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Chapter 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Mathematical Induction and Sigma Notation ].l lvlathernaticallndrtction 1.2 Sigma
Chapter 1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Mathematical Induction and Sigma Notation
].l
lvlathernaticallndrtction
1.2
Sigma Notation
Chapter 2
Complex Numbers
2.1 Cartesian Form of Cornplex Nurnbers
2.2 Polar and Exponential Forms of Complex Nurnbers
Chapter 3
Polynornial Equations
3.1 Roots of Polynomial Equatiorrs
3.2 Rationa^l Roots, Bounds, and Descartes' Rules of Signs
Chapter 4
Matrices and their Elementary Properties
4.I
Matrices
4.2
lVlatrixl\,fultipiication
Chapter 5
Vectors, Lines, and Planes
5.1 Vectors, Scalar arrd Vector Products
5.2 Plarres and Lines
Chapter 6
Systems of Linear Equations
6.1 Systems of Linear Equations
6.2 Gatrssian Elirnirratiorr and Row Echelorr Forrn
6.3 Gauss-Jordan Elirnirratiorr arrd Reduced Row Echelon Forrn
6.4 Homogeneous and Nonhomogeneous Systerns of Linear Equatiorrs
Chapter 7
Determinants
7.I
Determirrants
7.2
Cramer's Rule
7.3
Lirrearly Irrdependent arrd Deperrdent Vectors
Chapter 8
Inverse Matrices
8.1 Irrverse Matrices
8.2 Direct Nfethod for l\fatrix Inversion
8.3 Adjoint Method for Nlatrix Inversion
8.4 Solving Systerns of Linear Equations With lnverse Matrices
8.5 Comparison of lVlethods for Solving Systerns of Lirrear Equations
Chapter 9
Linear TYansformations and Eigenpairs
9.1 Linear Tlansforrnations
9.2 Matrices for Lirrear Tlansforrnations
9.3 Eigerrvalues arrd Eigerrvectors
9.4 Eigerrpairs for Syrnrnetric Matrices
Appendix A
Answers to Exercises
Appendix B
Solutions to Even-numbered Exercises
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SECTION I.1 CHAPTER 1 MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION AND SIGMA NOTATION $1.1 Mathematical Induction Mathernatical inductiorr
SECTION I.1
CHAPTER 1
MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION AND SIGMA NOTATION
$1.1 Mathematical Induction
Mathernatical inductiorr
is a type
of proof used
to verify propositions that depend on integers.
It is best introduced tlrrough a simple exarnple.
Suppose we are required to verify that the sum of the first n positive integers is giverr
by the formula
r+2+3+
*r,:"'("-jt).
(1.1)
Proofs by rnathernatical irrduction break dowrr irrto three parts that we clearly iclentify in
this irrtroductory example.
Part A
It is a simple matter to check that formula 1.1 is valid for the first few intesers:
1) :
For n:
1, the "sun" is 1, ancl the forrmrla giu", {11
1.
1) :
For n,:2, tlie surn is 1 * 2 :
3; the formula giu", l?1
3
a
1Ql 1) - 6.
For n -
3, the
sum is 1*2*3
: 6; the formula giu
(Irr actual fact, it is orrly necessary to verify the result to, n:1;
and n : 3 sirnply to get a better feeling for the formula.)
we have included n:
2
Part B
In this part, we suppose that ft, is sorne irrteger for which the formula is valid; i.e., we
suppose that
r,(k + 1)
t+2+3+
+k:-
2
(1.2)
.
At this point, there are orrly tluee irrtegers for which we know that this is a valid assurnptiorr,
narnely, k - L, 2, and 3. We now atternpt to show that formrrla 1.1 works for the rrext integer
k + 1; that is, we attempt to show that the sum of the first k * 1 positive integers is given
by forrnrrla 1.1 when we replace n, by k + l,
(ftj+lxk+2)
r+2+3+
+(k+1):
(1.3)
Since the sum of the first k + 1 integers is the sum of the first /c integers plus the mrmber
k + 1, we may write for the left side of 1.3,
r+2+ 3+
+
+kl+
(k+ 1): 11+2+ 3 +
(k + 1)
_ !g+!+ (k + 1)
(by supposition 1.2)
i{(k + 1)+
2(Ai +
1)
2
(k+r)(k+2)
2
But this is forrmrla 1.3. In otlter words, we have shown that if 1.1 is valid for some
irrteger
k, therr it must also be valid for the next irrteger k + 1, and, becarrse ic was never specified,
this is irrdependent of the vahre of *;.
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SECTION 1.1 The argumerrts irr Part C of the above exarnples were identical. In fact,
SECTION 1.1
The argumerrts irr Part C of the above exarnples were identical. In fact, rro rnatter what
result we are to prove by mathernatical inductiorr, the argument in Part C is always tfe
same. This argurnent is called the "principle of mathernatical induction", an{ it is stabe6
forrnally a^s follows:
PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
Suppose that with each integer n greater than or equal to some
fixed integer
|y', there
is associated a proposition denoted by Pn. Therr P, is tnre for all n ) ly' providecl:
(A)
Prv is valid;
(B)
the validity of Pa irnplies the validity of p1
1.
All irrductive arguments rmrst therefore corrtairr parts A and B. Part A is usually qqite
simple; part B, on the other hand, can sometimes be quite difficult. Be sure you understand
wliat we are doing in part B. We are proving that urrder the suppositiorr that P7, is tnre,
then Pp11 rntrst also be true. It is the principle of
rnathernatical irrduction that plts parts
A arrd B together to state
lhat Pn is true for all n )
N.
Part B always begins with the supposition that Pt is valid. We strongly suggest that
you write down the precise rneaning of this supposition. In the above exarnples, this means
writing 1.2 arrd 1.5. It rrow becomes a rnatter of proving Ppa1, and we again recornrnend that
you write dowrr the precise rneanirrg of P7ra1. hr the above examples, this rnearrs writirrg 1.3
and 1.6, with the added staternerrt that this is what we rmrst now prove. Mltry do we make
these suggestions? Because it is helpful to krrow
exactly what you rmrst
prove,
and
exactly
what yott are going to trse in provirrg it. We ilhrstrate these suggestions in the following
examples.
Example 1.1 Verify that the sum of the squares of the first 2n, positive integers is giverr by the forrmrla
t2+22 +32+.'.-l(2n)2: n.(2n,-r 1)(4n + 1) , n) I.
Ir.r /
Solution When n :
1, the left side of this equation is the surn of two terrns, not just
one,
12 + 22 : 5; the riglrt side is t(3)(5)/3 : 5. The required result is therefore tnre for n:
l.
We now slrppose that k is some integer for which 1.7 is valid; that is, we suppose that
(2k)2 : k(2k+1x4k+1)
+
t2 +22 + 32 +
(1 8)
(Rernember, we write this down because we are going to need
it.)
