30 by 11. You get remainder 8. 1^k =1
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Aritra B > Ramakrishna Salagrama • a year ago


Yes Sir..got it..
Thank You so much once again.
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Kunal Jain • a year ago


If {(222)^(222)} number is divided by 7 then what will be the reminder?
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Ramakrishna Salagrama Admin > Kunal Jain • a year ago


(222^222) / 7 = (5^222) / 7 = (5^6)37 / 7
5^6 divided by 7 remainder = 1 (By Fermat's little theorem)
Therefore, 1^37 = 1
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Kunal Jain > Ramakrishna Salagrama • a year ago


Thank u sir...
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manish gupta > Kunal Jain • a year ago


222^222/7=[{(222^6)^37}/7}]r = 1 (according to Fermat's theorem)
but sir you are taking base of 5^... , can u explain it sir please!!
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Ramakrishna Salagrama Admin > manish gupta • a year ago


222 divided by 7 Remainder is 5
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222 divided by 7, Remainder is 5
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Naveen Kakani • 2 years ago


Example : 4
wilson theorem : when (p-1)! divided by p leaves remainder p-1
=> (p-1)! = (p-1) mod p
=> (p-1)*(p-2)! = (p-1) mod p
now cancel p-1 on both sides
(p-2)! = 1 mod p
=> (41-2)! = 1 mod 41
=> 39! = 1 mod 41
=> remainder = 1
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Amaan • 2 years ago


rubbish solutions !
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vamsi cahnd reddy • 2 years ago


Find the remainder when 39! is divided by 41.

please any one tell me this question


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Naveen Kakani > vamsi cahnd reddy • 2 years ago


wilson theorem : when (p-1)! divided by p leaves remainder p-1
=> (p-1)! = (p-1) mod p
=> (p-1)*(p-2)! = (p-1) mod p
now cancel p-1 on both sides
(p-2)! = 1 mod p
=> (41-2)! = 1 mod 41
=> 39! = 1 mod 41
=> remainder = 1
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sanya • 2 years ago


41×39! - 1×39! = -1 (mod 41)
Now by dividing the left hand expression by 41,
0 -1×39! = -1 (mod 41)

Can somebody please tell me how dividing by 41 , we are left with 0.


Thanks in advance
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Nava Ganesh • 2 years ago


in solved problem 6) 5^100=(5^6)16×5^4 = (1)^16×5^4 = 5^2×5^2=7×7=49 in this line why 25*25 is
written as 7*7 and how it is possible & in other problem also 64*64 is written as 13*13. any one plzz
explain y??
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Ramakrishna Salagrama Admin > Nava Ganesh • 2 years ago


25 = 18 +7. So when you divide it by 18, remainder = 0 + 7 = 7
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Nava Ganesh > Ramakrishna Salagrama • 2 years ago


ya got it thank you sir
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Ramakrishna Salagrama Admin > Nava Ganesh • 2 years ago


+1 this!!
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Isha Gupta • 2 years ago


Plzz Explain the logic behind solving the question# 32^33^34 divided by 11 remainder is??
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Ramakrishna Salagrama Admin > Isha Gupta • 2 years ago


See Q.6 http://www.campusgate.co.in...
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Isha Gupta > Ramakrishna Salagrama • 2 years ago


sir i m not getting the logic how we are finding the remainder of the 33^34
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Abdul Rehman • 2 years ago


sir can u explain, why there is zero came in example 4 when 41*39! is divided by 41??????
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Ramakrishna Salagrama Admin > Abdul Rehman • 2 years ago


x.y always divisible by x.
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Abdul Rehman > Ramakrishna Salagrama • 2 years ago


first of all thanks for your reply sir...i admire you for that...:)

sir i understand that what you are saying...but when 41*39!/41 it will leave 1*39!...then
how its comes to zero......
second thing is that sir when left hand side is divided by 41 then what happens when
-1*39!/41???????????????

sir can u plz explain me the whole process..bcz after 1 day i have my tcs exam..
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Ramakrishna Salagrama Admin > Abdul Rehman • 2 years ago


1*39! is quotient, it is not remainder. When you divide 15 by 5, remainder is 0.
Quotient is 3.
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Abdul Rehman > Ramakrishna Salagrama • 2 years ago


ohk sir that means u had taken the remainder not quotient...:)

What about the second term sir...when -1*39!/41?


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bhagyashree • 2 years ago


sir please try to collect the problems on remainder therom
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nagaraju • 2 years ago


This is explanation is very useful
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Ahan Majumdar • 2 years ago


What is the remainder when 73^55 is divisible by 74?
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Ramakrishna Salagrama Admin > Ahan Majumdar • 2 years ago


73^55 = (74-1)^55. (-1)^55 = -1
-1 + 74 = 73
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PRASHMIT SINGH > Ramakrishna Salagrama • a year ago


sir incase i do it by euler form then .....74 = 2x37 so 74(1/2)(36/37)=36
7^36 x7^19 s=1x7^19 then??
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Nageswar > Ramakrishna Salagrama • 2 years ago


74 is not prime how do you apply that formula here....Or is it new formula explain plzz
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jalpa • 3 years ago


What is the remainder when 8^100 is divisible by 17.
plzz explain it
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Ramakrishna Salagrama Admin > jalpa • 3 years ago


8^100 = 2^300 = (2^4)^75 = 16^75 = (17-1)^75.
Using binomial theorem expand. Only last term has no 17. So we left with (-1)^75 = -1. So
remainder -1 + 17 = 16
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Arkaprava Dutta > Ramakrishna Salagrama • 2 years ago


From sirs xplntions its also to be said..=16^75=(256^38)*16=1*16[as 1 being
remainder of 256/17]=(16/17)R=16
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jalpa > Ramakrishna Salagrama • 3 years ago


thanku sir
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