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Activity Title: Scientific Method:Statement of the Research Problem Activity No:1
Reference (s): Estrellita A. Madriaga, Science Links 7 Worktext for Scientific and Technological Literacy pp.26
Learning Target/s:
Describe the components of a scientific investigation by:
a. Identifying the first step of a scientific investigation
b. Distinguish between observations and inferences
a. Concept Notes
Scientific Method – is a series of steps used by scientists to solve a problem or a question.

Step 1. Statement of the Research Problem - a problem or a question must first be identified by
conducting research through observations in the environment and used this observations to make inferences.

OBSERVATION – the act of careful watching and listening.

INFERENCE (Infer) – coming to a conclusion based on your existing knowledge/observation.
Observation Inference
The man is sitting by a fireplace. The man is warm.

After making observations and inferences, the problem is often stated in a form of a question.
Example: How does fertilizer affect the growth of plants?, Why is the plant stem bend toward the light?

b. Checking for Understanding

Direction: Study the picture below and specify which of the statements are observations and which are
inferences. Write your answers on the space provided.

__________1.The tree looks like a palm tree.

__________2.The volcano is erupting.
__________3.The Stegosaurus is an herbivore.
__________4.The Stegosaurus is eating the plant.
__________5.The camptosaurus has sharp teeth for
eating meat.
__________6.The camptosaurus killed the animal.
c. Processing Questions:
1. Why are observations and inferences important in defining a problem?

2. How do you feel about the lesson today? Draw a smiling face if you are happy and a sad face if you are
not. Then, state your reasons why.


d. Framing Concepts
Direction: Compare and contrast observation and inference by giving your own example. Write your answer on
the T-chart below.