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THE PREFACE

Writers praise To God Almighty over grace and blessings, the author can complete this
scientific Paper, entitled "Utilization banana peels a subtitute for electrolytes” fine and
lancer.

Then the author aware of the many parties who have helped in providing moral support,
guidance, thought-provoking contributions directly or indirectly. To that end, the author
would like to thank:

1. Dra. Risnawati M.Pd as lecturer in drafting this scientific paper.


2. Authors who have parents provide support both in terms of moriil as well as
materially.
3. Friends of authors who have given support and input in this paper.
4. And to readers who have taken the time to read this paper.

The author realizes that this scientific paper writing, it is still far from perfect. Therefore,
criticisms and suggestions are built very authors expect. Finally the author hopes that this
scientific masterpiece, provides benefits for society in General and the Poor communities
especially.

Palembang, Desember 2017

Author
Banana is the common name given in plants terna large leafed giant protruding from the
tribe of Musacea. Pisang ambon, according to historian coming from the Southeast Asian
region, including Indonesia. (Roedyarto, 1997).

Bananas can be grown didatarn low-temperature 21-32 degrees Celsius warm and humid
climate. The topography in the form of banana plant hendaki flat land with a slope of 8
degrees. The land was located in the tropics between 16 degrees n – 12 degrees LS. If the
air temperature is less than 13 degrees Celsius or more than 38 degrees Celsius, then
bananas would stop growing and eventually die (Suyanti and Alwi Ahmad, 2008).
CHAPTER II

THEORY FRAMEWORK

2.1 Grounding Theory

2.1.1 Banana Plants

Banana is the common name given in plants terna large leafed giant protruding from the
tribe of Musacea. Pisang ambon, according to historian coming from the Southeast Asian
region, including Indonesia. (Roedyarto, 1997).

Bananas can be grown didatarn low-temperature 21-32 degrees Celsius warm and humid
climate. The topography in the form of banana plant hendaki flat land with a slope of 8
degrees. The land was located in the tropics between 16 degrees n – 12 degrees LS. If the
air temperature is less than 13 degrees Celsius or more than 38 degrees Celsius, then
bananas would stop growing and eventually die (Suyanti and Alwi Ahmad, 2008).
Figure 2.3 banana peels

Figure 2.1 the banana Plant

Plant bananas can be classified as follows:

Kingdom : Plantae (Plants)

Sub Kingdom : Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)

Division : Spermatophyta (seeds)

Sub Division : Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)

Class : Liliopsida (blown one/monokotil)

The order of
the : Zingiberales

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Family

Genus

Species

: Musaceae (banana-pisangan)

: Moses

: Musa paradisiacal

(http://elib.unikom.ac.id/files/disk1/599/jbptunikompp-gdl-inameidani-29938-9-unikom_i-
3. pdf)

2.1.1.1 banana plant Benefits

Almost all parts of the banana plant can be used for various purposes, ranging from of,
stem, leaf, fruit, flowers until the banana peels. The following benefits from every part of
the banana trees:

-Of (banana stem tuber)

In some areas, of the young banana stem can be used for vegetable and banana chips.

-Rod
Banana stems many communities, especially in the section containing the fibers. This
section is used as a wrapper for vegetable plants and seeds when further processed dried
and can be used as a rope in the processing of tobacco, to compost and made raw
materials paper maker.

-Leaves

Rural communities capitalize on banana leaves as a food wrapping, usually wrapped in


traditional cakes and rice wrappers and utilized also as animal feed such as cows, goats and
water buffalo.

-Fruit

Banana fruit in addition used as sources of vitamins and minerals can also be processed
into products utilized include banana banana flour, sale, fruit juice, fruit in syrup, banana
chips and a range of modern and traditional cake is in processed. Bananas contain vitamins
C, B complex, B6. Bananas can be

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be the replacement staple food, thereby reducing the dependence of the people of
Indonesia against rice.

-Flower

Banana flower, also known as the banana heart, because its shape is like the heart.
Typically used to make vegetable, protein content and because of his. In addition created
as pisang vegetable flowers can also be made into preserves and pickles.

-Skin fruit

The skin of the fruit is commonly used senagai materials of animal feed, but as time passes
waste banana skin is no longer used as a livestock feed but rather as an environmentally
friendly electrical energy.

(http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pisang)

2.1.1.2 skin content of pisang ambon

Pisang ambon is skin the outside to protect the inside of the skin of the fruit, pisang ambon
could also be used to see the level of maturity of the fruit. If the skin of the young pisang
ambon will if the skin is green and pisang ambon are old will be yellow. Skin pisang ambon
have vitamin C, B, calcium, protein, and fat, too.

