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More Than 2000 Solved MCQs of STA630 Research Method & Short
Question Answer
Posted by + M.Tariq Malik on July 19, 2010 at 1:26am in STA630 Research Methods
Back to STA630 Research Methods Discussions

More Than 2000 Solved MCQs of STA630 Research Method & Short Question Answer

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1/1/2018 More Than 2000 Solved MCQs of STA630 Research Method & Short Question Answer - Virtual University of Pakistan

See the below attached file pls

For Important Helping Material related to the subject (Solved MCQs, Short Notes, Solved past
Papers, E-Books, FAQ, Short Questions Answers & more). You must view all the featured
Discussion in this subject group.

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Replies to This Discussion

Permalink Reply by Sadia on July 19, 2010 at 11:46am


Thank u sooo much....

Permalink Reply by kashish malik on August 1, 2010 at 11:40am


thnx 4 help.

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Permalink Reply by Ali Zaamin on August 5, 2010 at 12:18pm


These r some past papers..Thanx for a lot of MCQs.

Permalink Reply by Yasir on August 5, 2010 at 3:47pm


Thank you very much Sir G.

Permalink Reply by AYESHA AHMAD on August 5, 2010 at 11:20pm


Thanx Tariq,

im MBA 3rd semester HR student. Thanks for sending MCQs of Research Method. its a great help for us. can you pls send me solved past papers
or MCQs of Final & Mid Term Exams 2009 only for the following subjects

1. Human Relation
2. Enterpreneurship
3. E-Commerce
4. Marketing Managment
5. Conflict Managment

tell me are the answers correct in these papers or do we have to check.

bye

Ayesha from Jeddah

Permalink Reply by Malik H@r00n Mun!r on August 6, 2010 at 11:59am


@ tariq u are very supporting to us..@ ayesha i have paper of conflict mgt on this sunday i.e:8th august.i will let u kn abt conflict paper pattern

Permalink Reply by Bilal on August 19, 2010 at 11:14am


me too an HRM student ...if u wd rcvd some helpful meterial in future plz plz plz do share ....
and also u should check ..the answers yourself from the handout via PDF reader...bcoz usually some answers fnd wrong
ok

best of luck
M.N.Bilal
HRM

Permalink Reply by Syed Amir Raza on August 14, 2010 at 2:20pm


Hi,
Thnx 4 sending me the res method,s old papers.can you pls send me solved past papers or MCQs of Final Term Exams for the following subjects
and if 2010 final papers possible also snd these.

1. Human Relation
2. Enterpreneurship
3. E-Commerce
4. Marketing Managment
5. Conflict Managment

Regards.
Syed Amir Raza

Permalink Reply by + M.Tariq Malik on April 1, 2012 at 8:24pm

More Than 2000 Solved MCQs of STA630 Research Method

&

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1/1/2018 More Than 2000 Solved MCQs of STA630 Research Method & Short Question Answer - Virtual University of Pakistan
Short Questions Answers

By

http://vustudents.ning.com

1- Hypothesis refers to

A. The outcome of an experiment

B. A conclusion drawn from an experiment

C. A form of bias in which the subject tries to outguess the experimenter

D. A tentative statement about the relationship

2- Statistics is used by researchers to

A. Analyze the empirical data collected in a study

B. Make their findings sound better

C. Operationally define their variables

D. Ensure the study comes out the way it was intended

3- A literature review requires

A. Planning

B. Good & clear writing

C. Lot of rewriting

D. All of the above

4- A literature review is based on the assumption that

A. Copy from the work of others

B. Knowledge accumulates and learns from the work of others

C. Knowledge disaccumulates

D. None of the above option

5- A theoretical framework

A. Elaborates the r/s among the variables

B. Explains the logic underlying these r/s

C. Describes the nature and direction of the r/s

D. All of the above

6- Which of the following statement is not true?

A. A research proposal is a document that presents a plan for a project

B. A research proposal shows that the researcher is capable of successfully conducting

the proposed research project

C. A research proposal is an unorganized and unplanned project

D. A research proposal is just like a research report and written before the research

project

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7- Preliminary data collection is a part of the

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

A. Descriptive research

B. Exploratory research

C. Applied research

D. Explanatory research

VUSTUDENTS.NING

8- Conducting surveys is the most common method of generating

A. Primary data

B. Secondary data

C. Qualitative data

D. None of the above

9- After identifying the important variables and establishing the logical reasoning in

theoretical framework, the next step in the research process is

A. To conduct surveys

B. To generate the hypothesis

C. To focus group discussions

D. To use experiments in an investigation

10- The appropriate analytical technique is determined by

A. The research design

B. Nature of the data collected

C. Nature of the hypothesis

D. Both A & B

11- Personal interviews conducted in shopping malls are known as:

a. Mall interviews

b. Mall intercept interviews

c. Brief interviews

d. None of the given options

12-WATS lines provided by long distance telephone service at fixed rates. In this regard,

WATS is the abbreviation of:

e. West Africa Theological Seminary

f. Washtenaw Area Transportation Study

g. Wide Area Telecommunications Service

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h. World Air Transport Statistics

13-A list of questions which is handed over to the respondent, who reads the questions

and records the answers himself is known as the:

i. Interview schedule

j. Questionnaire

k. Interview guide

l. All of the given options

14-One of the most critical stages in the survey research process is:

m. Research design

n. Questionnaire design

o. Interview design

p. Survey design

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

15-Question that consists of two or more questions joined together is called a:

q. Double barreled question

r. General question

s. Accurate question

t. Confusing question

16-The number of questionnaires returned or completed divided by the total number of

eligible people who were contacted or asked to participate in the survey is called the:

u. Response rate

v. Participation rate

w. Inflation rate

x. None of the given options

17-To obtain the freest opinion of the respondent, when we ask general question before a

specific question then this procedure is called as the:

y. Research technique

z. Qualitative technique

aa. Funnel technique

bb. Quantitative technique

18-A small scale trial run of a particular component is known as:

cc. Pilot testing

dd. Pre-testing

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ee. Lab experiments

ff. Both A & B

18-Field testing of the questionnaire shows that:

gg. Respondents are willing to co-operate

hh. Respondents are not willing to co-operate

ii. Respondents do not like any participation

jj. All of the given options

19- Service evaluation of hotels and restaurants can be done by the:

VUSTUDENTS.NING

kk. Self-administered questionnaires

ll. Office assistant

mm. Manager

nn. None of the given options

20- Service evaluation of hotels and restaurants can be done by the:

oo. Self-administered questionnaires

pp. Office assistant

qq. Manager

rr. None of the given options

21-Discrete variable is also called……….