Orrr objective now is to
verify that the resrrlt is valid for k f 1; that is, we rnust verify tliat
(k + 1)[(2(k
+ 1) + r]14(k + 1) + 1l
12+22 +32+
(2k+2)2:
(1 e)
Since the sum of the squares of the first 2k 12
integers
is the sum of the squares of the first
2ft; integers plus (2*; * 1)2 and (2k + 2)2, it follows that
12 +22 +32 +
+
+
(2k+2)2 :p.2 +22 + 32 +
(2D21+ Qh+r)2 + (2k+2)2
k(2k+1)(4k+1) +(2k+t)2 +(zk+z)2
(by 1.8)
3
k(2k + t)(4k + r) + 3(2k+ 1)2 + 3(2k + 2)2
J
8k3+30*i2 +s7k+tb
(Ai+1)(8k'z+22k+15)
t
J
(k+r)(2k+3)(4k+5)
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SECTION 1.1 This is straightforward, a * o,+ + o,rh : (o, * o,r 1
SECTION 1.1
This is straightforward,
a *
o,+
+ o,rh :
(o, *
o,r 1
+ o,rk_r) + ork
_ u(_r - !h) * urt_
(by 1.13)
a-o,rk+o,rk-o,rk*l
L-r
o'(t -
rt."+t1
l-r
We have therefore verified the result
for k -F 1, and herrce, by the prirrciple of rnathernatical
induction, 1.12 is valid for all n ) 1.o
Tlrrough the above exarnples a"rrd the exercises to follow we have tried to illustrate the
versatility of mathematical induction; it is a method of verification that proves invaluable
in many different areas of mathematics. Learn it well; you won't regret it.
EXERCISES 1.1 In Exercises 1-15 rr"se mathernatical induction to establish the forrmrla for n )
EXERCISES 1.1
In Exercises 1-15 rr"se mathernatical induction to establish the forrmrla for n ) 1.
1.
12+ 22+82+
+
nz -n(n+l\2n+t)
o
3n+r - 3
z.
g+32 + ^*
J-+' fJ-:
2
-r, , ,1,
B. 13+23 f 33 +
l_ n," :n'-\r'
n
n(nJ 1) - n(n+ r)(n+2)
4.
| +3 + 6+ 10 +
*
'26
5.
1+ 4+T+' +(3n
-2):n'(3n'--r)
2
+ (2n _ r)2 _ n(2n - r)(2n'+ r)
o.
12 + g2 + b2+
D
7.
| +5+ 9+ 13+
.
I
(4n- 3) :
2n2 -
n
B. 2 +2r + 25+
+ 22n-r --2(22"-- |
3
I
1
1
_+
.*
n(n+J)
e. "'
1.2.s'2.9.4-3-4.5-r"'-r
+D-a@+t)(n+2)
10. 43 + 83 + I23
+ (4n)3 :
t6n,2(n, -t
L)2
1
tt' s,
I
* sn + "'+ sr": ^
1
r(.
l\
lt - w)
L2,
2-r +2
2 +2-3 + "' +2 n :
| - 2-n
13. 1' 2+2'3+3'4+'
+ n(n-r r) - n(n+ r)(n+2)
3
L4. r(2-L) +2(2-2) + 3(z-s; +
+
n(2-^):2 - (n+2)2-.
15. 1(1!) +2(2t)+3(3!) +
+ n,(nt) :
(n+ 1)! - 1
16. Find a^rrd verify a forrmrla for the surn
SECTION 1.2 *47. n,* (n* 1) + (n +2) + + (2n)- 3n(n + 1)
SECTION 1.2
*47. n,* (n* 1) + (n +2) +
+ (2n)- 3n(n + 1)
2
r
3'(3t+t - 1)
*zr - --
0142. 3n+ 3'+1 +3n+2
r T"-tro
2-
4 (42^+r - I) *4g. 22n 122n+2 *22n+4+ + ,an - 3 n(9n'-- r) ,r44.
4 (42^+r -
I)
*4g.
22n 122n+2 *22n+4+
+
,an -
3
n(9n'-- r)
,r44. (3n+ 1) + (Bn,+ a)* (3n* T) +
+ (6n -
2) :
7n'(3?+ r)
*4s. 2n-r(2n, + r) + (2n, + 2)
+ (bn ) -
r+1+1*l*-'
*46. Verifythatfor n)r,
+:
-nrr.
2'
3'
4'
' 2n -'"
r,
I
t047. Yerifythat for
-----1
n)
+ I
*
I
r+ -'1! I
+
+
. g- 1.
2l'31
'
'n!'
n
x48. Verify that arry integer n > 14 carr be expressed in the forrn n:3p * 89 where p and. rl are rrorrnegative
irrtegers.
*49. Firrd the fallacy in the followirrg irrductive argument to prove that "all birds are the sarne coloru";
In a set of birds consisting of only one bird, all birds are clearly the same colour. Hence the resllt is
valid wherr the mrrnber of birds in a set is n :
1. Suppose now that the result is valid when a set of birds
contains ,4, birds; that is, ali k birds are the sarne colorrr.
Consider any set of k * 1 bircls. Emrrnerate the
birds with labels 1, 2,
,
k * 1. The set of birds with tabels I,2,
,k
rmrst a,11 be the sarne colour by the
irrductive hypothesis. The set of birds with
labels 2,3,.
,k
*
1 rmrst also all
be the sarne colour. Since
these two sets have A; - l birds irr comrnon (narnely the ones with labels 2,3,
,k),
all ki
l birds rnust
have the sarne colour. Thus, by rnathernatical indrrction, arry set of n bircls must all be the sarne co]o1r.
x50. Verify that wherr r f 1,
- (nl.l)r".ln,rn+r ,
r+2r +Br2 + 4r3+
+
n,rn-r :l
n)
r.
(t -
,12
*51. The "tower of Hanoi" problern corrsists irr rnoving the n rings on peg 1 in the figure below to peg 2 in as
few rnoves a^s possible. There are two mles to be followed:
(i) only one ring rnay be rnoved at a tirne;
(ii) a ring rnay never be placed orr top of a srnaller rirrg.
Solve the problem for n : 2 and n: 3, conjecture a sohrtiorr for arbitrary n, and prove it by rnathernatical
induction.
x52. Suppose that Carrada proposes a 2 cent coin and abolishes its 1 cerrt coirr. Show that arry amount of
money greater tha,rr 3 cents can be obtairred usirrg 2 cerrt coins arrd 5 cerrt coins.
*
4
*
.z,n for n) 2.
**53. Verify that fn.
I
1+
+
I
vr
yL
{S
1/n'
**54. Verifythatif Hn:r*i*i
*
11,then
Ht I
Hz+
+ H" :
(n, I
l)Hn - n,.
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SECTION 1.2 This rrotation could have been used in Section 1.1 wherr many resrrlts on
SECTION 1.2
This rrotation could have been used in Section 1.1 wherr many resrrlts on slrrns were
verified by mathematical induction. We preferred not to use it there in order that attention
be focused orr indrrction rather than sigma rrotation. We strongly suggest, however, that at
the end of this sectiorr, you return to Sectiorr 1.1 arrd verify results irrvolving sumrnatiorrs
incorporating sigma notation where appropriate.
There is no reason
why *,
rnttst be used as the irrdex of surnmation; other letters can
also be used. The rnost comrnorr are i, j, k;, m, arrd n.
