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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение


высшего профессионального образования
«УЛЬЯНОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
 

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
СИСТЕМА УПРАЖНЕНИЙ ДЛЯ ФОРМИРОВАНИЯ
ГРАММАТИЧЕСКОЙ КОМПЕТЕНЦИИ СТУДЕНТОВ:
СИТУАТИВНЫЙ КОНТЕКСТ

Учебное пособие
для студентов 1 и 2 курсов

Автор-составитель
Т. И. Тимофеева

Ульяновск
УлГТУ
2012
УДК 811.11 (075)
ББК 81.2-923 я7
А 64

Рецензенты:
кафедра иностранных языков Ульяновского высшего авиационного
училища гражданской авиации, зав. каф. канд. пед. наук, доцент
О. С. Ивасюк;
канд. пед. наук, доцент кафедры немецкого языка Ульяновского
государственного педагогического университета им. И. Н. Ульянова
Г.Н. Гмызина;

Утверждено редакционно-издательским советом университета


в качестве учебного пособия

Английский язык. Система упражнений для формирования


А 64  грамматической компетенции студентов: ситуативный контекст :
учебное пособие / автор-сост. Т. И. Тимофеева. – Ульяновск :
УлГТУ, 2012. – 95 с.

ISBN 978-5-9795-0944-0

Пособие составлено в соответствии с требованиями Федерального


государственного образовательного стандарта высшего профессионального
образования.
Цель пособия – сформировать у бакалавров первого и второго курсов
продуктивные и рецептивные грамматические навыки, запустить механизм
стереотипии на базе отобранного грамматического минимума, т. е. создать
интуитивную грамматику, которая способствовала бы организации речи на
иностранном языке.
Работа подготовлена на кафедре «Иностранные языки» УлГТУ.

УДК 811.11 (075)


ББК 81.2-923 я7

© Тимофеева Т. И., авт.-сост., 2012


ISBN 978-5-9795-0944-0 © Оформление. УлГТУ, 2012.
CONTENTS

Вступление .................................................................................................................. 4

Unit 1. Simple Present ................................................................................................. 5

Unit 2. Simple Past ..................................................................................................... 13

Unit 3. Present Continuous ........................................................................................ 19

Unit 4. Past Continuous, used to ............................................................................... 26

Unit 5. Present Perfect Simple .................................................................................. 33

Unit 6. Future Time .................................................................................................... 39

Unit 7. Tag questions .................................................................................................. 43

Unit 8. Ing-form .......................................................................................................... 47

Unit 9. Modals: Ability, Obligation (Present, Future) ............................................ 55

Grammar and Vocabulary Tests .............................................................................. 62

Reading Tests .............................................................................................................. 74

Texts for Reading ....................................................................................................... 88

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ВСТУПЛЕНИЕ

Грамматика наряду со словарным и звуковым составом представляет


собой материальную основу речи. По определению доктора филологических
наук, профессора В.Г.Гака, грамматика является разделом языкознания, в
котором изучаются закономерности изменения и сочетания слов, образующих
осмысленные предложения или высказывания.

Умение грамотно сочетать слова, изменять словосочетания в зависимости


от того, что вы хотите сказать в данный момент, является одним из важнейших
условий использования языка как средства общения. Овладение грамматикой
изучаемого языка важно не только для формирования продуктивных умений в
устной и письменной речи, но и для понимания речи других людей при
аудировании и чтении, а недостаточный уровень грамматических навыков
становится непреодолимым барьером на пути формирования не только
языковой, но и социокультурной компетенции.

При помощи набора лексических единиц нельзя точно передать мысль,


поскольку лексические единицы лишь называют предмет или явления.
Отношения же между ними отражаются в грамматических значениях.
Грамматике принадлежит организующая роль. Грамматически выражаются
отношения между подлежащим и сказуемым, определяемым и определяющим
действием и объектом, временные, пространственные, причинные связи
явлений, отношения говорящего к высказываемой мысли и собеседнику. При
помощи грамматических структур становится возможным передать тончайшие
нюансы мысли. Таким образом, грамматика выполняет функцию строительного
материала речи устной и письменной, пронизывая весь язык. По образному
выражению В.М. Филатова, «это скелет, на котором держатся все слова».

Значение изучения грамматики иностранного языка заключается еще и в


том, что оно помогает лучше осознать грамматический строй родного языка,
развивает логическое мышление, наблюдательность, способность к анализу и
обобщению, т.е. в процессе ее изучения реализуются развивающие,
образовательные и воспитательные цели обучения.

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UNIT 1. SIMPLE PRESENT
FORM

+
I/You/We/They want go take
She/He/It wants goes takes
-
I/You/We/They do not (don't) want go
She/He/It does not (doesn't) relax take
?
Do I/you/we/they work? – Yes, I do/No, I don’t.
Does she/he/it work? – Yes, he does/No, he doesn’t

We use present simple for


• facts, or things that always happen.
Water boils at 100C
• routines and habits.
The birds return to the island every spring.
• timetable events.
The Drama Club meets every Thursday at 7.30.
• plots of films, stories and plays.
At the party, Romeo sees Juliet and falls in Jove with her.

Examples of time words and phrases we use with present simple:


Usually, always, hardly ever, never, often, sometimes, every day/week/month/year
etc.

yes / no questions and short answers


Do male penguins keep the eggs warm? – Yes, they do.
Does water boil at 80DC? – No, it does not / doesn't.
question words

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We put question words in front of present simple yes / no questions.
Why do people grow?
Where does water come from?
When do fish sleep?
What does this word mean?
Who do you sit next to?
How does a camera work?

what and who subject questions


With what and who it is possible to ask questions about the subject of a sentence.
In this case, we do not use a question form.
Who knows the answer to this question7
What makes it work?

EXERCISES
1. Complete the sentence with the affirmative form of the verb in brackets.
a. I (drive)___drive_____, but my sister (cycle) _______________
b. The Sun (rise) _____________in the east and (set) ____________ in the west.
c. The Prime Minister (travel) ____________abroad in his own private airplane.
d. It (cost) _________ $20 million to be a space tourist for one week in the
International Space Station.
e. The European Commission (meet) ______________ in Brussels.
f. My dad (read) ________________ two books every week.
g. I (understand) __________________ geography more than science.
h. My favourite TV programme (start) _______________at half past ten.
i. The teachers at our school (give) ______________ us lots of homework.
j. We (like) _______________ swimming because it's fun and good exercise.

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2. Complete the sentence with the negative form of the verb in brackets.
Use contractions.
a. You (do) don't do any of the cooking!
b. My brother (play) _________ tennis because he (like) _____________ it.
c. I (think) ______________ that's a good idea.
d. Teachers (work) _______________ at weekends.
e. The government (agree) _______________ with the new EU laws.
f. We (want) _______________ to see that film because it looks boring.
g. His mum (drive) _______________ a fast car.
h. Those new mp3 players (be) _____________ very expensive
i. These birds (stay) ______________ in the country during winter.
j. He (sing) _________________ , does he?

3. Complete the sentence with the affirmative or negative form of the verb in
brackets. Use contractions.
a. The plane (leave) leaves in half an hour but Nick (not / be) ______________
at the airport yet.
b. My best friend (love) ___________ science fiction films but they (not / interest)
_______________ me.
c. I (not / study) _________________ chemistry because it (be) _______difficult.
d. I (not / dance)_______________ because I (look) ______________ stupid.
e. The Sun (not / go)_______________ round the Earth, the Earth (go) ________
round the Sun!
f. My new computer (do) __________ lots more things than my old one, and it (not
/crash) __________________
g. My dad (not / have) ________________ any qualifications but he (have)
____________ a really good job.
h. Fire (need) _____________ oxygen to burn. It (not / burn) _______________
without oxygen.

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i. My teacher (not / own) _____________ a mobile phone because some people think
they (be) _____________ bad for your health.
j. According to scientists, animals (live) ______________ longer if they (not / eat)
________________ too much.

4. Complete the text with the affirmative form of the verbs in brackets.
EMPEROR PENGUINS
Emperor penguins a (live) live in the Antarctic. The sea b (provide)
___________________ all their food, so they are good swimmers. They c (dive)
________________ under the water and d (hoId) _______________ their breath for
up to 20 minutes. When the weather is very cold, the penguins e (stand)
___________________ in a group. This f (keep) __________________ them warm.
The Emperor is the only penguin that g (breed) ______________________ in winter
in Antarctica. Each female h (lay)__________________ one egg in May or June.
They then i (return) _______________ to the sea to feed. Each male then j (stand)
_____________ with an egg on his feet. His feet k (keep) ___________ the egg
warm. He I (sleep) ____________________ most of the time and m (eat)
_____________no food for about 65 days. When the egg n (hatch) ____________
the female o (come) ___________________ back and p (find) __________ her
mate. Now the females q (feed) ____________ the young penguins. The male r
(spend) ______________ his time eating. After a few weeks, the male s (return)
___________ to the family, and then both parents t (look after) ______________
the chick.

5. Complete the text with the negative form of the verbs in brackets.
ROMEO AND JULIET
Two families, the Montagues and Capulets, live in Verona, Italy, but they a (get on)
don’t get on with each other. Romeo, son of Montague, thinks he is in love with
Rosaline, but unfortunately she b (Iove) ________________________ him. He goes
to see her at a party at the house of his enemy Capulet, but there he sees Juliet,
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Capulet's daughter. She c (know) ___________________his name because he has a
mask. Tybalt, one of the Capulet family, tries to fight with Romeo, but Capulet d
(allow) ____________________ this. However, Tybalt e (agree)
_________________ with him, and f (forgive) ___________________
Romeo for coming to the house. Romeo manages to talk to Juliet, and he kisses her.
They g (understand) _______________________that their families are enemies.
When Romeo learns the truth, he h (care) _____________________
that his love for Juliet could be very dangerous. Later he goes back to the house and
stands in the garden. Juliet is standing on the balcony talking to herself about Romeo,
but i (see) ________________ him below in the garden. After he talks to her, they
soon show their love for each other, and agree to get married. However, they j
(realize) ______________ that a terrible tragedy is about to happen.

6. Complete the question using the verb in brackets.


a. Do bones stop growing? (stop)
b. How much water _________the brain ____________ ? (contain)
c. ___________ you _____________hair on your tongue? (have)
d. How many square metres __________ an adult's skin ____________? (cover)
e. __________ hair ____________ faster in hot weather? (grow)
f. How long_______the heart ____________ to pump blood around the body? (take)
g. __________ muscles _____________ or push? (pull)
h. Which vitamin _________ the liver __________ ? (produce)
i. How many times a day ___________you ____________ in and out? (breathe)

7. Complete the text with the affirmative, negative or question form of the verbs
in brackets.
What a (do) does the body do to protect itself? Your body
b (prevent) _________ harmful microorganisms entering and causing harm. The
skin, for example, c (allow) ___________microorganisms to enter. Hairs and mucus
in your nose d (catch) ___________ invaders, and then you e (push) __________the
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mucus out when you cough, sneeze or blow your nose. Enzymes and acids in the
body, and white blood cells also f (destroy) __________ bacteria.
g (help) __________antibiotics ___________ ? Doctors h (use)______________
antibiotic drugs to fight bacterial infections, but antibiotics i (work)___________
against viruses. This is why doctors i(give) ___________antibiotics to patients with a
common cold or flu.
How k (work) ___________immunization_____________ ? Immunization
(or vaccination) is another way of protecting the body, by injecting the body with
dead or inactive microorganisms. After vaccination, the body l (start) __________ to
make antibodies that destroy the microorganism. Because the microorganisms in the
vaccination are not dangerous, the person m (get) _______ ill. When they n (come)
__________into contact with a live (dangerous) micro organism, then the antibodies
o (destroy) ____________the infection before it makes them ill.

8. Put the words in each question into the correct order and then give true
answers to the questions.
a. languages how speak you many do? b. do from come you where? c. any have got
you children? d. interested sport you in are? e. what do you in get usually time up
morning the? f. instruments you any play musical can? g. do learn English you why?
h. what work kind do do you of? i. do school go you to? j. is in a your cinema town
there? k. spend do how holidays your you?

9. Read the first text. Then copy and complete the second text, using the
information in the table and the vocabulary in the first text.
Neville and Rachel are happily married, and they get on well together, but they are
very different kinds of people. Rachel is a cheerful, outgoing woman who enjoys
talking to people. Neville is very reserved, though he likes the company of his
friends. Rachel is interested in sport – especially tennis and swimming – while
Neville is more of an indoor type who prefers reading and listening to music. Neville
likes cooking, and makes delicious meals for the family; Rachel can’t stand
10
housework. However, in spite of their differences, they do have one thing in
common: they are both gifted and enthusiastic photographers, and they have
organised several successful exhibitions of their work.

ANNE PETER
PERSONALITY reserved reserved
GAMES basketball, tennis football
INSTRUMENTS violin none
CLASSICAL MUSIC likes likes
POP MUSIC hates hates

Anne and Peter are very similar 1_______________ 2_________ people. They are
both rather 3_________________, 4____________ they enjoy the 5____________ of
their friends. They 6______________ like sport, 7 ______________ ball games:
Ann plays 8 ______________ 9_______ 10_____________ regularly; while Peter
plays 11______________ for his local club.
Anne and Peter are 12___________ very 13___________ in 14_______________
music, and they often go to concerts. 15_____________ is a good violist; Peter
16____________ 17______________ an instrument. Neither of them can
18_____________ 19______________ music.
However, 20___________ 21 _______________ of all the things they have in
22_____________, they do not always 23_____________ 24_______________ very
well together, and they are not really very 25_____________ married.

