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The Respiratory System

Introduction
• Responsible for the exchange of gases between the body and
the external environment.
• Five functions:

– Provide area for gas exchange


– Move air
– Protect surfaces from dehydration and
invading pathogens
– Produce sounds for speech
– Provide olfaction sensations (smell)
Human Anatomy, 3rd edition
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The Respiratory Tract
• Passageways
through which air
will move
• Begins in nasal
cavity
• ends in the alveoli

Human Anatomy, 3rd edition


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The Respiratory Tract
• Upper respiratory
system
– Superior to the
larynx
– Functions – intake,
moistening, filtering,
sensing
• Lower respiratory
system
– Larynx and below
– Functions – sound
production, transport
of air, gas exchange
Human Anatomy, 3rd edition
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The Respiratory Epithelium
• Lines the upper
respiratory system
• Pseudostratified
ciliated columnar
epithelium with goblet
cells
– Entraps & removes
dust
– Moistens incoming air
• Nervous Tissue:
Olfactory sensation
• Capillaries warm
incoming air
Human Anatomy, 3rd edition
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Surface View of the Epithelium

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The Nose
• Primary entrance
to the respiratory
system
– Bone & cartilage
– External nares
– Internally
covered in thick
dense hair-
entrap large
debris

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The Nasal Cavity
• Nasal septum
– Divides into left and
right sides
• Hard & soft palate
form the floor
• Nasal conchae cause
turbulence allows
warming time and
better ability to trap
particles
• Internal nares lead to
the pharnyx
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Paranasal Sinuses
• Gaps in bone (holes)
• Functions
– Lighten skull bones
– Produce mucus
– Resonate during
sound production

Human Anatomy, 3rd edition


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The Pharynx
• Area from the internal
nares to the larynx
• Shared between the
respiratory and
digestive systems
• Divided into 3 regions
– Nasopharynx
– Oropharynx
– Laryngopharynx
– (you are not
responsible for
knowing)
Human Anatomy, 3rd edition
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The Larynx
• Connects the pharynx
to the trachea
• Lined by mucus-
producing columnar
epithelium
• Functions
– Produces sound
• Vocal folds
– Keeps food from
entering the airways
• Epiglottis

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The Larynx
• Formed by 9 cartilages
– Thyroid cartilage most
anterior surface “adams
apple”
– Cricoid cartilage: posterior
surface-> support and
muscle attachments
– Epiglottis
– Arytenoid cartilages
– Corniculate cartilages
– Cuneiform cartilages
• Reduce size of glottis
• Help prevent foreign
objects from entering
trachea
Human Anatomy, 3rd edition
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The Larynx

Human Anatomy, 3rd edition


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Voice Production
• Sound production
– Air flowing over vocal
folds (through the The distinctive
glottis) produces sound sound of you
waves voice also comes
– Children have slender, from movment
short cords high pitch through pharnyx,
– Adult males have oral cavity and
thicker and longer sinuses
cord lower tones

http://www.entdocsonline.com/images/larynx.jpg
Movements of the Larynx During Swallowing

• Tongue forces bolus into the oropharynx


• Larynx is elevated
– Extrinsic laryngeal muscles
• Epiglottis closes over glottis
• Pharyngeal muscles push bolus into esophagus
• Larynx returns to normal position

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Swallowing

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The Trachea
• Extends from larynx
to primary bronchi
• The “windpipe”
• Structure
– Incomplete
cartilaginous rings
– Prevent collapse
• Lined by mucus-
producing epithelium
• Function –
passageway for air

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Bronchi, Bronchioles, & Alveoli
• Trachea divides into
• Primary bronchii divide
into
• Secondary bronchi divide
into
• Tertiary bronchi divide into
• Bronchioles divide into

• Alveoli gas exchange

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The Respiratory Tree

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Human Anatomy, 3rd edition
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The Alveoli
• Site of gas exchange
with the blood
• Closely associated
with capillaries
• Wall of the alveolus
+ wall of capillary
– Respiratory
membrane
• Gas exchange occurs
by diffusion

