Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 40

BEE4223

Power Electronics & Drives Systems

DC TO AC CONVERTER
Mohd Shawal Bin Jadin
Faculty of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
shawal@ump.edu.my
OVERVIEW
1. Introduction
2. Principle of operation
3. Performance parameter
4. The half-bridge inverter
5. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
6. PWM Generation
7. PWM Harmonics
8. Current Source Inverter
9. Introduction to three-phase inverter
10. Conclusions
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the lecture, student should be
able to:
2.State the operation and characteristics of
Inverter.
3.Discuss the performance parameters and
use different technique for analyzing and
designing of DC to AC Converter.
INTRODUCTION
• Inverters are circuits that converts dc input voltage to a symmetric ac
output voltage by which both magnitude and frequency can be
controlled.
• Applications :
– adjustable speed ac motor drives, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), and
ac appliances run from an automobile battery.
TYPES OF INVERTER
• Voltage Source Inverter (VSI):

• Current Source Inverter (CSI)


VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER (VSI) WITH VARIABLE DC LINK
• DC link voltage is varied by a DC-to DC converter or controlled
rectifier.
• Generate “square wave” output voltage.
• Output voltage amplitude is varied as DC link is varied.

• Frequency of output voltage is


varied by changing the
frequency of the square
wave pulses.
VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER (VSI) WITH VARIABLE DC LINK
• Advantages:
– simple waveform generation
– Reliable

• Disadvantages:
– Extra conversion stage
– Poor harmonics
VSI WITH FIXED DC LINK
• DC voltage is held constant.

• Output voltage amplitude and


frequency are varied
simultaneously using PWM
technique.

• Good harmonic control, but at


the expense of complex
waveform generation
SQUARE WAVE INVERTER
• Square wave inverter can be simplifying justified with
a switching scheme of full bridge converter.
• An square wave ac output voltage is synthesized from
a dc input by closing and opening the switches in an
appropriate sequence.
• The output voltage can be +Vdc, -Vdc, or zero,
depending on which switches are closed.
OPERATION OF SIMPLE SQUARE-WAVE INVERTER

SQUARE-WAVE INVERTERS EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

• Parallel diode is used when the current in the switch is negative


• Diode will reverse-biased when current is positive in the switch
WHEN S1-S2 TURN ON & S3-S4 OFF FOR T1 < T < T2
WHEN S1-S2 TURN OFF& S3-S4 ON FOR T2 < T < T3
PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS

Vdc  Vdc  − t τ T
 R +  I min - R e 0≤t ≤
2
  
I o (t ) =   T
 t− 
 Vdc  Vdc  −  τ 2  T
− +  I min + e ≤t ≤T
 R  R  2
 −T
Vdc  1 − e 2τ 
I min = − I max = 
R  1 + e −T 2τ 
 
Pdc = Vdc I s
EXAMPLE
• A square-wave inverter has a dc source of 125V, an output frequency
of 60 Hz, and R-L series load with R = 20 Ohm and L = 20 mH.
Determine
a) An expression for load current
b) Rms load current and
c) Average source current
FOURIER SERIES ANALYSIS FOR SQUARE WAVE INVERTER
• Fourier series method is often the most practical way to analyze load
current and to compute power absorbed by load.
4Vdc
Vo = ∑
n ,odd nπ

 4Vdc 
Vn  nπ 
In = =  
Zn R + ( nωo L )
2 2

Pn = I n2,rms R
2
∞ ∞
 In 
I rms = ∑I
n =1
2
n , rms = ∑
n =1  2

FOURIER SERIES ANALYSIS FOR SQUARE WAVE INVERTER
• The quality of ac output voltage or current can be expressed by total
Harmonic Distortion (THD)

