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Pneumatic

Part A – Course

Control systems with one cylinder A-2


Exercise 1 : Allocating device A-3
Exercise 2 : Sorting device for metal stampings A-5
Exercise 3 : Separating parcel post A-7
Exercise 4 : Vertical switching point for briquettes A-9
Exercise 5 : Edge folding device A-11
Exercise 6 : Marking machine A-13
Exercise 7 : Separating out plain pins A-15
Exercise 8 : Foil welding drum A-17
Exercise 9 : Switching point for workpieces A-19
Exercise 10 : Vibrator for paint buckets A-21

Control systems with parallel motions A-23


Exercise 11 : Feed rail separator A-25
Exercise 12 : Welding machine for thermoplastics A-27
Exercise 13 : Quarry stone sorter A-29

Control systems with two actuators A-31


Exercise 14 : Compactor for domestic rubbish A-33
Exercise 15 : Clamping camera housings A-37

Control systems with reversing valves ` A-39


Exercise 16 : Input station for laser cutter A-41
Exercise 17 : Partial automation of an internal grinder A-43
Exercise 18 : Drilling machine with four spindles A-45
Exercise 19: Drilling machine with gravity feed magazine A-47

Logic control system A-49


Exercise 20: Pneumatic counter A-51

Exercise 1 - 10
When controlling a cylinder, the following actions of piston and piston rod are possible:
 Forward stroke (from end position to end position)
 Return stroke (from end position to end position)
 Remain in the retracted end position
 Remain in the forward end position
 Motion reversal from an end position
 Motion reversal during part of a stroke
 Cylinder remains between the end positions (e. g. intermediate position)

The first six actions are put into practice in this chapter. The set of equipment for basic level
TH101 consists of 19 different components (valves, cylinders, gauges, push buttons, etc.). The
set contains some components in duplicate or even in triplicate. Within the first ten exercises,
18 of the 19 different components are used at least twice. (The roller lever valve with idle return
comes into use in exercise 15.)
1. Allocating device
2. Sorting device for metal stampings
3. Separating parcel post
4. Vertical switching point for briquettes
5. Edge folding device
6. Marking machine
7. Separating out plain pins
8. Foil welding drum
9. Swithing point for workpieces
10. Vibrator for paint buckets
We hope you enjoy designing the circuits and assembling the control Systems

1. Allocating device
The allocating device supplies aluminium valve blanks to a
machining station. By operating a push button, the piston rod of
the single-acting cylinder (1A) is made to advance. After releasing
the actuating button, the piston rod returns.

2. Sorting device for metal stampings


Through operation of the push button on the actuating valve,
metal stampings lying in random positions are sorted out and
transferred to a second conveyor belt. The forward motion of the
piston rod of a singleacting cylinder (1A) takes t = 0.4 seconds.
When the push button is released, the piston rod travels to the
retracted end position. A pressure gauge is fitted before and after the one-way flow control valve

3. Separating parcel post


The parcel separating device feeds parcel post from a sloping
conveyor slide to an X-ray appliance. Operating a push button causes
very rapid retraction of the single-acting cylinder (1A) with the attached
parcel tray. After releasing the valve actuator, the piston rod advances.
Forward motion time t = 0.9 seconds. A pressure gauge is fitted before
and after the one-way flow control valve.

4. Vertical switching point for briquettes


`With the help of the vertical switching point, soft cool
(lignite) briquettes are to be fed to an upper or lower
conveyor, according to selection. The destination of the
swivelling slide (upper or lower) is decided by means of
a valve with selector switch. The upward motion of the
doubleacting cylinder (1A) is to take place in t 1 = 3 seconds; the downward motion in t 2 = 2.5
seconds. Pressure on both sides of the piston is indicated. In the initial position, the cylinder
assumes the retracted end position.

5. Edge folding device


Operation of two identical valves by push button causes the forming tool of an edge folding
device to thrust downwards and fold over the edge of a flat sheet of cross sectional area 40 x 5.
If both – or even just one – push button is released, double-acting cylinder (1A) slowly returns to
the initial position. The cylinder pressures are indicated.

6. Marking machine
Surveyor’s measuring rods in 3 or 5 m length are marked in
red with 200 mm graduations. There is a choice of two push
buttons to start the forward movement of the measuring rods
via cylinder (1A), which has the exhaust air throttled. The idle
stroke, also started by a push button, can only take place
when the double-acting cylinder (1A) has reached its forward
end position.

7. Separating out plain pins


A double-acting cylinder (1A) guides cylinder pins towards
a measuring device. The pins are separated by means of a
continuous to and from movement. The oscillating motion
can be started by means of a valve with selector switch.The
duration of the forward stroke of the cylinder is to be t1 =
0.6 seconds, the return stroke t3 = 0.4 seconds. The
cylinder is to remain in the forward end position for t2 = 1.0 seconds, resulting in a cycle time of
t4 = 2.0 seconds.