Example 1.4 Write the followirrg surns in sigrna notation:
I
4
9
16
169
t'n) \'"/
-
-
-
-
2.3' *
3.4' 4.5
' 5.6
'
' 14.15
16
32
64
128
\-/
4096
{h)
I
-:*-:*
-l:
rt th'rt
\/5' '\/fr
-|_-
Solution (a) If
we use i as the variable of surnrnation, it is ofterr helpfirl to write the valrre
of i above each terrn,
;-1
;-'
;-e
;-A
1,:: :9
5!r #n *f
u +ifu+ *@+
rs
Tlre choice i:1to
correspond to the first term, i :2to
the second, etc., was an arbitrary
one. We could also have chosen 'i :
2 to correspond to the first term, i :
3 to the secorrd,
etc. The particular choice rnade is usually based orr sorne, but not total, recognitiorr of the
pattern by which terms are formed. With the i's so written, we see that the pattern by
t-
"
n'-,
wlriclr terms are formeC
i is
2) ' corrseq'etrllY'
(t + lxi l
r4e16
16eJi,iz
2.3+3.4+4.br b.6+ ' +14.lb:l?trr6l_n
(b) If n is used as the variable of surnrnation, and we begirr with n : 2, then
n,:2
n:3
n-A
n,:5
^-?
-T-
16,32,
+ +
4og:i1:.
10
^_
64
r28
,n -
/7
vo
/10
{n,
7
,
The sigrna notatiorr represerrtations for the surns irr Exarnple 1.4 are not unique. Irr
fact, there is an infinity of representations for each sum. Consider, for example, the sum
represented by
''
,i+3
1t
E--' LT
i:r
Y
L
When each term in this summation is written out, we find that
I
s
2i'+3
16
32
64
l2g
4096
\
_
g
_!_r
'
l_
?
\frT1 Jt
J4 J5
fio'
the sarne surn a^s that in Example 1.4(b). This surn can also be represented by
6
or*6
t
-:
and
,-"
\/J + 4
We can verify that these summations are the same by writing all terrns out. Alternatively,
we can make a charrge of variable of sumrnation. If we set m :
j + 17 in the latter of these
surnmations, arrd substitute this irrto the general term, we obtain
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SECTION 1.2 11 Solution (a) Using Theorern 1.1 we carr write that 22 22 22
SECTION 1.2
11
Solution (a) Using Theorern 1.1 we carr write that
22
22
22
\-/r-2_?-\_2D",_gI".
The first two formulas in 1.17 with n:22 now grve
22
\- en2 _ 3n) : ,lzz(zs_)(+s)l _,lrrl:tll : urrr.
/J\
(b) we can'ot
third fo'nuta,"tr.t, o,r*u', o" ,rtr,. ,1,-rl*-". However,
".";,"
by addirrg
arrd srrbtracting the
terrns frorn n,: I to n:
13, we will be able to use this forrmrla.
45
45
13
\- L
(n3 +5) :
\-
r",.3 +
F) -
rr3 +
\'-
'-t
|
\- L\.-
''/
/2\'"
"t x)
n:I4
n:L
n--!
45
45
13
13
13
t
-r- \-
s
-
x,
-
\- L"
L"-
- \--3 L',o
- - \- Z-u
n:l
n:I
n:l
n=L
(45)2(46)2 ,
.45(5)---13(5)
,4</K\
(13)2(14)2
-l
4
: 1063 104.r
We make one final remark. Sigma notation is simply that -
a notation. It does not
evaltrate sumsl it merely represerrts thern in a concise syrnbolisrn. When we encounter sigrna
notation, we should visualize terrns written out separately.
EXERCISES 1.2 In Exercises 1-10 express the sum irr sigrna notatiorr. Initiate the surnrnation with
EXERCISES 1.2
In Exercises 1-10 express the sum irr
sigrna notatiorr. Initiate the surnrnation with the integer 1.
_12
3
4
5
10 --
e -' e.a'3.4+4.b+ u'
+99.100
'' 1
--L-r;+-f-:r+
a
2'
4'
B'
16'
+ 32"
1024
18
B. 1+ t/i+rt+2+\/B+rt+
+r2r
4.,,16,-+,,17,,+
+
+
199
14+15
15+16
16+17
197+198
5. -2+s_ 4+b-6+z-8+
-1020
6. 1+l*l+=f
+
1
'z'
2.J' 2.s.4'
-
2.g.4.5-16
,/,
-
\/1
\m
"' ^ 2.2 G.T 10.11 r4.rb '
4r4.4rb
!-!-! ,
v
I- '
2
1+22 1+32 '/3
l+2252
r.4
5.8 9.r2 13.16
413.416
-I-I--!-I
e. 0.9+0.99+0.999+
+0.999999999
10. 43+b2+6+1+1*]*
1
"
d
y,
-r 25ta
For Exercises 11-19 express the sums irr Exercises 37-45 frorn Section 1.1 irr sigrna notation. Use *; as the
index of surnrnation begirrning with k :
1.
In Exercises 20-23 verify that the surnrnatiorrs are identical.
24:2tq:
25;2
l
L:
20. \-
ancl
\-
'
='
i'--t/t'+t
\/i
=
oo
t^
- l3)3+b
.53 \-
r r
t"
-3
-'
21. \-
arro
"',
/-/
cosn
z-z^ gsl
(n *
13)
n:Llt
n:2
14
18
22. Dsi+se 1a)t and |
[ei*tjr]
.t-\)
SECTION 2.1 13 CHAPTER 2 COMPLEX NUMBERS $2.1 Cartesian Form of Complex Numbers The frrndamental
SECTION 2.1
13
CHAPTER 2
COMPLEX NUMBERS
$2.1 Cartesian
Form of Complex Numbers
The frrndamental corn-plex nurnber is i, a rnrmber whose square is
-1;
that is, i is defined as
a ntrrnber satisfyirrg i2 :
-I. The complex number system is all nurnbers of tfie form
z::rlUi,
(2.r)
where r and g are real. The mrrnber r is cailed the real
part
of z,
and.
g is calle{ t}re
imaginary part of z. For exarnple, real and imaginary parts of 6 - 2i are 6 and
-2.
Both real and irnagirrary parts of a cornplex rnrrnber are thernselves real rmrnbers. The real
number systern is a subset of the complex nurnber systern obtainecl when g :
0. we call
t: I'11i the Cartesiarr forrn for a cornpiex mrrnber. Cornplex mrrnbers of the forrn 37i are said
to be purely irnaginary.
Complex mrrnbers can be visualized geornetrically as points in the cornplex (Argand)
plane. Some fixed point O is chosen to represent the cornplex rurrnber 0 * 0i.
Tlrrolgh
O are
drawn two rmrtually perperrdicular axes (Figure 2.1), orre called the real axis, and the other
called the irnagirrary axis. The cornplex rmmber il + Ai is therr represerrted by the poirrt z
units in the real directiorr and
37 rrnits
in the irnagirrary
directiorr. For
exarnple, the cornplex
rrrrrnbers | + 2i, -l
- i, 4 - 3i, and -2 l2i
are showrr in Figure 2.2. The real rmmber
systern is represented by poirrts orr tlte real axis. Purely imagirrary rmrnbers are represerrted
by poirrts on the imaginay axis.
Figure 2.1
Figure 2.2
Two complex nrmbers r I yi and o,l bi arc said to be equal if their real parts are equal
and their irnagirrary parts are equal; that is,
:L + Ai:0,+bi
e
x:
a, and U: b.
t, ,\
Geornetrically, two cornplex rmmbers are equal if they correspond to the sarne point irr the
cornplex plarre.
We add and subtract cornplex mrmbers zr:
n 1- yi atd zz:
a* bi a^s follows:
4
-t zz: (e; *
o,) +
(y + b)i,
(2.3a)
zt - zz: (e; - o,) + (y - b)i.