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DRAW IN NOTES

Human Anatomy, 3rd edition


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Alveoli

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The Alveoli
• Alveolar epithelium
contains:
– Alveolar Type 1 cells
• Gas exchange
• Emphysema
– Alveolar Type 2 cells
• Secrete surfactant
• Oily substance that
prevents alveoli
from popping
• Respiratory
Distress Syndrome
• Macrophages- patrol for
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The Lungs
• Soft, spongy, cone-shaped
– Top = apex
– Bottom = base
• Each lung is surrounded
by a serous membrane-
called pleura plueral
cavity

• Blood supply
– Pulmonary arteries Pleura- cavity that holds the lungs
– Pulmonary veins

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Blood Supply to the Lungs

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Gas transport

Oxygen and Carbon dioxide have limited solubility


in blood.

Most oxygen molecules bind to the iron ion on


hemoglobin for transport.
The demand for oxygen at the tissue regulates how
much oxygen will be released.
– Ex: inactive tissues have little demand, so only
small amount of oxygen is released.
Carbon dioxide transport
• Carbon dioxide molecules can be transported by
dissolving (7%), bind to hemoglobin (23%), or by
forming carbonic acid (70%)

– Does not effect Oxygen binding

– If converted into Carbonic acid the reaction is reversed


once the molecule reaches the alveoli.

– Carbon dioxide levels rising in your blood will control


the rate of respiration
Lung Volumes and Capacities
• Respiratory cycle: cycle of inhalation and exhalation
• Tidal Volume is amount of air moved in and out in a single
respiratory cycle
• Expiratory reserve volume: After exhaling normally, this is
the amount of air that could be forcefully exhaled.
• Inspiratory reserve volume: amount of air taken in above
the tidal volume
• Vital Capacity: Maximum amount of air that can be taken
in during one cycle
• Residual Volume: air that is never moved from lungs-
keeps them from collapsing
• Minimal volume- after lungs collapse or plueral cavity is
opened a small amount ofAnatomy,
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Breathing
• Inhaling is active work,
exhaling is passive

– Pulmonary
Ventilation
– Gas Exchange
– Gas transport

– Hypoxia- low Oxy


levels
– Anoxia- cell death

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Respiratory Physiology
• 3 steps
– Pulmonary ventilation
• Breathing; involves physical movement of air into
and out of lungs
– Gas exchange
• Gas diffusion across respiratory membrane and
capillary and other cells
– Gas transport
• Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between
alveolar capillaries and capillary beds in other
tissues
Inspiration/ Inhalation

• Air flows from area


of high pressure to
low pressure.
• The bigger the
gradient the faster
air will move.
• Pressure gradients
are caused when the
volume of the lungs
change.

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Inspiration continued…
• When the diaphragm contracts flattens and
increases the volume of lungs
• causes a decrease in pressure inside the lungs
• Air rushes into lungs

•EXHALATION:
•When diaphragm relaxes air is forced out due to change in
pressure.

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Gas Transport and Respiration

• External Respiration: Diffusion of gases at the


alveoli, between pulmonary capillaries and alveoli
– Lowers PCO2 and increases PO2

• Internal Respiration: Diffusion of gases between


the capillaries and tissues
– Lowers PO2 and increases PO2

• Cellular Respiration: oxygen is used in the


mitochondria and cytoplasm to produce ATP

Human Anatomy, 3rd edition


Prentice Hall, © 2001
Gas transport

• Oxygen and Carbon dioxide have limited solubility in blood.

• Most oxygen molecules bind to the iron ion on hemoglobin for


transport.
• Hb + O2  HbO2 (called oxyhemoglobin)

