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12/16/2017

COOLING TOWER AND COOLING WATER SYSTEM: A Brief Presentation: Part-2 of 3 – What is Piping

Forced draft is a mechanical draft towerSYSTEM: A Brief Presentation: Part-2 of 3 – What is Piping blower type fan at the

blower type fan at the intake

blower type fan at the intake

Fan forces air into the tower, creating high entering and low exiting air velocities.

Fan forces air into the tower, creating high entering and low exiting air velocities.

Induced draft, a mechanical draft towercreating high entering and low exiting air velocities. SUBSCRIBE FOR EMAIL Subscribe Delivered by FeedBurner

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with a fan at the discharge which pulls air through tower

with a fan at the discharge which pulls air through tower

fan induces hot moist air out the discharge

fan induces hot moist air out the discharge

low entering and high exiting air velocities, reducing the possibility of recirculation in which discharged

low entering and high exiting air velocities, reducing the possibility of recirculation in which discharged air flows back into the air intake

Two configurations, Cross Flow and Counter Flowin which discharged air flows back into the air intake

12/16/2017

COOLING TOWER AND COOLING WATER SYSTEM: A Brief Presentation: Part-2 of 3 – What is Piping

(http://www.whatispiping. elbows-and-bends) Step by Step Methods for WRC 107 and WRC 297 Checking in Caesar
(http://www.whatispiping.
elbows-and-bends)
Step by Step Methods for
WRC 107 and WRC 297
Checking in Caesar II
(http://www.whatispiping.
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BALL VALVE DESIGN
FEATURES: A Literature-
Part-3 of 4
(http://www.whatispiping.
valve-design-features-
literature-part-3)
Top 12 must have Piping
books for a begineer into
Piping industry
(http://www.whatispiping.
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A brief presentation on Air
Cooled Heat Exchangers
(http://www.whatispiping.
cooled-heat-exchangers)
Stress Analysis of PSV
connected Piping systems
using Caesar II
(http://www.whatispiping.
analysis-of-psv-
connected-piping-
systems)
Fig. 2: Mechanical Draft Towers
Must have Load cases for
stress analysis of a typical
piping system using
Caesar II
(http://www.whatispiping.
cases)
Cross Flow:
Air flow directed perpendicular to the water flow
Air flow enters one or more vertical faces of the cooling tower to meet the
fill material
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12/16/2017

COOLING TOWER AND COOLING WATER SYSTEM: A Brief Presentation: Part-2 of 3 – What is Piping

Air continues through the fill and thus past the water flow into an open plenum areaSYSTEM: A Brief Presentation: Part-2 of 3 – What is Piping Water flows (perpendicular to the

Water flows (perpendicular to the air) through the fill by gravityfill and thus past the water flow into an open plenum area Gravity distributes the water

Gravity distributes the water through the nozzles uniformly across the fill materialflows (perpendicular to the air) through the fill by gravity Select Month SELECT CATEGORY OF INTEREST

water through the nozzles uniformly across the fill material Select Month SELECT CATEGORY OF INTEREST Select
Select Month
Select Month

SELECT CATEGORY OF

INTEREST

Select Category

Select Category

Counter Flow:

The air flow is directly opposite of the water flowSELECT CATEGORY OF INTEREST Select Category Counter Flow: Air flow first enters an open area beneath

Air flow first enters an open area beneath the fill media and is then drawn up verticallyFlow: The air flow is directly opposite of the water flow The water is sprayed through

The water is sprayed through pressurized nozzles and flows downward through the fill, opposite to the air flowarea beneath the fill media and is then drawn up vertically INDUCED DRAFT TOWERS (CROSS FLOW)

INDUCED DRAFT TOWERS (CROSS FLOW) ADVANTAGES:

SITEMAP

12/16/2017

COOLING TOWER AND COOLING WATER SYSTEM: A Brief Presentation: Part-2 of 3 – What is Piping

SYSTEM: A Brief Presentation: Part-2 of 3 – What is Piping pH Theory Guide An article
SYSTEM: A Brief Presentation: Part-2 of 3 – What is Piping pH Theory Guide An article
Presentation: Part-2 of 3 – What is Piping pH Theory Guide An article on pipe support
article on pipe support span for beginners. whatispiping.com ASME B 31J & B 31J Essentials: Why
Essentials: Why these are useful in Piping whatispiping.com Requirement of Flexibility in Piping Design: An overview
Essentials: Why these are useful in Piping whatispiping.com Requirement of Flexibility in Piping Design: An overview
Flexibility in Piping Design: An overview whatispiping.com final report – What is Piping Correct Filling Weight
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Nuts Ad smarttensioner.com Ad ChemicalQualityExchange Pipe Rack and Rack Piping: A presentation whatispiping.com

