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GESTION DE REDES

AREA DE LA ENERGÍA LAS INDUSTRIAS


Y LOS RECURSOS NATURALES NO
RENOVABLES
CARRERA DE INGENIERÍA EN SISTEMAS

GESTION DE REDES Parte II

Periodo 2016
MEDIOS FISICOS
MEDIOS FISICOS
MEDIOS FISICOS

Se enfocará a los medio de red más comunes y sus características,


describiremos entonces:
Cable STP
Cable UTP
Cable Coaxial
Fibra Óptica
Atmósfera (redes inalámbricas)
Cable
Specifications


Cables have different specifications and expectations pertaining to
performance.
Coaxial Cable
Coaxial Cable


Advantages:
– Requires fewer repeaters than twisted pair
– Less expensive than fiber
– It has been used for many years for many types of
data communication, including cable television

Disadvantages:
– More expensive and more difficult to install than
twisted pair
– Needs more room in wiring ducts than twisted pair
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

 Unshielded twisted-pair cable (UTP) is a four-pair wire


medium used in a variety of networks.
 TIA/EIA-568-A/B contains specifications governing cable
performance.
 RJ-45 connector
 When communication occurs, the signal that is transmitted by
the source needs to be understood by the destination.
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP and ScTP)
STP – Shielded Twisted Pair ScTP – Screened Twisted Pair


Shielded twisted-pair cable (STP) combines the techniques of
shielding, cancellation, and twisting of wires.
– Each pair of wires is wrapped in metallic foil.
– The four pairs of wires are wrapped in an overall metallic braid or
foil.

Screened UTP (ScTP), also known as Foil Twisted Pair (FTP).
– ScTP is essentially UTP wrapped in a metallic foil shield, or screen.
Fiber Optic Cabling
ST and SC Connectors


The type of connector most commonly used with
multimode fiber is the Subscriber Connector (SC
connector); LC connector smaller than the sc , FC
Replacement by ST Y SC

On single-mode fiber, the Straight Tip (ST)
connector is frequently used. MT-Array (array de
fiber)
Fiber Optic Patch Panel
Medio inalámbrico

Ondas electromagnéticas, que pueden recorrer el
vacío del espacio exterior y medios como el aire.

No necesitan un medio físico para propagarse.

Muy versátil para el desarrollo de redes.

La aplicación más común de las comunicaciones de
datos corresponde a los usuarios móviles.

Cualquier persona o elemento que necesite
comunicar datos a través de una red sin las
limitaciones de la FO o el cobre .
Wireless WAN Standards

IEEE is the prime issuer of standards for wireless
networks.

802.11 standard is Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
(DSSS).
– DSSS applies to wireless devices operating within a 1
to 2 Mbps range.

802.11b may also be called Wi-Fi™ or high-speed
wireless and refers to DSSS systems that operate at 1, 2,
5.5 and 11 Mbps.
– The majority of 802.11b devices still fail to match the
11 Mbps throughput and generally function in the 2 to
4 Mbps range.

802.11a covers WLAN devices operating in the 5 GHZ
transmission band. throughput 54 Mbit/s

802.11g provides the same throughout as 802.11a but
with backwards compatibility for 802.11b devices.

802.11 n provides throughout as 300 Mbps
Wireless devices
How wireless LANs
communicate

Since radio frequency (RF) is a shared
medium, collisions can occur just as they
do on wired shared medium.

The major difference is that there is no
method by which the source node is able
to detect that a collision occurred.

For that reason WLANs use Carrier
Sense Multiple Access/Collision
Avoidance (CSMA/CA).

This is somewhat like Ethernet
CSMA/CD.
Práctica:

Utilizar el software Packet Tracer 5.0 o mas
para simulación de una red de campus con
diferentes tipos de medios de comunicación
con WLAN con APs y laptops.
Tecnologías de la Capa 2

Desempeña funciones específicas como:
– Proporcionar una interfaz de servicio bien
definida para la capa de red.
– Determinar la manera como los bits se
agrupan en tramas, suministrando tránsito
de datos confiable a través del enlace físico
utilizando las direcciones MAC.
– Manejar los errores de transmisión y
– Regular el flujo de tramas para que los
receptores lentos no sean saturados por
transmisores rápidos.
Capa de Enlace de Datos
Implementaciones Prácticas

Token Ring, FDDI y Ethernet. Todas especifican
aspectos de la Capa 2 (LLC control de enlace
lógico, denominación, entramado y MAC), así como
también aspectos de los componentes de
señalización y de medios de la Capa 1.

Ethernet: topología de bus lógica y en estrella física
o en estrella extendida.

Token Ring: topología de anillo lógica y una
topología física en estrella.

FDDI: topología de anillo lógica y topología física de
anillo doble.
Entramado o Enmarcado de
Datos

Para entregar servicios a la Capa de red, la
Capa de enlace de Datos debe utilizar los
servicios proporcionados por la Capa física.

La capa 1 acepta un flujo de bits “en bruto” y lo
entrega al destino o intenta hacerlo y no
garantiza ausencia de errores.

