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depth of 500 mm. The beam is reinforced with six 25-mm-daimeter tension bars.

Steel yield strength fy is 415 MPa and concrete strength f’c is 28 MPa.

a.) What is the balanced steel ratio?

b.) What is the maximum steel area for singly reinforced?

c.) What is the nominal moment capacity of the beam?

Solution:

0.85 𝑓′𝑐 𝛽 600 0.85 (28) (0.85)600

𝜌𝑏 = 𝜌𝑏 =

𝑓𝑦 (600+𝑓𝑦 ) 𝑓𝑦 (600+𝑓𝑦 )

𝛽 = 0.85 𝜌𝑏 = 0.028816

𝝆𝒃 = 𝟐. 𝟖𝟖%

b. Maximum steel area

𝐴𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑏𝑑 𝐴𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.75𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑏𝑑

𝐴𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (0.75 𝑥 0.028816)(300)(5)

𝑨𝒔𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 𝟑, 𝟐𝟒𝟐𝒎𝒎𝟐

c. Nominal moment capacity

Using 6-25mm bars

𝑥

𝐴𝑠 = (25)2 𝑥 6 = 2.945 𝑚𝑚2

4

𝜌𝑓𝑦 2,945

𝜌= 𝑏𝑑

𝜌=

300(500)

𝜌𝑓𝑦 0.019639(415)

𝜔= 𝜔= = 0.291

𝑓′𝑐 28

𝑅𝑛 = 6.7494𝑀𝑝𝑎

𝑀𝑛 = 𝑅𝑛 𝑏𝑑2 𝑀𝑛 = 6.7494(300)(500)2

𝑴𝒏 = 𝟓𝟎𝟔. 𝟐𝒌𝑵 − 𝒎

2. A reinforced concrete beam has width of 300 mm and an effective depth to tension

bars of 600 mm. Compression reinforcement if needed will be placed at a depth of

60 mm below the top. If f’c = 30 MPa and fy = 414 MPa, determine the tension steel

area if the beam is to resist an ultimate moment of 650 kN-m.

Solution:

Solve for ρmax and Mumax :

𝑓𝑦 (600+𝑓𝑦 )

𝜌 0.85(30)(0.85)(600)

𝑏=

414(600+414)

𝜌𝑏=0.031

ρmax= 0.75 ρb

ρmax=0.75(0.031)

ρmax= 0.02323

𝜌𝑓𝑦

𝜔=

𝑓′𝑐

0.02323(414)

𝜔=

30

𝜔 = 0.3209

𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.90(30)(0.3209)(300)(600)2 (1 − 0.59(0.3209))

𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 758.1𝑘𝑁 − 𝑚 > 𝑀𝑢

𝑀𝑢 = ∅𝑅𝑛 𝑏𝑑2

650𝑥106 = 0.90𝑅𝑛 (300)(600)2

𝑅𝑛 = 6.687𝑀𝑝𝑎

𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝜌:

0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐 2𝑅𝑛

𝜌= (1 − √1 − )

𝑓𝑦 0.85𝑓′𝑐

0.85(30) 2(6.687)

𝜌= [1 − √1 − ] = 0.0191 > 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛

414 0.85(30)

1.4

𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = = 0.00338

𝑓𝑦

𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑

𝐴𝑠 = 0.0191(300)(600)

𝑨𝒔 = 𝟑𝟒𝟒𝟐𝒎𝒎𝟐

3. A propped cantilever beam shown in the figure is made of reinforced concrete

having a width of 290mm and overall depth of 490mm. The beam is loaded with

uniform dead load of 35 kN/m (including its own weight), and a uniform live load of

55 kN/m. Given: f’c = 24 MPa and fy = 415 MPa. Concrete cover is 60 mm from the

centroid of the bars. Determine the required tension steel area for maximum

positive moment. Assume EI = constant.