(2.3b)
In words, complex ntrmbers are added arrd subtracted by adding and subtracting their real
arrd irnagirrary parts. For exa;rnpIe,
(3 - 2i)+
(6 + i) :
(-2
(3 + 6) +
+ r)i :
e - i,
(3-2i) - (6+i): (3 - 6) +
(-2-r)i:
3 -
3i.
Complex
numbers are multiplied according to the following definition . lf z1 :
r *
A,i
and
z2: r.l *
bi, then
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SECTION 2.1 15 The complex conjugate 2 of a complex mrrnber z : r I
SECTION 2.1
15
The complex conjugate 2 of a complex mrrnber z : r I !/,i ts
Z::n_Ai.
(2 5)
Geometrically, Z is the reflection of z in the real axis (Figure 2.3).
t 2:x-yi
Figure 2.3
If we rnultiply a cornplex rurmber z : n r gi by its cornplex conjugate, we obtain
zz :
(:L -l yi)Q:
-
Ai) :
x:2 + A2 .
(2 6)
This real ntrrnber represents the square of the lerrgth of the iine segrnent joirring the nurnbers
z :
rrse
0 and z : :L + gri in the cornplex plarre. We shall give it a name in the rrext section. We
this property in otu procedure to divide cornplex mrrnbers. To divide z1 by 22, multiply
l1
21/
22 o! 22/ 22,
2t _
zt 2Z _
ZtzZ
22
zZ 22
z2Z2
The denominator will be real, arrd the Cartesiarr forrn is irnmediate.
With cornplex ntrmbers irt place, we carr give a complete discussion of quadratic equa-
tions. When the discrirninant of a quadratic equation is positive, the equation ha^s two reai
sohrtiorrs. For exarnple, the discrimirrant of
:r2+4:r_2:0
is 16 * 8 : 24, arrd sohrtions of the equation are
-4+ \/Td +E : -2+J6.
When the discrirninant is zero, we regard the quadratic a^s having two real solutiorrs
which are iderrtical. For exarnple. the discrirninant of
,,2+4,tf4:o
is zero. The left side rnay be factored in the forn
(x)+2)2:0.
We say that -2 is a double root of the equatiorr.
For quadratics with negative discriminants, we first consider the equation
n2 + l:0.
The complex rmrnber i is asolution, but so also is -i sirrce (-i)'+
1:
-1 * 1:0.
The
quadratic equation
12+16:0
has two solrrtions n : L.4i. If we apply the quadratic equation formula to the equation
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SECTION 2.1 L7 EXERCISES 2.1 1. Show each of the followirrg complex mrrnbers in the
SECTION 2.1
L7
EXERCISES 2.1
1.
Show
each of the followirrg complex mrrnbers in the complex plarre: 2 - i, 3 + 4i, -I
- bi, -g + 2i, Si,
2(r + i)
In Exercises 2-26 write the cornplex expressiorr irr Cartesian forrn.
2.
(2 + 4i) - (s - 2i)
s.
(r +
2i)2
4.
(-2 + i)(3 - 4i)
5. 3i(4i _ r)2
6.
i3
-Bi2 +2i+4
r. 0+i\6
'l-i
'
/Dt:\z \o-fzl
8'
o
3+2i
2-i
ro.i24-3213+4
11.(i-2)l(2+i)(1_i) +si_ 2)
t2.6i(lft
',(i-4\
3
(rc
lJ
\2
-
i
)*
*
B' 'T1- (e + 4-i)
z
r4.rT-i2r[+iP
-r3
tu.(;-+r)
\-
-
/
17 Qi+3)(4-i)
16.
(1 +z=)2
"'
i;66
*
13+
2n;
ft+i\22 - i)
18.
#
le. (1 -iltzei+B)
P -r oi)2
*2a. ([t]z
*zr. !(L*a\'*
2i
\\/2
,/2
)
1'
I
*22.
---j---=-
*Zg.
i,
,3
t
(2-i)'
=
l*
'
l+2i
*rn.Q+t3)2Q-i)
.zb. (L*a)'(a-:)'
4-5i
\\/2
\/2)
\r/z 12)
/
);
r-4i\2
oo
u
*26.
I
I
\i+t 3+4i)
In Exercises 27-36 find all solutions of the equation.
27.
n2 *52t3:0
29.:r2 -F8rf 16:0
28. t:2 *3r*5:0
3O. x2-t2x-7:0
31. :r2 -t 2r -l7 :
0
J2. 4r2 - 2n r b :0
*33.
5lr * ,/R :0
x34.
ra + 4r2 - b:0
1/3:12 f
tr35 ra+4r2+3--
0
*3,6. t:a+622+3:0
*37. Verify the followirrg
properties for the cornplex corrjugation operatiorr:
(a) 21+ zz:4
l7i
22: zr -
\D) zt -
22
(c) ZLzz: 422
/\
(a\-:L
(d)
'
\zz/ :7,
z,
(e) z*
n a positive irrteger. Hint: Tby rnathernatical irrduction.
x38, VeriSz that all complex rmrnbers z satisfyirrg the equatiorr z2:
12, r ) 0 areal corrstant, lie orr a circle.
What is its centre and radius?
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SECTION 2.2 19 The real and irnagirrary parts of a cornplex mrrnber carr be expressed
SECTION 2.2
19
The real and irnagirrary parts of a cornplex mrrnber carr be expressed irr terrns of its
moduhrs and argurnerrt. The triangle in Figure 2.6 indicates that
:t:rcos0t
a:rsin0.
(2.10)
Consequerrtiy, a cornplex mrrnber can be writterr irr the forrn
z :
:L + yi :
r cos? * (rsind)i.
When r is factored frorn both terrns,
z:r(cos0isil:'0i).
(2.11)
Sornetimes this is written in the fonn z: r(cos 0
+isitr?).
Expressiorr 2.11 is called tire
polar representation of a cornplex mrrnber. Realize again
that it is rrot unique. If 2.11 is
a polar representation of a complex rrumber, so also is
rfcos (d *
2kn) *
sirr (9 +
2ktr) i]
for any integer k.
Example 2.3 Firrd poiar representations for -1 * i and 2 - 3i.
Solution Since the modulus of -1 * i ]s t/2,
and arr argurnerrt is 3r I 4 (Figure 2.7) , a polar
represeiltatiorr is
-1+ i:
/Zlcos (3rlQ +sin(Jrl\i].
The rnodrrlrrs of 2 -
3i is
/13,
and an argrrment is
ran-r(-3lz) :
-o.ges (Figrre 2.7). Consequently,
2 - 3i : /E[cos (-0.983) + sin (-0.e83)z].o
Figure 2.7
Example 2.4 Is
(T l4) + snr
Qr /4)
i] the polar form for a cornplex rnrrnber?
-2[cos
Solution No, becarxe -2 cannot be the modlrlus of a complex mrmber (rnoduli are
norrrregative). To express this cornplex mrmber in polar forrn we write
-2[cos (trl\+sin(trl4)i]:21-cos(trl4) -sirr(zrla)il :2lcos (5rl\ tsirr(5zrl4)i].e
Two complex mmbers are equal if arrd only if they have the same real parts and the sarne
irnaginary parts. How do we phra^se equality in terrns of rnoduli and argrrrnerrts? Certainly
cornplex mrrnbers can be equal only if they have the same rnoduli. Their argurnents need
not be the same, however, but they must differ by an integer multiple of 2n. h other words,
we have:
Two
complex rlurnbers 4 :
rr(cos
dr *
sirr g1 i) arrd 22 :
r2(cos|z t sin12i) are eqlal
if and orrlv if
rL : T2,
:
0t
0z I
2lctr, k an irrteger.