El # de bits recibidos puede ser mayor, menor o
igual que el # de bits transmitidos.

Es responsabilidad de la Capa de enlace de
Datos detectar y corregir estos errores.
Entramado o Enmarcado de
Datos
Formato de Trama Genérica

Es un concepto teórico, que ayuda a entender la tec-
nología y las tramas (802.3, 802.5, FDDI), los
paquetes (IP) y los segmentos (TCP y UDP)
específicos.

Tiene secciones llamadas campos formados por bytes
– campo de inicio de trama
– campos de dirección
– campo de longitud/tipo/control
– campo de datos
– campo de secuencia de verificación de trama
– campo de fin de trama
Tecnologías de la Capa 2
IEEE 802 Committees
802.0 SEC
802.1 High Level Interface (HILI)
802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC)
IEEE 802.3 - 10 Mbps
802.3 CSMA/CD Working Group
IEEE 802.3u - 100 Mbps
802.4 Token Bus
802.5 Token Ring IEEE 802.3z - 1000 Mbps

802.6 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) IEEE 802.3ab - 1000 Mbps


802.7 BroadBand Technical Adv. Group (BBTAG)
802.8 Fiber Optics Technical Adv. Group (FOTAG)
802.9 Integrated Services LAN (ISLAN)
802.10 Standard for Interoperable LAN Security (SILS)
802.11 Wireless LAN (WLAN) IEEE 802.11
802.12 Demand Priority IEEE 802.11a
802.14 Cable-TV Based Broadband Communication IEEE 802.11b WiFi
Network
IEEE 802.11g
802.15 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) IEE 802.11 n
802.16 Broadband Wireless Access (BBWA)
RPRSG Resilient Packet Ring Study Group (RPRSG)
LAN: Ethernet
Tipos de Ethernet
Tipos de Ethernet
Frames Ethernet
Frames Ethernet 802.3 con 802.2

Service Access Point

DSAP (Destination Service Access Point) y SSAP (Source Service Access


Point)
100-Mbps Ethernet

100-Mbps Ethernet is also known as Fast Ethernet
• 100BASE-TX is copper UTP
• 100BASE-FX is multimode optical fiber

Frame format
• 100-Mbps frame format is the same as the 10-Mbps frame

Parts of the transmission process
• Two separate encoding steps are used
• The first part of the encoding uses a technique called
4B/5B
• The second part of the encoding is the actual line
encoding specific to copper or fiber

4B/5B
– Cada 4 bits de datos se codifica en
códigos de 5-bit
– los códigos de 5 bits son seleccionados
para tener no mas de un 0 inicial y no mas
de dos 0s finales.
– Así, nunca se tienen mas de tres 0s
consecutivos
– La palabra de código de 5 bit son
transmitidas usando NRZI
– Se logra 80% de eficiencia
1000-Mbps Ethernet

1000-Mbps Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet
Transmission
• Fiber and copper media

The 1000BASE-X IEEE 802.3z
• Specifies 1 Gbps full duplex over optical fiber

1000BASE-TX, 1000BASE-SX, and 1000BASE-LX
• Frame Format
• Same format used for 10 and 100-Mbps Ethernet
1000-Mbps Ethernet

1000BASE-T (IEEE 802.3ab) was developed to
provide additional bandwidth for:
• Intra-building backbones
• Inter-switch links
• Server farms
• Connections for high-end workstations
• Supports both half-duplex and full-duplex


Fiber-based Gigabit Ethernet (1000BASE-X)
• Uses 8B/10B encoding (similar to 4B/5B)
• Uses encoding ZRZI Non Return to Zero Invertive
1000Base-LX/SX

NRZ signals are pulsed into the fiber
• Short-wavelength (1000BASE-SX )
• Long-wavelength (1000BASE-LX)


Separate fibers
• Transmitting (Tx)
• Receiving (Rx)
• Inherently full duplex


Gigabit Ethernet is the dominant technology for:
• Backbone installations
• High-speed cross-connects
• General infrastructure
10 Gigabit Ethernet

10GBASE-SR –
• Short distances, supports a range between 26 m to 82 m

10GBASE-LX4 –
• Uses wide wavelength division multiplexing (WWDM)
• 240 m tHo 300 m over multimode fiber
• 10 km over single-mode fiber

10GBASE-LR and 10GBASE-ER –
• Support 10 km and 40 km over single-mode fiber

10GBASE-SW, 10GBASE-LW, and 10GBASE-EW –
• Known collectively as 10GBASE-W
Future of Ethernet

The future of networking media is three-fold:
1.Copper (up to 10-1000 Mbps, perhaps
more)
2.Wireless (approaching 1000 Mbps, perhaps
more)
3.Optical fiber (currently at 10,000 Mbps and
soon to be more)


Copper and wireless media have certain
physical and practical limitations
Ejercicios Extra-clase de análisis de tráfico
utilizando la herramienta Wireshark

IP, ETHERNET, UDP, TCP, ARP, http, https