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Chapter- 8


Syllabus: Signal analysis, dynamic testing of machines and structures, Experimental modal
analysis, Machine condition monitoring and diagnosis.

Dynamic testing of machine structure II method: Using modal testing

involves the finding the deformation of Any dynamic response of a machine can
machines at a critical frequency. Dynamic be obtained as a combination of its
modes a knowledge of mode shapes,
testing is a valuable complement to dynamic
modal frequencies and modal damping
analysis. ratios constitute a complete dynamic
description of the machine.
It can be done using the following:
I method: Forced dynamic deflection shape
Basic idea
measured under steady state frequency of
1. When a structure machine or any
system is excited its response exhibits
It involves an accelerometer is mounted at
a sharp peak at resonance.
some point on the machine as a reference
2. The phase of the response changes
and another moving accelerometer is placed
by 180° as the forcing frequency
at several other points and in different
crosses the natural frequency of the
directions. The magnitude and phase
structure or machine.
differences between the moving and
stationary ( reference) accelerometer at all
The necessary equipment
points under steady state operation of the
1. An exciter or source of vibration to
system are measured. By plotting these
apply a known input force to
we can find the deflection of parts of
machine move relative to another. Using
operational deflection shape measurements.
The deflection shape measured is valid only
for the force/frequency associated with the
operating conditions.

2. A transducer to convert the physical

motion of the structure or machine into
electrical signal. It translates changes in
mechanical quantities (such as
displacement, velocity, acceleration or
force) into electrical signals (such as
voltage or current).

Mr. Venkatesh B K Dept. of Mechanical Engg. NCET, Bangalore Page 1

3. A signal conditioning amplifier to frequencies damping ratio’s and mode
make the transducer characteristic shapes either in numerical or graphical form.
compatible with the input electronics.
4. An analyzer to perform the tasks of Digital signal processing
signal using suitable software. The analyzer converts the analog time
domain signals X(t)in to digital frequency-
Exciter domain data using Fourier series relations to
The exciter may be an electromagnetic facilate digital computation. Thus the
shaker or an impact hammer , the analyzer accepts the analog output signals of
electromagnetic shaker can provide large accelometers or force transducers, X(t) and
impact forces so that the response can be computes the spectral co-efficient of signals
measured easily. The excitation signal is a0,an and bn in frequency domain. The
usually of a swept sinusoidal or random process of converting analog signals in to
type signal. Usually shaker is attached to digitals is indicated in the Figure.
the structure or machine through the short
thin rod called a stringer to isolate the
shaker ,reduce the added man and apply
the force to structure or machine.

Among the transducer the piezo electric
transducer are most popular. A piezo electric
transducer can be designed to produce
signals proportional to either force or
acceleration. In acceleration, the piezo
electric material acts as a stiff spring that
causes the transducer to have a resonant or
natural frequency.
X(t) – analog signal, X(ti)- represents
corresponding digital record with ti indicates
Signal conditioner
Since the output impedance of transducer is its discrete value of time.
If N no of X(t) is collected as discrete value
not suitable for direct i/p to the signal
of time ti the data.
analysis equipment, signal conditioner in the
form of charge or voltage amplifiers are X1 (ti) X2 (ti) –XN (ti).
used to match and amplify.
Xj=X(tj) =
Analyzer )
The response signal, after conditioning is ao =
sent to analyzer for signal processing. A
commonly used analyzer is called a fast
Fourier transform analyzer. Such as analyzer bi=
receiver analog voltage signals form a signal
conditioning amplifier, filter and digitizer The equation can be expressed in matrix
for computations. It computes the discrete
frequency spectra of individual signals as
well as cross-spectra between the input and
the different output signals. The analyzed
signals can be used to find the natural Computed using FFT by the analyzer.

Mr. Venkatesh B K Dept. of Mechanical Engg. NCET, Bangalore Page 2

Analysis of random signals:- S(w) is power spectral density of random
The out and input data measured by the signal x(t) denoted as s(w), gives the
transducers usually contains some random measure of speed with which the signal
component or noise that make it difficult to change is frequency domains.
analyses. In a deterministic manner in some
case random excitation is used is vibration
testing. Thus random signal analysis
becomes necessarily in vibration testing.
If X(t) is a random signal. The average or
mean denoted as Co-herence function; A function known as B
is defined as a measure of noise presents in

Determination of modal data from

observed peaks:-
Corresponding to any random signal y(t)and The frequency response function H(iw) can
a new variable x(t) as x(t)= y(t)- y(t) so that be used to find the natural frequency,
mean value of x(t)is zero. Hence without damping ratio, and mode shapes,
loss generating we can assume that X(t) to corresponding to all resonant peaks. Let the
have a zero mean and define the mean graph of frequency – function as shown in

square value or variance of X(t).