Low pumping head, lower first cost pumping systemsPiping: A presentation whatispiping.com whatispiping.com Lower energy and operating costs Accepts larger variation in

Lower energy and operating costsLow pumping head, lower first cost pumping systems Accepts larger variation in water flow without adverse

Accepts larger variation in water flow without adverse effect on the water distribution systemfirst cost pumping systems Lower energy and operating costs Easy maintenance access to distribution nozzles Low

Easy maintenance access to distribution nozzlesflow without adverse effect on the water distribution system Low static pressure drop Reduced drift, less

Low static pressure dropsystem Easy maintenance access to distribution nozzles Reduced drift, less make-up More air per fan horsepower

Reduced drift, less make-upaccess to distribution nozzles Low static pressure drop More air per fan horsepower Large diameter fans

More air per fan horsepowernozzles Low static pressure drop Reduced drift, less make-up Large diameter fans can be used so

Large diameter fans can be used so that fewer cells are required for a given capacitydrop Reduced drift, less make-up More air per fan horsepower Due to more fill gap choking

Due to more fill gap choking is minimizedused so that fewer cells are required for a given capacity

12/16/2017

COOLING TOWER AND COOLING WATER SYSTEM: A Brief Presentation: Part-2 of 3 – What is Piping

Cost lower than counter flow INDUCED DRAFT TOWERS (CROSS FLOW) DISADVANTAGES: Larger footprint Approach to
Cost lower than counter flow
INDUCED DRAFT TOWERS (CROSS FLOW) DISADVANTAGES:
Larger footprint
Approach to cooling tower limited to 4 deg C
Icing of louvers during cold weather, Larger louver surface area makes
icing more difficult to control
Low pressure head on the distribution pan may encourage orifice clogging
and less water breakup at spray nozzle
INDUCED DRAFT TOWERS (COUNTER FLOW) ADVANTAGES:
Increased tower height accommodates longer ranges and closer
approaches (can be less than 4 deg C)
More efficient use of air due to finer droplet size from pressure sprays
Vertical air movement across the fill allows the coldest water to be in
contact with the driest air maximizing tower performance
INDUCED DRAFT TOWERS (COUNTER FLOW) DISADVANTAGES:
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Heating and Cooling
Cooling Tower Design
Water Cooling
Cost higher than Cross flow tower
Height is more
Increased system pumping head requirements
Increased energy consumption and operating costs
Difficult to inspect and clean distribution nozzles
Requires individual risers for each cell, increasing external piping costs
Fill gap is less so choking is possible
Resistance to upward air travel against the falling water results in higher
static pressure loss and a greater fan horsepower than in cross flow
towers
Restricted louver area at the base with high velocity of inlet air increases
the fan horsepower
Tendency for uneven distribution of air through the fill with very little
movement near the walls and centre of the tower
High inlet velocities are liable to suck airborne trash and dirt into the tower
When to choose – Cross flow:
To minimize pump head
To minimize pumping and piping first costs

12/16/2017

COOLING TOWER AND COOLING WATER SYSTEM: A Brief Presentation: Part-2 of 3 – What is Piping

To minimize operating costs 

 
When flow variance is expected from process

When flow variance is expected from processTo minimize operating costs   When ease of maintenance is a concern   When to choose

When ease of maintenance is a concern 

 

When to choose – Counter flow:

When space (footprint) is a concernis a concern   When to choose – Counter flow: When icing is of extreme concern

When icing is of extreme concernchoose – Counter flow: When space (footprint) is a concern When pumping is designed for additional

When pumping is designed for additional pressure drop(footprint) is a concern When icing is of extreme concern MATERIAL BALANCE: A water balance around

MATERIAL BALANCE:

A water balance around the entire system is: M = E + B + W

A water balance around the entire system is: M = E + B + W (where, E = Evaporation, B = Blowdown and W = Windage losses, in m3/hr)

Evaporation Losses, E = {C X (T1- T2) X Cp} / Hv (where, C =

Evaporation Losses, E = {C X (T1- T2) X Cp} / Hv (where, C = amount of circulating water in m3/hr, T1/T2 = return/supply temperature, Cp = specific heat of water and Hv = latent heat of vaporization of water)