8. Foil welding drum


An electrically heated welding rail is pressed onto a rotatable
cold drum by a double-acting cylinder (1A) and welds a
continuous plastic sheet into pieces of tubing. The forward
stroke is triggered by means of a push button. The maximum
cylinder force is set at 4 bar (= 400 kPa) via a pressure
regulator with pressure gauge. (This prevents the welding rail
damaging the metal drum.) The return stroke is not initiated
until the forward end position has been acknowledged and the
pressure in the piston area has reached 3 bar (= 300 kPa). The supply air is restricted for the
movement of the cylinder. The flow control should be adjusted so that the pressure increase to p
= 3 bar (= 300 kPa) only takes place after t1 = 3 seconds, after the cylinder has reached the
forward end position (the foil edges which are overlapped are welded by the heated welding rail
as increased pressure is applied). Restarting is only possible when the retracted end position
has been reached and a time of t2 = 2 seconds has elapsed. Reversing a 5/2-way valve with
selector switch causes the control to be switched to continuous cycle

9. Switching point for workpieces

Heavy die-cast blocks for power valves are to be fed to machine


line 1 or 2. Brief actuation of a push button causes the single-
acting cylinder (1A) to be extended with flow control. After a
second push button has been actuated, the cylinder retracts with
flow control. A single pilot valve with spring return is used as a
final control element. Memorising of the advance signal is realised
via a pneumatic self-latching circuit with “dominant off behaviour”. 1A+ 1A–

10. Vibrator for paint buckets

After the liquid paint colours have been poured togetherinto a


bucket, they are mixed in by the vibrating machine. When a
push button has been pressed, the extended cylinder (1A)
retracts completely and executes a to and fro movement in the
rear stroke range. The oscillating is limited to the retracted end
position by a roller lever valve as well as a second roller lever
valve in the central position. The frequency of oscillating is adjustable within limits by setting a
pressure regulator controlling the amount of air supply. Set an operating pressure of p = 4 bar (=
400 kPa). After a specified interval, the oscillator is switched off. The double-acting cylinder
extends completely and actuates the third roller lever valve. Set a vibration time of t = 5
seconds.

Exercise 11 – 13
In exercises 11, 12, and 13, two or three cylinders are controlled simultaneously. Cylinders
either move in synchronisation or / and in a pushpull motion. As the cylinders extend and
retract, it is necessary to overcome frictional forces. Frictional forces limiting movement occur
both between piston and cylinder wall and between piston rod and bearing bush. As these
forces are generally not the same for tho cylinders, synchronisation of the moving parts is only
possible unter certain conditions. This problem is shown in exercise 11. Exercise 12 and 13 are
intended to offer a better insight into the matter.

11. Feed rail separator


Control of two double-acting cylinders in push-pull motion via a final control component.
12. Welding machine for thermoplastics
Control of two double-acting cylinders in synchronisation via two power valves and a final
control element.
13. Quarry stone sorter
Control of two double-acting cylinders and a single-acting cylinder by three final control
components and two roller lever valves.
14. Feed rail separator
Turned parts for spark plugs are fed in pairs on a rail to a multi-spindle machining station.
In order to achieve separation, two double-acting cylinders are triggered by one actuator
in alternating push-pull rhythm. In the initial position, the upper cylinder (1A1) is retracted,
the lower cylinder (1A2) in the forward position. Turned parts are resting against the
second cylinder (1A2). A starting signal causes
cylinder (1A1) to advance and cylinder (1A2) to
retract. Two sparking plug blanks roll onto the
machining station. After an adjustable time of t1 =
1 second, cylinder (1A1) returns and cylinder
(1A2) advances at the same time. A further cycle
can be started only when time interval t2 = 2
seconds has elapsed.

The circuit is switched on by means of a push button valve. A detented valve makes it
possible to change over from signle to continuous cycle. The separating station must not
restart on its own after a power failure. 1A1+ 1A1– 1A2– 1A2+ In this abbreviated form of
notation, movements which occur simultaneously are noted one underneath the other
(1A1+, 1A2– or 1A1–, 1A2+).

15. Welding machine for thermoplastics


Two double-acting cylinders (1A) and (2A) press together
two electrically heated bars and, in doing so, join two
thermoplastic sheets by welding. The thickness of the sheets
varies between 1.5 mm and 4 mm. The seams may be of
any length. The piston force of both cylinders is limited via a
pressure regulator. Value set p = 4 bar (=400 kPa). By
actuating a push button, two double-acting cylinders are
made to advance in parallel with their exhaust air restricted. To assist regulation, pressure
gauges have been fitted between the cylinders and the oneway flow control valves. The
end positions of the cylinders are interrogated. After a time of t = 1.5 seconds, the bar
moves back to the initial position. The return stroke may be instantly initiated by means of
a second push button. 1A+ 1A– 2A+ 2A–
16. Quarry stone sorter
Quarry stones are fed from a crushing roller to two vibrating sieves by means of an
overhead conveyor belt. The fine upper sieves (1A) oscillates in opposing push-pull
motion to the coarser lower screen (2A). The sieve oscillating frequency of the two
double-acting cylinders is set to f = 1 Hz (Hertz) via the quantity of air supplied in load
dependent relation. Reversal takes place in the retracted end positions via two roller lever
valves. A third single-acting cylinder (3A) unclogs the sieves via two cables. The stone
sorter is switched on and off by a valve with selector switch.

