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After the planning phase is over, and the work order is issued the next important phase is the

construction phase. This is the most important phase of the project.Once a project moves into
the Execution Phase, the project Team and the necessary resources to carry out the project
should be in-place and ready to perform project activities. The Project Plan should have been
completed and baselined by this time as well. The project team and specifically the Project
Manager’s focus now shifts from planning the project efforts to participating in, observing,
and analyzing the work being done.

The Activities carried out in this phase can be broadly classified into three major
stages

1. Procurement Stage
2. On Site Work
3. Casting yard work

3.2.1 Procurement Stage

In this stage, the process of procuring of men, materials and money is done. The important
things such as such MS moulds for the casting of concrete blocks and pier is of outmost
importance. Along with it the wire ropes, channel sections, Z section plates, Separation
plates, T bar clamps should be procured before the execution of work is started. After the
procurement of the essentials required for the smooth working of the project, the finalization
of casting yard is of utmost importance. Preferably, the casting yard should be in the vicinity
of the project site, but if it’s not possible, the casting yard should be set up a distance of not
more than 30 km from the project site.

3.2.1.1 Casting Yard

Casting Yard is the area where most of the concreting procedure is done. The casting of
concrete blocks, sockets, rebar bent up, casting of concrete strips is undertaken. As such all
the materials and equipments required for this process are also stored in the store rooms at the
casting yard. It is for the above reasons that the planning and finalizing the extent of area for
casting is quite crucial.

The casting yard can be divided into four areas sections as per the activities which are carried
out in each area. The first is the site office and storage area section, the second is the casting
area for the blocks and sockets along with some space for rebar platform and cutting. The
third section is the area where blocks and sockets are kept for curing and the fourth is the
section where the concrete strips and screed concrete takes place. Each section requires a
bulk of sufficient space for smooth working along with the proper pathway for the transit
mixer, hydra and crane handling operations.The area should also be designed so as to provide
safety to the engineers and workers on the casting yard.

The outer dimensions of the base plate is . The store room dimensions are . The space
required for curing of the blocks is .The area of the section where screed concrete takes place
is. The pathway required is 3m wide between two rows of concrete blocks.
3.3 Procedure of Casting Concrete blocks

The process of casting concrete blocks is as follows:-

1. Removal of vegetation on the ground surface and clearing the surface and making the
surface fairly level, for the concreting purpose because we don’t want concrete in one
direction or the other. After that a level is fixed with the help of a peg and the level is
transferred to all the other edges on the ground surface. A layer of boulders is placed
on the same and is compacted to the level marked previously on the ground. Now the
platform for placing of the MS mould is prepared and the mould is placed.
2. After this the process of providing chamfer to the mould begins.This is important
because the edges of the concrete if left unattended tends to breaks giving an uneven
surface and edges are prone to further damage the concrete surface.If the edges are
chamfered this is avoided and the edges gets a smooth surface there by reducing the
risk of damage of the edges and surface to concrete block. The rubber chamfers are
provided on all the inner edges of the mould. In order to fix the rubber chamfers onto
the inner surface of MS mould a mixture of resin and hardener was applied onto the
rubber surface for adhering onto steel surface.
3. The process consists of cutting rubber chamfers into 8 different strips, four of 0.4 m
long and other of 1 m long.The procedure of cutting the rubber is quite tricky. For
cutting the horizontal strip you have to hold two pieces of rubber strips together with
its edges touching each other with the wider side facing upward direction. After that
mark the point of contact with the help of the cutter and draw a thin line cutting
through the two edges. After this hold the strip at other end of the same strip, mark
the cutting line.Now interchange the position, i.e on the adjacent side of the same
strip mark the cutting line.Now hold the edge firmly the cut through the line towards
the inner edge of the strip through the cutting line marked on the surface. Now repeat
the same for the other edge of the same strip and other four horizontal strips.The
process of providing chamfer for the vertical strips consist of providing a triangular
groove on the one end of the strip of 15 mm height from the edge towards the inner
side.The protruding edge is then trimmed to a thickness of 5 mm.The strips are then
glued to the surface with the help of araldyte and putting a weight on it for a period of
atleast 2 hours.Care should be taken to apply the rubber strips to apply rubber strips
on the inner edges of the mould as the araldyte dries out quickly.
4. After the rubber strips is placed, the process of concreting begins.The process begins
by assembling the mould.This consists of thoroughly cleaning the mould from inside
and the side plates are placed onto its position and fixed with the help of four T bar
clamps.
5. The T bar clamps are placed on the bottom edges of the side plates completely resting
on the steel platform of the mould.The steel rods placed on the clamps on the end of
it are used for tightening or loosening the T bar clamp,clockwise for tightening and
anticlockwise for loosening. The four hollow rodes of 20mm dia are tied on the
mould, one on each end and two rods at the cente.The three reinforcement rings is
placed inside the mould with the help of rebars. 2 nos.10 mm dia bars are placed on
the top of 20mm dia hollow bars and are passed through the rings perpendicular to
it.The rings are tied at the bottom with the help of 2 nos. 10mm dia bars on the inner
periphery of the three rings. The surface is oiled on inside and is ready for concreting.
6. Transit mixer arrives on the casting yard and concreting begins with the help of chute
which ends close to the upper surface of the mould.The height of fall of concrete in no
case should not be greater than 150 mm. Needle vibrators are used for
compaction.First the edges of the mould are compacted and then moving towards the
centre of the mould.Care should be taken to see that vibrator should touch the surface
of the mould or the rebars.The concrete should be poured upto a height of the hollow
bar at the top surface of the mould.After concreting, the concrete surface is leveled
with the help of floats and trowels.After half an hour of concreting,surface of the
concrete should be aligned to a level with the surface of the edge of mould for a
distance of 15 mm from the edge of the mould.Steel pieces of 100 mm length are then
driven into the concrete surface precisely 4 nos. and the surface should be properly
leveled.

After a period of 12 hours, the T bar clamps are now free to remove.The top bars are
removed first and then T bar clamps are loosened.The side plates are removed and placed on
the edge on the steel platform.Concrete block is now removed with the help of Steel
frame,four D shackles and two heavy duty belts. The steel frame is placed on the top of the
concrete block,and D shackles placed on four edges of the block and then the belts and steel
frame is attached to the D shackle.The free end of the heavy duty belt is put on the pulley and
lifted with the help of hydra and placed on a different section of the site for curing
process.The process is repeated till n number of times