(2.r2)
Cornplex nrmbers are ea^sily added arrd subtracted in Cartesian forrn. Everr rmrltipli<la-
tion arrd divisiorr of any two cornplex illmbers is relatively ea^sy in Cartesiarr forrn. Orr the
other hand, multipiication and division in polar forrn exhibit properties that are not eviderrt
irr Cartesian forrn. Irr addition, to raise a complex rnrmber to a power, arrd take roots of
complex mrrnbers, it is irnperative to use polar, or even better, exponerrtial representatiorrs.
If z1 :
11 (cos d1 *
sirr d1 i)
and zz :
rz(cos 0z * sirrt?z) are any two cornplex
mrrnbers, their
oroduct is
2122 :
[r1(cos 9r * sin d1 i)]lr2(cos 0z + sln?zi)l
: rtzl(cos01cos02 - sin d1 sirr d2) 1 (sin d1 cos d2 * sirr d2 cos d1)i]
: r(zlcos(h + 0z) * sin (d1 + 02)i).
(2.18)
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SECTION 2.2 27 (1 + \Ai)8 : {2lcos (n l3) + sirr (zrl3)il}8 : 28[.o.
SECTION 2.2
27
(1 + \Ai)8 :
{2lcos (n l3) + sirr (zrl3)il}8 : 28[.o. (8rl3) + sin
(8rl3)il
(
r
:
zbo\-r*
^
256[cos (2n l3)r sin (2rl3) i]:
r-
'f3i \
,
: 128(-l + Jlil.,
)
DeMoivre's theorem can be used to find roots of complex
numbers; that is, find the
sqrrare roots of 1* i, the cube roots of -2+ 3f, the fourth roots of 6
-2i,
etc. In general,
we can find the n ntl'roots of a given cornplex mrrnber Z. What we are really cloirrg wherr
we find these roots is solving the equation
zn:2,
(2.18)
where n )
1 is an integer, artd Z is a giverr cornplex mrrnber. As we said, we carr use
DeMoivre's theorem to find all solutions of 2.18, but there is an easier way. We use what
is called the enponerftial form of complex rurrnbers. It is eqrrivalent to the polar
forrn, using
modtrltrs r arrd argtrment d, but it is so rmrch sirnpler. In fact, we regard the polar form
of a complex ntrmber a^s a stepping storre to the preferred exponential form, and only use
Cartesian and exponential forms.
Exponential Form of Complex Numbers
Yorr carr alrnost see a connection with exponerrtial frrrrctiorrs in equations 2.I3 and 2.15.
If 11 :
rz :
I in 2.13, the'
(cos d1 t
sin d1 i) (cos 02 *
sin d2 i) -
+
0z) -| sirr (d1 +
02) i.
"os (h
Compare this with e0te0" : eqrt9z. Irr each case we have sornething with dl irr it, rmrltiplied
by ihe same sornethirrg with 02 in it, giving the sarne sornething with h -l 0z in it. Sirnilariy,
compare 2.15 (with 11 :
12:
l),
cos dr *
sin d1 i
:
cos (dr -
0z) r
s:rn(01 -
o2) i,
cosd2 f
stn02i,
evL
with
:
sat-az. We exploit this similarity by defining e9i for a real mrrnber d as follows
-
eoi :
cosl * sin 9i.
(2.1 e)
This is often called Euler's identity; we have used it to define eei. We have worked with
e' for real ;u for many years. We have now defined what it means to take the exponential of
a purely imaginary rtrunber. For example,
"ni/3 -cos (r/3) + sin(r/3), :
cos (tr I 2) +
sin (tr I 2) i :
i.
i * *,
"nn/2 -
If z : r(cos0 + sin9 i) is the polar form of a cornplex mrmber, then using 2.19, we rnay
write
(2.20)
This is called the exponential form of a complex nrunber. As for the polar forrn, it uses the
modrrlrrs and argurnerrt of z, but replaces cos 0 + sin d i with eei . In term,s of this exporrential
representation, notice that 2.13 and 2.15 can be expressed irr the forrns
z1z2 :
(ryeo'd)(r2eozi1 -
,rrr"(otroz)i ,
(2.2ra)
z1
rteori
_
_rt.1or-ery
(2.2lb)
22
r2eozi rz"
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SECTION 2.2 23 Figure 2.8 Figure 2.9 This process yields roots of any complex number.
SECTION 2.2
23
Figure 2.8
Figure 2.9
This process yields roots of any complex number. In general, to find the n nrr'roots of
Z :
Reoi, we write
:
lI"e@ +zn^)T / n -
p) / n r(@ j2kn)i / n :
( 9:3!l)
zr / n
Rr / n |
* r,r, ( o + 2kr \ .l
L\n/\")')'
"",
where k -
0,
,fr,-l.Geometricaily,
the roots are equally spaced around a circle of radius
RL/" witlt angle 2trf n between successive pairs (Figure 2.9). The first (zs) has argurnent
o/r.
Example 2.8 Find the square roots of 2 * i.
Solution When we set 2 f ,1 : ,/b.oi, where O :Tan-r(l/2),
(2 + qr/z
:
lt/$"(o+zxn)t'1t'/z - 5r/4e(o+2kr)i/2 .
For ,4; :
0 and 1, we obtain
zo -
i],
bL / a [cos (O I 2) + sin (O/2)
2, :
+ sin (O I 2 + n) i] :
- ro.
Sr / a fcos (O I 2 +n.)
The sqrrare roots are a5t/a
lcos (O/2) + sin (O /2) i). We ca.rr use a calculator to approxirnate
real and irnaginary parts
(z:
:2/r/B
values. Since cosO
+(1.455 +0.344i)), or we can use trigonometry to find exact
(Figrrre 2.10), it follows that
.
/o\
slnttJ:
1 -
cosO
j_:
:
and
z\/ b
/o\
costt/:
Figure 2.10
Tlms, the souare roots are
:+(
+51/4
JElz+t+
lElz - rt).
EXERCISES 2.2
In Exercises 1-6 express the cornplex mrrnber in exponerrtial forrn.
1. -t+i
s. \/5-i
2. -2i
4.3+4i
5.
-L-2i
6. -2[cos (" l3) - sin (zrl3) i]
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SECTION 3.1 25 CHAPTER 3 POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS fj3.1 Roots of Polynomial Equations In this unit
SECTION 3.1
25
CHAPTER 3
POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS
fj3.1 Roots of Polynomial Equations
In this unit we discuss polynornial eqrratiorr,s. A polynomial irr z of degree n, where n ) 0
is an integer, is an expressiorr of the form
P.(:r) -
o,n:t:n 1 ap 1x)n-L
+
+
a4:r: + o,o
(3.24)
wliere a,r I
0, o,n-r,
,o,0 are constants. When Pr(r) is set equal to zero, the resulting
eouation
P-(r) :
anil:n I
o,n-1:I:n-r + ".
+ o,tr I
ao :
0
(3.25)
is called a polynomial equation of degree n. In this chapter, we are concerrred with the
rurrnber of solutiorrs of polyrromial equations, the rrature of these solutions (be they real or
complex, rational or irrational), and techniques for finding the solutions. We call values of
r that satisfy equation 3.25 roots or solutions of the equation. They are also called zeros
of the polynomial P,(z).