Exercise 14 and 15
Exercise 14 is the first exercise in this series with two cylinders extending over more than two
steps. The motion sequence is governed by limit switches (roller lever valves). The main
problem in exercise 15 is the cancelling of pilot signals no longer required at the final control
valve. Locked-on pilot signals in sequential control systems can be influenced pneumatically by
different means. One simple possiblility is the fitting of roller lever valves with idle return. The
use of reversing valves (auxiliary reservoirs) for switching off signals forms a further possibility
(see alternative circuit B). In the course of the follow up to exercise 15, a displacement time
diagram of the assembled system is shown for the first time.

14 Compactor for domestic rubbish


Activating two double-acting cylinders via two final control components. The final control valves
are influenced by signal generators (selector switch, roller lever valve and adjustable pressure
switch).

15 Clamping camera housings


Activating two double-acting cylinders via two final control components. The final control valves
are influenced by signal generators (selector switch, roller lever valve and idle return roller lever
valve). Alternative circuit B: Control by means of a reversing valve.

17. Compactor for domestic rubbish


The prototype of a pneumatic domestic rubbish compactor (under table model) is
operated with a maximum working pressure of p = 3bar = 300 kPa. It is equipped with a
pre-compactor (1A) including glass crusher as well as a main compactor (2A), which
exerts a maximum force of F = 2200 N. When a start button is pressed, first the
precompactor advances, then the main compactor. The subsequent return stroke of both
double-acting cylinders takes place simultaneously. In the event that the main compactor
does not reach the forward end position – rubbish bins full –, the return stroke of both
cylinders is initiated by a pressure sequence valve. It is set to switch at p = 2.8 bar = 280
kPa.

18. Clamping camera housings


When a push-button is operated, a pressure die-cast
housing for a surveillance camera is fed from a magazine
to a machining station by a double-acting cylinder (1A) and
clamped.
A second, pressure restricted, double-acting cylinder (2A)
then clamps the thin-walled housing from a direction of 90°
to the first cylinder. The pressure regulator is set to p = 4
bar = 400 kPa. The cylinders move forward in t1 = t2 = 1. The completed clamping action is
signalled by a pneumatically actuated optical indicator. When the machining of the housing is
finished, a second push button is operated. This causes an unthrottled return stroke of both
cylinders in the reverse sequence.

Exercise 16 – 19
In exercises 16 - 19, reversing valves (auxiliary memories, 5/2-way double pilot valves)
are used for switching off signals. The advantage of reversing valve technology over systems
with roller lever valves with idle return lies in the higher reliability of operation.
Several alternative circuits using reversing valves provide an insight into this circuit
technology. In exercise 18, the cylinder carries out a double motion (1A+ 1A- 1A+ 1A-). For this,
a division into four groups is necessary which is achieved by connecting three reversing valves
in series.However, nowadays only circuits with one or two reversing valves are designed.
An even higher level ol operational reliability is achieved by employing stepper modules
from the set of equipment for advanced course TP102 of Learning System for Automation and
Technology. (See alternative solution D, exercise 16, alternative solution C, exercise 17 and
alternative solution B, exercise 18). Within the scope of the follow-up to exercise 16, a
displacement-time diagram of the assembled circuit is drawn up for the second time.

16. Input station for laser cutter


Activation of two double-acting cylinders with two final control valves. The final control valves
are influenced ba a reversing valve (auxiliary memory) and several signal generators. Draw up
a displacement time diagram of the assembled control.

Alternative circuit B: Control system with reversing valve and active signal generators
Alternative circuit C: Control system using roller lever valve with idle return
Alternative circuit D: Control system with steper module (circuit diagram, circuit design)

17. Partial automation of an internal grinder


Control of a linear feed with hydraulic cushioning cylinder (doubleacting cylinder) and a single-
acting cylinder with two final control valves. These final control elements are influenced by two
reversing valves and several signal generators
Alternative circuit B: Control by two reversing valves and active signal generators
Alternative circuit C: Control system with stepper module

18. Drilling machine with four spindles


Control of a pneumatic linear feed unit with hydraulic cushioning cylinder (double-acting
cylinder) via one power valve. The power valve is influenced by three reversing valves and
several signal generators.