A. Categorical variable

B. Discontinuous variable

C. Both A & B

D. None of the above

22-“Officers in my organization have higher than average level of commitment” Such a

hypothesis is an example of……….

A. Descriptive Hypothesis

B. Directional Hypothesis

C. Relational Hypothesis

D. All of the above

23-‘Science’ refers to……….

A. A system for producing knowledge

B. The knowledge produced by a system

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C. Both A & B

D. None of the above

24-Which one of the following is not a characteristic of scientific method?

A. Deterministic

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

B. Rationalism

C. Empirical

D. Abstraction

25-The theoretical framework discusses the interrelationships among the……….

A. Variables

B. Hypothesis

C. Concept

D. Theory

26-………research is based on naturalism.

A. Field research

B. Descriptive research

C. Basic research

D. Applied research

27-Personal interviews conducted in shopping malls are known as………

E. Mall interviews

F. Mall intercept interviews

G. Brief interviews

H. None of the given options

28- ……… is used to obtain the freest opinion of the respondent, by asking general

question before a specific question.

I. Research technique

J. Qualitative technique

K. Funnel technique

L. Quantitative technique

29-In, ___________the interviewer and members jointly control the pace and direction of

the interview.

M. Field interview

N. Telephonic interview

O. Both A and B

P. None of the given options

30-Randomization of test units is a part of ………

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Q. Pretest

R. Posttest

S. Matching

T. Experiment

31- Rationalism is the application of which of the following?

A. Logic and arguments

B. Research solution

C. Reasoning

D. Previous findings

32- On which of the following, scientific knowledge mostly relies?

A. Logical understanding

B. Identification of events

C. Prior knowledge

D. All of the given options

33- Which of the following refers to research supported by measurable

evidence?

A. Opinion

B. Empiricism

C. Speculation

D. Rationalism

VUSTUDENTS.NING

34-Research method is applicable in all of the following fields, EXCEPT;

A. Health care

B. Religion

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

C. Business

D. Government offices

35- All of the following are true statements about action research, EXCEPT;

A. Data are systematically analyzed

B. Data are collected systematically

C. Results are generalizable

D. Results are used to improve practice

36-Which of the following is characteristic of action research?

A. Variables are tightly controlled

B. Results are generalizable

C. Data are usually qualitative

D. Results demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships

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37-If a researcher is studying the effect of using laptops in his classroom to ascertain their

merit and worth; he is likely conducting which of the following types of research?

A. Experimental

B. Applied

C. Basic

D. Evaluation

38- Exploratory research addresses which of the following types of question?

A. If

B. How

C. Why

D. What

39- Which of the following is not the source for getting information for exploratory

research?

A. Content analysis

B. Survey

C. Case study

D. Pilot study

40- Which of the following is the main quality of a good theory?

A. A theory that has survived attempts at falsification

B. A theory that is proven to be right

C. A theory that has been disproved

D. A theory that has been falsified

41- A variable that is presumed to cause a change in another variable is known as:

A. Discontinuous variable

B. Dependent variable

C. Independent variable

D. Intervening variable

42- Which of the following is the opposite of a variable?

A. An extraneous variable

B. A dependent variable

C. A data set

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D. A constant

43- Which of the following is not a concept?

A. Leadership

B. Total Quality Management

C. Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

D. Human Resource Management

44- Which of the following can best be described as a categorical variable?

A. Age

B. Annual income

C. Grade point average

D. Religion

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

45-“Income distribution of employees” in a specific organization is an example of which of

following type of variable?

A. Discontinuous variable

B. Continuous variable

C. Dependent variable

D. Independent variable

46-“There is no relationship between higher motivation level and higher efficiency” is an

example of which type of hypothesis?

A. Alternative

B. Null

C. Co relational

D. Research

47- Which of the following is not a role of hypothesis?

A. Guides the direction of the study

B. Determine feasibility of conducting the study

C. Identifies relevant and irrelevant facts

D. Provides framework for organizing the conclusions

48-Hypothesis test may also be called as:

A. Informal test

B. Significance test

C. Moderating test

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D. T-test

49-Which type of review compares how different theories address an issue?

A. Context review

B. Integrated review

C. Theoretical review

D. Methodological review

50-After you locate a source, you should write down all details of the reference, EXCEPT;

A. Volumes

B. Titles

C. Price

D. Full names of the authors

51- ___________research is based on naturalism.

A. Field research

B. Descriptive research

C. Basic research

D. Applied research

52- Personal interviews conducted in shopping malls are known as_________

A. Mall interviews

B. Mall intercepts interviews

C. Brief interviews

D. None of the given options

53- ____________is used to obtain the freest opinion of the respondent, by asking

general question before a specific question.

A. Research technique

B. Qualitative technique

C. Funnel technique

D. Quantitative technique

54- In, ____________the interviewer and members jointly control the pace and

direction of the interview.

A. Field interview

B. Telephonic interview

C. Both A and B

D. None of the given options

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

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55- Randomization of test units is a part of ______________

A. Pretest

B. Posttest

C. Matching

D. Experiment

56- Which one of the following sets is the measure of central tendency?

a. Mean, standard deviation, mode

b. Mean, median, standard deviation

c. Arithmetic mean, median, mode

d. Standard deviation, internal validity, mode

57- Internal validity refers to.

a. Researcher’s degree of confidence.

b. Generalisability

c. Operationalization

d. All of the above

58- How many times the students appear in the research class is the example of

_________.

a. Intensity

b. Space

c. Frequency

d. Direction

VUSTUDENTS.NING

59- Time consumed in mall intercept interview is .

a. High

b. Moderate

c. Low

d. Nil

60- Departmental stores selected to test a new merchandising display system is

the example of .

a. Quota sampling

b. Convenience sampling

c. Judgmental sampling

d. Purposive sampling

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Permalink Reply by + M.Tariq Malik on April 1, 2012 at 8:24pm

61- In ___________, the researcher attempts to control and/ or manipulate the variables in

the study.