Windage or drift losses, W from large-scale industrial cooling towers, in absence of manufacturer’s data,

Windage or drift losses, W from large-scale industrial cooling towers, in absence of manufacturer’s data, may be assumed to be:

W = 0.3 to 1.0 percent of C for a natural draft cooling tower without

W

= 0.3 to 1.0 percent of C for a natural draft cooling tower without

windage drift eliminators

 
W = 0.1 to 0.3 percent of C for an induced draft cooling tower without

W

= 0.1 to 0.3 percent of C for an induced draft cooling tower without

windage drift eliminators

 
W = about 0.005 percent of C (or less) if the cooling tower has windage

W

= about 0.005 percent of C (or less) if the cooling tower has windage

drift eliminators

 
Since the evaporated water has no salts, a chloride balance around the system is: M

Since the evaporated water has no salts, a chloride balance around the system is: M (Xm) = B (Xc) + W (Xc) = Xc (B + W) where, M = Make-up

quantity in m3/hr, Xm = conc. of chlorides in make-up

water in ppmw and

Xc

= conc. of chlorides in circulating water in ppmw.

Xc/Xm = Cycles of concentration = ppm chloride in circulating water/ppm

Xc/Xm = Cycles of concentration = ppm chloride in circulating water/ppm

chloride in make-up water

= M / (B+ W) = M / (M – E) = 1 + { E / (B + W) }

Lower COC means high operating cost due to higher make-up

Lower COC means high operating cost due to higher make-up

As the cycles of concentration increase the water may not be able to hold

As

the cycles of concentration increase the water may not be able to hold

the minerals in solution, once solubility is exceeded, they precipitate and cause fouling in exchangers

Cycles of concentration vary from 3 to 5 depending upon the make-up water quality

Cycles of concentration vary from 3 to 5 depending upon the make-up water quality

COMPONENTS OF A COOLING TOWER:

 

12/16/2017

COOLING TOWER AND COOLING WATER SYSTEM: A Brief Presentation: Part-2 of 3 – What is Piping

Cooling Tower Hot Water distribution system – The collection header and branch headers to the individual cells via flow control valvesCooling Tower Fans – with on-off, dual speed, variable speed motors Cooling Tower Fill, Louvers

Hot Water distribution system – The collection header and branch headers to the individual cells via

Cooling Tower Fans – with on-off, dual speed, variable speed motorsheaders to the individual cells via flow control valves Cooling Tower Fill, Louvers and Drift Eliminators

Cooling Tower Fill, Louvers and Drift Eliminators – Each fill sheet has louvers and drift eliminatorsFans – with on-off, dual speed, variable speed motors Cooling Tower Cold Water Basin – Screens,

Cooling Tower Cold Water Basin – Screens, Sluice gates, pump suction lines– Each fill sheet has louvers and drift eliminators Types of pump used – Horizontal Centrifugal,

Types of pump used – Horizontal Centrifugal, Vertical turbineWater Basin – Screens, Sluice gates, pump suction lines Fill, the heat transfer surface, most important

Fill, the heat transfer surface, most important component of a cooling towerof pump used – Horizontal Centrifugal, Vertical turbine Efficiency of the tower depends upon its ability

Efficiency of the tower depends upon its ability to promote both the maximum contact surface and the maximum contact time between air and watersurface, most important component of a cooling tower Two basic types of fill – Splash type

Two basic types of fill – Splash type and Film typesurface and the maximum contact time between air and water In cross flow, either type can

In cross flow, either type can be applied but in counter flow though either type can be used but tends toward almost exclusive use of the film fillswater Two basic types of fill – Splash type and Film type MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION: Wood:

MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION:

Wood: Available, Workable, Low Cost and Durable.exclusive use of the film fills MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION: Metals: Steel, Cast Iron, copper alloys and

Metals: Steel, Cast Iron, copper alloys and aluminum alloys. Special care required for corrosion control for metals other than steel. Used for fan hubs, basins, partitions, fan cylinders, bolts, nuts, washers, gear cases, anchor castings, etc.Wood: Available, Workable, Low Cost and Durable. Plastics: Capable to be molded into single parts of

Plastics: Capable to be molded into single parts of complex shape and dimensions. Used for fan blades, fan cylinders, fill supports, drift eliminators, louvers, etc.bolts, nuts, washers, gear cases, anchor castings, etc. Concrete: Higher initial cost but decreased fire risk