10. Write 10 sentences about your family.

11. Read the text and ask questions.


MATHEMATICS
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of
quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and
formulate new conjectures. (What… do?) Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity
11
of conjectures by mathematical proof. The research required to solve mathematical
problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry. (How long… ?)
We view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from
appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. (How …?) When those mathematical
structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning often
provides insight or predictions. Practical mathematics has been a human activity for
as far back as written records exist.
According to Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), the universe cannot be read until we have
learned the language and become familiar with the characters in which it is written. It
is written in mathematical (What language …?) language, and the letters are
triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which it is impossible to
comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth.
Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) (Who …?) referred to mathematics as "the
Queen of the Sciences".
Mathematics is used throughout the world as an essential tool in many fields,
including natural science, engineering, medicine, and the social sciences.
(Where…?) Applied mathematics, the branch of mathematics concerned with
application of mathematical knowledge to other fields, inspires and makes (What
…. do?) use of new mathematical discoveries and sometimes leads to the
development of entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game
theory. There is no clear line (Is there …?) separating pure and applied
mathematics, and practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are often
discovered.

EXTENTION ACTIVITY
1. Make a list of five facts from this unit which interest or surprise you.
2. Write ten sentences about your routines and habits.
3. Using the vocabulary of Exercise 11 speak about any science you find interesting
or important.

12
UNIT 2. SIMPLE PAST

FORM

+
I/You/He/She/It/We/They wanted went took
-
I/You/He/She/It/We/They did not (didn’t) want go take
?
Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they work? – Yes, I did/No, I didn’t.

We use past simple


• to talk about finished events in the past, when we think about a definite time.
Alexander's army marched beside the river and then stopped outside the city
• to describe the events in a story.
Oliver heard the 50und of a bell. Soon afterwards, the door softly opened.
• to describe habits and routines in the past. We usually use a time word or phrase.
Leonardo painted in his studio every day.

Subject and object questions are both possible with past simple.
What did Leonardo paint? object question: + auxiliary did
Who painted this portrait? subject question: no auxiliary did

Examples of time words and phrases we use with past simple:


Yesterday, on Tuesday, in 1754, last night, at 6.30, in January, last week, an hour
ago, last year, after that.

EXERCISES
1. Write the past simple from the following verbs.
Tell, read, pick, sing, run, tell, read, pick, sing, run, make, win, write, drink, swim,
make, win, write, drink, swim, buy, study, pay, bring, cook, buy, study, pay, bring,
book, go, have, eat, wait, go, have, eat, wait.

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2. Complete the sentence with the past simple form of the verb in brackets.
a. Aztec civilization (develop) developed in the Valley of Mexico, 7,500 feet above
sea level.
b. The Aztecs (leave) ______________ their own land of Aztlan at some time during
the 12th or 13th century.
c. They (believe) _________________that Huitzilopochtli their war god (want)
_____________________them to search for a new land.
d. They (arrive) ____________________ in the Valley of Mexico during the 12th or
13th century AD.
e. They (build) ________________ their capital city, Tenochtitlan, on an island in
Lake Texcoco.
f. They (plant) ________________ trees on the island to make the land better, (work)
________________ hard and (improve) __________________ the land.
g. When the Spanish (arrive)_________________ in 1519, Montezuma, the Aztec
ruler, (think) __________________ that Cortez was a returning god.
h. When the Spanish (see) _________________ the Aztecs' gold, they (decide)
_______________ to conquer the city.
i. Later they (kill) _________________ Montezuma, (defeat) ______________ the
Aztecs and (destroy) _______________________Aztec religion and culture.

3. Complete the sentence with the past simple form of the verb in brackets.
Then decide if each sentence is True or False.
a. Greek actors (wear) wore masks and special boots. True
b. Spartan children (take) _______________ baths only two or three times a year.
c. The philosopher Socrates (drink) ___________________ poison and died.
d. Alexander the Great's army (go) ______________ as far as China.
e. Heron of Alexandria (make) ________________ a kind of jet engine.
f. The Roman Emperor Caligula's name (mean) ____________ 'Happy Soldier'.
g. Roman mathematics (have) _________________ no zero.
h Most Roman girls (get) _______________________ married at the age of 18.
14
i. Roman soldiers (pay) ________________ for their own equipment and food.
j. The Romans (know) ________________ how to make soap and cement.

4. Complete the question for each answer.


THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN
a. When did the industrial revolution happen in Great Britain?
The Industrial Revolution happened during the second half of the 18th century in
Britain.
b. How …... ?
Work changed with the building of large factories.
c. What......... ?
The first factories produced iron, steel, and textiles.
d. What.......?
New technology encouraged the production of more ships, and railway equipment.
e. What power ......., ,..
Factories used steam power.
f. What….?
These factories required lots of coal for the steam engines.
g. Where…..?
Manufacturers constructed their factories close to coal mines.
h. Why....?
They decided to do this because it was expensive to transport coal.
i. What….?
Factories also needed limestone and iron ore, for the manufacture of steel.
j. Where .... ?
Industry in the UK developed near the coal fields of South Wales, the Midlands,
north-east England and central Scotland.

5. Rewrite each statement about the playwright William Shakespeare as a yes/


no question.

15
a. He came from a rich family.
Q. Did he come from a rich family?
A. No, not really. His father was a glove maker.
b. He grew up in London.
Q. …?
A. No, in Stratford-upon-Avon, a small town about 160 km from London.
c. He went to school.
Q. …?
A. Yes, we think so.
d. He knew Latin.
Q. …?
A Yes, he learnt Latin at school, and some Greek as well.
e. He got married.
Q. …?
A. Yes, he was only 18 when he married Anne Hathaway, aged 26.
f. They had children.
Q. …?
A. Yes, a daughter Susanna, and twins, a boy Hamnet and a girl Judith.
g. He began writing plays in Stratford.
Q. …?
A. We don’t really know. We only know that after 1592 he was an actor and writer in
London.
h. He wrote 37 plays all by himself.
Q. …?
A Well, we know he wrote two plays together with John Fletcher. Some people think
that all his plays were really written by somebody else.
i. He made up all the characters and plots of his plays.
Q. …?
A. Actually no. He borrowed lots of ideas from other writers. This was quite usual in
his time.

16
h. He became rich and famous.
Q. …?
A. He certainly became quite rich, and his plays were popular. But he only became
really famous in the 18th century and later.

6. Seven of the sentences (including the example) contain historical errors. Guess
which ones are wrong and rewrite them with a negative past simple form.
a. Alexander the Great married Cleopatra. Alexander the Great didn’t marry
Cleopatra.
b. Nelson Mandela became President of South Africa in 1994.
c. Leonardo da Vinci invented the Internet.
d. Confucius the Chinese philosopher died in 1900.
e. Marco Polo stayed in China for five years.
f. The ancient Romans used steam engines in their battles.
g. Genghis Khan invaded Italy and captured Rome.
h. Christopher Columbus reached America by accident.
i. William Shakespeare wrote Don Quixote.

7. Complete the questions with a positive or negative past simple tag.


a. Before the French Revolution, the king did whatever he wanted to do, didn’t he?
b. All the people paid high taxes, so they weren't very happy, …. ?
c. The people didn't have enough to eat, … ?
d. The government tried to introduce new taxes, …?
e. The people formed a National Assembly, … ?
f. The Assembly took power from the king, ... ?
g. The king tried to leave France, ... ?
h. The government executed thousands af aristocrats, … ?
i. It also killed the king and the queen, ... ?
j. Napoleon Bonaparte took over the government and later became Emperor, ...?

17
8. Complete the text wit h the past simple affirmative, negative or question
forms of the verbs in brackets.
LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895)
As a young man, Pasteur a studied at the Ecole Normale in Paris. Then at the age of
just 32, he b (become)______________ a professor at the University of Lille. In
1856, Pasteur c (receive)______________ a visit from a man called Bigo who d
(own)_____________ a factory that e (make) __________alcohol from sugar beet.
He f (have)_____________ a question for Pasteur: why g (the alcohol / turn / to
acid?) ___________________? When this h (happen)__________________ , they i
(not can) ____________ use it and j (throw )_________________ it away. Bigo k
(ask) _________________ Pasteur to find out the reason for this.
At first, Pasteur I (not know) ___________, but when he m (examine)__________
the alcohol under a microscope, he n (find)___________________thousands of tiny
micro-organisms. He o (believe)______________that they p (cause)________ the
problem. q (milk, wine and vinegar / behave /in the same way?) __________?
Other scientists r (disagree) ______________ with him, and newspapers s (make)
__________________ fun of him. However, Pasteur t (continue)______________
with his work, he u (invent)_________________ methods of testing his theory and v
(prove)________________ that he was right. Later he w (work)______________
together with two doctors and x (develop) ______________ vaccines for diseases
such as anthrax and rabies.

EXTENTION ACTIVITY
1. Write five sentences about a famous historical figure from your country.
2. Speak about your childhood.
3. Speak about your university.

18
UNIT 3. PRESENT CONTINUOUS
FORM
+
I am (‘m)
You /We/They are (‘re) moving
He/She/It is (‘s)

I am not (‘m not)
You /We/They are not (aren’t) studying
He/She/It is not (isn’t)
?
Am I going? – Yes, I am/No, I am not (‘m not).
Are you /we/they waiting? – Yes, they are / No, they are not (aren’t).
Is he/she/it singing? – Yes, he is/No, he is not (isn’t).

Spelling rules

 One-syllable verbs ending in one vowel + one consonant, double the consonant
and add –ing: sit – sitting; get – getting; put – putting
 Verbs ending in -e, drop -e before adding –ing: like – liking; write – writing
 Verbs ending in -ie change -ie to –y: lie – lying; die – dying
 Two-syllable verbs ending in one vowel and one consonant usually double the
final consonant and add –ing: travel – travelling; admit – admitting
 All other verbs add –ing: play – playing; feel – feeling; try - trying

We use present continuous for

 actions happening at the moment of speaking, and not finished:


Sorry, I am busy at the moment. I am doing my homework.
 continuing, unfinished actions which are not actually happening t the moment
of speaking with verb like work, learn, read, study, etc.:
What are you doing in science? – We’re learning about the universe.

19
 changing situations, with verbs like become, get, grow, change, increase, or
with expressions such as more and more:
The Earth is becoming warmer.
More and more people are leaving the countryside.
 a future arrangement, with a time reference:
We are leaving tomorrow.

Present Continuous or Present Simple?

The Earth moves round the Sun (present simple = a general fact)
The floor is moving. It’s an earthquake! (present continuous = at the moment)
Most scientists work with computers. (present simple = a general fact)
I’m working on my science project. (present continuous = at the moment)

We don’t use Present Continuous for state verbs:

Thoughts and opinions: think, understand, know, suppose, believe, want, wish,
remember, forget, depend, agree, consider;
Feelings: like, love, hate, feel, prefer, need;
Senses: see, hear, smell, feel, taste (we use can or could with these verbs) ;
Other verbs: appear (= seem), be, belong, contain, fit, have (= possess), include,
mean, look (= appear), need, prefer, require, seem, weigh.

EXERCISES
1. Complete the sentence with the affirmative form of the verb in brackets.a.
Look, all the people (leave) are leaving.
b. The Earth’s temperature (rise) ______________ because people (use)
_______________ too much energy.
c. She (study) _____________economics and he (study)___________philosophy.
d. You (stand) ______________ too close to the road.
e. We (stay) ____________________ in a lovely hotel by the beach.
f. I (go) __________________ to the supermarket now, do you need anything?
20
g. The cat (chase) ____________________ the dog.
h. Technology (become) __________________ cheaper all the time.
i. Pawel and Marek (train) _________________ for the football game next week.
j. Manuela (listen) ____________________ to the music in her room.

2. Underline the correct form.

a. Scientists do not understand/are not understanding everything about the


universe.
b. They disagree about some important facts. For example, does it get/is it getting
larger or smaller?
c. Although they don’t agree/are not agreeing about everything, there are some
facts about the universe which they are sure about.
d. Take the planet Venus, for example. Here the temperature reaches/is reaching
over 400C.
e. And another unusual fact about Venus is that a day there lasts/is lasting longer
than a year.
f. Many scientists still search/are still searching for life in other parts of the
universe.
g. Do they look/Are they looking for life on Venus?
h. It doesn’t seem/isn’t seeming to be the kind of place where life might exist.
i. The atmosphere of Venus consists/is consisting mainly of carbon dioxide (CO2).
j. And it has/is having an air pressure 90 times greater than that of Earth.

3. Complete the text with present continuous form of the verbs in brackets.

Good morning, everybody. I a (speak) am speaking from Mount Surprising, the


giant volcano. The team of scientists b (visit) ____________________ the volcano,
and I am here for Big TV, just in case anything exciting happens. I c (stand)
_______________________ here near the top of the crater, and d (look)
_____________________ down into the volcano. At the moment two scientists e
(climb) __________________________ down into the crater. It doesn’t look very
21
dangerous, I must say, but they f (wear) ________________________ special
clothes and a rescue team g (stand by) ______________________ just in case! A
little bit of smoke h (rise) ___________________ from the volcano, but that’s
normal. Now the scientists i (set) __________________ up their equipment. They j
(try) ______________________ to collect some gas, which will help them
understand what exactly k (go on) _____________________ under the volcano.
What a minute! Something l (happen)_______________________ ! The ground m
(shake) _____________________ ! The four scientists n (climb)
____________________ out of the volcano as quickly as they can. They o (shout)
____________________ something as well. I think it’s time to leave!

4. Complete the sentence with the negative form of the verb in brackets. Use
contractions.
a. As you know, the Marina space mission (go) is going according to plan.
b. As far as we can tell, the spacecraft (head for) _________________ the moon.
c. We can be sure because at the moment it (send) _________________ us any useful
information.
d. Some of the equipment on the spacecraft (work) _________________ properly.
e. As a result, we (receive) ________________ radio signals.
f. It seems that the solar power panels (point) ________________ at the Sun.
g. So as a result, they (produce) ___________________ enough power.
h. And t the moment Marina’s computer (respond) __________________ to our
signals.
i. We are trying to correct the problem but we (have) ________________ any luck.
j. However, we (give up) __________________ hope.

5. Use prompts to make a question.


a. the weather in your country/change Is the weather in your country changing?
b. it grow/warmer or colder _________________________________________?

22
c. storms/happen more often _________________________________________?
d. less snow/fall in winter ___________________________________________?
e. summer/get hotter _______________________________________________ ?
f. the changes/become a problem ______________________________________?
g. people/worry about this ___________________________________________?
h. they/do anything to help __________________________________________ ?