∑ n,rms

2
∑ n,rms
V
n=2
2
I
THDv = n=2
V1,rms THDI =
I1,rms
V 2
rms −V 2
1, rms
=
V1,rms
 4Vdc 
V − 2

dc
 nπ 
=
 4Vdc 
 
 nπ 
EXAMPLE 1
• Consider a square wave inverter with Vdc=100V,
R=10Ω, L=25mH, and f=60Hz. Determine
i. Fundamental output voltage
ii. THD for output voltage and current and power absorbed by load
EXAMPLE 2
i. Fundamental output voltage
4V  4  Z n = R + ( 2π fnL )
2 2
V1 = dc =   ( 100 ) = 127.3V
nπ  (1)π 
+  2π n ( 60 ) ( 25 × 10 ) 
2
[ 10]
2 −3
• THDv and THDI =

= 100 + [ 9.43n ] .... ( ii )


2
4Vdc
Vn =

4 ( 100 ) Vn 127.3
= In = = .......(iii )
nπ Z n n 100 + [ 9.43n ] 2
127.3
= .... ( i )
n
EXAMPLE 2
n fn (Hz) Vn (V) Zn (Ω) In (A) Pn (W)

1 60 127.3 13.7 9.27 429.3

3 180 42.3 30 1.42 10

5 300 25.5 48.2 0.53 1.4

7 420 18.2 66.7 0.27 0.37

9 540 14.1 85.4 0.17 0.14


EXAMPLE 1 (CONT)

 4 ( 100 ) 
2
∑I 2
n , rms

( 100 )
2
−
n=2
 THDI =
 2 ( 1) π I1,rms
 
THDv = 2 2 2
 1.42   0.53   0.27   0.17 
2
 4 ( 100 )    +  +  + 
   2   2   2   2 
 2 ( 1) π  =
 9.27 
 
 2 
10000 − 8106
= = 0.167
90.03 = 16.7%
= 0.484
2
= 48.4%  I 
Pn = I n2,rms R =  n  R
 2
P = ∑ Pn
= 429.3 + 10 + 1.40 + 0.37 + 0.14
= 441W
AMPLITUDE & HARMONIC CONTROL
• The amplitude of the fundamental 90o
α=
frequency for a square-wave output from n
the full-bridge inverter is determined by
the dc input voltage.
voltage
• A controlled output can be produced by
modifying the switching scheme.
scheme
• This output voltage can be controlled by
adjusting the interval α on each side of  4V
V1 = I1Z1 =  dc

 cos α
the pulse where the output is zero.  π 

• Harmonic also can be eliminated by  4V1 


 
choosing a value of α which make the In =
Vn
=  nπ 
Zn R 2 + ( nωo L )
2
sine terms go to zero.
EXAMPLE 2
• Design an inverter that will supply the series R-L load of R=10Ω,
L=25mH with a fundamental frequency of 60Hz and current amplitude
of 9.27A and THD less than 10%. A variable source is available.
EXAMPLE 2 (CONT)
• The dominant harmonic current is for n eliminate the 3rd harmonic,
= 3 (third harmonic), so the switching
90o
scheme must eliminate the third α= = 30o
harmonic. 3
 V1π 
V1 = I1Z1 Vdc =  
 4 cos α 
= I1 R 2 + ( nωo L )
2

 ( 127 ) π 
= o 
= (9.27) 10 + ( 1) ( 2π ) ( 60 ) ( 0.025 ) 
2
2
 4 cos 30 
= 127V = 116V
EXAMPLE 1 (CONT)

Z n = R + ( 2π fnL )
2 2

+  2π n ( 60 ) ( 25 ×10 ) 
2
[ 10]
2 −3
=

= 100 + [ 9.43n ] .... ( ii )


2

Vn 127
In = = .......(iii )
Z n n 100 + [ 9.43n ] 2
EXAMPLE 1 (CONT)
n fn (Hz) Vn (V) Zn (Ω) In (A)
1 60 127.3 13.7 9.27
3 180 0 30 0
5 300 25.5 48.2 0.53
7 420 18.2 66.7 0.27
9 540 0 85.4 0
2 2
 0.53   0.27 
  + 
 2   2 
THDI =
 9.27 
 
 2 
= 0.067
= 6.7% < than 10%
TRY THIS………
4 4  4 4  4 4 4 4 4 4 4  4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
     