Concrete: Higher initial cost but decreased fire risk and higher load carrying capacity.cylinders, fill supports, drift eliminators, louvers, etc. SPECIAL TYPES OF COOLING TOWERS: Dry Cooling Towers Hybrid

SPECIAL TYPES OF COOLING TOWERS:

Dry Cooling Towersload carrying capacity. SPECIAL TYPES OF COOLING TOWERS: Hybrid Cooling Towers (also called plume abatement towers)

Hybrid Cooling Towers (also called plume abatement towers)SPECIAL TYPES OF COOLING TOWERS: Dry Cooling Towers DRY COOLING TOWERS: Basically an air-cooled heat exchanger

DRY COOLING TOWERS:

Basically an air-cooled heat exchanger(also called plume abatement towers) DRY COOLING TOWERS: Sensible cooling of water through finned coils Low

Sensible cooling of water through finned coilsDRY COOLING TOWERS: Basically an air-cooled heat exchanger Low temperature of inlet air is essential Less

Low temperature of inlet air is essentialexchanger Sensible cooling of water through finned coils Less efficient cooling – large surface areas Water

Less efficient cooling – large surface areasfinned coils Low temperature of inlet air is essential Water temperatures higher than evaporative type cooling

Water temperatures higher than evaporative type cooling towersof water through finned coils Low temperature of inlet air is essential Less efficient cooling –

12/16/2017

COOLING TOWER AND COOLING WATER SYSTEM: A Brief Presentation: Part-2 of 3 – What is Piping

HYBRID COOLING TOWERS:

Part-2 of 3 – What is Piping HYBRID COOLING TOWERS: Combines both dry and wet sections

Combines both dry and wet sectionsPart-2 of 3 – What is Piping HYBRID COOLING TOWERS: Operational flexibility in case of variation

Operational flexibility in case of variation in ambient conditionsHYBRID COOLING TOWERS: Combines both dry and wet sections More effective cooling than dry type towers

More effective cooling than dry type towersflexibility in case of variation in ambient conditions Avoids plume formation HYBRID COOLING TOWERS – SUB

Avoids plume formationconditions More effective cooling than dry type towers HYBRID COOLING TOWERS – SUB TYPES: Parallel path

HYBRID COOLING TOWERS – SUB TYPES:

Parallel path towerAvoids plume formation HYBRID COOLING TOWERS – SUB TYPES: Series path tower Adiabatic air pre-cooler PARALLEL

Series path towerHYBRID COOLING TOWERS – SUB TYPES: Parallel path tower Adiabatic air pre-cooler PARALLEL PATH TOWER (Fig.

Adiabatic air pre-coolerTOWERS – SUB TYPES: Parallel path tower Series path tower PARALLEL PATH TOWER (Fig. 5): Coil

PARALLEL PATH TOWER (Fig. 5):

Coil section located vertically on top of fill sectiontower Adiabatic air pre-cooler PARALLEL PATH TOWER (Fig. 5): Induced draft fan Hot water flows through

Induced draft fan5): Coil section located vertically on top of fill section Hot water flows through coil and

Hot water flows through coil and fill section in serieslocated vertically on top of fill section Induced draft fan Parallel streams of air flows through

Parallel streams of air flows through coil and fill sectionsfan Hot water flows through coil and fill section in series Dry and saturated air streams

Dry and saturated air streams mix in the fan sectionParallel streams of air flows through coil and fill sections Fig. 5: Parallel Path Towers Ratio

Fig. 5: Parallel Path Towers

Fig. 5: Parallel Path Towers

Ratio of two sections depend on the inlet air characteristicsstreams mix in the fan section Fig. 5: Parallel Path Towers Supply of air to each

Supply of air to each section may be adjusted with louvers at inletof two sections depend on the inlet air characteristics During low ambient temperatures fill section may

During low ambient temperatures fill section may be completely isolatedof air to each section may be adjusted with louvers at inlet Requires more height of

Requires more height of towerambient temperatures fill section may be completely isolated

12/16/2017

COOLING TOWER AND COOLING WATER SYSTEM: A Brief Presentation: Part-2 of 3 – What is Piping

SYSTEM: A Brief Presentation: Part-2 of 3 – What is Piping SERIES PATH TOWER: Air flows

SERIES PATH TOWER:

Air flows through coil and fill sections in seriesPart-2 of 3 – What is Piping SERIES PATH TOWER: Induced draft fan – cross flow

Induced draft fan – cross flowTOWER: Air flows through coil and fill sections in series

and fill sections in series Induced draft fan – cross flow