1. Experiment

2. Hypothesis

3. Theoretical framework

4. Research design

62- In an experimental research study, the primary goal is to isolate and identify the effect

produced by the ____.

1. Dependent variable

2. Extraneous variable

3. Independent variable

4. Confounding variable

63- A measure is reliable if it provides consistent ___________.

1. Hypothesis

2. Results

3. Procedure

4. Sensitivity

64- The interview in which questions are already prepared is called ________.

1. Telephonic interview

2. Personal interview

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

3. Unstructured interview

4. Structured interview

65-The numerical description that describe sample may be expected to differ from those

that describe population because of random fluctuations inherent in sampling process.


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1. Sampling design

2. Non-probability sampling

3. Sampling error

4. Probability sampling

66- In ______________ , each population element has a known and equal chance of

selection.

1. Purposive sampling

2. Quota sampling

3. Stratified sampling

4. Simple random sampling

67- ______ is the evidence that the instrument, techniques, or process used to measure

concept does indeed measure the intended concepts.

1. Reliability

2. Replicability

3. Scaling

4. Validity

68- A researcher is interested in studying why the “new math” of the 1960s failed. She

interviews several teachers who used the new math during the 1960s. These teachers are

considered as:

1. Primary sources

2. Secondary Sources

3. External critics

4. Internal critics

69- Which of the following is NOT true about stratified random sampling?

1. It involves a random selection process from identified subgroups

2. Proportions of groups in the sample must always match their population

proportions

3. Disproportional stratified random sampling is especially helpful for getting large

enough subgroup samples when subgroup comparisons are to be done

4. Proportional stratified random sampling yields a representative sample

70- Experimental design is the only appropriate design where_________ relationship can

be established.

1. Strong

2. Linear

3. Weak

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4. Cause and Effect

71. Discrete variable is also called……….

E. Categorical variable

F. Discontinuous variable

G. Both A & B

H. None of the above

72.“Officers in my organization have higher than average level of commitment”

Such a hypothesis is an example of……….

E. Descriptive Hypothesis

F. Directional Hypothesis

G. Relational Hypothesis

H. All of the above

73.‘Science’ refers to……….

E. A system for producing knowledge

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

F. The knowledge produced by a system

G. Both A & B

H. None of the above

74.Which one of the following is not a characteristic of scientific method?

E. Deterministic

F. Rationalism

G. Empirical

H. Abstraction

73.The theoretical framework discusses the interrelationships among the……….

E. Variables

F. Hypothesis

G. Concept

H. Theory

74.………research is based on naturalism.

U. Field research

V. Descriptive research

W. Basic research

X. Applied research

75.Personal interviews conducted in shopping malls are known as………

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Y. Mall interviews

Z. Mall intercept interviews

AA. Brief interviews

BB. None of the given options

76.……… is used to obtain the freest opinion of the respondent, by asking general

question before a specific question.

CC. Research technique

DD. Qualitative technique

EE. Funnel technique

FF. Quantitative technique

77.In, ……… the interviewer and members jointly control the pace and direction of the

interview.

GG. Field interview

HH. Telephonic interview

II. Both A and B

JJ. None of the given options

78.Randomization of test units is a part of ………

KK. Pretest

LL. Posttest

MM. Matching

NN. Experiment

79. In ___________, the researcher attempts to control and/ or manipulate the variables in

the study.

1. Experiment

2. Hypothesis

3. Theoretical framework

4. Research design

80. In an experimental research study, the primary goal is to isolate and identify the effect

produced by the ____.

1. Dependent variable

2. Extraneous variable

3. Independent variable

4. Confounding variable

81. A measure is reliable if it provides consistent ___________.

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

1. Hypothesis

2. Results

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3. Procedure

4. Sensitivity

82. The interview in which questions are already prepared is called ________.

1. Telephonic interview

2. Personal interview

3. Unstructured interview

4. Structured interview

83. The numerical description that describe sample may be expected to differ from those

that describe population because of random fluctuations inherent in sampling process.

1. Sampling design

2. Non-probability sampling

3. Sampling error

4. Probability sampling

84. In ______________ , each population element has a known and equal chance of

selection.

1. Purposive sampling

2. Quota sampling

3. Stratified sampling

4. Simple random sampling

85. ______ is the evidence that the instrument, techniques, or process used to measure

concept does indeed measure the intended concepts.

1. Reliability

2. Replicability

3. Scaling

4. Validity

86. A researcher is interested in studying why the “new math” of the 1960s failed. She

interviews several teachers who used the new math during the 1960s. These teachers are

considered as:

1. Primary sources

2. Secondary Sources

3. External critics

4. Internal critics

Solved Attached File Answer Question Exam Results


Invites Personal injury lawyer Question Answer

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1/1/2018 More Than 2000 Solved MCQs of STA630 Research Method & Short Question Answer - Virtual University of Pakistan

87. Which of the following is NOT true about stratified random sampling?

1. It involves a random selection process from identified subgroups

2. Proportions of groups in the sample must always match their population

proportions

3. Disproportional stratified random sampling is especially helpful for getting large

enough subgroup samples when subgroup comparisons are to be done

4. Proportional stratified random sampling yields a representative sample

88. Experimental design is the only appropriate design where_________ relationship can

be established.

1. Strong

2. Linear

3. Weak

4. Cause and Effect

89. Rationalism is the application of which of the following?

A. Logic and arguments

B. Research solution

C. Reasoning

D. Previous findings

90. On which of the following, scientific knowledge mostly relies?

A. Logical understanding

B. Identification of events

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

C. Prior knowledge

D. All of the given options

VUSTUDENTS.NING

91. Which of the following refers to research supported by measurable

evidence?

