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# BEAMS

## 1. A reinforced concrete rectangular beam has a width of 300 mm and an effective

depth of 500 mm. The beam is reinforced with six 25-mm-daimeter tension bars.
Steel yield strength fy is 415 MPa and concrete strength f’c is 28 MPa.
a.) What is the balanced steel ratio?
b.) What is the maximum steel area for singly reinforced?
c.) What is the nominal moment capacity of the beam?

Solution:

## a. Balanced Steel Ratio

0.85 𝑓′𝑐 𝛽 600 0.85 (28) (0.85)600
𝜌𝑏 = 𝜌𝑏 =
𝑓𝑦 (600+𝑓𝑦 ) 𝑓𝑦 (600+𝑓𝑦 )

𝛽 = 0.85 𝜌𝑏 = 0.028816
𝝆𝒃 = 𝟐. 𝟖𝟖%
b. Maximum steel area
𝐴𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑏𝑑 𝐴𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.75𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑏𝑑
𝐴𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (0.75 𝑥 0.028816)(300)(5)
𝑨𝒔𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 𝟑, 𝟐𝟒𝟐𝒎𝒎𝟐
c. Nominal moment capacity
Using 6-25mm bars
𝑥
𝐴𝑠 = (25)2 𝑥 6 = 2.945 𝑚𝑚2
4

𝜌𝑓𝑦 2,945
𝜌= 𝑏𝑑
𝜌=
300(500)

## 𝜌 = 0.01963 < 𝜌𝑏 (𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑙 𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑𝑠)

𝜌𝑓𝑦 0.019639(415)
𝜔= 𝜔= = 0.291
𝑓′𝑐 28

## 𝑅𝑛 = 𝑓 ′ 𝑐 𝜔(1 + 0.59𝜔) 𝑅𝑛 = 28(0.291)(1 + 0.59(0.291))

𝑅𝑛 = 6.7494𝑀𝑝𝑎
𝑀𝑛 = 𝑅𝑛 𝑏𝑑2 𝑀𝑛 = 6.7494(300)(500)2
𝑴𝒏 = 𝟓𝟎𝟔. 𝟐𝒌𝑵 − 𝒎
2. A reinforced concrete beam has width of 300 mm and an effective depth to tension
bars of 600 mm. Compression reinforcement if needed will be placed at a depth of
60 mm below the top. If f’c = 30 MPa and fy = 414 MPa, determine the tension steel
area if the beam is to resist an ultimate moment of 650 kN-m.

Solution:
Solve for ρmax and Mumax :

## 𝜌𝑏= 0.85𝑓′𝑐 𝛽1 𝛽1= 0.85 since f’c < 30 Mpa

𝑓𝑦 (600+𝑓𝑦 )

𝜌 0.85(30)(0.85)(600)
𝑏=
414(600+414)
𝜌𝑏=0.031

ρmax= 0.75 ρb
ρmax=0.75(0.031)
ρmax= 0.02323

𝜌𝑓𝑦
𝜔=
𝑓′𝑐
0.02323(414)
𝜔=
30
𝜔 = 0.3209

## 𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ∅𝑓 ′ 𝑐 𝜔𝑏𝑑2 (1 − 0.59𝜔)

𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.90(30)(0.3209)(300)(600)2 (1 − 0.59(0.3209))
𝑀𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 758.1𝑘𝑁 − 𝑚 > 𝑀𝑢

## 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑀𝑢 < 𝑀𝑢max, 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑚𝑎𝑦 𝑏𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑠 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑦 𝑟𝑒𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑑.

𝑀𝑢 = ∅𝑅𝑛 𝑏𝑑2
650𝑥106 = 0.90𝑅𝑛 (300)(600)2
𝑅𝑛 = 6.687𝑀𝑝𝑎

𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝜌:
0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐 2𝑅𝑛
𝜌= (1 − √1 − )
𝑓𝑦 0.85𝑓′𝑐
0.85(30) 2(6.687)
𝜌= [1 − √1 − ] = 0.0191 > 𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛
414 0.85(30)

1.4
𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑛 = = 0.00338
𝑓𝑦
𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑

𝐴𝑠 = 0.0191(300)(600)

𝑨𝒔 = 𝟑𝟒𝟒𝟐𝒎𝒎𝟐
3. A propped cantilever beam shown in the figure is made of reinforced concrete
having a width of 290mm and overall depth of 490mm. The beam is loaded with
uniform dead load of 35 kN/m (including its own weight), and a uniform live load of
55 kN/m. Given: f’c = 24 MPa and fy = 415 MPa. Concrete cover is 60 mm from the
centroid of the bars. Determine the required tension steel area for maximum
positive moment. Assume EI = constant.

