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Lab Report

Synthesis of Tetramethylammonium triiodide

By : Section 1103

Jirachaya Mahatongkum 5961168

Supitchayanut Sittisuparoge 5961045

Kanokporn Kaewnakian 5961018

Techin Charoenchitrwattana 5961112

Tanatat Techadilok 5961184

Noppasorn Swangswai 5961067

Mahidol University International Demonstration School

Semester 1 Academic year 2017-2018
This experiment is about the synthesis of Tetramethylammonium triiodide from
Tetramethylammonium iodide and Iodine. We used 0.49 grams of Tetramethylammonium
and 0.6 grams of iodine.When we calculated the product of each reactant, we knew our
limiting reagent which is Iodine with the mass of 1.07 grams and used it as a theoretical
yields. Moreover, we find the actual yields from perform a crystallisation by filtrating the
solid and liquid and measuring a purple and dark green crystals which we got 0.9 grams
which lastly, we got 84.11 percent yield.

To synthesize Tetramethylammonium triiodide by the relatively of the mass of the
final product from the experiment and the mass of the limiting reagent from the calculation of
the reactant.

Crystallization is the process which solid are formed where atoms and molecules are
organised and become a crystal. One way that in most laboratory used to form crystal is to
dissolve the solid in a solution in which it is soluble, usually at high temperatures to make it
supersaturation. The hot mixture is then filtered to remove any insoluble impurities. The
filtrate is allowed to slowly cool. A crystal then formed when the solution slowly cooldown.
Chemical reaction is a reaction that change the chemical formula and the chemical
equation needs to be balanced so that it follows the law of conservation of mass. Chemist
create a formula to find a mole or a mass of that typical chemical in the chemical equation.
We can find mole by calculate gram (of that chemical) and divided by their molecular weight
(look in a periodic table).
In this experiment, is about the synthesis of Tetramethylammonium triiodide from
Tetramethylammonium iodide and Iodine. We used 0.49 grams of Tetramethylammonium
and 0.6 grams of iodine. After the mixed of Tetramethylammonium iodide and Iodine in
ethanol, we then heat it up and let it cool down undisturbed. Then we put it in the ice bath to
cool it down and then filtrate the crystal using vacuum filtration method. Finally, we get the
crystal to do our calculation in the lesson.

Tetramethylammonium iodide (0.49 mL) Beaker

Iodine (0.6 g) Paper filtration

Ethanol (12 mL) Hot plate - stirrer

Stirring rod Ice bath

Vacuum filtration

1. Firstly, add tetramethylammonium iodide (0.49 mL) to 50 mL beaker and use stirring rod
to break up clumps of Me4N+I-.
2. Secondly, add iodine (0.6 g) and 95% ethanol (12 mL).
3. Thirdly, put the beaker on hot plate in the fume hood with stirring about 10 minutes until
tetramethylammonium iodide dissolve and move it to low temperature for letting it cool
down to be a crystal.
4. Then, put the beaker into a ice bath about 10 minutes for preparing filtration and washing
5. Next, use vacuum filtration to collect the crystals and wash them twice with hexanes (2x7
6.Lastly, let crystal dry and weigh it.

Results from Experiment


Tetramethylammonium iodide 0.49 g

Iodine 0.6 g


Tetramethylammonium triiodide 0.9 g

Our final mass of the product is 0.9 grams. Firstly, we weighed our purple and dark
green crystals and got about 1.47 grams, but we didn’t subtract the mass of the paper yet. So,
we measured the mass of the paper and got 0.57 grams. Then, when we subtracted it from the
actual mass. Lastly, we got 0.9 grams as our real mass of Tetramethylammonium triiodide

Result from calculation

The number of moles

Tetramethylammonium iodide 2.44 x 10-3

Iodine 2.36 x 10-3

Tetramethylammonium triiodide 2.35 x 10-3


Actual yield 0.9 g

Theoretical yield 1.07 g

Percent yield 84.11 %

We calculated the molar mass from the mass that we used it in our experiment. We
changed the units of grams to mole by dividing grams from the molar mass of each
molecules. Next, we calculated the percent yields by dividing the actual yield (the mass that
we got from our experiment) from the theoretical yield ( the mass of our limiting reagent ).
Lastly, we got 84.11 percent yield.

