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1. Target statement: You mustn’t smoke here.

a) Meaning

‘‘Mustn’t’’ is used to tell someone not to do things or to prohibit something. In this case, it
is important you do not do something that is prohibited.

Mustn’t 100% prohibition

50% prohibition

0% prohibition

b) Providing a context/conveying meaning

Students were offered to visit a pig firm in Uppsala as their regular part of the study. When
they reached to the firm, teachers and authority announced that you were not allowed to
smoke here because of danger associated with it.

c) Checking Understanding:

A timeline:
There is no timeline depicted for this item.
Concept questions:
1. Are you allowed to smoke here? (No)
2. Is there a choice? (No)
3. Is it forbidden? (Yes)
4. Is the speaker prohibiting? (Yes)

d) Pronunciation

You mustn’t /juː mʌsnt/

In this sentence, speakers put obligation to someone, therefore must is pronounced with
stress. In case of "You", strong form of /juː/ is preferred because the speakers emphasis
on target people.

e) Form
Subject + modal verb (mustn’t) + base verb

f) Anticipated problems
 Students could unconsciously use "do not have to" instead of "mustn’t" because the
meaning is closer. They may forget that "do not have to" can be used when obligation
comes from outside (external motivation), whereas "mustn’t" is used in case of
internal motivation.
 Elementary students are usually very confused about using subject-verb
agreement, and they often make mistake where s is not necessary. Therefore, they
may write musts when they use this structure followed by a third person singular
number subject.
 They may try to make it interrogative but that’s not working here. (Do you must
go?-is wrong)
 They may use pronounce the word must and not separately. (without contraction)
 They may not give stress on mustn’t and may forget to use long You (/juː/)
g) Reference:
1. Graham, W. (2008) Concept Questions (Gem Publishing).
2. Oxford Learners Dictionaries 8th edition
3. Mark, H. (2003) English pronunciation in Use (Cambridge University Press).
4. Martin P. (2004) Grammar for English language Teachers (Cambridge University
5. Raymond, M. (2012) English Grammar in use (Cambridge University Press).
6. Swan, M. (2005). Practical English Usage (Oxford: Oxford University Press).