290mm

490mm
A 6m B 2m C

Solution:
𝑑 = 490 − 60 = 430𝑚𝑚
𝑊𝑢 = 1.4𝑊𝐷 + 1.7𝑊𝐿 𝑊𝑢 = 1.4(35) + 1.7(55)
𝑊𝑢 = 142.5 𝑘𝑁/𝑚
Solve for moment reactions using the three-moment equation:

𝑀𝐵 = −142.5(2)(1) = −285𝑘𝑁 − 𝑚
6𝐴𝑜 𝑎̅𝑜 6𝐴1 𝑏̅𝑜
𝑀𝑜 𝐿𝑜 + 2𝑀𝐴 (𝐿𝑜 𝐿1) + 𝑀𝐵 𝐿1 + + =0
𝐿𝑜 𝐿1

142.5(6)
0 + 2𝑀𝐴 (0 + 6) + (−285)(6) + 0 + =0
4

𝑀𝐴 = −498.75𝑘𝑁 − 𝑚
𝑀𝐴 = 𝑀𝐴𝑟𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 −498.75 = 𝑅(6) − 142.5(8)(4)

𝑅 = 676.875𝑘𝑁
𝑅𝐴 = 𝑊𝑢 𝐿 − 𝑅 𝑅𝐴 = 142.5(8) − 676.875
𝑅𝐴 = 463.125𝑘𝑁
Maximum positive moment

𝑉𝐷 = 0
𝑊𝑢 (2 + 𝑥) − 𝑅 = 0 142.5(2 + 𝑥) − 676.875 = 0
𝑥 = 2.75𝑚
(𝑥+2)2 (2.75+2)2
𝑀𝐷 = 𝑅𝑥 − 𝑊𝑢 𝑀𝐷 = 676.875(2.75) − 142.5
2 2
𝑀𝐷 = 253.828𝑘𝑁 − 𝑚
𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟 ∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 :
0.85𝑓′𝑐 𝛽1 600 0.85(24)(0.85)600
𝜌𝑏 = 𝜌𝑏 =
𝑓𝑦 (600+𝑓𝑦) 415(600+415)

𝜌𝑏 = 0.0247
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.75𝜌𝑏 𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.75(0.0247)
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.01852
𝜌𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑓𝑦 0.01852(415)
𝑊𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑊𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝑓′𝑐 24

𝑊𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.3203
𝑅𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑓 ′ 𝑐 𝜔(1 − 0.59𝜔) 𝑅𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 415(0.3203)(1 − 0.59(0.3203))

𝑅𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 6.325𝑀𝑝𝑎
𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑅𝑛 𝑏𝑑2 𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 6.235(290)(430)2
𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 334.316𝑘𝑁 − 𝑚
∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.90(334.316)
∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 300.884𝑘𝑁 − 𝑚

## At point of maximum positive moment:

𝑀𝑢 = 253.828𝑘𝑁 − 𝑚 < ∅𝑀𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 (Singly reinforced)

## 𝑀𝑢 = ∅𝑅𝑛 𝑏𝑑2 253.828𝑥106 = 0.90𝑅𝑛 (290)(430)2

𝑅𝑛 = 5.26𝑀𝑝𝑎
0.85𝑓′𝑐 2𝑅𝑛 0.85(24) 2(5.26)
𝜌= [1 − √1 − 0.85𝑓′ ] 𝜌= [1 − √1 − 0.85(24)]
𝑓𝑦 𝑐 415

𝜌 = 0.01495
𝐴𝑠 = 𝜌𝑏𝑑 𝐴𝑠 = 0.01495(290)(430)
𝑨𝒔 = 𝟏, 𝟖𝟔𝟒𝒎𝒎𝟐
4. A hallow beam is shown in the figure. Assume f’c = 28 MPa and fy = 345 MPa.
a.) Calculate the required steel area when Mu = 800 kN-m.
b.) What is the balanced moment capacity of the beam?
c.) What is the maximum steel area under singly reinforced condition?
d.) What is the maximum design moment strength under singly reinforced
condition?
e.) Calculate the required tension steel area when Mu = 1200 kN-m.
500mm

## 125 250mm 125

150
800mm

500mm
150

75
Solution:
To guide us whether “a” will exceed 150 mm or not, let us solve the design moment when
a = 150 mm.
d = 800-75=725 mm
𝑎 150
𝛗 𝑀𝑛 = 𝛗 𝐶𝐶 (𝑑 − 2) 𝛗 𝑀𝑛 = 0.90 𝑥 0.85 (28)(150)(500)(725 − )
2

