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GIFT OF

MICHAEL REESE

~1

"V*^

THE SCOTCH-IRISH

OR

THE SCOT IN NORTH BRITAIN, NORTH IRELAND, AND NORTH AMERICA

BY

CHARLES A. HANNA

VOLUME I

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

NEW YORK AND LONDON

XTbe IRnicfterbocfeer press

1902

*&

Copyright, 1902

BY

CHARLES A. HANNA

Zbe twtcherbocfcer press. View tfocfe

TO THE FORGOTTEN DEAD

OF THAT INDOMITABLE RACE

WHOSE PIONEERS

IN UNBROKEN RANKS FROM CHAMPLAIN TO FLORIDA

FORMED THE ADVANCE GUARD OF CIVILIZATION

IN ITS PROGRESS TO THE MISSISSIPPI

AND FIRST CONQUERED, SUBDUED, AND PLANTED THE WILDERNESS BETWEEN

"

°!

PREFACE

THESE volumes are designed to serve as an introduction to a series of Historical Collections which the writer expects hereafter to publish,

relating to the early Scotch-Irish settlements in America.

tended as a history of the Scotch - Irish people, for such a work would require more time and labor than have been expended upon the present

undertaking.

The subject is one, like that of the history of America itself, which must wait for some future gifted historian ; but unlike the subject of American

history in general, it is also one concerning which no comprehensive treat-

ment has ever been attempted. Such being the case, in order to enable the reader to understand the relation of the Scotch-Irish to American history, it has seemed necessary to make a brief general survey of the origin and old-world history of the race to which the Scotch-Irish belong.

They are not in-

In doing this, it has not been his purpose to attempt even

an outline

sketch of the history of Scotland, but merely to condense and connect the

record of its most important events, and indicate some of the principal writers upon different aspects of its history.

The fact is, that the lack of acquaintance of many native-born Americans

with the details of Scottish history is such that they require an elemen- tary grounding even in the annals of its most noteworthy events. Such a primer the writer has undertaken to prepare. In doing so, he has found

it advisable to compile, epitomize, and consolidate a number of the most

compact of the sketches of Scottish history which have appeared in Great

Britain, using for this purpose the writings of William F. Skene and of E. William Robertson, the Annals of Lord Hailes, the brief history of Mack-

intosh and, for the topographical and ethnographical description of Scot- land of the present day, the works of the French geographer and traveller,

J. J. E. Reclus, of which an edition in English has been published by

Messrs. D. Appleton & Company.

The written history of the Scots in Ireland is in very much the same

condition as their history in America. Few attempts have been made to

record it; and for this reason, very little of their history can be presented.

What is given has been condensed chiefly from Harrison's monograph on

The Scot in Ulster; from Latimer's and Reid's histories of the Irish Presby- terians; and from Hill's Plantation of Ulster. The most valuable features of

the present volumes in this connection will be found to be the contemporary

documents and reports relating to the inception and progress of the coloni-

zation of Northern Ireland by the Scots.

Scottish history, as has been intimated, is as a sealed book to the great

In the United States, outside of the public

majority of American readers.

VI

Preface

libraries in perhaps two or three of the larger cities, it is difficult to find

reprints of any of the original sources of information on the history of Scot-

land, or indeed any commentaries on the subject, except occasional copies

of the histories of Dr. William Robertson and Mr. John Hill Burton, neither

of which is adapted to present requirements.

For this reason, it has been

deemed essential by the writer, in giving his references, to print the citations

in full; as it seems probable that that is the only means of making them

available to the greater part of his readers.

New York, Dec. i, 1901.

CHAPTER

CONTENTS

I

The Scotch-Irish and the Revolution

II

The Scotch-Irish and the Constitution

.

.

III

The Scotch-Irish in American Politics

IV New England not the Birthplace of American Liberty

V Liberty of Speech and Conscience Definitely Estab- lished in America by Men of Scottish Blood

.

.

PAGE

i

.31

49

55

70

VI The American People not Racially Identical with

VII

those of New England

American Ideals more Scottish than English

.

VIII The Scottish Kirk and Human Liberty

IX Religion in Early Scotland and Early England

X Scottish Achievement

.

.

