Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

Pollution: is contamination by a chemical or other agent that renders part of

the environment unfit for intended or desired use. It deserves emphasis that
the environment also refers to the place where you live. Natural processes
have released toxic chemicals into the environment throughout the history
of the earth. Currently, the pollution generated by human activities presents
the most serious problem.
Types of Pollution
There are basically 3 types of Pollution. They are:
Air Pollution
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or
biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living
organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built
environment, into the atmosphere.
Land pollution
Land pollution is a pollution in land only. It can cause any types of disease
that may cause of death. The responsible agencies of this are
DENR(Department of Environment and Natural Resources, government
agencies, and Local government units..

Water pollution
Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water.
In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and
populations, but also to the natural biological communities.
Some of the major Causes of the Pollution are as follows:
i) Deforestation - For the establishment of factories, industries and due to
urbanization in various parts of the world, trees are cut on a large scale
without any adequate efforts to plant new trees. This leads to deforestation,
which has caused a rise in the pollution levels and distortion of natural order.
ii) Polluted rivers - The wastewater and liquids from plants and factories are
linked with nearby river water, which are polluted when they release
disposal from these units. People in Developing/Undeveloped countries also
pollute rivers by using the water in these rivers for washing clothes, utensils,
bathing and other activities.
Oil spilled from ships pollute oceans around the world.
iii) Sound pollution - The machines used in factories make noise throughout
the day, and this disturbs the peaceful atmosphere in the vicinity, as
machines used without proper covering lead to sound pollution. This puts
heavy mental strain on the people staying in the nearby areas.
iv) Air Pollution - Each year industrially developed countries generate
billions of tons of pollutants. Many pollutants come from directly identifiable
sources; sulphur dioxide, for example, comes from electric power plants
burning coal or oil. Others are formed through the action of sunlight on
previously emitted reactive materials (called precursors). For example, ozone,
a dangerous pollutant in smog, is produced by the interaction of
hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides under the influence of sunlight. Ozone has
also caused serious crop damage. The increasing number of vehicles have also
lead to an increase in Air Pollution, due to the harmful gases like Carbon
Monoxide emitted from these vehicles. Gases generated in the Chemical
plants also cause air pollution. People suffer because of smoke and bad smell
from the industrial units particularly from chemical plants.
v) Soil pollution - Dumping of wastes in many areas is a major cause of Soil
Pollution. Also, when soil in and near production areas becomes dirty due to
disposal of waste material, such land cannot be used for agricultural
Pollution is also caused by iron and steel mills; zinc, lead, and copper
smelters; municipal incinerators; oil refineries; cement plants; and nitric and
sulphuric acid plants.
Effects Of Pollution Crisis:
Of the suite of pollutants that taint urban air, fine suspended particulate
matter, sulphur dioxide (SO2), and ozone pose the most widespread and
acute risks; however, airborne lead pollution is a critical concern in many
cities as well. Recent studies on the effects of chronic exposure to air
pollution have singled out particulate matter as the pollutant most
responsible for the life-shortening effect of unhealthy air, although other
pollutants may also play an important role. These pollutants cause
respiratory and other health disorders.
Besides increasing blood pressure and stress levels, noise pollution can also
have deleterious effects on hearing. There are two categories of hearing loss
resulting from noise exposure. Acoustic trauma is hearing loss resulting from
a single exposure to a very loud sound such as an explosion. Noise induced
hearing loss is hearing loss arising from repeated exposure to moderate noise.
The latter is the more common form of hearing loss due to noise pollution.
Water pollution infects the water and renders it unfit for drinking and other
purposes. It is also a major cause of most of the water-borne diseases.
Awareness among masses, regarding the adverse effects of pollution around
the world, can also help in reducing the intensity of pollution. This
awareness can be created through various media like newspapers, television,
radio, flyers, seminars, etc.
Measures Of Controlling Pollution
Various countries have set standards in legislation in the form of
concentration levels that are believed to be low enough to protect public
health. Source emission standards are also specified to limit the discharge of
pollutants into the air, so that air-quality standards will be achieved.
However, the nature of the problem requires the implementation of
international environmental treaties, and to this end 49 countries agreed in
March 1985 on a United Nations convention to protect the ozone layer. This
“Montreal Protocol”, which was renegotiated in 1990, called for the phaseout
of certain chlorocarbons and fluorocarbons by the end of the century and
provides aid to developing countries in making this transition. In addition,
several international protocols have been aimed specifically at reducing the
incidence of acid rain. Awareness among masses, regarding the adverse
effects of pollution around the world, can also help in reducing the intensity
of pollution. This awareness can be created through various media like
newspapers, television, radio, flyers, seminars, etc.
It is high time that we take this issue, of 'Problems of Pollution' seriously, or
it could have adverse effects on our future generations