Alternative circuit B: Control by stepper module

19 Drilling machine with gravity magazine


Activation of three cylinders (double-acting cylinder, pneumatic linear feed unit with hydraulic
cushioning cylinder and single-acting cylinder) with three final control elements. These power
valves are influenced by one reversing valve and several signal generators.
Alternative circuit B: Control by two reversing valves and active signal generators.

19. Input station for laser cutter


Pieces of stainless steel sheet of 0.6 mm thickness are placed by hand into the input
station. After a valve has been operated by push button, the ejector cylinder (2A) retracts
with exhaust air restricted while, at the same time, clamping cylinder (1A) also advances
with its exhaust air
restricted; the sieve blank is pushed along and clamped. A cycle time of t1 = 0.5 seconds is to
be set for both cylinders. During an adjustable clamping
time of t2 = 5 seconds, a laser cutting
head produces a fine mesh sieve. After this operation, the
clamping cylinder is retracted without restriction, following
which the ejector cylinder pushes out the finished sieve,
which is free of burred edges by a forward thrusting action.
The pressure lines P1 and P2 of the reversing valve are
monitored with two pressure gauges.

20. Partial automation of an internal grinder


Using a pneumatic linear feed unit with hydraulic cushioning cylinder, turned bearing
bushes are internally ground, finished and ejected by means of a second cylinder.
After operating the push button of a signal input valve, pneumatic linear feed unit (1A)
slowly advances for internal grinding and remains in the forward end position for t = 2
seconds for finishing. When the retracted end position is reached, a second roller lever
valve is actuated and ejector cylinder (2A) advances. The single-acting ejector cylinder,
which is activated by a power valve with spring return, sets in sequence its return stroke
through a third roller lever valve. Pressure gauges are connected to lines P1 and P3.

21. Drilling machine with four spindles


To produce spacers using a four spindle drilling machine. When a
valve is actuated by foot pedal (simulated via push button), the four
spindles of the drilling machine carry out a double movement. The
feed unit with hydraulic cushioning cylinder (1A) is influenced by a
final control valve with spring return. Control of the machine is
effected by three reversing valves switching in sequence. To check
the sequence, pressure gauges are attached to lines P1 and P4.
First, two pilot drillings of 8 mm diameter are carried out. Then, the four spindles return.
Once the spacer has been repositioned, drillings of 20 mm diameter are made. The feed
movement is heavily throttled; the return stroke is almost unrestricted. A pressure
regulator determines the maximum cylinder force. Adjust pressure to p = 4 bar (400
kPa). Between the drill movements, the cylinder is held for t = 1.5 seconds in the
retracted end position. Actuation of a foot actuated valve (simulated via selector switch)
immediately initiates the return stroke or prevents advance of the drilling spindle.

22. Drilling machine with gravity feed magazine

Square steel end pieces are fed from a gravity magazine to a drilling machine, clamped,
machined and ejected. A horizontally installed double-acting cylinder with exhaust air
throttling (1A) pushes end pieces out of a gravity feed magazine under the drilling
spindle and holds them clamped against the fixed stop. When the required clamping
pressure of p = 4 bar (400 kPa) has been reached, the drilling spindle (2A) extends via
the feed unit with the hydraulic cushioning cylinder, exhaust air likewise throttled, for
lowering the drill. The maximum feed force is set via a pressure regulator. It is set to p =
5 bar (500 kPa). After reaching the adjustable depth control stop established via a roller
lever valve, the unthrottled return stroke is commenced.

Completion of the return stroke causes the finished end piece to be ejected by a single-
acting cylinder (3A). After a period of t = 0.6 seconds, the rapid return stroke is
commenced. When the ejector cylinder has reached the retracted end position, a fourth
roller lever valve is actuated; its signal can be used to indicate a new cycle. A separate
pressure gauge indicates the clamping pressure of the cylinder (1A). A second pressure
gauge is connected to line P2. The control system is set in operation by pressing the
start button. To select continuous cycle a detented valve is reversed. 1A+ 2A+ 2A– 1A–
3A+ 3A–

Exercise 20
In the circuit diagram for a system, distinction is made between:
 actuators (e. g. double-acting cylinders)
 processors (e. g. dual-pressure valves)
 sensors (e. g. roller lever valves)
 The binary figures zero and one can be shown by means of a cylinder.
 retracted dylinder signifies zero
 extended cylinder signifies one
With two cylinders it is possible to show four figures.