𝛗 𝑀𝑛 = 1044.225 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚
a. 𝑀𝑢 = 800 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚
Since the required 𝑀𝑢 = 800 𝑘𝑁. 𝑚 < 1044.225 kN.m, a< 150 mm.
Assuming tension steel yields:
𝑎
𝑀𝑢 = 𝛗 𝑀𝑛 𝑀𝑢 = 𝛗 𝐶𝐶 (𝑑 − 2)
𝑎
𝑀𝑢 = φ 0.85𝑓′𝑐 𝑎𝑏(𝑑 − 2)
800 𝑥 106 = 0.90 x 0.85 (28) a (500) (725-0.5a)
𝒂 = 𝟏𝟏𝟏. 𝟔 𝒎𝒎 < 𝟏𝟓𝟎 𝒎𝒎

## Check if steel yields:

𝑑−𝑐
𝑓𝑠 = 600 where c = a/β1 = 131.3 mm
𝑐
725−131.3
𝑓𝑠 = 600 = 2,712 𝑀𝑃𝑎 > 𝑓𝑦 steel yields
131.3

T=C 𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑦 = 0.85𝑓′𝑐 𝑎𝑏

𝐴𝑠 (345) = 0.85(28)(111.6)(500)
𝑨𝒔 = 𝟑, 𝟖𝟓𝟎 𝒎𝒎𝟐
b. Balanced condition ( See Figure 2.12 ):
600𝑑 600(725)
𝑐𝑏 = 𝑐𝑏 = = 460.32 𝑚𝑚
600 + 𝑓𝑦 600 + 345

## 𝑎 = 𝛽1 𝑐𝑏 a = 0.85 (460.32) = 391.3 mm

Z = a -150 = 241.27 mm
A1 = 500(150) = 75,000 mm2 y1 = 725-1/2(150) =650 mm
A2 = 125(241.27) = 30,159 mm2 y2 = 725-150-1/2(241.27) =454.37
Mbn = C1 y1 + 2C2 y2
Mbn = 0.85 f’c (A1 y1 + 2A2 y2 )
Mbn = 0.85 (28) (75,000 x 650 +2 x 30,159 x 454.37 )
Mbn = 1812.52 kN.m
φ Mbn = 0.90 x 1312.52 = 1613.3 kN.m

## c. Maximum steel area, As max

T = C1 + 2C2 Asb fy = 0.85 f’c (A1 + 2A2 )
Asb (345) = 0.85 (28) (75,000 + 2 x 30,159)
Asb = 9,335 mm2

## As max = 0.75 Asb As max = 0.75(9,335)

As max = 7,001 mm2
d. Maximum moment, Mu max :
Refer to Figure 2.12
C1 + 2C2 = T 0.85 (28) (75,000 + 2A2) = 7,001(345)
A2 = 13,244 mm2
A2 = 125z 13,244 =125z
z = 105.95 mm

## y2 = 725- 150 -1/2 (105.95) = 522.03 mm

Mn max = C1 y1 + 2C2 y2
Mn max = 0.85 f’c (A1 y1 + 2A2 y2)
Mn max = 0.85(28)(75,000 x 650 + 2 x 13,244 x 522.03)
Mn max = 1489.34 kN.m
φ Mn max = 0.90 x 1489.34 = 1340.4 kN.m

## e. Mu = 1200 kN.m < φ Mn max ( Singly Reinforced )

Refer to Figure 2.12

## A1 = 75,000 mm2 y1= 650 mm

A2 = 125z y2 = 575-0.5z
Mu = φ M n
1200 x 106 = 0.90 x 0.85 f’c (A1 y1 +2A2 y2)
1200 x 106 = 0.90 x 0.85(28)[75,000(650) + 2(125z)(575-0.5z)]
z = 53.04 mm
Ac = A1 + 2A2 Ac = 75,000 +2 x 125(53.04)
Ac = 88,259.2 mm2
T=C As fy = 0.85 f’c Ac
As (345) = 0.85(28)(88,259.2)
As = 6,809 mm2
5. Compute the ultimate moment capacity of the beam shown in the figure. Assume fy
= 345 MPa and f’c = 21 MPa.