78

90

105

120

133

XI The Tudor-Stuart Church Responsible for Early

American Animosity to England

XII

Who are the Scotch-Irish ?

XIII Scotland of To-day

XIV

XV

The Caledonians, or Picts

The Scots and Picts

XVI The Britons

XVII The Norse and Galloway

XVIII—The Angles

.

.

XIX Scottish History in the English or Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

XX From Malcolm Canmore to King David

XXI William the Lion

.

.

146

159

169

182

199

224

235

265

289

.316

338

XXII The Second and Third Alexanders to John Baliol . 352

vii

viii

Contents

CHAPTER

XXIII Wallace and Bruce

XXIV John of Fordun's Annals of Wallace and Bruce

XXV From Bruce to Flodden

XXVI The Beginning of the Reformation .

, XXVII—The Days of Knox

XXVIII James Stuart, Son of Mary

XXIX The Wisest Fool in Christendom

XXX Scotland under Charles I XXXI Scotland under Charles II. and the Bishops XXXII Ireland under the Tudors

XXXIII The Scottish Plantation of Down and Antrim

XXXIV The Great Plantation of Ulster .

XXXV The Ulster Plantation from 1610 to 1630

366

378

398

408

415

424

433

439

45i

469

486

498

506

XXXVI Stewart's and Brereton's Accounts of the Plan

tation of Ulster

XXXVII Church Rule in Ireland and its Results

XXXVIII Londonderry and Enniskillen

XXXIX The Emigration from Ulster to America

568

559

579

614

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Acknowledgments are due to the publishers hereinafter named for

their courtesy in permitting the use. in text and notes, of extracts from their

publications, as follows :

To Messrs. D. Appleton & Co., publishers of Recluses The World and Its Inhabitants,

Bancroft's History of the United States, and Lecky's England in the XVIIIth Century.

To Messrs. William Blackwood & Sons, publishers of Burton's History of Scotland,

Harrison's Scot in Ulster, MacKerlie's Galloway : Ancient and Modern, and Maxwell's His- tory of Dumfries and Galloway.

To James Cleland, publisher, and W. T. Latimer, author, of Latimer's History of the

Irish Presbyterians.

To David Douglas, publisher of Robertson's Scotland under Her Early Kings, and

Skene's Celtic Scotland. To Joseph Foster, editor of Members of the Scottish Parliament.

To Samuel Swett Green, author and publisher of The Scotch-Irish in America.

To Messrs. Macmillan & Co., Limited, London, publishers of Green's Short History of

England, Making of England, Conquest of England, and General History of England

To Messrs. Harper & Brothers, publishers of Campbell's The Puritan in Holland, Eng-

land, and America, Freeman's Origin of the English Nation, and Green's Short History of England, Conquest o.f England, and Alaking of England.

To Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin

& Co., publishers of Adams's Massachusetts : Its

Historians and Its History, Fiske's Critical Period of American History, and Winsor's

Narrative and Critical History of America.

To Messrs. J. B. Lippincott & Co., publishers of Fisher's Evolution of the Constitution

of the United States.

To Messrs. Longmans & Co. and Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons, publishers of Froude's English in Ireland. To Messrs. Longmans & Co., publishers of Lecky's England in the XVIIIth Century. To the Presbyterian Board of Publication, publishers of Breed's Presbyterians and the Revolution, Craighead's Scotch and Irish Seeds in American Soil, and Moffat's The Church

in Scotland.

To Oliver P. Temple, author of The Covenanter , Cavalier, and Puritan.

To James Thin, publisher of Cunningham's Church History of Scotland.

To T. Fisher Unwin, publisher of Rhys's The Welsh People.

AMERICA'S DEBT TO SCOTLAND

CHAPTER I

THE SCOTCH-IRISH AND THE REVOLUTION

THE term " Scotch-Irish " is peculiarly American, and in tracing its ori- gin we have, epitomized, the history of the people to whom it is now

applied.

The word seems to have come into general use since the Revolu-

tion, having been first taken as a race-name by many individuals of a very large class of people in the United States, descendants of emigrants of Scot-

tish blood from the North of Ireland.