20 Pneumatisc counter
Control of two double-acting cylinders via two final control valves. The actuator is
controlled by a processor. The processor receives signals from sensors giving the
position of the actuators. Logic control system

23. Pneumatic counter


With two double-acting cylinders, it is
possible to represent the binary statuses 00,
01, 10 and 11. Two final control valves (1V1)
and (2V1) control the two counting cylinders
(1A) and (2A). Four roller lever valves (1S1)
and (1S2) as well as (2S1) and (2S2) report
the statuses of the counting cylinders to the
processor. The signal to continue (counting
signal) is input with a push button (0S1).
Develop a purely pneumatic processor (3Z1)
with four inputs and four outputs. The
pneumatic counter is to increment by one
digit with each signal input, e. g. from 2 to 3,
from 3 to 0, from 0 to 1, from 1 to 2 etc.
Hydraulic
Exercise 1: Automatic lathe : Pump characteristic A-3
Exercise 2: Package lifting device : Pressure relief valve characteristic A-7
Exercise 3: Drawing press : Hydraulic resistances A-11
Exercise 4: Calender feeding device : Single-acting cylinder (basic circuit) A-15
Exercise 5: Hardening furnace : Single-acting cylinder (measurement and
calculation) A-19
Exercise 6: Furnace door control : Double-acting cylinder A-23
Exercise 7: Conveyor tensioning device : 4/3-way valve with bypass to pump A-29
Exercise 8: Cold-store door : Accumulator A-33
Exercise 9: Rotary machining station : Flow control valve and counter-holding A-37
Exercise 10: Painting booth : Flow control valve characteristic A-41
Exercise 11: Embossing machine : One-way flow control valve and counter-holding
A-45
Exercise 12: Surface grinding machine :Differential circuit A-49
Exercise 13: Drilling machine : Pressure regulator A-55
Exercise 14: Bulkhead door : Hydraulic clamping of a cylinder A-59
Exercise 15: Ferry loading ramp : Flow control valve in inlet and outlet lines A-63
Exercise 16: Skip handling : Varying load A-69
Exercise 17: Bonding press : Comparison of pressure regulator and pressure
relief valve A-73
Exercise 18: Assembly device : Pressure sequence circuit, displacement-step
diagram A-77
Exercise 19: Assembly device : Calculation of pressure and time A-81
Exercise 20: Tipping container Electrohydraulics A-85

Training contents
1. Characteristics of valves and other components.
2. Uses of individual valves and other components.
3. Comparison of uses and functions of different valves and other components.
4. Measurement of variables such as pressure, flow rate and time.
5. Control of pressure and speed.
6. Calculations of area ratios, forces, power and speed.
7. Basic physical principles of hydraulics.
8. Use of basic hydraulics equations.
9. Understanding and drafting of circuit diagrams.
10. Drafting of displacement/step diagrams.
11. Use of symbols in accordance with DIN/ISO 1219.
12. Assembly and commissioning of control circuits, including faultfinding.
13. Assessment of energy consumption.
14. Basic hydraulic circuits such as a pressure sequence circuit, a bypass circuit to the
pump, a differential circuit, circuits with flow control valves in the inlet, outlet and bypass,
circuits with counter-holding and bypass circuits with a non-return valve.

Exercise Training aims


1. Drawing a pump characteristic.
2. Drawing a characteristic for a pressure relief valve.
3. Measuring flow resistances.
4. Application of a non-return valve. Use of a 2/2-way valve to control a single-acting cylinder.
5. Application of a 3/2-way valve. Determination of times
6. Application of a 4/2-way valve.. Determination of times
7. Application of a 4/3-way valve.Use of a pilot-operated non-return valve.
8. Use of a hydraulic accumulator as a power source.Use of accumulator to power advance
and return strokes of cylinder after pump is switched off.
9. Application of a 2-way flow control valve. Assembly of a counter-pressure circuit.
10. Plotting of characteristic for a 2-way flow control valve. Comparison between this valve and
a throttle valve.
11. Application of a one-way flow control valve. Difference between flow control valve and
throttle valve on the basis of a concrete application.
12. Design and mode of operation of a differential circuit. Influence of piston areas on
pressures
13. Design of a control circuit with reduced output pressure. Explanation of mode of operation
of a 3-way pressure regulator.
14. Hydraulic clamping with a double-acting cylinder. Comparison of circuits with and without
counter-holding.
15. Speed control circuit with tractive load. Comparison of circuits with flow control valves in the
inlet line and outlet line respectively.
16. Circuit for a double-acting cylinder with a varying load.
17. Specification of pressure for a double-acting cylinder. Choice of either a pressure relief
valve or a pressure regulator
18. Pressure sequence circuit. Drawing of a displacement/step diagram
19. Calculation of forces associated with a double-acting cylinder Calculation of advance-stroke
time of a cylinder piston.
20. Electrohydraulic control circuit

HYDRAULICS

1. AUTOMATIC LATHE
Training aim :To teach the student how to draw the characteristic curve for a pump
Problem definition :
a. Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram
b. Practical assembly of the circuit
c. Determining the various measured values and entering them into the table
d. Drawing the characteristic curve for the pump
e. Drawing conclusions

The main spindle on an automatic lathe is driven by a hydraulic motor, while a hydraulic cylinder is used
to execute a feed movement of the workpiece slide. It has been established that the specified speed is no
longer reached during the processing cycle. The pump characteristic curve is therefore to be evaluated

2. PACKAGE LIFTING DEVICE


Training aim : To teach the student how to draw the characteristic for a
pressure relief valve .

a. Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram


b. Practical assembly of the circuit
c. Setting a maximum pressure of 50bar
d. Establishing the opening pressure of the pressure relief valve
e. Determining the various measured values and entering them into
the table
f. Drawing the pressure/flow rate characteristic
g. Drawing conclusions
Owing to a change in the production process, a package lifting device is now required to lift heavier
packages than those for which it was originally designed. It has been observed that the stroke speed
is now lower. Using the pressure/flow rate characteristic for the pressure relief valve, determine the
pressure at which flow diversion of the pump output begins.