6. Complete the text with the present simple or present continuous forms of the
verbs in brackets.
Population a (mean) means the number of people who live in a particular area.

The population of the world b (not stay) _______________ the same. At the moment
it c (grow) __________________ at an increasing rate. In fact, scientists d (believe)
________________ that the world population will increase until 2200, and then stop
growing. However, things are not the same in all parts of the world. At present in
many Western industrial countries the population e (fall) ______________. This f
(happen)_______________ because families are small, and health conditions are
good. In developing countries, on the other hand, the population g (rise)
________________sharply. In Ghana, for example, most families h (have)
__________________ several children. Many children in Ghana
i (die) __________________ from illness, so it is important to have lots of children.
They earn money for the family and j (look after)_________________
their parents in old age.

7. Complete the sentence with the present simple or present continuous form of
the verb in brackets.
a. Everybody (know) knows that the world's rainforests (disappear) are
disappearing.

23
b. Although rainforests (cover) ___________________ only six per cent of the
Earth's land surface, they (contain) __________________ about 50% of all species
of life on the planet.
c. They also (remove)________________ carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air and
(produce) _________________ oxygen (O2).
d. As they are important, why (they / vanish) __________________________ ?
e. Most scientists (agree) __________________ that there are two main reasons.
f. First of all, the way of life in these forests (change) ___________________ .
g. In some forests, big companies (cut) ________________ down more and more
trees, (deforest) ___________________ and (cause) _________________ damage to
the land.
h. In other places, another kind of deforestation (happen) _________________
i. Here farmers (burn) ________________ more and more of the forest and (use)
_______________ the land to feed cattle.
j. Now that governments (understand) ____________________the problem, they
(begin)_______________________ to control these activities.

8. Underline the correct form.


Hello again from the rainforest. You won't believe this, but I a sit / am sitting in a
small boat on a river in South America. I b don't know / am not knowing the name of
the river in English, but now we c travel/ are travelling through the rainforest. It's
really hot, and water d drips / is dripping from my face, so I e apologize / am
apologizing for my bad handwriting. The batteries of my camera f run out / are
running out too, so don't expect many photos. The other problem here is the rain. It g
rains / is raining nearly every day, which is why they h call / are calling it a
rainforest I i suppose / am supposing! Luckily j it doesn't rain / it isn't raining at the
moment, but 1'll have to be quick. In general, I k have / am having a really good
time, and l find out / am finding out a lot about the flora and fauna in the rainforest.
The trees here m grow / are growing to 60 metres, which n makes / is making it very
dark all the time in the forest. There aren't really any paths, and people o travel / are
24
travelling everywhere by water, or by plane. Of course we ecotourists p take / are
taking I this trip for fun, because we q want / are wanting to. What else can I tell
you? Well, everything r smells / is smelling really bad here. And it's very noisy,
because the birds and animals s seem / are seeming to stay awake all night. Ugh,
sorry, a horrible spider t crawls / is crawling along my leg. That's all for now!

EXTENTION ACTIVITY
1. Write five true sentences about your continuing activities, with team, read, write,
study and try to.
2. Write five true sentences about yourself, people you know, your school, etc.
describing changing situations.
3. What do you think your mother / father / friend / brother / sister / dog / cat is doing
at the moment?

25
UNIT 4. PAST CONTINUOUS, USED TO
FORM
+
I/She/He/It was reading
We/You/They were studying

I/She/He/It was not (wasn’t) looking
We/You/They were not (weren’t) writing
?
Was I/she/he/it waiting? – Yes, I was/No, I was not (wasn’t)
Were we/you/they watching? – Yes, we were/No, we were not (weren’t)

We use past continuous


• for a continuing unfinished action in the past.
When Sue arrived at 9.30 am, four people were waiting outside the office.
• for a continuing unfinished action interrupted by a sudden past action.
While we were doing the maths test, the fire alarm went off.
• for activities as background description.
The rainforest was full of sounds. Birds were calling from the trees and
thousands of insects were buzzing and humming.
• for two continuing events happening at the same time.
While Cortes was talking to the emperor, his army was taking over the palace.

while, when
• Use while with past continuous for the time the event was happening.
• Use when with past simple for actions.
We can use other more descriptive time phrases instead of when.
At the moment the earthquake struck, most people were going about their normal
lives.

26
habits in the past
For describing habits and states in the past, it is more natural to use used to + verb
than past continuous, especially when we make contrasts with the present. We do not
mention the exact date.
Used to is unchangeable, and has only a past tense form.
Negative: didn't use to Question: Did you use to?
Rainforests used to cover a third of the Earth, but now they are getting smaller.
Once people didn't use to worry about this problem.
What games did you use to play in the playground at school?
Note: we also use past simple (+ frequency adverb) to describe habitual actions in the
past.
People once thought that the Sun travelled round the Earth.

EXERCISES
1. Underline the correct form.
a. While he took / was taking a bath, Archimedes discovered / was discovering the
principles of density and buoyancy.
b. When Edouard Benedictus, a French scientist, worked / was working in his
laboratory, he dropped / was dropping a glass bottle which had same plastic inside -
and invented / was inventing safety glass.
c. Columbus arrived / was arriving in America while he tried / was trying to reach
the Far East.
d. AIexander FIeming discovered / was discovering penicillin by accident while he
looked / was looking at some old experiments.
e. While Hiram Bingham climbed / was climbing in the mountains of Peru in 1911, he
discovered / was discovering the lost city of Macchu Picchu.
f .While Isaac Newton sat / was sitting under an apple tree, an apple fell / was falling
on his head, and he understood / was understanding gravity.

27
g. While Dr Harry Coover tried / was trying to invent a new kind of pIastic, he made
/ was making a very soft substance which stuck / was sticking things together. It was
Superglue.
h. While he observed / was observing the Moon through his teIescope, Galileo
realized / was realizing that it had mountains and craters.

2. Use the prompts to make a question. The answers are in Exercise 1.


a. Where / Edouard Benedictus / work when he invented safety glass?
Where was Edouard Benedictus working when he invented safety glass?
b. Where / Columbus / try to go when he reached America? _______________ ?
c. Where / Isaac Newton / sit according to the story about gravity?__________ ?
d. What / Dr Harry Coover I'hope to invent? ___________________________ ?
e. What Galileo / look at / through his telescope? _______________________ ?

3. Complete the sentence with the past continuous form of the verb in brackets.
The sentences refer to Exercise 2.
a. Edouard Benedictus (not try) ____________________ to invent safety glass .
b. Alexander Fleming (not hope) ___________________ to discover penicillin.
c. Hiram Bingham (not Iook for) ______________ the lost city of Macchu Picchu.
d. Isaac Newton (not sit) _____________ in his study when he understood gravity.
e. Dr Harry Coover (not conduct) __________________ an experiment to discover a
kind of glue.

4. Complete the sentence with the past simple or past continuous form of the
verb in brackets.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT


a. While he (grow up) was growing up, the philosopher Aristotle was his teacher.
Alexander (become) became interested in science, medicine, philosophy and
literature.
28
b. While his father Philip (attend) _____________ his daughter's wedding, a young
nobleman (murder) ___________________ him. Alexander was king of Macedonia
at the age of 20.
c. While he (fight) ______________ his enemies in the north, the Greeks in the south
(start) _________________ a rebellion. He (destroy) _______________ all their
cities.
d. He (lead) __________________ his army against the Persian Empire through what
is now Turkey While he (stay) _______________________ in the ancient city of
Gordium, he (undo) ___________________ the Gordian knot. A legend
said that only a future king of Asia could do this.
e. While his army (march)_______________ through Persia, it (defeat) ________
Darius, the king of Persia.
f. He (found) _________________ the city of Alexandria at the mouth of the Nile
while he (visit) ________________ Egypt.
g. While he (travel) _____________________ with his army, he (give) _________
his name to many other towns.
h. He (kill) ___________ his friend Clitus in a quarrel, while they (have) ________
_____________ dinner.
i. While he (attack) ____________________ the city of Mali in India, he (receive)
_________ a serious wound from an arrow.
j. While he (attend) ______________ a banquet in Babylon in 323 BC, he (fall)
______________ ill and (die) ___________.

5. Complete the sentence with used to + a verb from the list.


write, spend, work, hold, help, act, teach, set, tell, do
a. Charles Dickens, the novelist, used to write until early in the morning, and then go
for long walks across London.
b. William Shakespeare ___________________ in some of his own plays.

29
c. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant ________________ exactly the same
things at the same time every day, so that people _______________ their watches by
his actions.
d. The author Agatha Christie ________________ her second husband with his
archaeological excavations.
e. The novelist James Joyce ____________________ English in the Italian city of
Trieste, and some people say that he __________________ his students the wrong
meanings of wards as a joke.
f. The novelist Marcel Proust __________________ in a special soundproof room.
g. The ancient Greek philosophers ________________ their classes outside in the
open air.
h. The Russian novelist Vladimir Nabokov____________________ his free time
studying and catching moths and butterflies.

6. Complete the sentence with used to + the verb in brackets in positive, negative
or question form.
a. What things (be) used to be different in the past?
b. For a start, all the continents (form) ________________ one large land mass.
c. Obviously, there (be) ___________________ cities and buildings, and forest
covered a third of the Earth.
d. The climate was different, and animals such as the hippopotamus and rhinoceros
(exist) ________________________ in northern Europe.
e. Many mountains in Europe (be) _________________ active volcanoes.
f. Early people (live) ____________________ in complex societies, but in small
groups in place where they could find food.
g. What (eat) ________________ ? They (eat) ________________ whatever they
could find.

30
h. Early people (stay) ________________________ in the same place, but (travel)
__________________ long distances, following the animals they needed for food.

7. Complete the text with the past simple or past continuous form of the verbs in
brackets.

THE VIKINGS IN AMERICA


According to Viking records, around the year 1,000, while some Viking sailors a
(look for) were looking for the coast of Greenland, they b (reach) ___________ the
eastern coast of America. While they c (live) ______________ there, they d (try)
_________________ to trade with the local Native Americans, known by the Vikings
as Skraelings, but in the end the Native Americans e (fight) ___________
them and f (drive) ______________ them out. After several attempts to return, the
Vikings g (give up) ____________________. In 1968, while some archaeologists h
(work)___________________in Newfoundland , they i (discover) ___________
the remains of one of the Viking settlements, and j (prove) _______________ that
this story was true.

Charles-Marie de la Condamine
In 1735 Charles-Marie de la Condamine k (sail) ____________________ to South
America. At that time, scientists l (argue) ___________________ about the shape
of the Earth. The French Academy m (want) __________________ him to take
measurements on the Equator, along with two other scientists. The work n (take)
_______________them eight years and in the end, another scientific team o (find)
_________________ the answer they p (look for) ________________ . While de la
Condamine q (travel) ______________________ home along the River Amazon, he
r (learn) __________________ many interesting things about the local people and
their way of life. When he s (arrive) _________________ in Paris in 1745, he t
(receive) _________________ a hero's welcome.

31
EXTENSION ACTIVITY
1. Make a list of ten things you used to do, but don't do any more, and say what you
do now.
2. Think of three things that were different when you were a child or your parents
were children. Begin There was (wasn’t)… or There were (weren’t)…

32
UNIT 5. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
FORM
+
I/ We/You/They have (‘ve) decided
She/He/It has (‘s) bought

I/ We/You/They have not (haven’t) decided
She/He/It has not (hasn’t) bought
?
Have I/we/you/they decided? – Yes, I have/No, I have not (haven’t)
Has he/she/it bought? – Yes, she has/No, she has not (hasn’t)

We use present perfect simple


• to describe an event in the past without a definite time.
Someone has broken a window in our c1assroom.
• to describe what someone has completed or achieved in a period of time.
I've finished my homework, and I've c1eaned my room.
• to describe how many things someone has done.
Scientists have found more than 30 unknown insects.
• to describe someone's experiences, what a person has done in life.
I've travelled by plane, but I haven't flown in a helicopter.
• to describe changes, comparing past and present.
Our climate has become much warmer.
We often use time words and phrases with present perfect simple to make the
meaning clear.
just, recently
Someone has just broken a window.
Scientists have recently found more than 30 unknown insects.
ever, never
Have you ever flown in a helicopter? I've never travelled by plane.
already (sooner than expected) : I've already finished my homework. It was easy!
yet (we expect something to happen soon): Have you finished yet?
33
not ... yet (for things which have not happened so far)
Peter hasn't phoned yet. I'm still waiting.
for and since
We use for with a length of time: She's worked here for ten years.
We use since with a point of time to describe when the period of time began: They've
lived here since 2001.
been and gone
A number of astronauts have been to the Moon (and have returned).
The space probe Voyager has gone past the planet Neptune (it hasn't returned).

EXERCISES
1. Complete the sentence using a verb from the list in present perfect simple
form.
collect, put up, install, recycle, organize, replace, paint, send, plant, show
What we have done to make our school a greener place?
a. We have sent information leaflets to all parents.
b. We ________________information posters in every classroom.
c. We _________________ over five tones of litter for recycling.
d. We ______________________fifteen trees in front of the schoo1.
e. We ______________________ 50 light bulbs with energy-saving bulbs.
f .We _______________________ 25 ink cartridges from computer printers.
g We _______________________ three films about how to save energy .
h. We _______________________ signs on all the doors reminding people to turn
off the lights.
i. We _______________________ five new energy-saving heaters.
j. We _______________________ teams of students to turn off unused lights.

2. Use the prompts to make a question.


a. you / ever / see a humming bird? Have you ever seen a humming bird?
It's the world smallest bird.
34
b. you / ever / read War and Peace? ______________________________
It's one of the longest 19th-century novels.
c. you / ever / visit San Marino? _________________________________
It's Europe's second smallest country.
d. you / ever / swim in the Pacific Ocean? __________________________
It's the largest ocean in the world.
e. you / ever / take a trip to the Sahara Desert? _______________________
It's one of the hottest places in the world.