According to Sutikno (2008) the electrolyte in the battery rocks is acidic, so that fruit can be
acidic electrolyte. Innocencio Krishna Pratama (2007) adding, that in addition to apples,
oranges and other fruit tang can produce listirk IE banana peels. Such experiments
conducted by Wasis Sucipto, s. Pd (2007) which prove that banana peels and can be used as
a source of direct current
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2.1.2 Battery

Battery storage is a tool of power direct current (DC). Is the source of the electrical direct
current (DC) is a tool/object that is a source of direct current electricity (DC) and produces a
current DC permanently. The source of the electrical direct current (DC) is the most widely
known is the DC power source generate electricity chemically.

(http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baterai)

Figure 2.3 Dry Battery


Dry batteries include a primary element has many advantages, such as the physical form of
a small, portable, safe, and practical. In this element, the positive electrode is the carbon
rods in the middle and pembungkusannya made of zinc electrode is the negative.
Elektrolitnya is a solution of ammonia chloride (NH4Cl) and depolarisasi which hold the
formation of hydrogen on a positive electrode made of manganese dioxide (MnO2) mixed
with carbon powder.

Chemical energy is generated from the reaction of the cell is the source of the electricity
supplied batteries when used. Periaksi substances in cells complete secondary and efisen
can be restored to its original state with electricity memberkan with the opposite direction,
but in primary cells it is not possible or only partially only. Only certain types of primary
batteries that can be updated, i.e. with electrode and succeed the way elektrolitnya.

(http://ohmelektra.blogspot.com/2013/04/abcd.html)

2.1.2.1 the dry battery Electrolyte

The electrolyte is a substance that dissolves or breaks down into ions and subsequent
solution into electrical conductors, ion-ion is an electrically charged atoms. The electrolyte
can be water,

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acids, bases or in the form of other chemical compounds. Electrolytes are generally shaped
acid, base or salt. Some of the specific gas electrolyte can function as on certain conditions
such as high temperatures or low pressure. A strong electrolyte is identical with acids,
bases, and salts. The electrolyte is bonded compounds, ions and polar Covalent. The
majority of compounds that bind ions is the electrolyte Ionic NaCl for example which is one
type of salt-namely salt.

(http://puruhitachan.blogspot.com/2013/08/pemanfaatan-waste-vegetable-markets-as.
html)

2.1.3 Potential Banana Skin Into Battery

Banana peels have the potential to become the basic ingredients of making
environmentally friendly battery. After going through the lengthy process of banana skin,
this will produce the minerals that serves as the electrolyte (battery paste). These minerals
are potassium, zinc, and magnesium that can react with the dichloride and be strong
electrolyte. This will be the electrolyte generate electricity in the battery rocks.

According to Sutikno (2008) the electrolyte in the battery rocks is acidic, so that fruit can be
acidic electrolyte. Innocencio Krishna Pratama (2007) menembahkan, that besides apples
and oranges fruits others that can generate electricity are banana peels, such as
experiments conducted by wasis Sucipto, s. Pd (2007)
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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 approach and the types of research

In this study the author uses qualitative pendekataan. Experts study defines that
"qualitative research, in finding the correct answer to a problem, is research that requires a
thorough understanding in mendalaam and for the conclusion of research in the context of
the time and the particular situation, not giving priority to kuatifikasi, using the
constructivist approach, naturalistic, interpretative, postpositivistik, with penghayatan
against interactions between the concept that is being examined in the empirical. " (D.
Sudjana, 2004:6)

The authors use the method in this study i.e., literature and experiments. The literature
method with read knowledge resources of the internet, to collect data that is associated
with this research. While experimentation is experimenting with the method directly, to
prove the validity of the hypothesis.

3.2 Role/presence of researchers

In qualitative research, researchers themselves serve as a key instrument in both data


collection and data analysis. Man has long been used as an instrument, for example in the
study of classical and Antropoligi are still in use today and in modern Sosiologo. Human
Kendatipun are subjective, but as a human instrument can produce data/information that
reliabilitasnya is almost the same with data generated by the instrument being made
objectively as in quantitative research. This State was recognized by experts research
kuantitaif own, such as Cronbach, Thorndike and Campbell (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:192)

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3.3 research place and time

The research the author did in the author's home in Simpang JL. Teluk Grajakan Block 4 No.
12 Pandanwangi, Malang. On Friday, December 27, 2013, at 09.00 until 12.00 o'clock. The
second research the author did on Sunday, February 2, 2013.

3.4 data sources

Understanding data source according to Suharsimi Arikunto (2010:172) is "the source of


the data referred to in research is the subject from which data can be retrieved." The
writers get a range of data through the internet and informants from experimental results
that the writer did.