3. DRAWING PRESS
a. To teach the student how to measure flow resistances
b. Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram
c. Practical assembly of the circuit
d. Setting a constant flow rate
e. Measuring the flow resistances
f. Drawing conclusions

A drawing press is used to shape metal workpieces. Following modification of the hydraulic system, the
workpieces are no longer dimensionally accurate. The reason for this may be that the required press
pressure is not being reached. Use a special test set-up to measure the hydraulic resistance of the
components used

4. CALENDER FEEDING DEVICE


a. To familiarise the student with the applications of a non-return valve
b. To show the activation of a single-acting cylinder using a 2/2-way valve
c. Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram
d. Practical assembly of the circuit
e. Evaluation of this circuit

Rolls of paper are lifted into a calender by a lifting device. The lifting device is
driven by a plunger cylinder (single-acting cylinder). When the hydraulic power pack is switched on, the
pump output flows directly to the cylinder. A 2/2-way valve, which is closed in its normal position, is fitted
in a branch line leading to the tank. A non-return valve is used to ensure that the pump is protected
against the oil back-pressure. A pressure relief valve is fitted upstream of the non-return valve to
safeguard the pump against excessive pressures.

5. HARDENING FURNACE
a. To familiarise the student with the applications of a 3/2-way
valve
b. To show how to determine times, pressures and forces during
the advance and return strokes of a single-acting cylinder
c. Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram
d. Determining the necessary components
e. Practical assembly of the circuit
f. Measuring the travel pressure and travel time for the advance
and return strokes
g. Calculating the required advance-stroke pressure
h. Calculating the advance-stroke speed and time

The cover of a hardening furnace is to be raised by a single-acting cylinder. The cylinder is activated
by a 3/2-way valve. A 9 kg weight is attached to the cylinder to represent the load. Measure and
calculate the following values: . Travel pressure, load pressure, resistances and back pressure .
Advance-stroke time and speed

6. FURNACE DOOR CONTROL


a. To familiarise the student with the applications of a 4/2-
way valve
b. To show how to determine times, pressures and forces
during the advance and return strokes of a double-acting
cylinder
c. Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram
d. Determining the necessary components
e. Practical assembly of circuit
f. Measuring the travel and back pressures and transfer
time for theadvance and return strokes
g. Calculation of advance and return-stroke speeds
h. Comparison of calculated and measured values
A furnace door is opened and closed by a double-acting cylinder. The cylinder is activated by a 4/2-
way valve with spring return. This ensures that the door opens only as long as the valve is actuated.
When the valve actuating lever is released, the door closes again.

7. CONVEYOR TENSIONING DEVICE


a. To familiarise the student with the applications of a 4/2-way
valve
b. To show how to use a piloted non-return valve
c. Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram
d. Determining the necessary components
e. Practical assembly of the circuit
f. Measuring travel and back pressure and the system pressure
in all valve positions
g. Calculating the power balance for circuits with various 4/3-
way valves
h. with different mid-positions

Parts are fed through a drying oven on a steel chain conveyor belt. It must be possible to correct the
tracking of the belt by means of a tensioning device to ensure that the belt does not run off its rollers.
This device consists of a steel roller fixed at one end and movable at the other by means of a double-
acting cylinder. Hydraulic power must be available continuously. The hydraulic system must switch to
the recirculating (pump bypass) condition when the directional control valve is not actuated. The
clamping station causes a continuous counter force to act on the cylinder. A piloted non-return valve is
used to prevent creepage of the piston rod of the positioning cylinder as a result of oil leakage losses
in the directional control valve. For the purposes of comparison, calculate the required drive power for
circuits firstly with a 4/3-way valve, recirculating in mid-position and secondly with a 4/3-way valve,
closed in mid-position.