A. Opinion

B. Empiricism

C. Speculation

D. Rationalism

92. Research method is applicable in all of the following fields, EXCEPT;

A. Health care

B. Religion

C. Business

D. Government offices

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1/1/2018 More Than 2000 Solved MCQs of STA630 Research Method & Short Question Answer - Virtual University of Pakistan

93. All of the following are true statements about action research, EXCEPT;

A. Data are systematically analyzed

B. Data are collected systematically

C. Results are generalizable

D. Results are used to improve practice

94. Which of the following is characteristic of action research?

A. Variables are tightly controlled

B. Results are generalizable

C. Data are usually qualitative

D. Results demonstrate cause-and-effect relationship

95. If a researcher is studying the effect of using laptops in his classroom to

ascertain their merit and worth, he is likely conducting which of the

following types of research?

A. Experimental

B. Applied

C. Basic

D. Evaluation

96. Exploratory research addresses which of the following types of

question?

A. If

B. How

C. Why

D. What

97. Which of the following is not the source for getting information for

exploratory research?

A. Content analysis

B. Survey

C. Case study

D. Pilot study

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98. Which of the following is the main quality of a good theory?

A. A theory that has survived attempts at falsification

B. A theory that is proven to be right

C. A theory that has been disproved

D. A theory that has been falsified

100. Which of the following is not a concept?

A. Leadership

B. Total Quality Management

C. Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

D. Human Resource Management

101. A variable that is presumed to cause a change in another variable is

known as:

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

A. Discontinuous variable

B. Dependent variable

C. Independent variable

D. Intervening variable

102. Which of the following is the opposite of a variable?

A. An extraneous variable

B. A dependent variable

C. A data set

D. A constant

103. Which of the following can best be described as a categorical

variable?

A. Age

B. Annual income

C. Grade point average

D. Religion

104. “Income distribution of employees” in a specific organization is an

example of which of following type of variable?

A. Discontinuous variable

B. Continuous variable

C. Dependent variable

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D. Independent variable

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105. “There is no relationship between higher motivation level and higher

efficiency” is an example of which type of hypothesis?

A. Alternative

B. Null

C. Correlational

D. Research

106. Which of the following is not a role of hypothesis?

A. Guides the direction of the study

B. Determine feasibility of conducting the study

C. Identifies relevant and irrelevant facts

D. Provides framework for organizing the conclusions

107. Which type of review compares how different theories address an issue?

A. Context review

B. Integrated review

C. Theoretical review

D. Methodological review

108. After you locate a source, you should write down all details of the

reference, EXCEPT;

A. Volumes

B. Titles

C. Price

D. Full names of the authors

109. What is the primary focus of establishment surveys in this case study?

A. Collect the data through past studies

B. Analyze the literature review

C. Using of quantitative techniques

D. Data collection through mail and Interview

110. Which one of following is generally common in establishment survey and household

survey?

A. Cognitive recall

B. Homogenous respondents

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C. Error free

D. Response burden

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

111. Which one of the following is not of important consideration in establishment survey

while designing questionnaires?

A. Response burden

B. Professional terminology

C. Cognitive recall

D. Use of Records

112. Which of the following method of data collection is not discussed in the case study?

A. Questionnaires

B. Interviews

C. Mail survey

D. Observations

113. Which of the following sampling technique is used for Employee Turnover and Job

Openings survey?

A. Simple random sampling

B. Cluster sampling

C. Stratified sampling

D. Convenience sampling

114. Which one of the following is the limitation of establishment survey in this case

study?

A. Cost

B. Limited data

C. Unskilled interviewer

D. Small sample size

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115. Which of the following is not the part of specific protocol of focus groups in ETJO?

A. Concept and indicators

B. Definition

C. Availability of records

D. Cognitive recall

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116. Which of the following is the draw back of pretest interview in ETJO survey?

A. Small simple size

B. Non cooperative response

C. Probing

D. Questionnaire format

117. Which of the following method of data collection is not used in the case study?

A. Questionnaires

B. Focus groups

C. Correlational method

D. Secondary data

118. What is the basic purpose of ETJO survey?

A. To assess the feasibility of collecting job-vacancy and turnover data by

occupation

B. To analyze the problem of labor shortage

C. To assess the motivation level of employees

D. To analyze the factor contributing towards employee turnover

119. Which of the following is the basic purpose of pretest interview in this case study?

A. To identified the potential problem

B. To know the sample size

C. To develop the questionnaire

D. To use agency representative

120. Which one of the following sampling type is used in operations test to select the

units?

A. Simple random sampling

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

B. Cluster sampling

C. Quota sampling

D. Judgment sampling

Permalink Reply by + M.Tariq Malik on April 1, 2012 at 8:27pm

121. Which of the following is the basic purpose of Response analysis survey in the case

study?

A. To assess the quality of ETJO survey data

B. To know the sample size of ETJO survey data

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C. To develop the questionnaire for ETJO

D. To use agency representative for ETJO

122. After Operation test, which of the following test findings were suggested by the

researcher?

A. Need of highly skilled and well trained interviewer

B. Sample size should be increased

C. A decent increase in survey budget

D. Focus group should be included

123. In which one of the following stage researcher consult the literature?

A. Operation test

B. Response analysis survey

C. Document design analysis

D. Pretest interviews

124. Which one of the following sampling type is used in Response analysis survey

(RAS)?

A. Simple random sampling

B. Cluster sampling

C. Quota sampling

D. Stratified sampling

125. Which one of the following could be helpful for minimizing the bias in this case

study?

A. Cognitive research

B. Focus group

C. Pretest Interview

D. Response analysis survey

126. Which one of the following is useful in assessing and clarifying concepts and

definitions at the beginning stages of questionnaire?

A. Operation test

B. Document design analysis

C. Focus group

D. Response analysis survey

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127. Which one of the following can be more helpful than others in order to determine the

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exact source of measurement errors in establishment survey?

A. Focus group

B. Operation test

C. Response analysis survey

D. Document design analysis

Identify the ‘True’ and ‘False’ statements. (05)

(1) Review of literature shows the incredibility of the body of knowledge and identifies the

points at which the researcher made the research area ambiguous and unclear. (False)

(2) The literature survey provides a solid foundation for developing the theoretical

framework. (True)

(3) The hypothesis should not only be specific to a place and situation but also these should

be narrowed down with respect to its operation. (True )

(4) A cohort analysis is similar to cross-sectional research. (False)

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

(5) A literature review does not consider the prior studies, their agreements or

disagreements in the field. (False)

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.