290mm

490mm

A 6m B 2m C

Solution:

𝑑 = 490 − 60 = 430𝑚𝑚

𝑊𝑢 = 1.4𝑊𝐷 + 1.7𝑊𝐿 𝑊𝑢 = 1.4(35) + 1.7(55)

𝑊𝑢 = 142.5 𝑘𝑁/𝑚

Solve for moment reactions using the three-moment equation:

𝑀𝐵 = −142.5(2)(1) = −285𝑘𝑁 − 𝑚

6𝐴𝑜 𝑎̅𝑜 6𝐴1 𝑏̅𝑜

𝑀𝑜 𝐿𝑜 + 2𝑀𝐴 (𝐿𝑜 𝐿1) + 𝑀𝐵 𝐿1 + + =0

𝐿𝑜 𝐿1

142.5(6)

0 + 2𝑀𝐴 (0 + 6) + (−285)(6) + 0 + =0

4

𝑀𝐴 = −498.75𝑘𝑁 − 𝑚

𝑀𝐴 = 𝑀𝐴𝑟𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 −498.75 = 𝑅(6) − 142.5(8)(4)

𝑅 = 676.875𝑘𝑁

𝑅𝐴 = 𝑊𝑢 𝐿 − 𝑅 𝑅𝐴 = 142.5(8) − 676.875

𝑅𝐴 = 463.125𝑘𝑁

Maximum positive moment

𝑉𝐷 = 0

𝑊𝑢 (2 + 𝑥) − 𝑅 = 0 142.5(2 + 𝑥) − 676.875 = 0

𝑥 = 2.75𝑚

(𝑥+2)2 (2.75+2)2

𝑀𝐷 = 𝑅𝑥 − 𝑊𝑢 𝑀𝐷 = 676.875(2.75) − 142.5

2 2

𝑀𝐷 = 253.828𝑘𝑁 − 𝑚

𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟 ∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 :

0.85𝑓′𝑐 𝛽1 600 0.85(24)(0.85)600

𝜌𝑏 = 𝜌𝑏 =

𝑓𝑦 (600+𝑓𝑦) 415(600+415)

𝜌𝑏 = 0.0247

𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.75𝜌𝑏 𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.75(0.0247)

𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.01852

𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑓𝑦 0.01852(415)

𝑊𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑊𝑚𝑎𝑥 =

𝑓′𝑐 24

𝑊𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.3203

𝑅𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑓 ′ 𝑐 𝜔(1 − 0.59𝜔) 𝑅𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 415(0.3203)(1 − 0.59(0.3203))

𝑅𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 6.325𝑀𝑝𝑎

𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑅𝑛 𝑏𝑑2 𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 6.235(290)(430)2

𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 334.316𝑘𝑁 − 𝑚

∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.90(334.316)

∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 300.884𝑘𝑁 − 𝑚

𝑀𝑢 = 253.828𝑘𝑁 − 𝑚 < ∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 (Singly reinforced)

𝑅𝑛 = 5.26𝑀𝑝𝑎

0.85𝑓′𝑐 2𝑅𝑛 0.85(24) 2(5.26)

𝜌= [1 − √1 − 0.85𝑓′ ] 𝜌= [1 − √1 − 0.85(24)]

𝑓𝑦 𝑐 415

𝜌 = 0.01495

𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑 𝐴𝑠 = 0.01495(290)(430)

𝑨𝒔 = 𝟏, 𝟖𝟔𝟒𝒎𝒎𝟐

4. A hallow beam is shown in the figure. Assume f’c = 28 MPa and fy = 345 MPa.

a.) Calculate the required steel area when Mu = 800 kN-m.

b.) What is the balanced moment capacity of the beam?

c.) What is the maximum steel area under singly reinforced condition?

d.) What is the maximum design moment strength under singly reinforced

condition?

e.) Calculate the required tension steel area when Mu = 1200 kN-m.