3. Read these sentences about fish. Then put the verb in brackets into present
perfect simple form.
a. About 15% of protein eaten by humans (always come) has always come from fish.
b. Recently, however, the number of fish (fall) ______________________
c. Several things (cause) _______________________ this problem.
d. Most scientists agree that governments (not do) ___________________ enough to
stop overfishing.
e. This means that fish populations (grow) _____________________ smaller.
f. Many fish (not reproduce) _____________________ fast enough to replace their
numbers.
g. The population of North Sea cod, for example, (reach) ____________________ a
dangerous level.
h. EU laws (reduce) ________________________ the numbers of fishing boats.
i. As a result, many fishermen in traditional fishing ports (lose) _______________
their jobs.
j. In recent years, fish in the UK (become) _____________________ expensive, and
many people (stop) __________________ eating it.

4. Complete each sentence with one of the time words in the list. You will need to
use some words more than once.
yet; for; already; since
35
IN THE LABORATORY....
a. 'Haven't you left yet? '
b. 'No. I've been here ______________ 8.00 this morning.'
c. 'Have you checked the results of the experiment _____________?’
d. 'Yes, I've _________________ done that.'
e. 'We've worked on this project _________________ three weeks. Unfortunately we
haven't discovered anything interesting __________________ ‘
f. 'No, nothing has happened _________________ last Tuesday.'
g. 'Yes, I know. I've ___________________ seen your report.'
h. 'So I'm going to do the experiment again. But I haven't started it ____________’
i. 'Don't bother. I've ______________ started it. I haven't checked _____________,
but I think we're going to get the same results.'

5. Complete the sentence with have been or have gone.


a. Two scientists from a laboratory in Oxford a have gone to Antarctica, and will stay
there for three months. They b__________________ there to investigate the effects
of global warming on the polar ice. Colleagues in Oxford, who c________ to
Antarctica on earlier expeditions, will keep in touch with them by radio.
b. A team from London has arrived in China. They d______________ there to join a
project which is searching for the fossil remains of dinosaur eggs. 'We e
(not)________________ to China before,' said team leader Mark Jones, 'though two
of us f __________________to the USA where there is a similar project.'
c A dangerous spider is missing from a private zoo in Manchester. 'Herbie is a
Brazilian wandering spider, and we're not sure where he g _______________, said
spokesperson Anne Graham. 'He only arrived in the zoo last month, so he h (not)
______________ here long. A lot of children i____________________ to the zoo in
the past few days, and we are worried that someone has taken Herbie, or that he j
_________________out in somebody's pocket, and they don 't know about it.'

36
6. Use the prompts to make a present perfect simple question about scientific
advances. Then answer yes or no.
a. scientists / discover a cure for the common cold?
Have scientists discovered cure for the common cold?
b. people / live for long periods in space?
c. human beings / land on Mars yet?
d. scientists / invent time travel yet?
e. doctors / manage to transplant human hearts?
f. archaeologists / find the lost city of Atlantis?
g. scientists / ever teach an animal to talk?

7. Read the text about climate change. Choose the correct form, A or B, to
complete the sentence.
At the moment, scientists agree that the world's climate a B warmer over the past 50
years, but they disagree about the causes. Same believe that human activities b _____
climate change. They argue that for 1,000 or 2,000 years before 1850, when records c
_______ , the temperature was more or less stable. Short warm or cold periods
d_____ during that time, but the climate always e ______ to the same level.
However, since the Industrial Revolution, human beings f ______ more and more
fossil fuels, such as coal and oil. In 1800 the atmosphere g ______ around 280 parts
per million of carbon dioxide (CO2). Since then there h ______ an increase of about
31%. This extra carbon dioxide I ______ the world's temperature because of the
greenhouse effect.
Other scientists disagree that human activities over the past 50 years j ______ global
warming. They point out that volcanoes and other natural processes k _____ CO2
into the atmosphere, and that human activity I _____ a rise in CO2 of only three per
cent.
In 1999, 156 countries m ______ the Kyoto protocol, part of a United Nations
agreement on climate change, which n ______ into force in 2005.They o ______ to

37
reduce their emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, although so far, same
countries, such as the USA and Australia, p _____ any action.
a. A became B has become
b. A caused B have caused
c. A began B have begun
d. A occurred B have occurred
e. A returned B has returned
f. A burned B have burned
g. A contained B has contained
h. A was B has been
i. raised B has raised
j A caused B have caused
k. A always released B have always released
l. A contributed B has contributed
m. A signed B have signed
n. A came B has come
o. A agreed B have agreed
p. A did not take B have not taken

EXTENTION ACTIVITY
1.Make a list of ten things you have done, or have never done in your life so far.
2. Imagine that you return to your old school after 20 years. A lot of things have been
done, and the place looks very different. Can you think of six or more changes?
Eg A new library has been built.
My old classroom has been turned into a museum.
Useful vocabulary: build, close down, extend, modernise, open, pull down, rebuild,
renovate, repair, turn into

38
UNIT 6
FUTURE TIME
present continuous future
• Use for a fixed arrangement in the future e.g. an event already written in a diary.
I'm coming back next Thursday
We're having a party next Friday Would you like to come?
Note that there is usually a time reference.
What are you doing next week?

present simple
• Use for an event that always happens at a certain time, or is part of a timetable.
The conference begins on Tuesday at 10.00.
will, going to or present continuous?
When we make predictions will and going to are both possible.
I think Helen is going to win. I think Helen will win.
We use going to when we talk about plans.
We're going to go to France next year (a plan)

present continuous
We use present continuous when we talk about an arrangement that is definitely
fixed.
We're leaving for France on Monday (we've bought the tickets)
When we see that an event has already started to happen, we use going to.
Look at that ship! It's going to hit the rocks!

future continuous will + be + -ing


Use future continuous
• to describe an activity in progress in the future, with a time reference.
This time next week 1'11be starting at my new school.
What will you be doing in ten years' time?
future perfect will + have + past participle
39
Use future perfect
• to look back from the future to an earlier event, often with by or by the time.
By the time we get home, the match will have begun.

future time clauses following time words


A future time clause follows a time word or phrase.
after as soon as before by the time until when
In sentences referring to the future, the verb following the time word or phrase is
present simple, and the main verb is a will-future.
By the time we reach the station, it will be too late.
When we emphasize completion or achievement, we can use a present perfect simple
verb instead of a present simple verb.
We'll let you know when we have reached a decision.

EXERCISES
1. Complete each sentence using a verb from the list in the present simple form.
Then match each sentence a to j with a description 1 to 10 of where you might
read or hear it.
close, retire, continue, rise, expire, start, leave, take off, open, take place.
a. Mrs. Douglas retires at the end of this term, and we wish her all happiness for the
future.
b. There has been a change to the schedule and your flight now________ at 18.40.
c. The exhibition _____________ until 31 December. Don't miss it.
d. The match ________________ at three o'clock, so please be here by two.
e. The opening ceremony _______________ on 27 July.
f. Saturday 18 March. The sun ________________ at 6.08.
g. The licence for this software ___________ one year from the agreement date.
h. This offer ________________ on 30 September so buy now to avoid
disappointment!
i. The 4.30 to York ___________________ from Platform 1. Cross the footbridge at
the end of this platform.
40
j. Doors ________________ at 18.00.
__________________________________________________________________
1. Cinema door 2. Advertisement 3. Airport check-in desk 4. News announcement
5. Travel information desk 6. CD-Rom leaflet 7. School newsletter 8. Newspaper
review 9. Notice on a sports club notice board 10. Diary.

2. Complete each sentence using a verb from the list in the present continuous
form.
leave; take; show; give; serve; come; pick up; arrive; meet

a. We are holding a science fair next weekend. There will be displays of students'
work, and a guest speaker.
b. Professor Tamsin Anderson ________________ from Cambridge to talk to us.
c. She _________________ a talk on the Genorne Project on Saturday morning.
d. In the afternoon she ___________________ us a film.
e. Then at 5.30 we ____________________ tea and cakes.
f. Have you heard from Dr Anderson?' 'Yes. She __________________ at 6.00 on
Friday evening.
g. ‘_______________ anyone ____________________ her at the station?'
h. David and his parents _____________________ her and _______________her to
the hotel.'
i. 'And after the conference?' 'She ___________________on Sunday at 12.30.'

3. Underline the correct form.


a. 'Be careful with that test tube. It will break / it breaks.'
b. 'The egg is cracking. The baby bird will come out / is going to come out / comes
out.'
c. 'Can you hurry up please. The film will start / is going to start / starts.'
d. 'Carry this very carefully.'
'Don't worry, I’m not dropping it / I won 't drop it.'
e. 'We're playing / We 'll play football this afternoon. Do you want to play too?'
41
f. 'This dictionary costs €50, but the red one is cheaper.'
'Ok, I’ll take / I’m taking / I’m going to take the red one.'
g. 'Have you decided about next year yet?'
'Yes, I’m studying / I’m going to study / I’ll study journalism. Well, that's the plan
anyway.'
h. 'Ok, bye for now.'
'Bye, I’ll see you / I’m going to see you / I’m seeing you at the same time on Friday.'

4. Complete each sentence with a phrase from the list.


I'll be waiting; I’ll be lying; I'll be watching; I'll be living; I'll be starting; I'll be
going; I'll be catching; I'll be working
a. Next Tuesday at this time I’ll be lying on the beach!
b. ________________________outside the cinema at 7.30. See you then!
c. All tomorrow afternoon ______________________on my history project.
d. This time next week ____________________________ my holiday!
e. In three years' time ______________________ into the army.
f. Don't phone at 9.00, because ____________________ the match then.
g. In ten years' time, I expect _______________________in my own fiat.
h. This time tomorrow _____________________ the plane to Brazil!

5. Complete each sentence using will have (done) or won't have (done) + the verb
in brackets, according to your opinion.
In my opinion, by the end of the 21st century:
a. People (start) will have started living on other planets.
b. Scientists (invent) __________________ artificial food.
c. We (find) _____________________ a solution to the problem of poverty.
d. Doctors (discover) _________________ a cure for cancer.
e. Most people (move) _________________ to very large cities.
f. We (use) ____________________ all the fossil fuel on Earth.
g. The world (become) ________________ a peaceful place.
h. People (make) ________________________ the environment cleaner.
42
UNIT 7. TAG QUESTIONS

Tag question forms


We can put a tag at the end of a statement to make a question. We use the verb in the
statement to make the tag, using an auxiliary if necessary. The noun in the statement
becomes a pronoun in the tag.
In the most common types of tag question, a positive verb has a negative tag.
You like pizza, don't you? (I'm not sure)
A negative verb has a positive tag.
Andrew won't be angry, will he? (I want you to tell me that he won't)

Types of tag questions


• positive verb, negative tag
When we use a positive verb and a negative tag, we generally expect a yes answer.
Russia produces a lot of natural gas, doesn't it? Yes, it does.
A lot of diamonds come from South Africa, don't they? Yes, they do.

• negative verb, positive tag


When we use a negative verb and a positive tag, we generally expect a no answer.
There aren't any active volcanoes in Scotland, are there? No, there aren't.
Switzerland doesn't belong to the EU, does it? No, it doesn't.

Intonation and meaning


The meaning of the question depends on the intonation we use. When the intonation
falls or is level, we are checking information we already know.
There are mountains in New Zealand, aren't there? Yes, that's right.
When the intonation rises, we are asking a question. That's not the Greek flag, is it?
No, you're right. The Greek flag is blue and white.

43
After Let’s… the question tag is shall we?
Let’s go out for a walk, shall we?
After the imperative (do/don’t do something) the tag is will you?
Open the door, will you? Don’t be late, will you?
Notice that we say aren’t I? (= am I not?)

So and neither answers


In speech, we use so or neither to add similar information without repeating the main
verb. We use only an auxiliary (be, have, can, etc) after so and neither.
We use so to add information following a positive statement.
Stromboli is an active volcano. So is Etna.
Volcanoes cause great damage. So do hurricanes.
We use neither to add information following a negative statement.
Japan doesn't produce its own oil. Neither does Korea.
A computer can't work without electricity. Neither can a car.

EXERCISES

1. Put a question tag on the end of each sentence.

Examples: Tom won’t be late, will he? They were very angry, weren’t they?
a. Ann’s on birthday, ___________________?
b. You weren’t listening, ________________?
c. Sue doesn’t like onions, ______________?
d. Jack’s applied for the job, _____________?
e. You’ve got a camera, _________________?
f. You can type, _______________________?
g. He won’t mind if I go early, ___________?
h. Tom could help you, _________________?
i. There are a lot of people here, __________?
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j. Let’s have dinner, ____________________?
k. This isn’t very interesting, _____________?
l. I am too fat, _________________________?
m. You wouldn’t tell anyone, _____________?
n. Listen, _____________________________?
o. I shouldn’t have got angry, _____________?
p. Don’t drop it, ________________________?
q. They had to go home, __________________?
r. He’d never seen you before, _____________?
s. Madagascar isn't in the Atlantic Ocean, _______________?
t. Astronauts haven't landed on Mars, __________________?
u. The climate won't get any worse, ___________________?
v. The Romans didn't sail to America, _________________?
w. Chickens can't fly, ____________________?
x. The world's population isn't growing in all countries,______________ ?
y. Peter lives in London, ___________________?
z. I am early, _________________?

2. Choose the correct sentence, A or S, for each situation.


Example: A You always know the answer, in fact!

A. You know the answer, don't you? B You don't know the answer, do you?
a. _____________ I'm sure I left it here, but now I can't find it.
A. You have seen my bag, haven't you? B. You haven't seen my bag, have you?
b. _____________ I knew that he would pass.
A. Jack passed the exam, didn't he? B. Jack didn't pass the exam, did he?
c. _____________ Oh no! That means I'm going to get wet!
A. It's raining, isn't it? B. It's not raining, is it?
e. _____________ You ought to get one. It's a much better way to travel in the city.
A. You've got a bike, haven't you? B. You haven't got a bike, have you?
45
f.______________ So we can talk about the final plans then.
A. You'll be here next week, won't you? B. You won't be here next week, will you?
g. ______________ You're really good at it, so I'm sure it isn't the first time.
A. You've played this game before, haven't you? B. You haven't played this game
before, have you?
h. ______________ Why didn't you tell me, I thought he'd already left.
A. Mr. Jones is still waiting for me, isn't he? B. Mr. Jones isn't still waiting for me, is
he?