(1) Research hypothesis is formulated by the researcher which suggests the nature of

relationship i.e. the direction of relationship.

(2) Correlational hypothesis merely states that the variables occur together and does not

imply that one causes the other.

(3) Longitudinal type of research examine feature of any unit at more than one time.

(4) Historical review traces the development of an idea or shows how a particular issue or

theory has evolved over time.

(5) Discontinuous variable is also known as discrete/ categorical/ classificatory variable.

6. Validity problems occur when the researcher’s theoretical definition does not

match that of the government agency or organization that collected the

information.

7. Reliability problems occur when official definition or the method of collecting

Information changes over time.

8. Secondary data refer to information gathered by someone other than the

researcher conducting the present study.

9. Experiments are best for topics where the researcher controls a situation and

manipulates an Independent variable.

10. A social indicator is any measure of wellbeing used in policy.

11.Two power bases of scientific knowledge are Empiricism and Rationalism

12.Action research is a type of Applied research

13.Three types of longitudinal research are time series, panel, and cohort

14.The research proposal is just like a research report, but it is written before the research

project begins.

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15.Natural science concepts are often expressed in symbolic forms.

16.The double blind experiment is designed to control experimenter expectancy.

17.Pilot testing is also called pre-testing.

18.The totality, out of which sample is drawn is referred to as population.

19.The physical setting of the interview creates Situational bias.

20.Probing is the verbal prompts made by field worker.

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Long Questions:

Q1. Write any five similarities of Historical-Comparative research and Field

research?

Answer:

1. Both H-C research and field research recognize that the researcher’s point of view

is an avoidable part of research. Both involve interpretation, which introduce the

interpreter’s location in time, place, and world-view.

2. Both field and H-C research examine a great diversity of data. In both the

research becomes immersed in data to gain an emphatic understanding of events

and people.

3. Both field and H-C research often use grounded theory (theory usually emerges

during the process of data collection.)

4. Both field and H-C research involves a type of translation. The researcher’s

meaning system usually differs from that of people he or she studies, but he or she

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

tries to penetrate and understand their point of view.

5. Both field and H-C research focus on action, process, and sequence and see time

process as essential.

6. Generalization and theory are limited in field and H-C research.

Q2. How quantitative and qualitative techniques are applied in Historical-

Comparative research.

Answer:

Quantitative approach

The quantitative techniques with some minor adjustment can be applied to study the past

or other cultures.

_ The researcher can focus on the issue in one society, few societies or multiple

societies.

_ The researcher can focus on the issue in one time in the past or examine the issue

across many years/periods in the past.

_ The researcher can focus on the issue in the present or a recent past period.

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_ The researcher’s analysis could be based primarily on quantitative data or

qualitative data.

Qualitative approach

_ The researcher must be able to take on, mentally, the circumstances, views, and

feelings of those being studied to interpret their action appropriately.

_ The historical-comparative research must find patterns among the voluminous

details describing the subject matter of study.

Question # 01

How do concrete and abstract concepts differ? Give example.

(Marks: 04)

Solution:

Concrete Concepts:

Concrete ones refer to straightforward physical objects or familiar experiences.

Abstract concepts:

Abstract concepts refer to ideas that have a scattered meaning or an indirect expression

Abstraction is a thought process wherein ideas are distanced from objects.

The difference between concrete and abstract concepts can be expressed with some

characterizations like,

1. Abstract concepts have only relational properties while concrete concepts have some

fundamental properties.

2. Abstract concepts are universals and concrete concepts are particulars.

3. Abstract concepts are sets (generalized) and concrete concepts are individuals

(specified).

4. Concrete concepts are known by observation whereas abstract concepts are known in

some other way, e.g., by abstraction, by intuition, etc

Example

Print Media (Abstract)

Publication

News Paper

Daily Dawn (Concrete)

Question # 02

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

Given the situation below, Discuss with reason into which category they fall

• According to the purpose of doing research and


• The uses of research

(Marks: 03, 03)

Scenario 1:

Reasons for Absenteeism

A university professor wanted to analyze in depth the reasons for absenteeism of employees

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in organizations. Fortunately, a company within 20 miles of the campus employed her as a

consultant to study that very issue.

Solution:

• According to the purpose of doing research :

It is Explanatory research as the purpose is to find out the reasons for a phenomenon i.e.

absenteeism of employees in organizations. Research seeks to determine the answers to

why question about a specific behavior.

• According to the uses of research:

It is applied research since, the problem is being faced by an organization and the research

is called upon to solve it.

Scenario 2:

Effects of Nasal Spray on Flu

A research scientist surveys 1,000 employees in different organizational settings to study the

efficacy of several types of nasal sprays in controlling the flu virus. He subsequently

publishes his findings in a highly respected medical journal.

Solution:

• According to the purpose of doing research :

It is Descriptive research, as, the research question only finds out the special effects of

several types of nasal sprays in controlling the flu virus in different organizational settings. It

is to find out the relationship among the substances under study.

• According to the uses of research:

It is a Basic research since the underlying purpose is to expand the frontier of knowledge

Question#01:

Why turn over is high in some organizations?

As per above given query, explain the following components of Theoretical frame work;

(Marks: 10)

i) Develop an inventory of variables (min. five variables required)

ii) Specify direction of relationship

iii) Give clear explanation why you should expect the proposed relationship exists

iv) Make an inventory of propositions

Ans:

i) Develop an inventory of variables

Salary Package is low, Inflexibility in working hours, Low decentralization (participation in

decision making), Lack of other benefits (bonus, appraisals, conveyance facilities, etc), Poor

working ambiance

ii) Specify direction of relationship

a) Between salary & turn-over negative relationship exists

b) Between flexible working hours & turn-over negative relationship exists

c) Between decentralization & turn-over negative relationship exists

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

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d) Between extra benefits & turn-over negative relationship exists

e) Between ambiance & turn-over negative relationship exists

iii) Give clear explanation why you should expect the proposed relationship exists?

a) Between salary & turn-over negative relationship exists because in current era a good

salary package has more attraction for employees to remain in the same organization. So

organizations that keep themselves up-dated with privileged market salary packages

usually have low turn over ratio.

b) Between flexible working hours & turn-over negative relationship exists because flexibility

in working hours give some relaxation to employees especially in case when their targets

are not achieved due to a reason able fact.

c) Between decentralization & turn-over negative relationship exists because participation in

decision making raise confidence of employee and motivation level. So, organization

have more decentralized system face low turn-over ratio.

d) Between extra benefits & turn-over negative relationship exists. The organizations offer

different packages like bonuses, conveyance facilities etc, such organizations have more

satisfies employees and low turn over.

e) Between ambiance & turn-over negative relationship exists. Working ambiance does

matter a lot. Good ambiance that help in releasing working stress increase the employee

motivation and interest in doing job well.

