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Unit 4: It was all new once

1. plant (n) /plɑːnt/: a factory in which a particular product is made or power is produced
ex: Smoke released from plants/factories causes great damage to the environment.
fluctuate (v) /ˈflʌk.tʃu.eɪt/: to change continuously
2. ex: Oil prices fluctuated wildly at the beginning of the period.
=> fluctuation (n)
3. ex: There was a wild (# mild) fluctuation in oil prices at the beginning of the period.
4. device (n) /dɪˈvaɪs/: an object or machine that has been invented for a particular
purpose
ex: The invention of electronic devices such as computers have improved work
efficiency in the workplace.
=> equipment (u.n): the set of necessary tools, clothing, etc. for a particular purpose
ex: The government should invest more money in providing hospitals with modern
medical equipment.
=> gadget (n) /ˈɡædʒ.ɪt/: a small device or machine with a particular purpose
ex: Using kitchen gadgets for cooking can save you a lot of time.
=> appliance (n) /əˈplaɪ.əns/: a device, machine, or piece of equipment, especially an
electrical one that is used in the house, such as a cooker or washing machine
ex: Modern appliances such as washing machines, vacuum cleaners and steam irons
make housework easier.
5. align (v) /əˈlaɪn/: to put two or more things into a straight line, or to change something
slightly so that it is in the correct relationship to something else
ex: Domestic prices have been aligned with those in world markets.
6. widespread (n) /ˌwaɪdˈspred/ : happening in many places or among many people =
common = popular
ex: Due to the popularity of fast food, obesity is now widespread among teenagers.
7. be regarded as/to be
viewed
believed to be
ex: Playing too much video games is not good for your health.
=> Playing too much video games is believed to be harmful to your health.
8. carry out/ conduct a study/research
ex: Scientists should carry out a study on how to improve the quality of people’s sleep.
9. contribute to (v) /kənˈtrɪb.juːt/: to give something, especially money, in order to
provide or achieve something together with other people
ex: Successful businesses should contribute more money to the charity in order to
support unfortunate people.
=> contribution (n)
ex: Putting warning signs on the roads made a major contribution to road safety.
The government should make a generous contribution to cancer research.
10. provide (v) /prəˈvaɪd/: to give someone something that they need
ex: A free education should be provided to all people.
The government should provide people with a better healthcare system.
11. experience (n) /ɪkˈspɪə.ri.əns/ : (the process of getting) knowledge or skill from doing,
seeing, or feeling things
ex: Young people can gain work experience by doing internships in huge companies.
Many people do not get the job they want due to the lack of experience.
12. income (n) /ˈɪn.kʌm/: money that is earned from doing work or received from
investments
ex: People with a low income (# high income) often struggle to make ends meet.
13. succeed (v) in something = manage to do something
ex: The government can succeed in increasing road safety by providing people with
driving lessons.
=> success (n) /səkˈses/: achieving what you want
ex: Parents often do not have much success in communicating with their children due to
the generation gap.
14. preliminary (adj) /prɪˈlɪm.ɪ.nər.i/: coming before a more important action or event,
especially introducing or preparing for it
ex: Preliminary results show that the vaccine is effective, but this has to be confirmed
by further medical trials.
15. consist of (v) /kənˈsɪst/: to be made of or formed from something
ex: A good curriculum should consist of both indoor and outdoor activities.
16. assemble (v) /əˈsem.bəl/: to come together
ex: All the students were asked to assemble in the main hall.
17. attempt (v) /əˈtempt/ to do something = try to do something
ex: The government is attempting to reduce the unemployment rate by creating more
jobs for people.
18. experiment with (v): to try something in order to discover what it is like or find out
more about it:
ex: Teachers should experiment with new teaching methods to see what works best for
their students.
=> experiment (n): a test done in order to learn something or to discover if something
works or is true
ex: Scientists are conducting/carrying out/doing experiments to test the effectiveness
of the new drug.
19. solve/tackle the problem = address the issue
ex: The government can tackle the problem of overpopulation by encouraging more
people to move to rural areas ( = the countryside).
20. demonstrate (v) /ˈdem.ən.streɪt/: to show or make make something clear
ex: The rise in the number of unemployed people demonstrated the problem of the
economy.
21. dimension (n) /ˌdaɪˈmen.ʃən/: an aspect, or way of looking at or thinking about
something
ex: Her job added a new dimension to her life
22. to be interested in = to be keen on = to be fond of
ex: Many children are interested in/keen on/ fond of playing video games.
=> interest (n)
ex: Many children take great interest in playing video games.
23. persuade (v) /pəˈsweɪd/ someone to do something: to make somebody do something
by giving them good reasons for doing it
ex: Parents should persuade their children to spend less time on computer games and
more time on outdoor activities.
Common Verb Patterns

1. Cause Sth for Sb


Cause Sth for Sth
Smoking and drinking alcohol are potentially dangerous habits because they are likely to
cause people serious health problems.
Smoking and drinking alcohol are potentially dangerous habits because they are likely to
cause serious health problems for people.
[Eating too much fast food / the increase of obesity]
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2. Keep + V-ing
Employers have installed air conditioning in their workplaces in order to keep improving
employees’ work productivity.
[the amount of vehicles / the air quality]
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3. Allow Sb/Sth + to V
Students should be allowed to work part time to earn money and gain more practical
skills.
[quiz shows / people / broaden their horizon]
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4. Be considered / regarded as + Sth
Buses are considered / regarded as one of the most common means of mass transit in
Ho Chi Minh City.
[using herbs / effective traditional remedy]
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5. Provide Sb with Sth
Provide Sth for Sb
Newspapers are unable to provide people with up-to-the-minute news coverage of
events as they happen.
Newspapers are unable to provide up-to-the-minute news coverage of events for
people as they happen.
[organic food / less damage to the environment / more nutrients and fiber]
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6. Spend time/money + on + V-ing / Sth
The majority of companies nowadays spend a considerable amount of money on online
advertising.
[the old / take gentle exercise / serious injuries]
7. Inspire Sb to Sth
Inspire Sb to V
Her speech inspired all students to greater efforts in their studies.
Her speech inspired all students to make greater efforts in their studies.
[My father’s success in business/ future career]
[My father’s success in business/a well-paid job]
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8. Attempt to V
Make an attempt to V
Make an effort to V
The city committee attempted to build more roads in order to ease the city traffic.
The city committee is making an attempt / effort to build more roads in order to ease
the city traffic.
[many companies / change working practices / reduce traffic congestion during peak
traffic hours]
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