The response output from the system being

tested can be modeled as four degree of
freedom if the resonance frequency closely
spaced in graph H(iw).
The root mean square velocity (rms)
Here frequencies ranges are proportioned
Xrms= these are considered as the frequency
response function of a single degree of
The auto co relation function of random
freedom. This mode represents a resonance
signal X(t) denoted as R(t). It gives the
point corresponding to a phase angle to be
measure of the speed with which the
900 at each of the peaks.
changes in the time domains
The damping ratio is given by.

and are known as half

power points

Mr. Venkatesh B K Dept. of Mechanical Engg. NCET, Bangalore Page 3

1. Since the damping is small it can be 3) Condition based maintenance:
considered approximately equal to The fixed- interval over hours are replaced
undammed natural frequency of system. by fixed –interval measurements that permit
2. Determination of model data from the observation of changes in the running
nyquist plot. condition of the machine regularly. These
3. Determination of modal data from bode vibrations are measured regularly. If
plot. vibration levels are unacceptable the
4. Measurement of mode shapes. machine should be serviced. This is also
called predictive maintenance. In this
Machine condition monitoring and method the maintance casts are greedily
diagnosis reduced due to fewer catastrophic failures.

Machine condition monitoring

e Machine condition Monitoring





Machine maintenance technique

The life of machine follow classical bath tub

Several methods can be used to monitor the
curve shown in above figure of a machine is condition of a machine.
usually characterized by increase in
vibration. The vibration level decreases Machine condition monitoring
during initial condition. They remains
constant in normal condition and increase Auras & visual: These are basics forms of
rapidly due to serve wear out. monitoring technique in which skilled
technician, having an intimate knowledge of
Three types of maintenance schemes can be machine can identify the faults by listen its
used sounds; visually observing large amplitude
by using stroboscope, microphone.
1) Break down maintenance.
2) Preventive maintenance. Ope ration variables: It’s a duty cycle
3) Condition based maintenance. monitoring performance of m/c is observed
with regard to its intended duty any
1) Break down maintenance: deviation from intended duty denotes
The machine is allowed to fail, at which malfunction of m/c.
time the failed, machine is replaced by new
one. This strategy can be used if machine is Temp involves measuring of surface temp of
in expressive. machine devices used are optical pyrometer,
2) Preventive maintenance: thermo couple, thermo graphy.
Maintenance is performed at fixed intervals
such as very 3000 operating hours or once Wear debris: Wear debris is generated as
year. In intervals are determined statistically relative moving surfaces of load-bearing m/c
from past experience. This method is found elements. The wear particles can be found in
to be uneconomical.

Mr. Venkatesh B K Dept. of Mechanical Engg. NCET, Bangalore Page 4

lubricating oils or grease can be used to density of a signal can be defined on the
arren the extent of damage. probality of finding its instantaneous
amplitude within a certain range. The good
Machine vibration mounting technique conditioned components will have a bell
1. Time domain technique shaped probability density curve similar to
a) Wave form normal distribution.
b) Shaft orbits Moments of probability density curve can be
c) Statistical analysis used for the machine condition monitoring.
2. Frequency domain technique These are similar in mechanical moments
3. Quefrency domain about the centroidal axis of area.
Time domain analysis:
Time wave form: time domain analysis Frequency domain analysis:
uses the time history signal. The signal is Frequency spectrum: It is a plot of the
stored in an oscilloscope or real time amplitude versus frequency. It can be
analyses are any non steady impulses are derived by using digital fast Fourier analysis
noted. of time waveform. The vibration response of
Discrete damage such as broken teeth is machine is governed not only by its
gears and crack in inner or outer races are assembly, mounting and installation. As
shown by wave form of gear box. long as the excitation force remains constant
the measured vibration level of the machine
also remains constant. By comparing the
frequency spectrum of machine in good
condition and as in faulty condition, the
nature and location of the fault can be

Quefrency domain analysis: Quefrency

serve as the abscissa for a parameter known

This indication that acceleration wave form

pulses occur periodically with period of 20
millisecs. This origin of signals can be
attributed to broken gear tooth.
Shaft orbit : Certain patterns called orbit
can be obtained by displacing time
waveform obtained from two transducer
whose outputs are shifted by 90o. Any as cepstrum similar to frequency that serves
change in pattern of these figure or orbit can as the abscissa for the parameter spectrum.
be used to identify faculty such as Cepsturn is useful in machine condition
misalignment in shaft, unbalance in shaft, monitoring and diagnosis since it can detect
shaft rub, and wear in journal bearings. any periodity to the spectrum caused by the
Statistical methods: failure of components such as blade in
Probability density curve: All vibration turbine and gear tools in a gear box.
signals will have a characteristic shape for ***BEST OF LUCK***
its probability density curve. The probability

Mr. Venkatesh B K Dept. of Mechanical Engg. NCET, Bangalore Page 5