Permalink Reply by + M.Tariq Malik on April 1, 2012 at 8:28pm

Question#02:

What is meant by a Research Proposal? Explain briefly. Also mention at what time a

research proposal is submitted? (Marks: 05)

Note: (Copied data from hand outs will not be appreciated)

Ans:

A research proposal is a document that plans how and in which manner a research will be

conducted. Research proposals contain extensive literature reviews. Such proposals must offer

convincing support for your research topic. It means the topic/issue for which research study is

being proposed should be sound enough to conduct a worthy research. The proposal must

describe a detailed methodology for conducting the research i.e. which tools are going to be used

in your research.

More over when writing a proposal it is well to assume that reader of your proposal is interested

to find out the answer of these questions;

• What do you want to do, how much will it cost, and how much time will it take?
• What has already been done in the area of your project?
• How do you plan to do it?
• How will the results be evaluated?

A good proposal is that which well defines these questions and convinces the reader that

research on specified issue is needed to conduct. So, the research proposal is submitted before

starting the research project because in this you plan how the data will be collected and analyzed.

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Q. Explain the difference between these terms with one example of each.

i. Population and target population

ii. Sampling unit and observation unit

iii. Parameter and statistic

i. Population and Target Population.

Population refers to the entire group of people, events or things of interest that the

researcher wishes to investigate.

Target population is the complete group of specific population elements relevant to the

research project.

Example

Suppose a researcher wants to investigate the productivity of employees working in

multinationals in Pakistan.

All the employees working in multinational will be the population.

The researcher wants to investigate the productivity of employees working in

multinational in FMCG sector in Pakistan.

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

All the employees working in multinationals in FMCG sector in Pakistan will be the

target population.

ii. Sampling Unit and Observation Unit

A sampling unit is that element or set of elements considered for selection in some stage

of sampling.

An observation unit is an element or aggregation of elements from which the

information is collected.

Example

In the above example the researcher selects employees from three FMCG multinationals

(Procter and Gamble, Unilever and Nestle) for data collection. Among these employees

he selected First Line Managers for collecting the data. Among all First Line Manager he

selects 40 Line managers for data collection.

In this example the employees from three FMCGs (Procter and Gamble, Unilever and

Nestle) are the primary sampling unit, all the First Line managers are the secondary/ final

sampling unit and the selected First Line managers are the observation unit.

iii. Parameter and Statistics

A parameter is the summary description of a given variable in a population while

Statistic is the summary description of a given variable in a survey sample.

Example

In the above example the mean productivity of all the employees working in the

multinational is the Parameter and the mean productivity of the First Line managers from

those the researcher collected the data is the Statistics.

Q: Define Research? Discuss the special features of Scientific method of Research?

Solution:

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Definition of Research:

Research is an organized and systematic way of finding answers to questions by gathering the

needed information. General image of the research is that it has something to do with the

laboratory where scientists are supposedly doing some experiments. Research is simply the

process of finding solutions to a problem after thorough study and analysis of the situational

factors. In research, we try to follow a system or a procedure in an organized manner. It is all the

more necessary in case we want to repeat the study, or somebody else wants to verify our

findings. In the latter case the other person has to follow the same procedure that we followed.

Hence not only we have to do the study in a systematic manner but also that system should be

known to others.

Special Features of Scientific Method of Research:

The Scientific method of Research is a procedure to produce knowledge and to discover the

principles & laws in this universe.

Special Features of Scientific Method of Research are as follows:

1. Empirical

Scientific method is concerned with the realities that are observable through “sensory

experiences.” It generates knowledge which is verifiable by experience or observation. Some of

the realities could be directly observed, like the number of students present in the class and how

many of them are male and how many female. The same students have attitudes, values,

motivations, aspirations, and commitments. These are also realities which cannot be observed

directly, but the researchers have designed ways to observe these indirectly. Any reality that

cannot be put to “sensory experience” directly or indirectly (existence of heaven, the Day of

Judgment, life hereafter, God’s rewards for good deeds) does not fall within the domain of

scientific method.

2. Verifiable

Observations made through scientific method are to be verified again by using the senses to

confirm or refute the previous findings. Such confirmations may have to be made by the same

researcher or others. We will place more faith and credence in those findings and conclusions if

similar findings emerge on the basis of data collected by other researchers using the same

methods. To the extent that it does happen (i.e. the results are replicated or repeated) we will

gain confidence in the scientific nature of our research. Replicability, in this way, is an important

characteristic of scientific method. Hence revelations and intuitions are out of the domain of

scientific method.

3. Cumulative

Prior to the start of any study the researchers try to scan through the literature and see that their

study is not a repetition in ignorance. Instead of reinventing the wheel the researchers take stock

of the existing body of knowledge and try to build on it. Also the researchers do

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

not leave their research findings into scattered bits and pieces. Facts and figures are to be

provided with language and thereby inferences drawn. The results are to be organized and

systematized. Nevertheless, we don’t want to leave our studies as stand alone. A linkage

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between the present and the previous body of knowledge has to be established, and that is how

the knowledge accumulates.