3.5 data collection procedure

In this scientific masterpiece collection of data, the authors use a variety of procedures,
including:

1. Literature

According to the ALA Glossary of Library Science andInformation (1983), the literature is
reading materials that are used in a range of activities both intellectually as well as
recreation. In this study, the literature is used to collect data related to the research

2. the experiment

Method of experiment (experiment) is one of the demands of the development of science

knowledge and technology in order to produce a product that can be enjoyed by the
community in a safe and engaging students in learning with experience and prove your own
process and the results of that experiment, (1999:157, Sumantri and also). Experimental
procedure in this research are used to generate data that proves the validity of the
hypothesis.

3.6 data analysis techniques

The data analysis process begins with menelah the entire available data from various
sources, mainly from the internet. The data once, after read, studied, and ditelah then the
next step is to hold a data reduction is a form of analysis that sharp, classify, direct,
dispose, and organized the data by the way such that the final conclusions can be drawn.
Step

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next is menyusunya in the units. Units that

then dikategorisasikan on the next step. Category-the category was done while making
coding. The final stage of data analysis is the examination of the validity of the data held
through experiments and drawing conclusions from data.

3.7 checking of the validity of the invention

To check the validity of this research, the author uses Triangular source, namely by way of
comparing the truth a phenomenon based on data obtained by researchers, both seen
from the time dimension as well as other sources.

3.8 the stages of research

3.8.1 the materials and Tools

3.8.1.1 Materials

The materials used in the study include:

a. two banana peels (skin pisang ambon & green banana peels)

b. 2 dry Batteries (1.5 volt DC) unused

3.8.1.1 Tool

The equipment used in this research is divided into several sections:

3.8.1.1.1 Equipment battery from banana peels:


1. Tang

2. Screwdriver

3. Knife

3.8.1.1.2 equipment for testing the battery

1. AVOmeter/Voltmeter

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3.8.2 method of making a battery Skin Pisang Ambon

The steps of making Batteries banana peels are as follows:

1. Prepare all the ingredients and equipment

Figure 3.1 Equipment Figure 3.2 Materials

2. Open the positive pole (+) of the battery both use the pliers with the help of a
screwdriver for easy open it
Figure 3.3 battery already open

3. Remove all the carbon powder/paste electrolyte using a screwdriver carefully so that the
carbon rods are not broken/damaged
Figure 3.4 of powder carbon Expenditure/electrolyte paste

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4. cut a small banana skin with a knife

Figure 3.5 the banana peels have been cut into small

5. Insert the battery into the banana skin pieces evenly/solid with the help of a screwdriver
Figure 3.6 a battery already filled banana peels

6. Close the back cover over the part that has been opened with a meeting and neat
Figure 3.7 Battery already closed back

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CHAPTER IV

DISCUSSION

From the results of an experiment to find out whether the banana peels are potentially as a
battery, the data can be generated as follows:

1. Testing using a battery AVOmeter of pisang ambon

Figure 4.1 Battery of pisang ambon tested with AVOmeter


These tests showed that the battery-voltage above banana peels of 1.256 volts. It showed
that this experiment succeeds.

2. testing using a battery AVOmeter in piisang leather green

Figure 4.2 battery from green banana skin tested with AVO meter

These tests showed that the battery from green banana peels of 0.424-voltage Volts only.
This proves that the skin of pisang ambon is superior than the other banana skins
From the experiment, can we know that turns banana peels is indeed potentially become
an environmentally friendly dry battery, this is due to the many banana peels contain
potassium and sodium salts containing chlorides. Both of these substances

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can react into the potassium chloride KCl or according to Drs. Asep Jamal (2008) KCl
electrolyte is strongly ionized and that are able to conduct electric current.

Bananas also contain Magnesium and zinc. Magnesium (Mg) can react with the dichloride
and become strong electrolyte. The amount of Magnesium only 15% of the overall amount
of bananas. Zinc (Zn) in bananas is a positively charged electrode, but the amount of the
zinc content reaching only 2%.

Other complementary data, be the data net weight battery shows that the average banana
peels used amounted to 3.3 grams per battery. While the banana peels intact average 27
grams per one piece. So one banana peels are able to be made more or less 8 battery. This
is another advantage of the dry battery of banana peels. Therefore the author using the
banana peels as the object of this research.
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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION & ADVICE

5.1 Conclusions

Based on research conducted author, it can be concluded that:

1. Banana Skin turns out to potentially be the pasta/electrolyte batteries that are
environmentally friendly.

2. Battery-making banana peels can be done with simple. Namely by replacing the battery
electrolyte powder/paste dry with banana peels that are already cut small.

3. On the skin of pisang Ambon more contains mineral salts of potassium and sodium in
comparison to other banana skins

5.2 Suggestions

Conclusion based on the above, the authors suggest:

1. To the reader/community to implement this banana skin battery, to reduce


environmental pollution resulting from waste batteries.
2. The authors also suggest to readers to conduct further research towards the battery this
eco-friendly banana peels.