The name was not used by the first

of these emigrants, neither was it generally applied to them by the people

whom they met here. 1 They usually called themselves " Scotch," just as the

descendants of their former neighbors in Northern Ireland do to-day ; and as do some of their own descendants in this country, who seemingly are

averse to acknowledging any connection with Ireland. 3 The Quakers and

the Puritans generally spoke of them as " the Irish," * and, during the Revo-

lutionary period, we find a large and influential body of these people joined together at Philadelphia, in the formation of a patriotic association to which they gave the distinctively Irish title, " The Society of the Friendly

Sons of St. Patrick." 4

The appellation " Scotch- Irish " is not, as many people suppose, an indi- cation of a mixed Hiberno-Scottish descent ; although it could be properly

so used in many cases.

It was first appropriated as a distinctive race-name

by, and is now generally applied to, the descendants in America of the early

Scotch Presbyterian emigrants from Ireland. These Scotch people, for a

hundred years or more after 1600, settled with their wives and families in

Ulster, in the North of Ireland, whence their descendants, for a hundred years after 1700,having long suffered under the burdens of civil and religi-

ous oppression imposed by commercial greed and despotic ecclesiasticism,

sought a more promising home in America.

It has been remarked by some recent observers in this country that while

American history has been chiefly written in New England, that section has

not been the chief actor in its events. No doubt the second part of this proposition would be disputed by a large

1

2

The Scotch-Irish Families of America

number of American people as not substantiated, who would perhaps claim

that their position was supported by the testimony of a majority of the writers

on the subject. With the latter claim it is not my purpose to take issue. Yet

the first part of the proposition is more lacking in substantiation than the

second. For, while it is apparent that the natural spirit of self-assertion, so J

early manifested by the descendants of the English Puritans, has found

expression in a lengthy series of recitals of the doings and virtues of New

England men, it is no less evident that these portrayals are largely of

restricted application, and, for the most part, can only be considered as contributions to that portion of American history which is called local.

That these writings have ever been taken as national history arises per- haps from a conjunction of two causes, or conditions. The first of these, and

one that naturally would have been ineffective without the other, is the

marked tendency on the part of many New England writers to ignore or be-

little the presence of any element not within the range of their own immedi-

ate horizon.

In this they are peculiarly English, and exhibit that trait which

has become so characteristic of the native English as to take its name from

their geographical situation, namelyinsularity.

The second cause, which

will be more fully adverted to hereafter, arises from the comparative dearth

of historical writings originating outside of the Puritan colonies. The New England fathers came to a strange coast and found stretching back from the shore a forbidding wilderness, to them of such unknown

depth that it was not until after a slow and gradual pushing forward of the

frontier

line for a period

extending over a

century

and

a

half

that

their children found this wilderness was unsubdued only as far west as the

Hudson River ; 6 and fully another century elapsed before many of them were

willing to acknowledge this .to be the case.

To the fathers, accordingly,

New England meant America, and to some of the sons who stayed at home it is not unnatural that the western boundary line of America should seem to

be fixed at the point where the early Dutch settlements began.

In the examination of the contributions of the New England writers to the " history of America," therefore, it is only necessary to bear in mind the

restricted sense in which so many of them use this term, and to observe their

superficial treatment of men and affairs not within their own provincial boundaries, to enable us to accept these contributions at their true value.

Hence we can take pride with the New Englanders in the noble deeds which

they narrate of their fathers and of the good these fathers wrought for their

own communities, and can thus understand the nature and extent of New

England's contribution to the good of our country as a whole.

It is, however, this inevitable disposition on the part of New England writers in their treatment of American history to magnify local at the ex- pense of national affairs, to which may be attributed so much of the present adverse criticism of their authority. If it be said that this tendency is only

a natural manifestation of the dominating Anglo-Saxon spirit, which brooks

The Revolution

3

no rivalry and sees no good in anything foreign to itself, it may properly be

answered that the page of impartial history is no place for such display. 8

The share of New England in making American history is great ; but it is

Neither can

it be said by any fair-minded student that the events which took place on the

soil of New England are of chief interest or importance in connection with

the progress and success of the American War of Independence, and the

foundation of our present system of government subsequent thereto, even

though the record of those events forms the substance of a majority of the

books which have been called American history.