When n:
1, equatiorr 3.25 is called a linear equation (or equation of degree 1),
Qtx + ao :0.
(3.26)
Its only solrrtion is :t:: -aolo,t.
Quadratic equations (equations of degree 2) are obtained when n - 2. It is custornary
in this case to denote coefficients as follows
o,$2+br*c:0.
(9.27)
Tlrey were solved in Section 2.1. In this chapter, we concentrate on polynornials of degree
three arrd higher.
The next sirnplest polynomial equatiorr after linear arrd quadratic is the cubic,
,t,'f + b"2 I
cl, :0,
ctt: i
(3.28)
and after that the quartic,
una 1 br3 + cr2 + rh: I e.: Q.
(3.2e)
There are procedures that give roots for both of these equations, but they are of little
practical use in this day ofthe electrorric calculator arrd personal cornputer. A more rnodern
approach is to use the analytic rnethods of this chapter, if possible,
or failirrg
this, use
ntrrnerical rnethods to approximate sohrtions. It is interestirrg to rrote that rro algebraic
forrnttla^s carr be given for roots of polyrrornial
equatiorrs that have
degree
greater
than or
equal to five. For such equations, it is usually necessary to use numerical methods to
approxirnate roots.
When arr exact solution of a polynomial eqrration can be found, it can be rernoved frorn
the eqtration, yieldirrg a simpler equation to solve for the remaining roots. The process by
which this is dorre is a result of the rernainder and factor theorems.
Theorern 3.1
Remainder Theorern Wherr a polyrromial Pr(e;) is divided by bn - a,, the rernainder
is P"(o,lb); that is, Pn(t:) can be expressed irr the forrn
P.(r) : (bn - n)Q"a(t:) t P.(o,ln),
(3.30)
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SECTION 3.1 27 Thus quartic eqlration 3.31a ha"s two real solutions t; : ll arrd
SECTION 3.1
27
Thus quartic eqlration 3.31a ha"s two real solutions t; :
ll
arrd two complex sohrtiorrs
1r"'
_
,1,
L
L.
-L
A sohrtiorr of the equatiott 2n3 - n2 + n - 6:0
shortly). We therefore factor 2r: - 3 from the cubic,
is r :
312 (we show how we folncl it
(2r -
3)(n2 t
:r -r 2) :
g.
The rernaining two solutions are cornplex
*_-r+JP=466 _-r+rti
22
The factor theorern enables us to remove a krrowrr solutiorr frorn a polyrrornial equation,
theretry replacing tlie origirral polyrrornial with a polyrrornial of lower degree. This presup-
poses two things. First that the equation has a solution, and secondly that we can find it.
The following theorem addresses the first question.
Theorem 3.3 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra 1
Every polynomial of degree n ) t ha^s exactly
n linear factors (which may not all be different).
For example, the quartic pollmomial in 3.31a has four different linear factors
.:r:4 +2:t3 l:r:2 -2t:-2:
(n - 1)(r+ 1)(:r+ 1+i)(z +ir-i,);
(3.32)
tlre crrbic polyrrornial 13 - 3n2 * 3e; - 1 has three linear factors all the sarne,
13_Zn2 lBt:_1 :(r_1)3;
(3.33)
and the fbllowing eiglrth degree polyrromial has three distinct linear factors, but a total of
eight factors,
,r8 +7,r7 -8615 -95:ra *36313 -t486n2 - 540x-648:(x+J)a(:r-2)3(t:+ 1). (g.34)
Each lirrear
factor irr 3.32, 3.33, or 3.34 leads to a zero of the polyrrornial. For 3.32, the
zeros are i1 arrd
-lIi;
for 3.33, they are 1, 1, 1; arrd for 3.34, they are
-3, -3, -3, -3,
2,2,2, -1. hrtheca^seof 3.33and3.34,therearerepetitions. Wesaythatr:lisazero
of multiplicity 3 for the polynornial irr 3.33; the rmrltiplicity corresporrds to the nrmber of
times the factor :r - 1 appears in the factorizatiorr. Each of the zeros in 3.32
is of multiplicity
1. In 3.34, :r :
-3
has multiplicity 4, the zero :L: 2 has multiplicity 3, and r :
-1
has
multiplicity 1. These exarnples suggest that the surn of the rmrltiplicities of the zeros of
a polynomial is equal to the degree of the polynomial. This is confirmed in the following
alternative version of the F\rrrda"rnental Theorern of Algebra.
Theorem 3.4 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra 2
Every polynornial of degree n ) t has exactly
n, zer os (counting multiplicities).
Our discussions will be confined to polynomials with real coefficients, but Theorems 3.3
and 3.4 are valid even when coemcients are complex numbers. What is difficult to prove
in Tlteorern 3.4 is the existence of one zero. (This is usually done with material frorn a
colrrse on compiex frrnction theory.) Orrce existence of orre zero is established, the fact;or
tlteorem immediately irnplies that there are precisely n, zeros, arrd that the polynornial carr
be factored irrto n linear factors.
When coefficients of a polynomial are real, complex zeros must occur in complex con-
jugate pairs. This is proved in the rrext theorem.
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SECTION 3.i 29 11. If 1f i is azercofthe polyrrornialt:a I:t3 +Z:t;2 -Brf 14, find
SECTION 3.i
29
11. If 1f i is azercofthe polyrrornialt:a I:t3 +Z:t;2 -Brf
14, find its other zeros.
x12. Prove that a polynomial of odd degreee with real coefficients must have at least one real zero. Is this also
tnre for complex polyrromials?
*13. P"rove that if P(r) is a polyrrornial havirrg only even powers of r:, and p(o,) :0, then p(r) is clivisible by
In Exercises 14-18, find k, in order that the first polynomial be a factor ofthe second.
*L4.
r: - 2,
5z -
10
13 + kn2 *
*1b. e; * 1,
n3 +
4t:2 -l kn -t g
*16. r*3,
14 +7t:3 I
kn2 -2lr -86
*lT.
2t: - 3,
2na + k# -6t:2 -ge; - 15
*18. 2x I
l,
g
6t:4 + :r:3 |_53x2
-f k:r -
*19. Firrd the rernairrder wherr reee + 2reea * n2 - lis divided by r * 1.
*20. For
what vahre(s) of k will the polyrrornial 5r5 + 4na + kr\ +2r:2 I:r: I I have rernaincler 15 wherr divi<tecl
by:r-1.
*21. Find the vahre(s) of k so that k is the remainder when 13 - kt:z - l4t: *
lbA, is <tivided by z -
5.
*22. Findthevahre(s) of icsothatk2 istherernainderwhen2t:3-:t2+(kj+1)rf
l0isdividedbyr*1.
In Exercises 23-25, find h arrd k in order that the first two polynomials be factors of the third.
,r23.
n * 4,
n - 6,
t:4 + h:f -
44n2 -l kn l-
576
*24. r:-2,
n-5,
t:5 _ 15:14 +ht:3 +k:t2 +274:t-120
*25.
t; 13,
:t: - 3,
rE + l6t:a + hr3 + kr,2 -
1296
x26. Slrow that when ar, a? and o3 are the zeros of a cubic polyrromial o,:t:3 + bt2 + cn + d, then:
(a)
or+ c,zlas:-o
0,
(b)
o1o2 f
o1a3 I
a2g,s: 9
o,
d
\c) a1a2as: --
',27. (a) Wlrat are the equations in Exercise 26 for the cubic polyrromial P(z:) : c3 * 3x2 + 2x + 5.