500mm

150

800mm

500mm

150

75

Solution:

To guide us whether “a” will exceed 150 mm or not, let us solve the design moment when

a = 150 mm.

d = 800-75=725 mm

𝑎 150

𝛗 𝑀𝑛 = 𝛗 𝐶𝐶 (𝑑 − 2) 𝛗 𝑀𝑛 = 0.90 𝑥 0.85 (28)(150)(500)(725 − )

2

𝛗 𝑀𝑛 = 1044.225 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚

a. 𝑀𝑢 = 800 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚

Since the required 𝑀𝑢 = 800 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚 < 1044.225 kN.m, a< 150 mm.

Assuming tension steel yields:

𝑎

𝑀𝑢 = 𝛗 𝑀𝑛 𝑀𝑢 = 𝛗 𝐶𝐶 (𝑑 − 2)

𝑎

𝑀𝑢 = φ 0.85𝑓′𝑐 𝑎𝑏(𝑑 − 2)

800 𝑥 106 = 0.90 x 0.85 (28) a (500) (725-0.5a)

𝒂 = 𝟏𝟏𝟏. 𝟔 𝒎𝒎 < 𝟏𝟓𝟎 𝒎𝒎

𝑑−𝑐

𝑓𝑠 = 600 where c = a/β1 = 131.3 mm

𝑐

725−131.3

𝑓𝑠 = 600 = 2,712 𝑀𝑃𝑎 > 𝑓𝑦 steel yields

131.3

T=C 𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦 = 0.85𝑓′𝑐 𝑎𝑏

𝐴𝑠 (345) = 0.85(28)(111.6)(500)

𝑨𝒔 = 𝟑, 𝟖𝟓𝟎 𝒎𝒎𝟐

b. Balanced condition ( See Figure 2.12 ):

600𝑑 600(725)

𝑐𝑏 = 𝑐𝑏 = = 460.32 𝑚𝑚

600 + 𝑓𝑦 600 + 345

Z = a -150 = 241.27 mm

A1 = 500(150) = 75,000 mm2 y1 = 725-1/2(150) =650 mm

A2 = 125(241.27) = 30,159 mm2 y2 = 725-150-1/2(241.27) =454.37

Mbn = C1 y1 + 2C2 y2

Mbn = 0.85 f’c (A1 y1 + 2A2 y2 )

Mbn = 0.85 (28) (75,000 x 650 +2 x 30,159 x 454.37 )

Mbn = 1812.52 kN.m

φ Mbn = 0.90 x 1312.52 = 1613.3 kN.m

T = C1 + 2C2 Asb fy = 0.85 f’c (A1 + 2A2 )

Asb (345) = 0.85 (28) (75,000 + 2 x 30,159)

Asb = 9,335 mm2

As max = 7,001 mm2

d. Maximum moment, Mu max :

Refer to Figure 2.12

C1 + 2C2 = T 0.85 (28) (75,000 + 2A2) = 7,001(345)

A2 = 13,244 mm2

A2 = 125z 13,244 =125z

z = 105.95 mm

Mn max = C1 y1 + 2C2 y2

Mn max = 0.85 f’c (A1 y1 + 2A2 y2)

Mn max = 0.85(28)(75,000 x 650 + 2 x 13,244 x 522.03)

Mn max = 1489.34 kN.m

φ Mn max = 0.90 x 1489.34 = 1340.4 kN.m

Refer to Figure 2.12

A2 = 125z y2 = 575-0.5z

Mu = φ M n

1200 x 106 = 0.90 x 0.85 f’c (A1 y1 +2A2 y2)

1200 x 106 = 0.90 x 0.85(28)[75,000(650) + 2(125z)(575-0.5z)]

z = 53.04 mm

Ac = A1 + 2A2 Ac = 75,000 +2 x 125(53.04)

Ac = 88,259.2 mm2

T=C As fy = 0.85 f’c Ac

As (345) = 0.85(28)(88,259.2)

As = 6,809 mm2

5. Compute the ultimate moment capacity of the beam shown in the figure. Assume fy

= 345 MPa and f’c = 21 MPa.