A notable instance of this one-sided treatment of our country's history, if

not of its actual perversion, on the part of all but the most recent writers, treating the subject from a New England standpoint, is that furnished by cer-

tain tables purporting to give the numbers of troops supplied by the different

colonies in the Revolutionary War. These tables have appeared in whole or

perhaps not so great as its chroniclers would have us believe.

in part a great many times during the past sixty years, and until recently have

been quite generally cited to show the superior patriotism of New Hampshire,

Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut over that of the other colo- nies, and to sustain the claim, repeatedly made, that New England furnished

more than half the soldiers in that struggle.

The tables first appeared in the

Collections of the New Hampshire Historical Society for 1824., vol. i., p. 236 ;

then in the American Almanac for 1830, p. 187, and for i8ji, p. 1 12; in Niles 's

Register for July 31, 1830 ; in Sabine's Loyalists of the Revolution, in 1847, p.

31 ; in Lossing's Field Book of the Revolution, vol. ii., p. 837 ; in Hildreth's

History of the United States, vol. iii., p. 441 ; in Barry's Massachusetts, vol. ii.,

p. 304 ; in Greene's Historical View of the American Revolution, p. 455 ; etc. T They are supposed to be founded on a report made to Congress, May n,

1790, by Henry Knox, then Secretary of War ; but they contain only a portion of the figures given in that report, and utterly ignore and omit the

part relating to the enlistment and service of certain southern troops com-

posing, perhaps, one fourth of the entire army. The compilers of the tables

also attempt to summarize the portion given, by adding up the aggregates of the various enlistment rolls for the whole Revolutionary period (many of which in the early part of the war were duplicated more than four times in a single year, the same names appearing at every ninety-days' re-enlistment),

and then claiming that the results reached give the total number of Regulars

This erroneous sum-

mary appears as follows :

furnished by the different colonies in the struggle.

New Hampshire

Massachusetts

Rhode Island

Connecticut

New York

New Jersey

Carried forward

12,496

67,807'

5,908

3 r >939

17,781

10,726

146,657

4 The Scotch-Irish Families of America

Brought forward

146,657

Pennsylvania

25,678

Delaware

2,386

Maryland

13,912

Virginia

26,678

North Carolina

7,263

South Carolina

6,417

Georgia

2,679

231,670

The report on which these tables are said to be founded is published in

the American State Papers, vol. i., pp. 14-19, of the series relating to Mili-

tary Affairs ; and in order to show the falsity of the statements based upon

the garbled and incomplete extract made from it in the aforesaid tables, the

report is here given in full and the figures accompanying the same appear

in tabulated form on the opposite page.

This tabulation, it may be re-

marked, shows the form in which the incomplete statement appears, as well

as the full report, the figures here printed in heavy-faced type being

omitted from all of the former tables since the first report of Knox.

TROOPS, INCLUDING MILITIA, FURNISHED BY THE SEVERAL STATES

DURING THE WAR OF THE REVOLUTION.

Communicated to the House of Representatives> May 11, 1790.

War Office of the United States, May 10, 1790.

In obedience to the order of the House of Representatives, the Secretary

of War submits the statement hereunto annexed of the troops and militia furnished from time to time by the several States, towards the support of the

late war.

The numbers of the regular troops having been stated from the official

returns deposited in the War Office, may be depended upon ; and in all

cases where the numbers of militia are stated from the returns, the same

confidence may be observed.

But in some years of the greatest exertions of the Southern States there

are no returns whatever of the militia employed.

In this case recourse has

been had to letters of the commanding officer, and to well informed indi-

viduals, in order to form a proper estimate of the numbers of the militia in service ; and although the accuracy of the estimate cannot be relied on, yet it is the best information which the Secretary of War can at present obtain.

When the accounts of the militia service of the several States shall be adjusted it is probable that the numbers will be better ascertained.

There are not any documents in the War Office from which accurate re-

turns could be made of the ordnance stores furnished by the several States during the late war. The charges made by the several States against the

United States, which have been presented by the commissioners of accounts,

are, probably, the only evidence which can be obtained on the subject.

All of which is humbly submitted to the House of Representatives.

H. Knox, Secretary of War.

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