(H3C)4N+I- + I2 = (H3C)4N+I3-
Tetramethylammonium triiodide

Molecular weight Number of mole

(H3C)4N+I- = 1(12) + 12(4) + 14 +127 (H3C)4N+I- = 0.49 g / 201g

= 201 g / mol = 2.01 x 102 g / mol = 2.44 x 10-3 mol (H3C)4N+I-
I2 = 127(2) = 254 g / mol I2 = 0.6 g / 254 g
= 2.54 x 102 g / mol = 2.36x 10-3 mol I2
(H3C)4N+I3- = 1(12) + 12(4) + 14 +127(3) (H3C)4N+I3- = 0.9 g / 455 g
= 455 g / mol = 4.55 x 102 g/mol = 1.98 x 10-3 mol (H3C)4N+I3-

Limiting reagent

I2 = 0.6 g x (1 mol I2 / 254 g I2 ) x (1 mol (CH3)4N+I-3 / 1 mol (CH3)4N+I- ) x (455 g

(CH3)4N+I-3 / 1 mol (CH3)4N+I-3 ) = 1.07 g
- limiting reagent (1.07 g = theoretical yield)

(CH3)4N+I- = 0.5 g x (1 mol (CH3)4N+I- / 201 g (CH3)4N+I- ) x (1 mol (CH3)4N+I-3 / 1 mol

(CH3)4N+I-) x (455 g (CH3)4N+I-3 / 1 mol (CH3)4N+I-3 ) = 1.13 g
- excess reagent

Percent yield

(actual yield / theoretical yield) x 100 = (0.9 g / 1.07 g) x 100 = 84.11 %

The chemical equation of our group is (H3C)4N+I- + I2 = (H3C)4N+I3-.
The purpose of experiment is to make a product name Tetramethylammonium
triiodide, by combining Tetramethylammonium iodide and iodine. To do this experiment the
background knowledge we have to know is how to calculate mole, converting from gram to
mole, and calculate the percent yield. Moreover, we have to know the limiting reagent, and
excess reagent. The thing we need to aware during crystallization is the temperature, the size
of crystal is depend on the temperature. The most concern step is step 5 because if something
disturb the crystal the result might be change. Moreover, sometime other material may fall
into crystal and the mass of our product will be error.
The reactant in this experiment is Tetramethylammonium iodide, and iodine which
used to produce Tetramethylammonium triiodide. We use 0.49 grams of
tetramethylammonium iodide and 0.6 grams of iodide which equal to 2.44 x 10-3 mol
(H3C)4N+I- and 2.36x 10-3 mol I2 respectively. As a result, the product,
Tetramethylammonium triiodide weight 1.98 x 10-3 mol (H3C)4N+I3-. The product after
reaction is dark purple and dark green crystals.
From the experiment, we use the product and reactant to simplify the excess and
limiting reagent. Moreover, it used to find percent yield; actual yield and theoretical yield.
According to the calculation I2 produced less products ((H3C)4N+I3-) than (H3C)4N+I- with
1.07 grams and 1.11 grams, respectively. Therefore, I2 is the limiting reagent and (H3C)4N+I-
is our excess reagent. When we calculated the remaining of the excess reagent, we subtracted
it with the limiting reagent. Lastly, we got 0.04 grams remaining. In addition, our percent
yield is 84.11% which we calculated by dividing the theoretical yields that come from the
calculation (1.07grams ) by the actual yields that come from our experiment (0.9 grams).

In conclusion, we know that the amount that we got by calculated from the mass and
ratio it isn’t equal to the amount of the final product that we did in the experiment which
lastly, we got 84.11 percent yields. The amount of the product that we used it to be the
theoretical yield is come from our limiting reactant which is Iodine, also the amount of the
product has 2.35 x 10-3 mole and 0.9 grams. The other mass that we used it to be an actual
yield is come from our product from the experiment which is a purple and dark green

1.Karger, B.L. (2014, April 15). Exclusion and clathration. Retrieved from

2. Helmenstine, P. A. (n.d.). What It Means When Something Crystallizes. Retrieved from