8. COLD-STORE DOOR
a. To show the use of a hydraulic accumulator as a power source
b. To show how to use the accumulator to power advance and return strokes of the cylinder after the
pump is switched off
c. Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram
d. Determining the necessary components
e. Practical assembly of the circuit
f. Determining the number of working cycles possible after the pump is switched off
g. Drawing conclusions
h. Explaining the design and mode of operation of a diaphragm accumulator
i. Naming possible applications of an accumulator

A heavy cold-store door is opened and closed by a hydraulic cylinder. A hydraulic accumulator is to be
installed to allow the door to be closed in the case of an electrical power failure. This will permit the
cold-store door to be opened and closed a number of times. A 4/2-way valve is to
be used to activate the cylinder. This valve should be connected up in
such a way that the piston rod is advanced with the valve in its normal
position.
No provision will be made here for the safety cut-out which is essential
to prevent persons from becoming trapped in the door. This cut-out
function is normally provided by an electrical control device for the
hydraulic system. Be sure to follow the operating instructions for the
accumulator. After switching off the control system, do not dismantle
the hydraulic components until you have relieved the pressure in the
accumulator and isolated this from the control system by means of the
built-in shut-off valve. It is essential to relieve the accumulator
pressure via a flow control valve!

9. ROTARY MACHINING STATION


a. To familiarise the student with the use of a 2-way flow control valve
b. To show how to assemble a counter-holding circuit
c. Understanding of a hydraulic circuit diagram
d. Practical assembly of the circuit
e. Commissioning a circuit with a flow control valve and counter-
holding
f. Adjustment and measurement of inlet and outlet pressures and
cylinder travel time
g. Comparison of cylinder advance-stroke times for various inlet and
outlet pressures

Several stations on a rotary machining station are driven by a hydraulic power pack. As individual
stations are switched on and off, they produce pressure fluctuations throughout the hydraulic circuit.
This effect will be studied on a drilling station. The fluctuations in pressure and the tractive forces
created during drilling must not affect the feed of the drilling station. A flow control valve is to be used
to ensure a smooth adjustable feed rate, while a pressure relief valve is to be used as a counter-
holding valve to compensate for the tractive forces.

10. PAINTING BOOTH


a. To show how to plot a characteristic for a 2-way flow control valve
b. To show how to make a comparison between a 2-way flow controlvalve
and a throttle-type flow control valve . Drawing the hydraulic circuit
diagram
c. Practical assembly of the circuit
d. Measurement of pressure and flow rate
e. Plotting the characteristic of the 2-way flow control valve
f. Comparison with a throttle valve

An endless chain conveyor feeds workpieces through a painting booth. The chain is driven by a
hydraulic motor via a right-angle gear unit. Due to changes in the production process, the weight of
the workpieces passing through the painting booth has changed. The speed of the conveyor should,
however, remain the same as before. It must be determined whether this can be achieved by fitting a
flow control valve, and if so which type is suitable.

11. EMBOSSING MACHINE


a. To familiarise the student with the use of a one-way flow
control valve
b. To show how to explain the difference between a flow control
valve and throttle valve on the basis of a concrete
application . Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram
c. Practical assembly of the circuit
d. Commissioning a circuit with a one-way flow control valve
and counter-holding
e. Adjustment and measurement of inlet and outlet pressures
and cylinder advance-stroke time
f. Comparison of advance-stroke times with those in exercise 9

A special machine is used to emboss graphic symbols on metal foil. The foil is fed through the
embossing machine with an adjustable cycle time. The downward motion of the stamp must be
capable of being varied in accordance with the feed speed. The return motion must always be
executed as a rapid traverse. A one-way flow control valve is used to control the speed of the
stamp, while a pressure relief valve is used to prevent the weight of the stamp from pulling the
piston rod out of the cylinder. A 4/2-way valve is used to switch between upwards and downwards
motion

12. SURFACE GRINDING MACHINE


a. To familiarise the student with the design and mode of operation of a
differential circuit
b. To show how to explain the influence of pressures, forces, speeds
and travel times
c. Understanding a hydraulic circuit diagram
d. Practical assembly of the circuit
e. Measuring advance and return stroke times and travel and back
pressures
f. Calculation of ratios for area and force
g. Calculation of the flow rate through the flow control valve
h. Comparison of this circuit with the one in exercise 6

The grinding table of a surface grinding machine is driven by a hydraulic cylinder. Since the speed is
required to be the same in both directions, the hydraulic control circuit must be designed to provide
compensation for the difference in volume of the two cylinder chambers. A differential circuit is
suggested with a 3/2-way valve and a flow control valve for speed adjustment.

13. DRILLING MACHINE


a. To teach the student how to design a control circuit with reduced output
pressure
b. To show how to explain the mode of operation of a 3-way pressure
regulator
c. Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram
d. Practical assembly of the circuit
e. Measuring the travel and back pressures
f. Setting a counter pressure
g. Assessment of the effect of using a pressure regulator

A drilling machine is used for work on various hollow workpieces. The


workpieces are hydraulically clamped in a vice. It must be possible to reduce
the clamping pressure to suit the design of the workpiece. It must also be
possible to vary the closing speed by means of a one-way flow control valve.
14. BULKHEAD DOOR
a. To familiarise the student with a circuit for the hydraulic clamping of
a bulkhead door
b. To demonstrate a comparison of circuits with and without
counterholding
c. Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram
d. Practical assembly of the circuit
e. Measuring the cylinder advance-stroke time with and without a
load and with and without counter-holding
f. Comparison and assessment of results

A double-acting cylinder is used to open and close a bulkhead door. Closing must be carried out
smoothly and at a constant adjustable speed. The speed is adjusted by means of a one-way flow
control valve. A pressure relief valve must be fitted to provide counter-holding and prevent the heavy
door from pulling the piston rod out of the cylinder during the closing operation.

