Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

Computer Memory: RAM and ROM

Computer memory is the internal storage areas in the computer. It


comes in the form of chips or ICs (Integrated Circuits), verses the
computer storage which exists on tapes or disks. Moreover, the
term memory is usually used as shorthand for physical memory,
which refers to the actual chips capable of holding data. Some
computers also use virtual memory, which expands physical
memory onto a hard disk.

There are two basic types of memory: ROM and RAM.

ROM - Read-only memory: On ROM, data is prerecorded for


read only which can not be removed. ROM is nonvolatile and it
retains its contents regardless the computer is on or off. Most
personal computers contain a small amount of ROM that stores
critical programs such as the program that boots the computer. In
addition, ROMs are used in calculators and peripheral devices such
as laser printers, whose fonts are often stored in ROMs. There are a
few variations of ROM such as programmable read-only
memory(PROM), which is manufactured as blank chips on which
data can be written with a special device called a PROM
programmer.

RAM - Random access memory: whose contents can be accessed


(read, write and remove) in any order. This is in contrast to
sequential memory devices such as magnetic tapes, discs and
drums, in which the mechanical movement of the storage medium
forces the computer to access data in a fixed order. RAM is usually
used for primary storage in computers to hold active information
such as data and programs. Common forms of RAM are: SRAM
(Static RAM) and DRAM (Dynamic RAM).

RAM ICs are often assembled into plug-in modules. Some


standard module types are: Single in-line memory module (SIMM)
and Dual in-line memory module (DIMM).

There are also some hybrad memory types which combine characters
of both RAM and ROM, such as Flash memory, NVRAM and EEPROM.

Max
Erase Cost (per
Type Volatile Writeable Erase Speed
Size Byte)
Cycles
SRAM Yes Yes Byte Unlimited Expensive Fast
DRAM Yes Yes Byte Unlimited Moderate Moderate
Masked
No No n/a n/a Inexpensive Fast
ROM
Once, with
PROM No a device n/a n/a Moderate Fast
programmer
Yes, with a Limited
Entire
EPROM No device (consult Moderate Fast
Chip
programmer datasheet)
Fast to
Limited
read, slow
EEPROM No Yes Byte (consult Expensive
to
datasheet)
erase/write
Flash No Yes Sector Limited Moderate Fast to
(consult read, slow
datasheet) to
erase/write

Expensive
NVRAM No Yes Byte Unlimited (SRAM + Fast
battery)

Computer Memory: RAM and ROM

STORAGE DEVICE

Alternatively referred to as digital storage, storage, storage


media, or storage medium, a storage device is
any hardware capable of holding information either temporarily or
permanently. The picture shows an example of a Drobo, an external
secondary storage device.
There are two types of storage devices used with computers:
a primary storage device, such as RAM, and a secondary
storagedevice, like a hard drive. Secondary storage can
be removable, internal, or external storage.
EXAMPLES OF STORAGE DEVICES