––––––––––––––
    –––––– 
                         ΩΩ
 ΩΩΩΩΩΩΩΩΩΩΩΩ
                           

         α  ααααααααααααααααααααααααααααααααααααα
       ααααα
 
                      
                                    
PULSE-WIDTH MODULATED OUTPUT
• In square wave inverters, maximum output voltage is achievable.
achievable
• However there in NO control in harmonics and output voltage magnitude.
magnitude
i.e the harmonics are always at three, five, seven etc times the
fundamental frequency.
frequency
• Hence the cut-off frequency of the low pass filter is somewhat fixed.
fixed The
filter size is dictated by the VA ratings of the inverter.
• To reduce filter size, the PWM switching scheme can be
utilized.
utilized
• In this technique, the harmonics are “pushed” to higher frequencies.
frequencies
Thus the cut-off frequency of the filter is increased. Hence the filter
components (i.e. L and C) sizes are reduced.
• The trade off for this flexibility is complexity in the switching
waveforms.
waveforms
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)
• Triangulation method (Natural sampling)
– Amplitudes of the triangular wave (carrier) and sine wave (modulating) are
compared to obtain PWM waveform. Simple analogue comparator can be
used.
– Basically an analogue method. Its digital version, known as REGULAR
sampling is widely used in industry.
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)
• Production of PWM waveform using reference sinewave:

• Comparator determines instants at which waveforms cross in order to


produce switching waveform
• PWM output waveform tracks amplitude and frequency of reference
sinewave
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)
• As switching frequency is increased, switching loss becomes issue
• Implementation by ICs which essentially contain tables of pre-
calculated values of switching angles covering range of output
frequencies
• As computational speeds of ICs increase, it is now possible to
calculate required firing angles in real time in order to optimise
strategy for harmonic elimination, and control, further improving
inverter performance
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM) TYPES
• Natural (sinusoidal) sampling (as shown on previous slide)
– Problems with analogue circuitry, e.g. Drift, sensitivity etc.

• Regular sampling - simplified version of natural sampling that results in simple digital
implementation

• Optimised PWM - PWM waveform are constructed based on certain performance criteria, e.g. THD.
• Harmonic elimination/minimisation PWM
– PWM waveforms are constructed to eliminate some undesirable harmonics from the output waveform
spectra.
– Highly mathematical in nature

• Space-vector modulation (SVM)


– A simple technique based on volt-second that is normally used with three-phase inverter motordrive
BIPOLAR SWITCHING
UNIPOLAR SWITCHING
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION IN UNIPOLAR INVERTERS
The square wave output
can be produced using a
comparator to compare
the triangle wave with the
sine wave.
HALF-BRIDGE INVERTER

• Also known as the “inverter leg”.


• Basic building block for full bridge, three phase and higher order inverters.
• G is the “centre point”.
• Both capacitors have the same value. Thus the DC link is equally “spilt” into two.
• The top and bottom switch has to be “complementary”, i.e. If the top switch is closed (on),
the bottom must be off, and vice-versa.
SHOOT THROUGH FAULT AND“DEAD-TIME”
• In practical, a dead time as shown below is required to avoid “shoot-through” faults, i.e.
short circuit across the DC rail.
• Dead time creates “low frequency envelope”. Low frequency harmonics emerged.
• This is the main source of distortion for high-quality sine wave inverter.
INTRODUCTION TO THREE-PHASE INVERTER
• Each leg (Red, Yellow, Blue) is delayed by 120 degrees.
• A three-phase inverter with star connected load is shown below
THREE PHASE INVERTER WAVEFORMS
SUMMARY
• Have examined operation of inverters as means of producing
variable-frequency, variable voltage AC source from DC supply
• PWM provides amplitude control of the fundamental output frequency
although the harmonics have large amplitudes, they occur at high
frequency and are filtered easily.
• Considered voltage-sourced and current-sourced inverters which
operate from DC supplies which approximate constant voltage source
• Introduced pulse-width-modulated inverter