4. Deterministic

Science is based on the assumption that all events have antecedent causes that are subject to

identification and logical understanding. For the scientist, nothing “just happens” – it happens for

a reason. The scientific researchers try to explain the emerging phenomenon by identifying its

causes. Of the identified causes which ones can be the most important? For example, in the

2006 BA/BS examination of the Punjab University 67 percent of the students failed. What could

be the determinants of such a mass failure of students? The researcher may try to explain this

phenomenon and come up with variety of reasons which may pertain to students, teachers,

administration, curriculum, books, examination system, and so on. Looking into such a large

number of reasons may be highly cumbersome model for problem solution. It might be

appropriate to tell, of all these factors which one is the most important. The researcher tries to

narrow down the number of reasons in such a way that some action could taken.

5. Ethical and Ideological Neutrality

The conclusions drawn through interpretation of the results of data analysis should be objective;

that is, they should be based on the facts of the findings derived from actual data, and not on our

own subjective or emotional values. For instance, if we had a hypothesis that stated that greater

participation in decision making will increase organizational commitment, and this was not

supported by the results, it makes no sense if the researcher continues to argue that increased

opportunities for employee participation would still help. Such an argument would be based, not

on the factual, data based research findings, but on the subjective opinion of the researcher. If

this was the conviction of the researcher all along, then there was no need to do the research in

the first place. Researchers are human beings, having individual ideologies, religious affiliations,

cultural differences which can influence the research findings. Any interference of their personal

likings and dis-likings in their research can contaminate the purity of the data, which ultimately

can affect the predictions made by the researcher. Therefore, one of the important

characteristics of scientific method is to follow the principle of objectivity, uphold neutrality, and

present the results in an unbiased manner.

VUSTUDENTS.NING

6. Statistical Generalization

Generalisability refers to the scope of the research findings in one organizational setting to other

settings. Obviously, the wider the range of applicability of the solutions generated by research,

the more useful the research is to users. For instance, if a researcher’s findings that participation

in decision making enhances organizational commitment are found to be true in a variety of

manufacturing, industrial, and service organizations, and not merely in the particular organization

studied by the researcher, the generalisability of the findings to other organizational settings is

enhanced. The more generalizable the research, the greater its usefulness and value.

For wider generalisability, the research sampling design has to be logically developed. Here the

use of statistics is very helpful. Statistics is device for comparing what is observed and what is

logically expected. The use of statistics becomes helpful in making generalizations, which is one

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of the goals of scientific method.

7. Rationalism

Science is fundamentally a rational activity, and the scientific explanation must make sense.

Religion may rest on revelations, custom, or traditions, gambling on faith, but science must rest

on logical reason. There are two distinct logical systems important to the scientific quest, referred

to as deductive logic and inductive logic.

Q: Define Hypothesis? What are different types of hypothesis? Explain.

Solution:

Definition of Hypothesis:

A proposition that can be verified to determine its reality is a hypothesis. A hypothesis may be

defined as a logically conjectured relationship between two or more variables, expressed in the

form of a testable statement. Relationship is proposed by using a strong logical argumentation.

This logical relationship may be part of theoretical framework of the study.

For example,

• Officers in my organization have higher than average level of commitment (variable).


• Level of job commitment of the officers is associated with their level of efficiency.
• Level of job commitment of the officers is positively associated with their level of

efficiency.

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

• The higher the level of job commitment of the officers the lower their level of

absenteeism.

Types of Hypothesis:

There are different types of hypothesis which are as follows.

1-Descriptive Hypothesis

Descriptive hypothesis contains only one variable thereby it is also called as univariate

hypothesis. Descriptive hypotheses typically state the existence, size, form, or distribution of

some variable. The first hypothesis contains only one variable. It only shows the distribution of

the level of commitment among the officers of the organization which is higher than average.

Such a hypothesis is an example of a Descriptive Hypothesis.

2- Relational Hypothesis

These are the propositions that describe a relationship between two variables. The relationship

could be non-directional or directional, positive or negative, causal or simply correlational.

While stating the relationship between the two variables, if the terms of positive, negative, more

than, or less than are used then such hypotheses are directional because the direction of the

relationship between the variables (positive/negative) has been indicated. These hypotheses are

relational as well as directional. The directional hypothesis is the one in which the direction of the

relationship has been specified.

Non-directional hypothesis is the one in which the direction of the association has not been

specified. The relationship may be very strong but whether it is positive or negative has not been

postulated.

Correlational hypotheses state merely that the variables occur together in some specified

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manner without implying that one causes the other. Such weak claims are often made when we

believe that there are more basic causal forces that affect both variables. For example:

Level of job commitment of the officers is positively associated with their level of efficiency.

Explanatory (causal) hypotheses imply the existence of, or a change in, one variable causes or

leads to a change in the other variable. This brings in the notions of independent and the

dependent variables. Cause means to “help make happen.” So the independent variable may

not be the sole reason for the existence of, or change in the dependent variable.

3- Null Hypothesis

It is used for testing the hypothesis formulated by the researcher. Researchers treat evidence that

supports a hypothesis differently from the evidence that opposes it. They give negative evidence

more importance than to the positive one. It is because the negative evidence tarnishes the

hypothesis. It shows that the predictions made by the hypothesis are wrong. The null hypothesis

simply states that there is no relationship between the variables or the relationship between the

variables is “zero.” That is how symbolically null hypothesis is denoted as “H0”. For example:

H0 = There is no relationship between the level of job commitment and the level of efficiency. Or

H0 = The relationship between level of job commitment and the level of efficiency is zero. Or the

two variables are independent of each other.

It does not take into consideration the direction of association (i.e. H0 is non directional), which

may be a second step in testing the hypothesis.

4- Alternative Hypothesis

The alternative (to the null) hypothesis simply states that there is a relationship between the

variables under study. In our example it could be: there is a relationship between the level of job

commitment and the level of efficiency. Not only there is an association between the two

variables under study but also the relationship is perfect which is indicated by the number “1”.

Thereby the alternative hypothesis is symbolically denoted as “H1”. It can be written like this:

H1: There is a relationship between the level of job commitment of the officers and their level of

efficiency.

5- Research Hypothesis

Research hypothesis is the actual hypothesis formulated by the researcher which may also

suggest the nature of relationship i.e. the direction of relationship. In our example it could be:

Level of job commitment of the officers is positively associated with their level of efficiency.