3. Use the information to write two sentences. Begin the second sentence with the
word in capitals.

Example: Most portable radios and most CD players need batteries for power. SO
Most portable radios need batteries for power. So do most CD players.
a. Airships and helicopters don't need a runway to land. NEITHER
b. Diesel engines and petrol engines produce exhaust fumes. SO
c. Wind power and wave power don't cause air pollution. NEITHER
d. Computers and calculators use e1ectronic microchips. SO
e. A wireless keyboard and wireless mouse don't require a connecting cable.
NEITHER
f. Some cookers and lighting systems can use solar power. SO

EXTENTION ACTIVITY
1. Make a list of ten personal check questions with tags and ask another member of
the class.
2. Make a list of ten quiz check questions with tags and ask another member of the
class.

46
UNIT 8. Ing-FORM

Spelling rules

 One-syllable verbs ending in one vowel + one consonant, double the consonant
and add –ing: sit – sitting; get – getting; put – putting
 Verbs ending in -e, drop -e before adding –ing: like – liking; write – writing
 Verbs ending in -ie change -ie to –y: lie – lying; die – dying
 One- and two-syllable verbs ending in one vowel and one consonant usually
double the final consonant and add –ing: travel – travelling; admit – admitting
 All other verbs add –ing: play – playing; feel – feeling; try – trying

We use ing-form

 after verbs of feeling and opinion etc. : admit, avoid, consider, deny, dislike,
enjoy, fancy, feel like, finish, can't help, involve, keep, mean, mind, miss,
practise, risk, can't stand, suggest.

Having a healthy lifestyle involves following a balanced diet which means eating
a variety of fruit and vegetables and avoiding too many sweet or fatty foods, and
also taking regular exercise.

 after expressions with it's: it's no good, it's no use, it's not worth

It's not worth taking an umbrella. It's not going to rain.

 after expressions with spend: spend (one's) time, spend (quality) time

1spent my time swimming and sunbathing. Anna spent a lot of time researching
her project.

 after expressions with like. We can use -ing and to-infinitive after like.

1don 't like getting up early. I like to watch TV late at night.

47
 after verbs followed by -ing or to-infinitive with different meanings

stop: It's a good idea to stop eating sweets between meals. (stop an activity).
They stopped to buy food, and then continued their journey (stop in order to.

try: Try going for a swim - it's a good way to get fit. (see if it works)
They tried to reach the island, but it was too far away (make an effort)

remember: Remember to warm up before you start exercising. (don't forget)


I remember going to school for the first time. (past memory)

 after prepositions following a verb or an adjective: be interested in, apologize


for, be used to, accuse (someone) of, specialize in, succeed in, insist on

Are you interested in joining a tennis club? I must apologize for arriving late. I
am not used to staying up so late. They accused Rick of stealing the money.

 After come and go in expressions, mainly connected with sport, but not team
games. We also use shopping in this way.

Do you want to come swimming / sailing / running with us? They've gone
shopping.

 We use -ing form as subject

Adding and subtracting decimals is similar to adding and subtracting whole


numbers.

EXERCISES

1. Add –ing to the following verbs and put them into the correct column.
Run, swim, play, lie, die, read, travel, cycle, put, ride, drink, write, fly, take, cut,
sleep, eat, sail, cry, sing, fish, sit, keep, finish, be, do, know, shout, like, ask.

48
+ing ie → y+ing e → ing double consonant +
ing

2. Underline the correct word or phrase.


a. New research shows same young people can't help / consider / risk eating food
which contains large amounts of sugar, salt, and animal fat.
b. Many young people also avoid / enjoy / keep taking any exercise.
c. They don 't even avoid / enjoy / suggest walking to school or playing active games
with their friends.
d. For too many young people, enjoyment feels like /involves /keeps sitting in front of
the television, or in front of a computer playing games.
e. Of course if they involve / keep / suggest doing this, they are very likely to have
health problems at an early age.
f. Health experts consider / mean / suggest taking hard exercise at least three times a
week.
g. This can't help / keeps / means running, cycling or swimming.
h. So even if you don't avoid / feel like / risk taking exercise, it's important to
organize regular exercise activities.
i. You could go / involve / practise swimming or jogging, for example.
j. You may also consider / involve / keep changing your diet, and eating more fruit
and fresh vegetables.

3. Complete each sentence a to h with an ending from 1 to 8.

a. For a Roman soldier, joining the Roman army meant ...6. ....
b. He received wages, but had to spend money too, since being in the army involved
……...
c. In the early days of Rome, everyone became a soldier and young men couldn't
avoid ………..
d. However, as time went on, fewer Romans served as soldiers. The army stopped ….
49
e. When the army was at the height of its power, an enemy who considered …………
f. Unless the enemy had very large numbers of soldiers or attacked by surprise, they
risked …………
g. Foreign armies were often disorganized and ran away, but the Romans always kept
…………
h. The Romans were more successful because their soldiers spent more time ...........

1. ……….... being completely destroyed by the ancient world's best fighting force.
2. ………… buying his own food, uniform and weapons.
3. ………… attacking it faced very serious problems.
4. ………… taking all the young Roman men, and service became voluntary.
5. ……….... fighting, until the end if necessary, and rarely surrendered.
6. ………… remaining in service from 20 to 30 years.
7. ……….... training to use their weapons, and fighting in organized groups.
8. ……….... serving in the army if there was a war, as it was compulsory.

4. Complete the text with the -ing or to-infinitive form of the verbs in brackets.

People who remember a (do) to do everything they have planned are usually
people who organize their tasks in some way, and avoid b (get) ____________ into a
muddle. A shopping list is a good example of this technique, provided you remember
c (take) ______________ the list with you when you go d (shop) _____________ It's
sometimes possible to remember a fact, for example, if first of all you stop e (think)
____________ for a few moments. When you try f (remember) _________________
something, this will be easier if you have learnt it in an organized way. If you are not
sure how to do this, try g (write) _____________ brief notes about the text you are
reading. Many people find this an effective way of learning. After all, it’s easy to
read something and not understand or remember it, usually because you have stopped
h (pay) ________________ attention.

50
5. Complete the text with a word from the list. You will have to use some words
more than once.

at between by for in on of
Galileo
As well as being a scientist, Galileo was interested a in___ painting and music. He
started his studies b ______________ attending medical school in Padua. Unlike
most scientists at that time, who usually relied c ________________ discussing the
facts, not trying to prove them, he recognized the importance d____________ doing
experiments to prove the facts. He is famous e _______________ dropping different
weights from the Tower of Pisa to prove that all bodies fall at the same rate, though
this is probably not a true story. Through practice, he aIso became good f__________
observing the stars, and identified craters on the Moon, sunspots, and the moons of
Jupiter. As a result g ___________ studying the planet Venus, he succeeded h _____
proving that Copernicus was correct, and that the Earth moved around the Sun.
Unfortunately, the Church authorities accused him i ________________ publishing
unacceptable ideas. In the end he was forced to choose j __________________ being
punished by the Church, or denying his own ideas. He spent most of the last nine
years of his life imprisoned in his own house.

6. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals.

Fossils are the remains of animals, plants, and other organisms preserved in rocks.
The word fossil comes from the Latin word fossus, meaning 'having been dug up'.

a. Does fossil-collecting interest you? INTERESTED


Are you interested in fossil-collecting?
b. Do you have to walk long distances? INVOLVE
c. I often find rocks that aren't really fossils. KEEP
d. When you look for fossils on a cliff, you could fall. RISK

51
e. I really think this is the wrong place to look for fossils. HELP
f. You have to get up early to go on the club trip. MEANS
g. I left my hammer at home. REMEMBER
h. I want to sit down and have a rest! FEEL
i. I know how to find fossils. GOOD
j. Don't take up a hobby unless you're serious about it. WORTH

7. Rewrite each sentence so that it begins with an -ing form as subject.

a. It can be very relaxing to collect fossils.


Collecting fossils can be very relaxing.
b. It can be very difficult to give up smoking.
c. It isn't a good idea to do an exam without revising.
d. It is fun to learn a new sport.
e. It takes lots of hard work to learn a foreign language.
f. It was very exciting to see my favourite band play live.
g. It will never be possible to live on Mars.
h. It took a long time to write the report.
i. It is so tiring walking up this mountain!
j. It is illegal to drive without a licence.

8. Complete the text with the -ing form or to-infinitive of the verbs in brackets.

The first explorers to cross Australia


John Stuart decided a (cross) to cross Australia from south to north in 1859. He
wanted b (win) __________________ a prize offered by the South Australian
government. This meant c (travel) ____________________ across mountains and
desert for 3,000 kilometres. He and his three companions kept d (ride) ___________
for eight months before reaching the centre of the continent. What had they expected
e (find)_____________? So far they had only succeeded in f (discover) __________
52
a huge desert. On this expedition Stuart failed g (reach) _______________the coast,
and turned back ill and short of food. He tried h (complete) _________________ the
journey the next year, but failed again. Finally in 1861 he managed i(arrive) _______
at the northern coast, near the modern city of Darwin. Ever since he has been famous
for j (cross) __________________ the continent, though sadly he died soon after his
return to Adelaide.

9 Use Infinitive or ing-form in place of the verbs in brackets.


1. We read this book in class last year. Do you remember (read) it?
2. He was very forgetful. He never remembered (lock) the garage door when he used
the car. 3. I clearly remember (pay) the bill a month ago.
4. Remember (take) the tickets, please! – Yes, I have them in my pocket already.
5. Did you remember (post) the letter? – Yes, I quite clearly remember (post) it two
days ago. 6. She remembers part of her childhood quite clearly. She remembers (go)
to school for the first time and (cry) as she was afraid of (stay) with so many children.
7. He forgot (bring) his exercise-book; he left it at home. 8. Here is your dictionary.
Thank you! – Oh. I forgot (lend) it to you a fortnight ago. Thank you for bringing it.
9. Remember (give) him the key – he ought to feel quite at home. 10. Why are you
late again? Have you forgotten (promise) me that you would be on time?

10. Translate from Russian:


1. Я против того, чтобы идти туда в такой поздний час. 2. Вы не будете
возражать, если я открою дверь? 3. Недавно он бросил курить. 4. Я хорошо
помню, что встретил его пять лет назад. 5. Попробуйте носить солнцезащитные
очки. Вы почувствуете себя намного лучше. 6. Я люблю читать. Чтение – моё
любимое занятие. 7. Перестаньте разговаривать, я совершенно не слышу
лектора 8. Мы остановились, чтобы спросить, как пройти к озеру. 9. Я
предложил поехать туда на машине, но мои друзья не согласились. 10. Как
насчёт того, чтобы провести день на открытом воздухе? 11. Избегайте читать
при плохом освещении. 12. Бессмысленно давать ему советы – он всё равно не
53
принимает их к сведению. 13. Окна в этой комнате очень грязные, их
необходимо вымыть. 14. Я очень сожалею, что опоздал. 15. Я вовсе не
намеревался идти сегодня в кино. 16. Ребёнок шёл очень осторожно, он боялся
упасть. 17. Перед отъездом на юг не забудьте мне позвонить. 18. Почему вы
пошли туда пешком вместо того, чтобы поехать на автобусе? 19. Он удивил нас
тем, что ушёл, не попрощавшись. 20. Я очень жалею, что купил подержанную
машину – мне приходится ремонтировать её каждые две недели. 21. Все дети
любят, чтобы их водили в цирк. 22. Он пошёл на работу, несмотря на то, что
врач велел ему остаться дома. 23. Он занят подготовкой к докладу, у него
сейчас мало свободного времени. 24. Не стоит хранить старые журналы – время
идёт. 25. Вы забыли, что обещали мне заказать билеты заранее?

EXTENTION ACTIVITY

1. Choose eight verbs from the list and write true sentences about yourself.
(admit, avoid, consider, deny, dislike, enjoy, fancy, feel like, finish, can't help,
involve, keep, mean, mind, miss, practise, risk, can't stand, suggest, stop, try,
remember, it’s worth, it's no good, it's no use)
2 Make a list of ten things you are interested in.

54
UNIT 9. MODALS: ABILITY, OBLIGATION (PTESENT AND FUTURE)

Ability: can, can't, cannot


Can't is the negative, with cannot as a formal and written form. There is no third
person -s form. Question forms are Can I, Can you etc.
Use can / can't
• to describe ability or lack of it. Many animals can see c1early in the dark. Human
beings can't do this.
• to describe what is allowed or not allowed. You can look at the animals in the zoo
but you can't touch them.
• with a future meaning. Sorry, but I can't come to the party next week.
• with verbs of perception: hear, see, taste, feel, smell. What can you see? I can
smell gas.

Ability: be able to
This has the same meaning as can.
Use be able to
• instead of can. Many animals are able to see in the dark.
• when can is unsuitable. Because can has only present and past forms, we use be
able to for other tenses, and infinitive form. I haven't been able to finish my project.
We hope to be able to visit you next month.

Obligation: have to / has to


The forms follow have: I have to, he / she has to etc; do I have to, does she have to; I
don't have to etc.
Use have to / has to
• to describe what is necessary, a rule, or something we do because other people tell
us to.
Baby birds have to learn how to fly or they won 't survive.
Do we have to buy another ticket to see this part of the castle?
55
The negative form, don't / doesn't have to, is used to describe something unnecessary.
I don 't have to go to work tomorrow. There's a holiday

Obligation: must / mustn't


The negative is mustn't, with must not is a formal and written form. There is no third
person -s form. Question form is must I, must you etc.
Use must to describe something we personally think is necessary and important
to do.
• There is sometimes little difference between first person I must and I have to. Sorry,
I really have to go now. Sorry, I really must go now!
• In other contexts, there is a difference.
You must be more careful! (= personal opinion of the speaker) We have to wear
safety goggles. (= an 'outside' opinion or rule)
• We usually use the question form of have to for must. Do I have to sit here?
• We use mustn't when we think an action is against the rules. You mustn't throw
things in the science lab! It's dangerous!
• Compare mustn't and don't have to. You mustn't use a pencil. (it's not allowed)
You don't have to use a pen. (it's not necessary- use a pen or a pencil)

Use should, ought to


• to say what we think is right or correct, or is a good idea in your opinion. This is not
as strong as must. You should pay more attention. You shouldn't talk so much.
• to give advice. I think you should study biology next year.
• in the same way ought to / ought not to has the same meaning as should / should
not.