15. FERRY LOADING RAMP


a. To familiarise the student with a speed control circuit with a
tractive load
b. To compare circuits with flow control valves in the inlet line
and outlet line respectively
c. Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram
d. Practical assembly of the circuit
e. Measuring the cylinder advance time and travel and back
pressures with flow control valves in the inlet line and outlet
line respectively
f. Comparison and assessment of results

The loading ramp of a car ferry must be capable of being set to different heights. The ramp is raised
and lowered by a hydraulic cylinder. This motion must be carried out smoothly and at a constant
speed. A flow control valve is to be used to adjust the speed. This must be installed in such a way as
to prevent excessive pressures from developing within the system.

16. SKIP HANDLING


a. To develop a hydraulic circuit for a double-acting
cylinder subject to a varying load
b. Drawing the circuit diagram
c. Practical assembly of the circuit
d. Commissioning of control circuit
e. Description of mode of operation of control circuit

Exercise 16
The loading and unloading of skips from a skip transporter is carried out using two double-acting
cylinders. Each cylinder is subject to varying loads – tractive load during unloading and
compressive load during loading. The skip should be raised and lowered at a slow constant speed.
Each cylinder must therefore be hydraulically clamped on both sides.

17. BONDING PRESS


a. To teach the student how to specify the pressure for a double-acting cylinder
b. To show how to choose either a pressure relief valve or a
pressure regulator
c. Drawing the hydraulic circuit diagram
d. Practical assembly of the circuit
e. Measurement and comparison of system pressure, travel
pressure and final pressure
f. Assessment of the suitability of a pressure relief valve and
pressure regulator
A bonding press is used to stick pictures or lettering onto wood or
plastic panels. The working pressure must be adjustable to suit
the base material and adhesive used and must be capable of being maintained for a long time while
the directional control valve is activated.Develop and compare two circuits. The first should use a 3-
way pressure regulator to adjust the press pressure, while the second should incorporate a pressure
relief valve connected into the bypass line for this purpose. A 4/3-way valve should be used for
activation in both cases.

18. ASSEMBLY DEVICE


a. To familiarise the student with a pressure sequence circuit
b. To teach the student how to draw a displacement-step diagram
c. Development of hydraulic circuit diagram
d. Drawing the displacement-step diagram
e. Practical assembly of the circuit
f. Systematic commissioning with setting of pressure and flow rate

An assembly device is used to press workpieces together for drilling.


Cylinder 1A1 presses a workpiece into the housing. This operation
should be carried out slowly at a constant speed. When the pressure in
cylinder 1A1 has reached 20 bar (workpiece pressed into place), a
hole is drilled through the workpiece and housing. The drill is driven
by a hydraulic motor. After the drilling operation, the drill is switched off and retracted (1A2). Cylinder
1A1 is retracted only when the drill has withdrawn from the housing.

19. CALCULATIONS FOR AN ASSEMBLY DEVICE


a. To enable the student to calculate the forces associated witha double-
acting cylinder
b. To enable the student to calculate the advance-stroke time of a
cylinder piston
c. Writing a problem description
d. Calculating the press-fitting force
e. Calculating the press-fitting time

Exercise 19
An assembly device is used to press workpieces together for drilling. The operating sequence is
described in exercise 18. Our objective here is to check the pressing operation of cylinder 1A1
mathematically. Determine the press-fitting force using the given data. Note that, while the press-fitting
pressure is available as specified, the resistances of the lines and directional control valve cause an
opposing pressure to act on the annular piston side, thus reducing the actual force available.The flow
rate is kept constant by a flow control valve. This together with the cylinder stroke is used to calculate
the travel time for the press-fitting operation.

20. TIPPING CONTAINER


a. To familiarise the student with an electrohydraulic circuit
b. Development of hydraulic and electrical circuit diagrams
c. Assembly of control system

A conveyor belt transports metal swarf into a tipping container. When the
container is full, it is emptied into a truck. A double-acting cylinder is used for this purpose, activated
by a solenoid-actuated 4/3-way valve. The piston rod of the cylinder is advanced while the container
is in position to receive swarf. To enable the hydraulic power pack to be switched off during this time,
the piston rod of the cylinder must be protected by hydraulic means against undesired retraction
(caused by leakage in the valve). The electrical activation of the valve must be manually controlled,
i.e. the cylinder must move only when the “Up” or “Down” pushbuttons are pressed.

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