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You are on page 1of 4

the ability to store text should have their

memories deleted prior to the start of the

examination

School of Engineering

Department of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering

Degree of M.Sc.

Communications Engineering and Networks,

RF and Microwave Engineering

also with Industrial Studies

04 24098

Principles of Communication Systems

Paper 2

Time Allowed: 1hour and 30 minutes

The marks allocated to each part of each question are shown in square brackets in

the right-hand margin.

Permeability of free space 0 = 410-7 H/m

Velocity of light in vacuum c = 3108 m/s

1 TURN OVER

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line and a lossless open circuit stub, both having characteristic impedance

50Ω. The matching network has to match a load impedance of 30 + j20 Ω

to a 50 Ω generator impedance. Annotate the Smith chart provided to

show how you determined the electrical lengths of the line and the stub.

Attach your Smith chart to your answer booklet. In your answer booklet

you should give a clear diagram of the network showing the electrical

lengths of the lines and showing where the load impedance is connected. [5]

d

transmission lines, given by the following two expressions: and .

d

(i) What are these two velocities normally called? [1]

(ii) In what circumstances are these two velocities equal? [1]

(iii) In what circumstances, if any, can each of these velocities exceed

the velocity of light in vacuum? Explain your answers. [2]

(c) Derive the equation for the second of the two velocities given in part b), by

considering two sinusoidal waves on the same transmission line. (You

may use the trigonometric identity given at the end of the question.) [3]

transmission line are given by,

jL R

( jL R)( jC G) and Z o

jC G

(i) What do the symbols R, L, C, G and represent? [1]

(ii) Write down the equations for the propagation constant and

characteristic impedance for the case of a lossless line. [1]

(iii) Derive an equation for the propagation constant of a line in which the

loss is low, but not zero. (You may need to use the power series

expansion given at the end of the paper.) [1]

(e) In the wide microstrip approximation, the inductance per unit length and

capacitance per unit length are given by:

h w

L and C respectively.

w h

where r 0 is the permeability, r 0 is the permittivity, w is the line

width and h = 0.508 mm is the substrate height. Assume that the line is

lossless, and that r 1 and r 2.2 . Calculate the following:

(i) The widths, in mm, of for microstrip lines with characteristic

impedances of 20 Ω and 50 Ω respectively. [2]

(ii) The length, in mm, of a quarter wavelength microstrip line at 10 GHz. [1]

(f) When the simplifying assumptions in part (e) are removed, how would you

expect each of your answers to change? Explain your answers. [2]

A B A B x x2

cos A cos B 2 cos cos 1 x 1

2 2 2 8

2 TURN OVER

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2. (a) With the aid of matrix equations, explain how an S parameter matrix

and an ABCD matrix can be used in different ways to describe the

linear relationships between voltages and/or currents in a two-port

network. In your explanation, describe what measurements would be

necessary to determine the values of the elements. [5]

practical than direct measurement of ABCD parameters at microwave

frequencies. [3]

(c) Using basic linear circuit analysis, derive the ABCD matrices for the

following circuit elements or simple networks viewed as 2-port

networks. In each case assume that the two ports share a common

ground:

(ii) A shunt admittance, Yp. [2]

(iii) A symmetrical “T” network constructed from two series

impedances Zs and one shunt conductance Yp. [3]

can be inserted between a 50Ω generator and a 50Ω load to reduce the

power delivered to the load by a factor of 10, while having zero

reflection coefficient at the input port . A symmetrical “T” network of

resistors can be used for this purpose. Calculate the required resistor

values. You may find it helpful to use your result from part (c). [5]

3 TURN OVER

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3. (a) A third order Butterworth low pass filter has a 3 dB cut-off frequency of

3 GHz. Sketch a graph of S21 and S11 in dB versus frequency. Assume

that the filter elements are all lossless. [4]

(b) The ‘g’ values for a Butterworth filter can be calculated using the

following expressions:

g 0 g n 1 1

(2 k 1)

g k 2 sin

2n

Explain what these g values represent. What is n, and how does its

value affect the filter response? [2]

(c) Using the equations given in part (b), design a 3 element filter to meet

the specification given in part (a), using an inductor as the first element,

with source and load impedances of 50 Ω. Draw a circuit diagram of

your filter, clearly indicating the element values. [4]

length θ (in radians) and characteristic impedance Zline terminated in a

load impedance Zload is given by:

Z in Z line

Z line j Z load tan

(i) Using this equation, derive approximate equations for the series

inductive reactance of a short length of high impedance

transmission line, and the shunt capacitive susceptance of a

short length of low impedance transmission line.

(Hint: consider values of Zline very much bigger than Zload and very

much smaller than Zload , and use a first order small angle

approximation for tan θ .) [4]

(ii) Hence design a new version of your low pass filter from part (c),

using short sections of line with characteristic impedances 20Ω

and 100Ω. Draw a diagram indicating the impedances and

electrical lengths (in radians or degrees) of the line sections. [4]

line version, compared to the lumped element version? [2]

4 END OF PAPER

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