• The demand for oxygen at the tissue regulates how much


oxygen will be released.
– Ex: inactive tissues have little demand, so only
small amount of oxygen is released.
Carbon dioxide transport
• Carbon dioxide molecules can be transported by dissolving
(7%), bind to hemoglobin (23%), or by forming carbonic
acid (70%)
– Binding to hemoglobin does not effect Oxygen
binding
– Hb + CO2  HbCO2 (carbaminohemoglobin)
– If converted into Carbonic acid (H2CO3) the
reaction is reversed once the molecule reaches
the alveoli.
– CO2 + H2O  H+ + HCO3- (bicarbonate ion)
– Carbon dioxide levels rising in your blood will
control the rate of respiration in your brain-
lowers blood pH
• ANALYSIS
1. Why is it important to measure tidal volume and vital capacity three
times and then get an average?
2. Compare your data to other members of the class. How can you
account for differences?
3. How does an athlete's vital capacity compare to a non-athlete? Explain
your reasoning and use data from the lab.
4. In pneumonia fluid accumulates in the lungs how would this effect
vital capacity? Why?
5. How does smoking effect the physiology of the respiratory system?
Use a reference from your text.
6. How might vital capacity be important to a musician?
7. What are some possible sources of error in this lab experiment?
8. Using the application manual- list cause, symptoms and prognosis for
the following diseases Cystic Fibrosis, Asthma, Tuberculosis,
Emphysma and Respiratory distress Syndrome.
• ANALYSIS
1. Why is it important to measure tidal volume and vital capacity three
times and then get an average?
2. Compare your data to other members of the class. How can you
account for differences?
3. How does an athlete's vital capacity compare to a non-athlete? Explain
your reasoning and use data from the lab.
4. In pneumonia fluid accumulates in the lungs how would this effect
vital capacity? Why?
5. How does smoking effect the physiology of the respiratory system?
Use a reference from your text.
6. How might vital capacity be important to a musician?
7. What are some possible sources of error in this lab experiment?
8. Using the application manual- list cause, symptoms and prognosis for
the following diseases Cystic Fibrosis, Asthma, Tuberculosis,
Emphysma and Respiratory distress Syndrome.
• ANALYSIS
1. Why is it important to measure tidal volume and vital capacity three
times and then get an average?
2. Compare your data to other members of the class. How can you
account for differences?
3. How does an athlete's vital capacity compare to a non-athlete? Explain
your reasoning and use data from the lab.
4. In pneumonia fluid accumulates in the lungs how would this effect
vital capacity? Why?
5. How does smoking effect the physiology of the respiratory system?
Use a reference from your text.
6. How might vital capacity be important to a musician?
7. What are some possible sources of error in this lab experiment?
8. Using the application manual- list cause, symptoms and prognosis for
the following diseases Cystic Fibrosis, Asthma, Tuberculosis,
Emphysma and Respiratory distress Syndrome.
• ANALYSIS
1. Why is it important to measure tidal volume and vital capacity three
times and then get an average?
2. Compare your data to other members of the class. How can you
account for differences?
3. How does an athlete's vital capacity compare to a non-athlete? Explain
your reasoning and use data from the lab.
4. In pneumonia fluid accumulates in the lungs how would this effect
vital capacity? Why?
5. How does smoking effect the physiology of the respiratory system?
Use a reference from your text.
6. How might vital capacity be important to a musician?
7. What are some possible sources of error in this lab experiment?
8. Using the application manual- list cause, symptoms and prognosis for
the following diseases Cystic Fibrosis, Asthma, Tuberculosis,
Emphysma and Respiratory distress Syndrome.
Human Anatomy, 3rd edition
Prentice Hall, © 2001
Human Anatomy, 3rd edition
Prentice Hall, © 2001
1. Create a bar graph that represents the Analysis
members of your team: MV, VC, ERV, IC
and TLC.
2. Which of your group members has the highest
overall lung capacity? Use evidence from
your graph to explain and why do you think it
was highest.
3. What factors could account for the differences
in your lung capacity compared to your group
members.
4. Explain how sources of error could have
effected your measurements.
5. How can measuring lung capacity indicate
respiratory distress?

6. Conclusion question:

What could account for


differences in the average
values and your lung
volumes?
Clinical Applications- Read Page 134-139

1. What does inspection, • Fill in:


palpation, auscultation Disorder Causes Sympto Treatme
ms nts
and percussion reveal
about respiratory 1
disorders?
2. Describe 3 abnormal 2
breath sounds and what
they may indicate. 3

3. Explain three
physiological causes for 4
respiratory disorders
• Answer 8-1 to 8-3