375

450

3 - 22 mm

75

375

Solution:

𝜋

𝐴𝑠 = (22)2 × 3 = 1140𝑚𝑚2

4

600𝑑 600(375)

𝑐𝑏 = = = 238𝑚𝑚

600 + 𝑓𝑦 600 + 345

𝑎𝑏 = 𝛽1 𝑐𝑏 = 0.85(238) = 202.4𝑚𝑚

𝑥 375

=

𝑎 450

5

𝑥= 𝑎 = 168.7𝑚𝑚

6

1 5 5 2

𝐴𝑐 = (𝑥)(𝑎) = 1⁄2 × ( ) 𝑎 × 𝑎 = 𝑎 = 17066𝑚𝑚2

2 6 12

T=𝐶𝑐

𝐴𝑠𝑏 𝑓𝑦 = 0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐𝐴𝑐

𝐴𝑠𝑏 (345) = 0.85(21)(17066)

𝐴𝑠𝑏 = 883𝑚𝑚2 < 𝐴𝑠

Since 𝐴𝑠 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑑 > 𝐴𝑠𝑏, tension steel does not yield (𝑓𝑠 < 𝑓𝑦 )

Solve for c:

𝐶𝑐 = 𝑇

0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐𝐴𝑐 = 𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑠

𝑑−𝑐 5 𝑑−𝑐

𝑓𝑠 = 600 0.85(21) 𝑎2 = 1140𝑥600

𝑐 12 𝑐

2 375−𝑐

7.437(0.85) = 684000 𝑐

𝑐 = 250.92𝑚𝑚

𝑎 = 𝛽1 𝑐 = 0.85(250.92) = 213.3𝑚𝑚

2

𝑀𝑛 = 𝐶𝑐 × (𝑑 − 𝑎)

3

2 5 2

𝑀𝑛 = 0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐𝐴𝑐 (𝑑 − 𝑎) = 0.85(21) (213.29)2 × (375 − (213.3))

3 12 3

= 78.77 𝐾𝑛 − 𝑚

6. The beam shown in the figure is subjected to a maximum service dead load moment

of 230kN-m. Determine the service live load that the beam can carry. Use f’c = 20.7MPa

and fy = 345MPa.

60mm

350 mm

2 - 28 mm

600 mm

540 mm

4 - 36 mm

Solution:

β1 = 0.85

Solve for ∅Mn when a = t

∅Mfn = ∅0.85f ′ cbf t (d – t/2) = 543.375 kN-mm

Balanced condition:

600𝑑

𝐶𝑏 = 600+ f = 278.11 mm

y

a = β1 𝐶𝑏 = 236.39 mm > t

z = a – t = 136.39 mm

A1 = bf t = 82,000 mm2

A2 = b𝑤 𝑧 = 34,098 mm2

Acb = A1 + A2 = 116,098 mm2

Maximum condition:

A2 = Acmax – 82,000 =5,073 mm2

z = A2 ⁄b𝑤 = 20.29 𝑚𝑚

y2 = d – t – 𝑧⁄2 = 359.85 mm

∅Mnmax = 574.28 kN-m

a) MD = 150 kN-m, ML = 120 kN-m

Mu = 1.4MD + 1.7ML = 414 𝑘𝑁-m < ∅Mnmax , singly reinforced

Since Mu is less than ∅Mfn “a” is less than t,

Mu = ∅0.85f ′ c a bf (d – 𝑎⁄2)

414x106 = 0.90(0.85)(20.7)a(820)(470-𝑎⁄2)

a = 73.6 mm

T=C A𝑠 fy = 0.85 f ′ c a bf

A𝑠 = 2,565 mm2

√f′c √f′c

bw d = 646 mm2 bf d =1059 mm2

2fy 4fy

Thus, As = 2,565 mm2

Mu = 1.4 MD + 1.7 ML = 568 kN-m<∅Mnmax , singly reinforced

Mu = ∅Mfn + ∅Mn2 ,

z = 15.78 mm

A2 = bw 𝑧 = 3,946 mm2

T = C1 + C2 As fy = 0.85f ′ c (A1 + A2 )

𝐀 𝐬 = 3,653 𝐦𝐦𝟐

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