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Cement Used On Site

On Our site Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) was used for various
construction practices.
Portland Pozzolana cement (PPC) is manufactured by the intergrinding of OPC
clinker with 10 to 25 per cent of pozzolanic material (as per the latest
amendment, it is 15 to 35%). A pozzolanic material is essentially a silicious or
aluminous material which while in itself possessing no cementitious properties,
which will, in finely divided form and in the presence of water, react with
calcium hydroxide, liberated in the hydration process, at ordinary temperature,
to form compounds possessing cementitious properties. The pozzolanic
materials generally used for manufacture of PPC are calcined clay or fly ash.
Fly ash is a waste material, generated in the thermal power station, when
powdered coal is used as a fuel. These are collected in the electrostatic
precipitator The use of fly ash performs such a role. The pozzolanic action is
shown below:
Calcium hydroxide + Pozzolana + water → C – S – H (gel)

Portland pozzolana cement (PPC) was used in construction practices because

of following reasons:-
 Produces less heat of hydration.
 Offers greater resistance to the attack of aggressive waters than
ordinary Portland cement.
 It reduces the leaching of calcium hydroxide when used in hydraulic
 It is also useful in marine and hydraulic construction and other mass
concrete constructions like dam, bridge piers and thick foundation.
Sand is normally dredged from river beds and streams in the dry season when
the river bed is dry or when there is not much flow in the river. Under such
situation along with the sand, decayed vegetable matter, humus, organic
matter and other impurities are likely to settle down. But if sand is dredged
when there is a good flow of water from very deep bed, the organic matters
are likely to get washed away at the time of dredging.
The following limits may be taken as guidance:
 Fine sand : Fineness Modulus : 2.2 - 2.6
 Medium sand : F.M. : 2.6 - 2.9
 Coarse sand : F.M. : 2.9 - 3.2
A sand having a fineness modulus more than 3.2 will be unsuitable for making
satisfactory concrete.

The sand which is used in mortar can be natural sand, or crushed stone sand or
crushed gravel sand. Sand or fine aggregate which is used in concrete is
somewhat different from sand which is used for masonry mortar. The role of
sand in mortar is to give the following properties such as
 Strength
 Workability
 Water retentivity
 Volume change
The particle size distribution of sand for use in masonry mortar should be
within the limits as given in the following table.

Grading Limit of Masonry Sand

Particle Size Percentage of Passing
4.75 mm 100
2.36 mm 90 – 100
1.18 mm 70 – 100
600 micron 40 – 100
300 micron 5 – 70
150 micron 0 – 15
If the sand does not conform to grading limit as specified above, then by
combining it with other sand we can get the desired grading.