Q: Ahmad is the manager of a restaurant; he wants to see his staff cooperative and

hardworking but his staff is not working well according to his will. He decided to give the

incentives in order to motivate and encourage them but his policy did not work effectively.

There can be many factors behind this behavior of staff that needs to be researched. For

this purpose, he appoints you as a researcher and asks you to discover those factors and

submit a report to him. How you will undertake this kind of

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

research and what steps you will choose to make a report about the behavior of the staff?

Solution:

The manager of the restaurant appoints me as a researcher to find out the factors behind the staff

behavior. I will take the following steps in order to undertake this research and to make a report.

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These steps are as follows:

STEP 1: To Select the topic of research:

First of all I will select the topic which is a general area of study or issue. The topic in this

research is the factors behind the staff behavior. A topic appears to be too broad for conducting

research. The specific issues that need to be researched within the situation may not be

identified at this stage. I will try to analyze the problems currently existing in the restaurant that

needs to be solved and the areas that a manager believes need to be improved in the restaurant

(improving the existing policies). Then I will develop some research questions that a basic

researcher wants to answer empirically.

STEP 2: Preliminary Data Collection or to Explore different areas from where I can get

information related to the restaurant and staff behavior:

After selecting the topic, I will collect data from different sources. This step may be considered as

part of the exploratory research. An exploration typically begins with a search for published data

and studies. Such sources can provide secondary data which becomes part of the background

information (about the restaurant & groups of people). Some secondary sources of data are

statistical bulletins, government publications, information published or unpublished, case studies,

online data, web sites, and the Internet from where I can get information. In addition, information

can also be collected from the people who are well informed about the staff and restaurant,

especially those who have clearly stated positions on controversial aspects of the problem. In

certain situations, I will also focus on group discussions with the staff of the restaurant. Such

discussions can help me in the identification of factors and having clarification of their behavior.

STEP 3: Problem Definition

After having discussions with the professionals as well as with the staff to whom the issue relates,

and the review of literature, now I will be in a position to narrow down from its original broad base

and define the factors clearly. Translate the broad issue into a research question. As part of the

applied research convert the management dilemma into a management question, and then on to

research question that fits the need to resolve the dilemma. The symptoms of a problem might

help tracing the real problem. For example in this research, the productivity decline of workers is

an issue. The manager has tried to solve it by the provision of incentives but his policy did not

work. I will find the possible factors like the morale and motivation of the workers having some

other antecedents.

STEP 4: To develop the Theoretical Framework

Consultations with the informants and professionals, and the review of literature will help me in

the identification of different factors that are considered to be relevant. Now I will need to make a

logical relationship among several factors identified. This will help in the delineation of the

theoretical framework. The theoretical framework discusses the interrelationships among the

variables that are deemed to be integral to the dynamics of the situation being investigated.

Developing such a conceptual framework helps to postulate or hypothesize and test certain

relationships.

STEP 5: To Generate the Hypotheses

Once I have identified the important variables relevant to an issue and established the logical

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reasoning in the theoretical framework, I will be in a position to test whether the relationships that

have been theorized do in fact hold true. By testing these relationships scientifically, I will obtain

reliable information to determine the relationship among the variables. The results of these tests

offer part of the answers to the formulated research questions, whether these relate basic

research or to applied research.

STEP 6: To make a Research Design

Research design is a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and

analyzing the needed information. It is a framework or the blueprint that plans the action for

research project. The objectives of the study determined during the early stages of the research

are included in the design to ensure that the information collected is appropriate for solving the

problem. It is very important to specify the sources of information, and the research method or

technique (survey or experiment, for example) to be followed in the study. Broadly there are six

basic research methods for descriptive and causal research: surveys, experiments, observation,

communication analysis (content analysis), case study, focus group discussion.

STEP 7: Data Collection, Data Processing, and Analysis

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

Data collection is integral part of the research design; Data collection is determined by the

research technique selected for the project. Data can be collected in a variety of ways, in

different settings – field or lab – and from different sources. It could include interviews – face to

face interviews, telephone interviews, computer-assisted interviews, and interviews through

electronic media; questionnaires that either personally administered, sent through mail, or

electronically administered; observation of individuals and events which could be participant or

non participant. Once the fieldwork has been completed, the data must be converted into a format

that will answer the research questions and help testing the hypotheses. The computer can help

in making tables and the application of different statistics.

STEP 8: Testing the Hypotheses; Answering the Research Questions

The analysis and interpretation of the data shall be the means to testing the formulated

hypotheses as well as finding answers to the research questions. In case of applied research,

the research should be helpful in finding solutions to the problems of the organization or society.

Making recommendations may also be part of this process.

STEP 9: Report Writing

The research report should communicate the research findings effectively. All too often the report

is a complicated statement of the study’s technical aspects and sophisticated research methods.

The report has to be presented in the format as it may have been part of the terms of reference if

it is a sponsored study. I will write the basic factors behind the staff behavior in my report and I

will also give some suggestions to the manager to motivate the staff so that they can work

efficiently.

stion.<l�,<o�w(�>

A. Research technique

B. Qualitative technique

C. Funnel technique

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D. Quantitative technique

54- In, ____________the interviewer and members jointly control the pace and

direction of the interview.

A. Field interview

B. Telephonic interview

C. Both A and B

D. None of the given options

Research Method (STA 630) Success Objectives

55- Randomization of test units is a part of ______________

A. Pretest

B. Posttest

C. Matching

D. Experiment

56- Which one of the following sets is the measure of central tendency?

a. Mean, standard deviation, mode

b. Mean, median, standard deviation

c. Arithmetic mean, median, mode

d. Standard deviation, internal validity, mode

57- Internal validity refers to.

a. Researcher’s degree of confidence.

b. Generalisability

c. Operationalization

d. All of the above

58- How many times the students appear in the research class is the example of

_________.

a. Intensity

b. Space

c. Frequency

d. Direction

VUSTUDENTS.NING

59- Time consumed in mall intercept interview is .

a. High

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b. Moderate

c. Low

d. Nil

60- Departmental stores selected to test a new merchandising display system is

the example of .

a. Quota sampling

b. Convenience sampling

c. Judgmental sampling

d. Purposive sampling

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