Use had better


• to say what we think someone should do. There is only one form had better /'d
better. The negative is had better not.

56
You'd better wear your raincoat. It's going to rain. You'd better not wait too long.
You’ll be late.

Use need to
• with the same meaning as have to. Need to is not a modal verb.
You need to work harder. You don't need to come tomorrow. Do I need to bring my
dictionary?
Need is a modal verb and has no third person form. It is mainly used in questions and
negatives, and is more formal in use. Need I say morel He need not take the exam.

EXERCISES
1. Complete each sentence with can or can't + the verb in brackets. Use a form of
be able to if can / can't is not possible.

a. That shelf is too high. I (reach) can’t reach it


b. What's that noise? I (hear) _________________________ something.
c. There's something wrong with this door. I (open) ___________________it.
d. I'm really hungry! I (take) _____________________ my lunch break yet.
e. Sorry, I (come) ____________________tomorrow. I'll try and see you next week.
f. I really want (use) ______________________ a computer properly.
g. Don't push Harry in the water. He (swim) _________________________ .
h. I feel terrible. I (sleep)_____________________ for the past couple of nights.

2. Complete the sentence with must /mustn't. They are all strange but true laws.

a. In New Hampshire, USA, you mustn’t pick up seaweed from the beach.
b. In Louisiana, USA, schoolchildren ____________ call their teachers Sir or Ma'am.
c. In Canada you _____________________ let a llama eat grass in a national park.
d. In Italy, a man ____________________ wear a skirt in public.
e. In Illinois, USA, you _____________ use the steering wheel when you drive a car.
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f. In Michigan, USA, people ______________ swear in front of women and children.
g. In Baltimore, Maryland, USA, you _________________ take a lion into a cinema.
h. In Kentucky, USA, everyone____________ take at least one bath every year.

3. Complete the sentence with mustn't, or don't / doesn't have to.

a. You mustn’t stand on the desk. You'll break it.


b. We ________________ take an umbrella. I'm sure it isn't going to rain.
c. You _________________ put a stamp on this letter. It says FREEPOST on it.
d. We _________________ forget to take the presents with us when we go.
e. In our country children ____________________ go to school on Saturday.
f. You _________________ touch the ball. It's against the rules.

4. Complete the text with the verbs in brackets and a form of can or have to.

Rapid population growth a (cause) can cause problems. The government b


(provide)______________________more hospitals, schools and jobs, farmers c
(produce)____________________ more food and all the extra people d (have)
____________________ homes. In a less economically developed country, the
economy e (grow) ____________________ fast enough to deal with the problems.
Many countries realize that they f (control) _________________ population growth.
Some countries believe they can encourage family planning through education and
publicity. Other countries believe that they have such a serious problem that they g
(take) ____________________ special measures to control the number of people. In
China, for example, there is a 'one child' policy. Couples h (ask) ________________
permission from the government to marry, and women i (be)____________________
at least 25 years old. The couple then j (ask)____________________permission to
have a child, and are allowed only one.

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5. Complete the text to give advice on how to deal with a snake bite using should
or shouldn't.

a. You should stop the victim moving too much.


b. You __________________ give the victim a painkiller.
c. You _____________ check the person's temperature, breathing and blood pressure.
d. If the snake is dead, you ___________________ keep it for later examination.
e. You ______________________ cut into the bite.
f. You ______________________ keep the person calm.
g. You ______________________ try to suck out the poison wit h your mouth.
h. You ______________________ give them food and drink.

6. Add a comment to each situation, using the pronoun in brackets and an idea
from the list with had better.

take an umbrella don't play in the match check it in the dictionary leave now
wear a hat don't wake him up take some sandwiches call a taxi

a. I think it's going to rain. (we) We’d better take an umbrella.


b. H's a long way to the station. (you) ________________________
c. You don’t look very well. (you) ________________________
d. We might get hungry later. (we) ________________________
e. H's going to be hot today. (you) ________________________
f. The last train leaves in fifteen minutes. (we) ________________________
g. He's still asleep. (we) ________________________
h. That word doesn't look right. (you) ________________________

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7. Read these test tips for maths. Then complete each sentence so that it contains
the word or words in capitals. Leave out any unnecessary words.
a. It's important for you to think about all the information given. NEED TO
You need to think about all the information given
b. Don't worry about spelling, but you should try to be as accurate as you can.
NEEDN’T
You _____________________________________
c. It's necessary for you to identify all the necessary steps to solve a problem.
NEED TO
You _____________________________________
d. You have to understand technical words, e.g. equation. NEED TO
You _____________________________________
e. It's vital for you to be able to use methods of multiplication and division.
NEED TO
You _____________________________________
f. It’s important for you to know when to use an example. NEED TO
You_____________________________________

8. Choose the correct option, A, B, C or D, to complete the sentence.

a. Are you any good at athletics? How fast can you run?
b. You ______________ take some money with you in case you need it.
c. I think that was the last bus. ________________ look for a taxi.
d. I'm really tired, but luckily I ________________ get up early in the morning.
e. You _____________ look at other students' work. It's against the rules.
f. 'My tooth really hurts!' 'I think you ________________ go to the dentist's.'
g Sorry, but my train is at 6.00. I.. ......leave now.
h. You _________________ eat so many sweets. They aren't good for you.

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a. A should B must C need D can
b. A have to B shouldn’t C can D should
c. A We needn’t B We’d better C We're able to D We don’t have to
d. A can’t B don’t have to C had better D shouldn’t
e. A had better not B needn’t C don’t have to D mustn’t
f. A mustn’t B needn’t C ought to D can
g. A have to B shouldn’t C mustn’t D can
h. A can’t B don’t have to C shouldn’t D needn’t

EXTENTION ACTIVITY

1. Make a list of ten things you have to do at school or at work.


2. Give some advice about what you should do if you want to learn a foreign
language well.

61
GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY TESTS

Test 1. Choose the best answer.

1. Who ..................... playing the guitar?


a. enjoys b. is enjoying c. enjoy d. enjoying

2. Tom and Jill .......................... for their holiday on March 1st


a. are leaving b. are going to leave c. will leave d. leave

3. My father’s partner is ill and dad ........................ overtime this week.


a. works b. worked c. is working d. working

4. I’ll call you if I ....................... your help.


a. need b. needed c. will need d. am needing

5. I’m afraid you are ................ to buy the ticket.


a. on time b. early enough c. enough early d. too late

6.Only Terry ............. the answer.


a. know b. knowed c. knew d. was knowing

7. Tim is .................... person I’ve ever met.


a. the more annoying b. the most annoying c. more annoying d. most annoying

8. The first products ................... on our website in 1995.


a. have been sold b. were sold c. sold d. were selling

9. Students in our school .......................... wear uniforms.


a. mustn’t b. must c. don’t have to must d. shouldn’t

10. Your room is a mess! – I know Mum, I .............. after my music lesson.
a. will clean b. am cleaning c. am going to clean it d. clean it

11. I’ve known John ................... years.


a. of b. since c. from d. for

12. ........................does Tom work.


a. What b. Who c. Whom d. Where

13. I’ll ask mum as soon as she ............... home.


a. will come b. come c. comes d. is coming

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14. Gerry was born in London but he ................ in Liverpool for the last ten years.
a. lives b. has lived c. lived d. is living

15. Where ......................... before she moved to Glasgow?


a. would she live b. used she to live c. was she used to live d. did she use to live

16. He didn’t go to bed ........................ his mother returned home.


a. when b. until c. after d. before

17. I think chess is very .......................... .


a. bored b. boring c. surprising d. interested

18. Would you mind .................... a moment?


a. to wait b. wait c. to waiting d. waiting

19. Jill went to the UK .................... at university


a. to study b. study c. to studying d. for studying

20.Tome and Mary ....................... TV at six p.m. yesterday.


a. watched b. was watching c. watch d. were watching

21. His salary was so low that he couldn’t buy ..................... with it.
a. something b. nothing c. none d. anything

22.They ...................... painting the kitchen.


a. have just finished b. just finished c. are just finishing d. just finish

23. This is the match ..............we played yesterday.


a. who b. what c. when d. which

24. My teacher said that we .................... a test on Wednesday the following week.
a. will have b. would have c. are having d. had had

25. If Bob ............... the answer he would surely tell you.


a. knows b. would know c. will know d. knew

26. Mum is very tired because she ................. all day.


a. has cleaned b. cleaned c. was cleaning d. has been cleaning

27. Jack was late for the bus so when he came to school lessons ..........................
a. had already started b. already started c. have already started d. were already
starting

28. My computer is the same ....................... yours.


a. than b. as c. to d. from
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29.I ........................ Tim in the office at 6 p.m. so I can give him your message.
a. meet b. will meet c. am meeting d. am going to meet

30. If Jim ................... late again the teacher ................ very angry with him.
a. is/will be b. was/would be c. will be/will be d. will be/is

31. Your car ...................... at the moment.


a. is repairing b. is repaired c. repairs d. is being repaired

32. This is the horse .................. owner broke his leg yesterday.
a. whose b. who c. which d. whom

33.James ....................... at home yet. He doesn’t finish work until six p.m.
a. must be b. can’t be c. can be d. mustn’t be

34. The policeman told me ...................... the car.


a. to leave b. left c. be leaving d. to have left

35. Mum asked me where ........................ the CD.


a. had I put b. did I put c. I put d. I had put

36. My father wishes he .......................... his job.


a. didn’t lose b. would lose c. had lost d. hadn’t lost

37. If only I ................ some more money.


a. have b. had c. would have d. have had

38. I ................ late for school yesterday if I hadn’t overslept.


a. wouldn’t be b. wouldn’t have been c. would have been d. had been

39. I don’t have .................... money but I will be happy to lend you what I have.
a. many b. little c. few d. much

40. They have to do the work .........................


a. themself b. themselves c. theirself d. theirselves

Marks….. / 40

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Test 2. Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

1. She ________ to study every day.


A. is liking B. enjoys C. is fond D. likes

2. The dog was standing ________ middle of the road.


A. in the B. on the C. to the D. at the
3.________ you like some more cake?
A. are B. will C. would D. do

4. We can make ________ a salad for lunch.


A. myself B. themselves C. yourself D. ourselves

5. I’ll pay you back ________ I get some money.


A. before B. while C. as soon as D. until

6. When I was younger, I ________ to school.


A. used to walk B. have walked C. was walking D. used to be
walking
7. My parents weren’t strict. They let me ________ whatever I wanted.
A. to do B. doing C. done D. do

8. I have lived in Sydney ________ I was a young child.


A. until B. for C. when D. since

9. My brother prefers playing tennis ________ watching it.


A. than B. to C. as D. with

10. I’d rather ________ here.


A. to stay B. stay C. staying D. had stayed

11. The buses run on time here, ________?


A. don’t they B. will they C. aren’t they D. can they

12. If you don’t have a healthy diet, you ________ sick.


A. would get B.will be getting C. are getting D. will get

13. You ________ do homework every night.


A. must to B. mustn’t to C. can’t have D. don’t have to

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14.They expect us ________ at seven o’ clock.
A. to arrive B. arriving C. arrive D. to be arrived
15.________ he played sport regularly, he was overweight.
A. Even if B. Although C. However D. Unless
16. It took her a long time to ________ her new job.
A. used to B. got used to C. get used to D. be used to
17. She failed the exam. She ________ studied very hard.
A. must of B. must have C. can’t have D. can’t have
been been
18. She ________ very surprised when she won the car!
A. would have B. must be C. could be D. should be
been feeling
19. It’s no use ________ yet, the traffic’s too bad at the moment.
A. to leave B. leaving C. leave D. we leave
20. By this time next year, I ________ my degree.
A. will B. am going to C. will have D. will have been
complete complete completed completing

Marks….. / 20

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Test 3. Choose the best answer.

1. Could you give me the ………………… for roast beef, please?


a. recipe b. instruction c. receipt d. cooking

2. In my free time I often ………………… skateboarding.


a. go to b. play c. go d. ride

3. If you want a new job you have to ………………… for it.


a. write b. interview c. sit d. apply

4. Jim is very unpleasant to his parents. They ………………… all the time.
a. argument b. argue c. discussion d. discuss

5. I want to change the channel on TV but I can’t find the …………………. Have
you seen it anywhere?
a. pilot b. remote controller c. channel selector d. remote control

6. Denis Tito was the first tourist who went on a ………………… in space.
a. trip b. journey c. travel d. voyage

7. A person who is careful not to hurt other people’s feelings is ………………… .


a. stubborn b. easy going c. considerate d. moody

8. Sally didn’t take her ………………… kit so she didn’t have any lipstick or
mascara with her.
a. painting b. make up c. make over d. decorating

9. We decided to see the town on a ………………… tour so that someone would


show us the sights.
a. led b. controlled c. guided d. served

10. Flats in hot countries have air conditioning to keep them cold whereas flats in the
cold ones have ………………… to keep them warm
a. ventilation b. temperature control c. air heating d. central heating

11. The food my mum cooks is rather ………………… . She definitely should use
more spices.
a. hot b. bland c. spicy d. polluted
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12. Jason felt very ……………… before the exam. He was sure he would do well.
a. confident b. nervous c. depressed d. guilty

13. Tim got ………………… because he was constantly late for work.

a. promoted b. failed c. annoyed d. sacked

14. You can ………………… a lot of money by always turning the light off when
you are not in the room.
a. waste b. lend c. save d. lose

15. My sister finds it difficult to …………………decisions.


a. make b. do c. get d. have

Marks….. / 15

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Test 4. Put the verbs in the correct tense.

