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Techniques

[edit]Stone carving
Stone carving is an ancient activity where pieces of rough natural stone are sha
ped by the controlled removal of stone. Owing to the permanence of the material,
evidence can be found that even the earliest societies indulged in some form of
stone work. Petroglyphs (also called rock engravings) are perhaps the earliest
form: images created by removing part of a rock surface which remains in situ, b
y incising, pecking, carving, and abrading. Monumental sculpture covers large wo
rks, and architectural sculpture, which is attached to buildings. Hardstone carv
ing is the carving for artistic purposes of semi-precious stones such as jade, a
gate, onyx, rock crystal, sard or carnelian, and a general term for an object ma
de in this way. Engraved gems are small carved gems, including cameos, originall
y used as seal rings.

Bronze sculpture
Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures; a cast bronze sculpt
ure is often called simply a "bronze". Common bronze alloys have the unusual and
desirable property of expanding slightly just before they set, thus filling the
finest details of a mold. Their strength and lack of brittleness (ductility) is
an advantage when figures in action are to be created, especially when compared
to various ceramic or stone materials (see marble sculpture for several example
s).

Wood carving
Arnold Henry Savage Landor, Making sculpture in Tibet, 1905
Wood carving is a form of working wood by means of a cutting tool held in the ha
nd (this may be a power tool), resulting in a wooden figure or figurine (this ma
y be abstract in nature) or in the sculptural ornamentation of a wooden object.
Casting
See also: Lost-wax casting
Casting is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is (usually) poure
d into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then all
owed to solidify. The solid casting is then ejected or broken out to complete th
e process.[14] Casting may be used to form hot liquid metals or various material
s that cold set after mixing of components (such as epoxies, concrete, plaster a
nd clay). Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that would be oth
erwise difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods.
Casting is a 6,000-year-old process.[15] The oldest surviving casting is a coppe
r frog from 3200 BC.[15] The casting process is subdivided into two distinct sub
groups: expendable and non-expendable mold casting.

Types of sculpture (SAM CHECK MO MGA WEBSITE NA NILAGAY PARA DOON SA ; SHOW S
MOE WORKS FOR EACH KIND HA)

Bust
Miniature figure
Statue
Architectural sculpture

bust (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bust_(sculpture))
is a sculpted or cast representation of the upper part of the human figure, depi
cting a person's head and neck, as well as a variable portion of the chest and s
houlders. The piece is normally supported by a plinth. These forms recreate the
likeness of an individual. These may be of any suitable material (such as marble
, bronze or clay).
Miniature figure may refer to:
Miniature figure (gaming), as used in miniature wargaming and roleplaying games
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miniature_figure_(gaming))
A collectable figurine, often an artistic, and sometimes a prehistoric or antiqu
e specimen
Toy soldier
A toy soldier is a miniature figurine that represents a soldier. The term appl
ies to depictions of uniformed military personnel from all eras, and includes kn
ights, cowboys, pirates, and other subjects that involve combat-related themes.
Toy soldiers vary from simple playthings to highly realistic and detailed models
. The latter are of more recent development and are sometimes called model figur
es to distinguish them from traditional toy soldiers. Larger scale toys such as
dolls and action figures may come in military uniforms, but they are not general
ly considered toy soldiers.
Toy soldiers are made from all types of material, but the most common mass produ
ced varieties are metal and plastic. There are many different kinds of toy soldi
ers, including tin soldiers or flats, hollow cast metal figures, composition fig
ures, and plastic army men. Toy soldiers are traditionally sold in sets, but mod
ern, collectible figures are often sold individually.

A statue (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statue)
is a sculpture in the round representing a person or persons, an animal, or an
event, normally full-length, as opposed to a bust, and at least close to life-si
ze, or larger.[1] Its primary concern is representational.
The definition of a statue is not always clear-cut; sculptures of a person on a
horse, called Equestrian statues, are certainly included, and in many cases, suc
h as a Madonna and Child or a Pietà, a sculpture of two people will also be. A sma
ll statue, usually small enough to be picked up, is called a statuette or Figuri
ne.
Many statues are built on commission to commemorate a historical event, or the l
ife of an influential person. Many statues are intended as public art, exhibited
outdoors or in public buildings for the edification of passers-by, with a large
r magnitude than normal words could ever have for the common man.
On rare occasions, statues themselves become historic and inspire their own hist
oric events. In 1986, when the Statue of Liberty marked her one-hundredth annive
rsary, a three-day centennial celebration in her honor attracted 12 million. The
guest list was unique. "We invited all the great statues of the world to her bi
rthday party and created giant puppets to represent them," said Jeanne Fleming,
director of the event. "Each one arrived accompanied by native music."
There is an urban legend concerning a code for mounted statues, whereby the hors
e's hooves are supposed to indicate how the rider met his end. One hoof off the
floor would indicate the rider died of wounds received in battle, or perhaps was
just wounded in battle; two hooves off the floor would indicate the rider was k
illed in battle. An examination of the equestrian statues in most major European
cities shows this is not true. If it ever was true, the practice appears to hav
e died out in the 19th century. [1] [2]
Statues are amongst the wonders of the world, with the Colossus of Rhodes and th
e Statue of Zeus at Olympia among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and the
Moai of Easter Island among the wonders of the modern world.

Architectural sculpture is the term for the use of sculpture by an architect and
/or sculptor in the design of a building, bridge, mausoleum or other such projec
t. The sculpture is usually attached to the structure, but freestanding works th
at are part of the original design are also considered to be architectural sculp
ture.
It has also been defined as, an integral part of a building or sculpture created
especially to decorate or embellish an architectural structure. [1]
Architectural sculpture has been employed by builders throughout history and in
virtually every continent on earth save pre-colonial Australia.

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