375

450
3 - 22 mm

75
375

Solution:
𝜋
𝐴𝑠 = (22)2 × 3 = 1140𝑚𝑚2
4

## Solve for 𝐴𝑠𝑏 :

600𝑑 600(375)
𝑐𝑏 = = = 238𝑚𝑚
600 + 𝑓𝑦 600 + 345

𝑎𝑏 = 𝛽1 𝑐𝑏 = 0.85(238) = 202.4𝑚𝑚

𝑥 375
=
𝑎 450

5
𝑥= 𝑎 = 168.7𝑚𝑚
6

1 5 5 2
𝐴𝑐 = (𝑥)(𝑎) = 1⁄2 × ( ) 𝑎 × 𝑎 = 𝑎 = 17066𝑚𝑚2
2 6 12

T=𝐶𝑐
𝐴𝑠𝑏 𝑓𝑦 = 0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐𝐴𝑐
𝐴𝑠𝑏 (345) = 0.85(21)(17066)
𝐴𝑠𝑏 = 883𝑚𝑚2 < 𝐴𝑠

Since 𝐴𝑠 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑑 > 𝐴𝑠𝑏, tension steel does not yield (𝑓𝑠 < 𝑓𝑦 )
Solve for c:

𝐶𝑐 = 𝑇
0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐𝐴𝑐 = 𝐴𝑠 𝑓𝑠
𝑑−𝑐 5 𝑑−𝑐
𝑓𝑠 = 600 0.85(21) 𝑎2 = 1140𝑥600
𝑐 12 𝑐
2 375−𝑐
7.437(0.85) = 684000 𝑐
𝑐 = 250.92𝑚𝑚

𝑎 = 𝛽1 𝑐 = 0.85(250.92) = 213.3𝑚𝑚

2
𝑀𝑛 = 𝐶𝑐 × (𝑑 − 𝑎)
3
2 5 2
𝑀𝑛 = 0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐𝐴𝑐 (𝑑 − 𝑎) = 0.85(21) (213.29)2 × (375 − (213.3))
3 12 3
= 78.77 𝐾𝑛 − 𝑚

## ∅𝑀𝑛 = 0.90 × 78.77 = 𝟕𝟎. 𝟖𝟗 𝒌𝑵 − 𝒎

6. The beam shown in the figure is subjected to a maximum service dead load moment
of 230kN-m. Determine the service live load that the beam can carry. Use f’c = 20.7MPa
and fy = 345MPa.

60mm
350 mm

2 - 28 mm

600 mm
540 mm
4 - 36 mm

Solution:
β1 = 0.85
Solve for ∅Mn when a = t
∅Mfn = ∅0.85f ′ cbf t (d – t/2) = 543.375 kN-mm

## Solve for ∅Mnmax :

Balanced condition:

600𝑑
𝐶𝑏 = 600+ f = 278.11 mm
y

a = β1 𝐶𝑏 = 236.39 mm > t
z = a – t = 136.39 mm

A1 = bf t = 82,000 mm2
A2 = b𝑤 𝑧 = 34,098 mm2
Acb = A1 + A2 = 116,098 mm2
Maximum condition:

## Acmax = 0.75Acb = 87,073 mm2 > At

A2 = Acmax – 82,000 =5,073 mm2
z = A2 ⁄b𝑤 = 20.29 𝑚𝑚
y2 = d – t – 𝑧⁄2 = 359.85 mm

## Mnmax = ∅Mfn + ∅Mn2 = ∅Mfn + ∅ 0.85 f ′ cA2 y2

∅Mnmax = 574.28 kN-m
a) MD = 150 kN-m, ML = 120 kN-m
Mu = 1.4MD + 1.7ML = 414 𝑘𝑁-m < ∅Mnmax , singly reinforced
Since Mu is less than ∅Mfn “a” is less than t,
Mu = ∅0.85f ′ c a bf (d – 𝑎⁄2)
414x106 = 0.90(0.85)(20.7)a(820)(470-𝑎⁄2)
a = 73.6 mm
T=C A𝑠 fy = 0.85 f ′ c a bf
A𝑠 = 2,565 mm2

## Minimum A𝑠 is the smaller value of :

√f′c √f′c
bw d = 646 mm2 bf d =1059 mm2
2fy 4fy
Thus, As = 2,565 mm2

## b) MD = 175 kN-m, ML = 190 Kn-m

Mu = 1.4 MD + 1.7 ML = 568 kN-m<∅Mnmax , singly reinforced

## Since Mu is more than ∅Mfn , ”a” is more than t

Mu = ∅Mfn + ∅Mn2 ,

## 568 x 106 = 545.375 + 0.90(0.85)(20.7)(250)z(470 -100-𝑧⁄2)

z = 15.78 mm

A2 = bw 𝑧 = 3,946 mm2

T = C1 + C2 As fy = 0.85f ′ c (A1 + A2 )

𝐀 𝐬 = 3,653 𝐦𝐦𝟐