1. The burglar (to break into) ……………………… the shop when the porter
(to see) ………………….. him.
2. If I (to be) ……………………….. you, I (to stay) ………………………. in
this big and fancy place.
3. If they (to have) ………………… more money, they (to purchase)
………………….t he flat right away.
4. ……… you (to obtain) ………………… the details before you (to start)
……………… to manufacture the car?
5. When I (to drive) ………………………, a car (to splash) ………………….
me.
6. -How long (to share) ……………. you …………………………. this flat?
- For five years already.

7. They (to modernise) ………………… the train by the time they (to send)
………………. it to an exhibition.
8. - How long (to investigate) …………… he …………………………….. this
crime?
- Since last year.
9. He told me that he (to borrow) ………………………….. the money from his
father the following week.
10. She asked me where I (to invest) …………………………. my money
the year before.

Marks….. / 10

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Test 5. Read the sentences below and choose the correct word for each space.

1. They…………..their friends about the current affairs.

A. told B. said C. spoke

2. The reporter worked very……………and prepared a wonderful report on these


events.

A. hard B. hardly C. harder

3. It’s……………that we will deliver the goods before Monday.

A. probably B. possible C. certainly

4.………….their prediction will come true.

A. Possible B. May C. Perhaps

5. I’ve recently been to the town…………I was born.

A. which B. that C. where

6. I took my clothes to the laundry to…………...

A. have them washed B. have washed them C be them washed

7. She……………be so rich! She gets less money than I do.

A. mustn’t B. can’t C. unlikely

8. This car…………..with a wooden frame.

A. has constructed B. has been constructed C. has been constructing

9.………..the brothers saved money for the future.

A. None of B. None C. Both

10. Show them the hotel amenities,…………..?

A. will you B. do you C. don’t you

Marks….. / 10

70
Test 6. In each sentence find an extra word that shouldn’t be there.

1. I had my car be repaired in a specialised service station.


…………………………
2. He had been delivered the goods before the boss signed the bill.
…………………………
3. Can you tell me when did you had a heart attack?
…………………………
4. She asks me where the train had left from.
…………………………
5. It wasn’t easy, but they could managed to create a collage at last.
…………………………
6. He prefers to purchase expensive goods rather than to choose cheap ones.
…………………………
7. It was you who that shot the man. I did see you!
…………………………
8. I am the person who was assigned to do the job, aren’t I am?
…………………………
9. It is possible that he has been graduated from a Military Academy.
…………………………
10. She asked me if where I owned that shop.
…………………………
Marks….. / 10

71
Test 7. Fill in the blanks with one word each.

Kat 1. ........................... working undercover as a salesperson 2. .................. a London


art gallery owned by Rupert Wilde, 3. ......................... the police believe is an
international diamond smuggler. After Kat 4. ..................... worked in the gallery for
a while, Rupert and his wife, Gloria, invited her 5. ................. have dinner with their
family in their luxury flat above 6. .................... gallery. Just before dinner, Kat
managed to put a bug in 7. ................... phone in Rupert’s private study. However,
she didn’t know that Gloria had seen 8. ...................... leave the study.
After dinner, Rupert’s son, Dom, offered to 9. ............... Kat a lift home. While they
were in the car, Dom admitted 10. ........................ madly in love with Kat. She was
rather shocked 11. .................. this, particularly when Dom refused 12. ................
drive her home until she promised to go on a date with 13. .............................. .
However, Kat needed an opportunity to find out more about 14. ....................... Wilde
family, so she agreed to have dinner with Dom 15. ...................... Tuesday evening.
Dom suggested meeting at the gallery at seven.

Marks….. / 15

72
Test 8. Choose ONE ANSWER from the list provided for each of the ten blank
spaces. Write the numbers 2 – 10 in the correct box Number 0 has been done
for you as an example.

at was which starting had been


could in 0 even it begin
so what if had would
very have been from always be

Eg Toshi, a young Japanese man, arrived ____0____ Australia in May.

He ____1____ looking forward to ___2___ his new English course for ages and

___3____ the moment he stepped into the foyer of the college, he knew the

experience was going to be everything the brochures had said it _____3____ be, and

more. On his first day, everybody at the college was _____5_____ friendly and

welcoming that he felt very comfortable there. His teachers were _____6_____ better

than he had hoped for. For his entire course, _____7_____ was about 20 weeks, he

was very happy. On his last day he walked around the campus wondering ____8____

would have happened ____9____ he chosen a different college. He was sure his stay

wouldn’t ___10___ half as enjoyable as it had turned out to be!

Marks….. / 10

73
READING TESTS

Test 1. Read the text and choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.

 Paper and Us
People today use many different kinds of writing and drawing materials, but paper is
the most popular. It is in almost every product that we use: books, newspapers and
magazines, containers, catalogues, wallpaper, food packaging, gift wrap, and many
other staples of life. Unknown to many people, paper fibres are in our computers and
paper insulation is in our car doors and floors. Paper is still seen as the safest long-
term way to keep records of information.

What does the text NOT talk about?


A. paper through the years
B. paper in daily lives
C. hidden uses of paper
D. storing data on paper

Marks….. / 1

74
Test 2. Read the text and answer questions 1 – 3 in the box below.

Finding a Writing Surface.

Today, paper is readily available. But in earlier times, finding a writing surface was
not so easy. Before paper, early man used a variety of different surfaces. For
example, the ancient Egyptians drew pictures with soft rocks on the walls of caves -
but it was impossible to carry these pictures around. The Greeks used to write their
ideas in blocks of clay – but the weight of the clay made it quite hard to carry. At one
stage, the Chinese wrote on silk fabric, but silk was very expensive to produce.

Match the following questions 2, 3, 4 with the correct answer A, B, C, D, E.

QUESTIONS ANSWERS – PROBLEMS

In the past, it was difficult to find


things to write or draw on. A The writing surface was too
heavy to move.
1 What problem did the ancient
B The writing surface was too
Egyptians have?
hard.
2 What problem did the Greeks
C The writing surface cost too
have?
much to make.
3 What problem did the Chinese
D The writing surface was too hard
have?
to find.
E The writing surface could not be
moved.

Marks….. / 3

75
Test 3. Read the text. For questions 1-4 choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.

Where Does Paper Come From?


Man has been communicating in writing and with pictures for many thousands of
years, but paper-making as we know it started in China about 2,000 years ago. A man
called T’sun Lai experimented for nine years using materials like wood, rocks and
leaves. He had good results with bark from the mulberry tree and bamboo plant
fibres. When he added water, he achieved the best results, which made the paper
suitable for artwork and books. It took about one week to combine the materials and a
further day for the paper to dry out. By the 10th century, Arabians were substituting
linen fibers for wood and bamboo, which made a superior sheet of paper for
predominantly the same purpose as the Chinese. In the 17th century, Europeans began
making paper from rag bond (cotton and linen rags), which created a much more
durable surface that didn’t tear as easily.

1. T’sun Lai’s most successful paper was made from


A. bark and bamboo.
B. the mulberry tree, wood and plant fibres.
C. bark, water and bamboo.
D. trees, leaves and plant fibres.

2. How long did it take T’sun Lai to invent paper?


A. 9 years
B. 2,000 years
C. 1 week and 1 day
D. 1 week

3. The Arabians made paper from


A. cotton and linen.
B. wood and bamboo.
C. bark and bamboo.
D. linen fibres and water.

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4. Which statement is true?

A. Written communication began with the Chinese.


B. Chinese paper was better quality than Arabian paper.
C. Arabian paper was mainly used for art.
D. Cotton and linen made stronger paper than bark and bamboo.

Marks….. / 4

77
Test 4. Read the text. For questions 1-3 choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.

The Problems with Paper


Due to an increase in literacy in the 18th century, there was a huge need for paper,
which in turn demanded greater efficiency in production. Efforts were made to step
up paper production by inventing machines to do the time consuming jobs previously
completed by hand. In the late 18th century, Nicholas Luis Robert invented a machine
that could quickly produce a length of paper from cotton and linen rags on a wire
mesh with squeeze rollers at one end. In Europe and America, the mass-production of
paper became a thriving industry supplying huge volumes of paper for a long list of
everyday items. This new industry, however, spelled the beginning of environmental
disaster.
The explosion of print meant that there was a rag shortage, which instigated a search
for alternative sources of fibre. The industry turned to trees, which were rather
abundant at the time, but this decision has proven to be imprudent because trees are
now becoming just as scarce as the cotton and linen rags of the 18th century. Hemp is
being touted as the great environmentally friendly alternative to wood pulp, but it
would be a crop raised specifically for paper production. Growing fibre crops to
produce paper may soon become necessary, but right now industry watchdogs believe
that we should start by using some of our residual waste products – waste paper and
agricultural byproducts. Another concern, separate from the environmental problems
arising from the overuse of trees, is that paper-making itself is a dirty business. Toxic
emissions from paper mills are persistent and tend to accumulate in the environment,
causing illness. Therefore, as well as seeking an alternative to trees, it is vital that the
industry looks closely at decreasing toxic emissions by limiting its use of harmful
substances in the manufacturing process. Before this can happen, more effort must be
put into regulating chemical use in the paper-making industry.

1. The papermaking industry in the 18th century


A. caused an increase in literacy.
B. replaced rags with trees.
78
C. produced paper made from hemp.
D. used harmful substances

2. Experts believe that our first step should be to replace trees with
A. different plant fibres.
B. less dangerous chemicals.
C. selected left over rubbish.
D. specially grown crops.

3. Which statement is true according to the information in Reading Text 4?


A. The papermaking industry should not be allowed to self-regulate.
B. Chemical input and output should be monitored in the future.
C. Robert’s machine created better paper at a faster rate than previously managed.
D. Future paper manufacturers are committed to avoiding harmful chemicals.

Marks….. / 3

79
Test 5. Read the text. For question 1 choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.

 Paper in a Technology Dominated World


In the last decade, major breakthroughs have been made in computer science. Experts
now agree that this progress will dominate the next generation to such an extent that
there will be a complete change in our communication behaviour. Commercially,
these changes will cause an even greater amount of data to be generated
electronically. This raises issues of data storage. Some of these issues are already
well-known – for example, disk durability, electronic breakdowns etc. It has been
suggested, however, that we only have an awareness of an, as yet, unquantified
portion of the problem. Ideas and strategies for dealing with the ever increasing
mountain of data are being sought, but pundits remain circumspect about our ability
to successfully deal with these data storage concerns. However, for now, paper’s
extreme versatility offers the most convenient and durable storage option.

1. Which point is NOT made in Reading Text 5?


A. Experts are not confident that we can manage future data storage issues.

B. Currently, preserving data on paper is our best alternative.

C. We are ignorant of possible future problems with data storage.

D. Issues relating to storage of paper and electronic data need to be addressed.

Marks….. / 1

80
Test 6. Look at the statements below. Read the texts about two famous scientists
(A, B). For Questions 1-9, choose from the texts (A / B) or both (A, B). There is
an example 0 at the beginning.

0 He was the greatest inventor of the 19th century. A, B


1. Every time I switch on the light, I think of him.
2. Both his father and he had the same job.
3. He contributed to improving the other’s invention.
4. His job contributed much to making his first invention.
5. He developed his own teaching system.
6. He got an idea about his future invention when he was using a
telegraph.
7. He developed the technology of making films.
8. Inventions brought him a lot of money.
9. He became very famous.

A. Thomas Alva Edison

Thomas Alva Edison got an opportunity to go to school at the age of eight and a
half. But according to his own words he didn’t see any excitement in studying.
After only three months the teacher called him “stupid”, and Thomas came home
crying. It’s incredible, but from then on, his mother was engaged in teaching him.
And it contributed greatly to his development as a personality. He also read science
books, which were available, by himself.
At the age of twelve he obtained a job selling newspapers. He managed to make
money in a simple but clever way. First and foremost he checked the news section.
When the news turned up to be fairly interesting, he took a lot of papers; when it
wasn’t of particular character, he took only a few.
Later he got another job sending telegraph messages. It was then when he realised
his ambition to invent new things. He saw original ways to make the telegraph
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system work more effectively and faster. Later, he made a better microphone for
Bell’s invention, the telephone.
In 1877 he made a “phonograph” – the first ever sound recorder. The following
year he invented the light bulb. In 1889 he made a “kinetoscope” – a moving
picture machine. He also made films for his new machine, which made him rich. In
1903 he produced The Great Train Robbery, at that time the world’s longest film.
(It was ten minutes long!) Edison had made more than one thousand inventions
when he died at the age of eighty-four. In his honour, they switched off the lights
overall in America.

B. Alexandre Graham Bell 

Alexandre Graham Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1847. His family was
very close-knit, but had to face a lot of problems. His mother was deaf (she
couldn’t hear at all), and his father was a teacher of deaf children. That explains the
fact that young Alexandre became particularly interested in phonetics, the science
of speech, and acoustics, the science of hearing.
His family emigrated to Canada in 1870, and then moved on to the United States.
Two years later, Bell organised a school for teachers of deaf children in Boston,
where he offered his own system of teaching. Interestingly, but he was hardly
twenty-six years old when in 1875 he became a professor at the University of
Boston.
He invented the telephone by mistake. In 1875 he was just using a telegraph
machine. There was virtually something wrong with the machine, and Bell heard a
noise at the other end of the line.
With his assistant, Watson, he was investigating the technique of delivering and
obtaining messages. The following year, Bell was the first person to speak on the
telephone.
Bell managed to promote his invention and become rich. But his attitude to sick

82
children defined the purpose of his whole life. And he spent the next forty-six
years, until he died, working basically with deaf children.
The Bell Telephone Company got its name from him, and so does the unit of
sound, the “decibel”.

 
Marks….. / 9

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Test 7. Read the sentences A-E below. Read the text. Choose the best sentence
from A-E to fill in each of the gaps.

A They broke into the shop in order to arrest him.


B Passers-by provided them with necessary information about the features and
the appearance of the robber.
C They were not doing anything wrong indeed; they were just waiting for some
friends.
D He had smashed the shop window, and the porter was holding him.
E There had been something wrong with the gearbox and it caused the accident.