(b)
The equations irr (a) represerrt three equations in the three zeros of P(:r). If we solve them, we find
the three zeros. Eliminate two of the zeros to find a single equation in the remaining zero. How do
you like the eqrratiorr?
*28. This exercise generalizes the results of Exercise 26. Suppose that the zeros of a polyrrornial anir:n +
+
o,1i[ I
o,g o,r€ @1 ,
., o, (where sorne of the o7 rnay be repeated) .
Show that:
(t) *, + az |
I an: -+=
un
(b)
a1o2 ' ''(tn:
(-l)"gq
o,n
(c)
the surn ofthe products ofthe roots in pairs is an-2fa,n; that is,
(oto, +'
' ' * o1o') -f (a2as *
'
'
'
I
a2an)
+ "'+
(c.n-zc,n-.t I
an-2ar)
* Qn-1Qn: o:-'
'
'
art
*29, Showthat the onlyway o,n:t:n 1e,n-1!Ln-r +.'. + o,r:D+(ro:0 can have nf
l distinct zerosis for all
coefficients to be zero.
x3O. SrrpposethatPl(e) attdP2(x) arepoiyrromialsof degreen
Usetheresultof Exercise2gtoshowthatif
Pr(r) :
P2(t:) at n i
1 distirrct points, then P1(e;) : Pr(") for all r.
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SECTiON 3.2 31 By trarrsposing o,npn to the riglrt side of 3.36, and factoring q
SECTiON 3.2
31
By trarrsposing o,npn to the
riglrt
side of 3.36, and factoring q from the rernaining terrns,
it is sirnilarly shown that q divides a,.
The rational root theorem is a powerful result. It narrows the field of
possible
rational
sohrtions
of polyrrornial equations very quickly. The list of possible ratiorral roots is shortest
when any
common factors in the coefflcients have been removed. For example, Bt"
:
+21:, -i
0 and gr3 r6t:2 -
solutiorrs. The ratiorral root theorern yields
*1,
12,
t1/3 and r2/3 as
the
first
equation, and t1, +2, +g, +a, +112, +21s,
rrf g, atd I2/9 us
the second
equatiorr. Clearly tien it is advantageorrs
to rernove the com
re second equation.
We now consider tluee rnore exarnples.
Example 3.11 Firrd all sohrtiorrs of the cubic equation Er:B + n2 r n - 4:0.
Solution Sirrce
divisors of -4 are tl,
i2, arrcl t4, arrcl those of b are t1 ancl *5, possible
ratiorral solutions are
+1, +2, +4, +rf\, +215, +4/5.
Tlial a"rrd error
leads to the fact that :r : 4/5 satisfies the equation. We now factor St: - 4
frorn the cubic.
0:(5r-4)(*'*r+1).
The remainirrg two solutiorrs are cornplex conjugates,
,:'+F
' \/3'
--!
i.
2
22
2
Example
3.12
Solve ra -
n3 -
3:f + b:r -
2 :
0.
Solution Since divisors of
-2
are *1
and
12,
and those of 1
are
tl,
the
only possible
rationalsolutionsaretheirrtegers+1,+2.Sincer:lisasohrtion,wefactorr-1from
the polynornial,
(r - 1)(e;3 - Bx t 2) :0.
Because divisors of 2 are tl
arrd t2, arrd divisors of 1 are
tl,
possible
ratiorral
zeros
of the
cubic are+1, +2' Once againr: l isasohrtion, arrdwhenu -l
isfactoredfrornthecubic,
g :
(r - 1)(z - t)(r' -t r - 2) :
(:r -
r)2 (t: r
2)(:r -
1) :
(r -
1)3(lr; * 2).
The orrly roots of the equatiorr are therefore z :
1 (rnultiplicity 3) arrcl r :
-2.o
43
2l
Example 3.13 Find allsolutiorrs of ,,t -T
"
-l40 :
0.
20*' +
Solution
First we ciear the equation of fractions by multiplying by 40,
^t;
40ns -
15412 + 43t: + 2I :
0.
Sirrce the positive divisors of 21 are l,g,T,2r, and those of 40 are 1,2,4,s,g,L0,20,40, we obtain
a rather long list of possible ratiorral sohrtions
+1, +3, 17, I2l; +I/2, +312, +7f2, L2t/2; +I/4, +314, +Tf 4, I2tl4;
+115, +3/5, +7f 5, +2115; +1/8, +3/8, +Tf8, +2r18;
+l/r0, +3frO, +7/rO, I2I/I0; +I/20, +3/20, +.Tl20, I2r/20;
+r/40, +3140, +7/40, +2t/40.
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SECTION 3.2 33 (r - 2)(ra r 4r3 - 5u2 - 4r- 20) : g.
SECTION 3.2
33
(r - 2)(ra r
4r3 - 5u2 - 4r- 20) :
g.
The quartic must still have one rregative zero, arrd Descartes' mle inclicates that it ha^s
exactly one positive zero. we search for rational zeros arnorrg
+2, +4, +5, +10, +20,
(f i are rejected from their
previous consideration). We immediately find that x: :2
is a
zero, and factor it frorn the quartic,
(t: - 2)(n - 2)(:f + 6n2 +Zj, + 10) :
0.
The cubic has rro positive zeros.
The rregative
zero rnight
be amorrg the irrtegers -2, -b,
-10. We find that r:
_b is the req'ired zero, ancl therefore
(:r -
2)2 (r: + b)(n2 + n + 2) :
0.
The rernaining two solutions are cornplex conjugates
-1+ /1-T _ -r|.\,a7i
2-2
The five solutions
of the original equation are therefore :z : 2 (multip)icity 2), t: :
-5, and
",: (-1 +J1t)12
When using Descartes' rules of signs, vanishing coefficients are ignored. For exampJe,
Descartes' nrle orr
:r5 -3:r2 -t2n-ll:0
predicts either two or no positive roots.
The following theorem finds upper and lower bounds for the zeros of a
polynomial.
This
rnay further restrict the set of trial nurnbers a^s predicted by the ratiorral root theorern.
Theorem 3.9 Bounds Theorem If :r is a zero of the ntl' degree polyrrornial P(*) : o,n:Ln
.!a1t:!a11,
then lrl a #*
1 where M: rnaxirmrrn{1a,,-11, lo,n-21,
,lool}.
tqnl
Proof 51rt."
l4 * 1 is always larger than 1, the theorem is certainly tme if the zero
Itt'",1
satisfies le;l < 1. Corrsider then when le;l > 1. Sirrce z is a zero of P(n), we rnay write that
anvnl
loa:t*a6:9,
oft
an:Ln: -(o,0* arnlo,zt:2 +
+
o,n_Lnn-L).
Hence,
lan:r"l :
loo + o,r* * a,2n2
+
+ an-r.xn-Ll.
Tlre properties lc* al<l.l*lrJl and lcdl:lcllal for absolrrte values allowus to write
t
lo,^llt:1" < l,rol +
lo4:rl -l la,2:fl +
lo,n rrn-tl
: loeli lalllrl+ k,rllrl'+
+ lo.n_llxl-r.