A DAY WITH POLICE CONSTABLE SAMANTHA CLARK

4.00 pm. Samantha arrived at the Station. She was assigned to patrol the area on
prevention of crime. She changed into her uniform. She wasn’t carrying a gun.

4.20 pm. Samantha received her first call. A thief tried to steal a Walkman from a
shop. (1)……………….Samantha and her colleague jumped into the police car, put
on the blue light and the siren, and drove to the shop.

4.28 pm. The thief was shouting and trying to get away, when Samantha and her
colleague arrived. (2)…………………The man seemed scared but he kept shouting,
“I didn’t steal anything. Leave me alone!” Samantha was holding the man’s arms
behind his back when her colleague was putting on the handcuffs. They put him into
the car and delivered to the Station.

5.10 pm. Samantha received a call about a car accident. She defined the exact
location. Nobody was badly hurt, but there was a traffic jam in the middle of the road.
(3)………………. The frame and the steel panels were damaged. They took one of
the drivers to hospital for a check-up.

6.00 pm. Nothing was happening. Samantha and her colleague were driving around
just checking the streets. They noticed some boys sitting on a wall by the quay. They

84
decided to have a word with them. Apparently, the boys were not very happy about
answering questions. (4)…………………Finally, they managed to talk their way out.

7.30 pm. Samantha and her colleague got a takeaway dinner from an Indian
restaurant and were sitting in the car when the radio came on. They picked it up.
There was a robbery at Ealing Central underground station. The robber stole some
property from an old man. (5)………………... The criminal was middle-aged,
overweight, had fair curly hair. He was wearing a baseball hat and black jeans. He
had a strong Scottish accent. Samantha and her colleague tried to form a clear view of
the situation taking into account the details.

11.15 pm. Samantha returned back to the Police Station and wrote the report.

Marks….. / 5

85
Test 8. Read the statements below, then read the text Silent Films to decide if
each statement is correct or incorrect. If it is correct, mark R (right). If it is
incorrect, mark W (wrong).

1. The first film was demonstrated at the train station in France, and the
people got scared.

2. In terms of cinema development, The United States compared to


Europe had more opportunities to do it.

3. The first silent films were translated immediately into many


languages.

4. Charlie Chaplin’s parents spent a lot of money to develop his creating


abilities as an actor.

5. Charlie Chaplin became very famous as a comic.

SILENT FILMS

The cinema technologies were developed in France. The Lumiere brothers organised
the first public film show in France in 1895. That documentary showed an authentic
picture of a train moving towards the camera. Instead of getting excited, distraught
people ran out of the cinema thinking it was a real train.

Years went by. The United States film industry progressed faster than that of Europe.
The sunlight in Hollywood, California, was very essential for making films (electric
light wasn’t powerful enough). And Europe was facing a war from 1914 to 1918 and
couldn’t modernise their technologies effectively. In the 1920s Hollywood produced
80% of the world’s films as they invested more money into film industry. Of course,
language was not important, because the films were silent.

The cinema became popular very fast. In 1908 the USA had 10,000 cinemas (called
“nickel-odeons” because it cost a “nickel”, five cents to get in) with 20 million
customers a week.

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One of the most popular actors starring in the silent films was undoubtedly Charlie
Chaplin. He was born in England in 1889. His mother was so poor that she couldn’t
look after him. But he started acting at the age of five, and soon became a successful
comic at the theatre. When he arrived in America, he got into films and became a star
almost immediately. His silent films were perfect works of art. He managed to create
a comic language with his face and his body.

Marks….. / 5

87
TEXTS FOR READING.
Read the texts, using a dictionary if you wish.

TEXT 1. DURHAM UNIVERSITY

The University of Durham was founded by Act of Parliament in 1832 and granted a
Royal Charter in 1837. It was one of the first universities to open in England and has
a claim towards being the third oldest university in England.

Durham is a collegiate university, with its main functions divided between the
academic departments of the university and 16 colleges. In general, the departments
perform research and provide lectures to students, while the colleges are responsible
for the domestic arrangements and welfare of undergraduate students, graduate
students, post-doctoral researchers and some university staff.

The university is considered as very prestigious and is consistently one of the highest
ranked universities in the UK. Long established as the leading alternative to Oxford
and Cambridge, the university attracts a largely middle and higher class student body
according to The Times Good University Guide. Durham has the second highest
proportion of privately educated students in the country. It was ranked as the UK's
third best University in 2012. The Guide concludes: "Durham has achieved its
highest-ever ranking this year off the back of high levels of student satisfaction, the
low drop-out rate, highly sought after graduates and a strong research-led academic

88
track record – all of which now make the university the leading multi-faculty
alternative to Oxbridge."

More than four in five (82 per cent) of Durham graduates get a graduate-level job
when they leave, with an average salary of more than £21,300, and along with
Cambridge University, over 98 per cent of Durham students complete their course,
the guide added. Durham is also ranked as an elite university in terms of reputation
among academics and sport. Professor Chris Higgins, Vice-Chancellor said: "Durham
is an ancient place and yet is also one of the leading full-subject universities in the
UK in the 21st Century. Our educational community, which is diverse and human in
scale, produces global citizens who can make a significant contribution to tomorrow's
society and economy."

(The Guardian)

89
TEXT 2. LETTER FROM A CURIOUS PARENT.
Michael Rosen has some questions for the education secretary

I wonder if I can tell you about some rumours that are doing the rounds?

First, we've all seen that you're going to perform that miracle much beloved by those
who like measuring human beings: changing the pass level of exams.
I come from an era when this was standard practice in the 11-plus exam. The pass
level in any area wasn't a statement about how good or bad that cohort of children
were. It was simply tied to how many grammar school places that particular local
authority had created. The collective memory of this sort of thing makes people
wonder, you know.

I mean, there couldn't be a tiny possibility that the reason why you're fiddling around
with exam pass levels is so that you can regulate the numbers of school students
applying for university? After all, it has become quite embarrassing that thousands of
young people we all thought were qualified to benefit from three years more
education are now deemed not to be so, with the only visible reason for this shift in
view being that you agree with the bankers that we can't "afford" that level of
university provision. Handy for you, I suppose, if you can dampen a bit of the young
people's ardour for more education by labelling more of them as failures.

Talking of labelling people as failures, I see it's full steam ahead with June's phonics
test. The results for your pilot tests are in and they make interesting reading. The pass
level was put at 34 correct readings of the 40 single words. (I'm not sure why reading
single words, not in sentences nor in passages of writing counts as "reading".
Wouldn't it have been more honest to have called it a "decode test"?) Sad to say, only
32% of the children reached the pass score. Now, one rumour I heard was that even
the "outstanding schools" that did the pilot scored at this sort of a level. If so, will
your new head of Ofsted have to change the word "outstanding" to "crap"? He's
rather good at that sort of thing, isn't he?

90
Moving on, I gather that you say, parents of children who fail will, by law, have to be
told they failed (which, in my experience, is the same as telling the children). Perhaps
you could prepare the speech that a headteacher could give to the year 1 children:
"Hello children, all of you, sitting over there are failures. It's about two thirds of you."
What a good way to encourage them to become eager learners!

Now here's the next rumour bit – people are saying that this is all a cunning plan so
that you can run a big press conference in the summer announcing that we have a
nation of illiterates and the present one-hour a day synthetic phonics lessons should
be upped to two hours. There are even some cynical people (tush — who would have
thought there could be such people!), who are saying that you'll run the pass level at
34 out of 40 for the time being, and then after a year or so of SP, you'll lower it a bit,
more children will pass, and, hey presto, you've improved reading! How can people
think such things of you? Shocking.

And then, as if all this wasn't enough, you'll never guess what I heard this week?
Someone told me that when you ran a press conference to tell the group of lucky
journalists assembled there that the free school experiment in Sweden was a success,
one journalist asked you if you were aware of the evidence emerging from Sweden
that things weren't going quite as swimmingly as you suggested. Whereupon, you
asked him if he was aware of the counter-evidence: a master-stroke of repartee, sir, if
I may say so. But I cannot find the counter-evidence you mention anywhere, and dare
I say I am a bit worried about that. It slightly reminds me of your party conference
speech that time when you compared the questions on science exam papers in the US
and Britain, while failing to point out that the paper in the US was a chemistry exam
for students aged 16 to 19 and the UK one was for GSCE biology. In a test on use of
evidence, that would have had me telling your parents you were a failure, you know.

But these are all rumours and we really need to dump them in the bin marked "false"
as soon as possible, don't we?

(The Guardian)
91
TEXT 3. GOVERNMENT POLICIES ARE THREATENING THE
DOMINANCE IN EUROPE OF BRITISH UNIVERSITIES

In the days not so long ago when British universities were full of optimism and self-
confidence, and the smell of fresh paint was everywhere, I received a visit from an
academic working in France. He was on a mission to find out why the UK higher
education sector was doing so well compared to our European counterparts. He
showed me a world ranking table, which listed 29 UK universities in the top 200,
compared to Germany, with 14, and France, with three, just above Spain's two and
Italy's zero. His beloved Sorbonne, perhaps the one university in continental Europe
that the man on the Clapham omnibus can name, was nowhere to be seen. What could
they do to catch up?

Before answering that question, a bit of wallowing and boasting seems in order. At
the end of the second world war the UK, with the US and USSR, was one of the three
world super-powers. World influence, empire and economic strength all faded, but
academia, alongside snooker and darts, is one of the few areas where we retain
world-class status.

Speaking English, the international language of scholarship, must be a huge


advantage. I was once told that America once debated whether to adopt English or
German. This is a load of nonsense, apparently, but it raises a fascinating question.
How would things have turned out if America had adopted German? One thing's for
sure: our university world rankings would suffer, though I doubt that this would be
the biggest story. But speaking English is not all there is to it. Like it or not, the
research assessment exercise changed attitudes to publication. League tables and
research assessment, both crude and potentially distorting of academic values, are
made for each other.

In addition, the government understood that if you wanted a flourishing university


system it would cost money. True, we were "comfortable" rather than wealthy.
Money always was tight, but if something was important, funding would be found.
92
New buildings, equipment, conferences, academic travel, and a couple of bottles of
wine for the postgraduate seminar all appeared when needed.

Finally, we benefit enormously from the incredible openness of the UK academic job
market. Although we can't quite match football's Premier League, even small
departments will typically have several overseas players in their squad. Compare this
to almost all other European countries, where the tradition is to appoint locals, often
groomed for the job. An international recruitment strategy widens the talent pool, and
allows a department to develop in new and unexpected ways. But it also creates
opportunities for international connections, which in turn generate energy, intellectual
stimulation and a sense of going places.

So that was my story. I've just received a follow-up email, asking me if the UK will
be able to sustain its European pre-eminence given recent government policy. Well, I
didn't take this question seriously, until I started to think about it. Luckily we still
speak English. But then so do European academics, and they are increasingly
choosing to publish, and even teach, in English, too. We still assess research, but
other countries have copied us here as well.

And, what's more worrying, money and international recruitment are under pressure.
In anticipation of big financial cuts to come, "adjustments" are being made here and
there. That little bit of cash lubricating the system, making small but highly valuable
things possible, has disappeared. Like sensitive children, we no longer ask, for fear of
disappointment and mutual embarrassment. And the government's promise to "get
tough" on immigration has repercussions for international staff recruitment. The
number of work permits is being limited, and what was already a drawn-out and
nerve-racking process may well just become more trouble than it is worth.

Could it be that our super-power status is under threat? As continental Europe tries to
bring about economic growth by investing heavily in higher education, we are
dimming the lights and shutting the doors. We just have to hope that our effortless
superiority carries us through. (The Guardian)
93
TEXT 4
Read the text and answer the questions
It is almost impossible to write of the Arts in Australia without mentioning the
building that first put the country firmly on the world cultural map - the Sydney
Opera House. Completed in 1973 after 14 years of much heated discussion and at a
cost of almost £60 million, it is not only the most well-known Australian building in
the world but perhaps the most famous design of any modern building anywhere.
Its distinctive and highly original shape has been likened to everything from the sails
of a sailing ship to broken eggshells, but few would argue with the claim that the
Opera House is a major contribution to world architecture. Set amidst the graceful
splendour of Sydney Harbour, presiding like a queen over the bustle and brashness of
a modern city striving to forge a financial reputation in a tough commercial world, it
is a reminder to all Australians of their deep and abiding love of all things cultural.
The Opera House was designed not by an Australian but by a celebrated Danish
architect, Jorn Utzon, whose design won an international competition in the late
1950s. However, it was not, in fact, completed to his original specifications. Plans for
much of the intended interior design of the building have only recently been
discovered. Sadly, the State Government of the day interfered with Utzon's plans
because of concerns about the escalating cost, though this was hardly surprising - the
building was originally expected to cost only £5.5 million. Utzon left the country
before completing the project and in a fit of anger vowed never to return. The project
was eventually paid for by a State-run lottery.
The size of the interior of the building was scaled down appreciably by a team of
architects whose job it was to finish construction within a restricted budget. Rehearsal
rooms and other facilities for the various theatres within the complex were either
made considerably smaller or cut out altogether, and some artists have complained
bitterly about them ever since. But despite the controversy that surrounded its birth,
the Opera House has risen above the petty squabbling and is now rightfully hailed as
a modern architectural masterpiece. The Queen officially opened the building in 1975
and since then, within its curved and twisted walls, audiences of all nationalities have
94
been quick to acclaim the many world-class performances of stars from the
Australian opera, ballet and theatre.

Text analysis:
1. Which is the best title for the passage?
a. Utzon Quits Australia
b. An Architectural Disaster
c. History of a Queen
d. A Dane in Our Lives

2. What is the main point of the second paragraph?


a. ... to describe the Opera House visually
b. ... to tell the history of the building
c. ... to state where the Opera House is located
d. ... to say why the building was built

3. Which is (are) the topic sentence (s) of the third paragraph?


a. Sentence number one
b. Sentence number two
c. The last sentence
d. Sentences number one and two
(Garry Adams and Terry Peck. 202 Useful Exercises for IELTS)

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