Since M: rnaximum{lo"-rl,lo,n zl,
,l,rol},
it follows t}rat
lo.^llxl" < A,I + Mlnl+ Atll:r:12 +
*
Mlt:1"-, : tW(t+ le;l+ l*1, +
*
lrl'-1).
In parentheses we have a finite geometric series that can be summed according to Example
1.3 irr Section 1.1,
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SECTION 3.2 35 Theorern 3'9 is also valid for complex zeros of vertical bars as
SECTION 3.2
35
Theorern 3'9 is also valid for complex zeros of
vertical bars as rnod*li rather than absohrte v^ahr-es
a polyrromial; we sirnply
For'exarnple, all four
"r"ro, ilterpret tle
14, l/5,
-ll2 + t/Uf 1Z of the polyrrornial in Example 3.16 satisfv
131 l:rl < 1+ *rnax{l4, 4J,I28.48}: 1+ 128 - r'33
131
l:rl < 1+ *rnax{l4, 4J,I28.48}: 1+ 128 -
r'33
EXERCISES 3.2 In Exercises I-22 : (a) use Descartes' nrles of signs to state the
EXERCISES 3.2
In Exercises I-22 : (a) use Descartes' nrles of
signs
to state the
rrrrr
ive and negative
zeros of the polynomial; (b) use Theorem 3.9 to find bounds for zeros
use
the rational
root
theorern to list all possible rational zeros of the polynomial. Take
(b) i'to
acco'nt
irr (c).
l. n3+3r;2-2:r+b
2.
2:r:3 -
3r:2 -
2n + b
3.2x4-Jxs+n-2
4.
t:5 +3t:-2
5. 4r5 -f 3:ra -2r"
+ n2 - :r -
2
6, \r:a -2t} *3e;*b
7. 5x5 +I
I
8. -4rB -
2n2 + 6:r -
9.616r4n2-2r-48
10. 6sF I2ra 1Tn3 + 2r2 *:r 1 6
t7.
6:rE -
2r:a + 8# -
2r2 -l n -
72.:t;a-13-:r2-:t-!
6
13.
13 -l 3n2 -
2:r: I
4
14. 3n3 I
3n2 -
2t: + 4
15. -23 I
2n2 a 3t: I
b
16.4raf 3lr3-2:t2+r+6
L7. n3+I
18. 423 + 1
19.
z3+4
2O. 2r5 * 3r *
16
21.
27r3 l3r:2 - 2t: -f I0
22. r6ra +5u3 -24
In Exercises 23-40 find all zeros of the polvnomial.
t023. 13 -2t;2 l5z; -
l0
*24.
x3 + 4n2 + l2t:
-t g
,r25. :r3 I
I2:t2 I48n
-f 64
,126. na l7r3 1g:f - 2lt: - 36
x27. :r4 - 16
*28.
2ra I
gr3 -
gil -
6x2 -
lb
*29.
gn -
6na + lr3 + b}:t2 I
g
*3O. l2t:a + 1912 + 5
x31. z3 - 23n2 - 2It: - T2
*32.
ra -
4r:3 - 4412 + g6r I5T6
*33.
3za -l 13 + b:t:2
+34. 6x3 +n2 +lgr:-20
*35. lr5 I5r:a - gn - 4b
*86.
gbr3 -
e;5 -
Ibt:a f
22bt:2 * 2T4n -
120
,o37. 4xa I4n3 1I7:r2 + I6t: -f 4
,r1g. 2bna -
l20t:B -t I0gn2 -
S6u *
4
x39. z5 +g:ta +47:13 ll2br2 + 1gr-200
*4o. ,:t;6 :_I6:t:a _gl:tr:2 _1296
*'41' Prove the following corollary
ratiorrai zero of a poiyrromial I
to the ratiorral root theorem called t6e
Irrteger Root Theorern:
If r
is a
(t:) :
:r:,n I o,n_rxn-r +
+ a61 with integer coefficients, where o,e f
0,
then r is an integer that divides o,6.
*42. Prove that when lnrl is greater than or
equal
to lo,n_j,
., lrrol, then every zero of the polynornial
P"(n) :
annn l.
* oo rnust satisfy lnl < 2.
*43. Prove that when a+b{Z is a zero of a pollmomial with
rational coefficients, and. a, b, and c are ratiolals
with c not a perfect sqlra.re, then rz - b\/E is also a zeto.
*44' Show
that when o,n :
l, Theorem 3.9 elirninates none of the possibilities suggestecl by the Ratiolal Root
Theorern.
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SECTION 4.r 37 In general, 1r, is the identity matrix of size n x n,.
SECTION 4.r
37
In general, 1r, is the identity matrix of size n x n,.
A rnatrix whose errtries are all equal to 0 is said to be a zero matrix. Exarnples are
/o o\
(lssl)
\o o )
'
we often denote a zero rnatrix by o to clisti'g'ish it frorn the r'rrnber 0.
A square matrix is said to be
upper
triangular
if all elernerrts below its diagonal are
zero' It
is lower trianglular if all entries above its
diagonal
are
zero. -lhe first of the
following rnatrices is 'pper triang'lar and the secorrcl is lower trianqular
(i B' i)
Diagonal rnatrices are lrpper and lower triangular.
Equality of Matrices
Two rnatrices ,4 arrd B are said to be equal if they have the sarne dirnensiols
arrd
if
correspondimg errtries are eq'al. Forrnally we say that A,r*n : Bpxqt if m": p, k : q, and
follows that
not the sarne
not in the sarne positions
Scalar Multiplication of Matrices
define ,\,4, where ,\ is a rlrrnber as the rnatrix obtainerl
tlrat is, if A:
(aa7), then
\an
)ara
\arn
\azz \azs
\azn
\oe"
trasa
\ogn
(4 2)
:
\o^z \a^J
\ar"n
For exarnple,
,(i -:): (1 T)
Addition and Subtraction of Matrices
We add and subtract rnatrices of
eqrral
dirnensions
by
adding and subtractirrg corre-
sponding entries; that is, if A: (o4)*rn and B : (bii),,rn,then
A+B:kt,qIbrj),,,n.
(4.3)
For example,
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SECTION 4.1 39 EXERCISES 4.1 Showrr below are ten rnatrices: /r\ /. /t 3 2
SECTION 4.1
39
EXERCISES 4.1
Showrr below are ten rnatrices:
/r\
/.
/t
3 2
A:
{i
l, B:(l
^\
, c:lo |
?)
L/'
D:(r'-B'o)' ":(i, : g)
\u
4
;)
\r/
\o o o
":(l 3 s') ":(i ll) ,":(B ss) ':(_+l s) ,*:(Ls)
In Exercises 1-8 identify which of the matrices are of the type specified
1.
Sqrrare
2. Colurnrr
3. Row
4. Diagonal
5.
Upper triarrgular
6. Lower triangular
T. Zero
8. Identity
In Exercises 9-20 use the above ten rnatrices A-K to calculate the given matrix, if it exists.
9.
A+B
ro. E -2F
TI. B+4K
t2. 2F -3J
13. G-J
14. H +2G
15. A- DT
t6. 2F
-3Er
17. GBr -4K\r
19. 4E-2F+3G
13. 3C -2Fr
20. 2J -3Er +4€
*21. Find the rnatrixX that satisfies 4x -2F - 3J where F and J are as above.
*22. Find the matrix Y that satisfies 2Y -2JT :zE+
y where.E and J are a^s above.
i'23. Cornparries 1, 2, and 3 are beirrg purchased by Big company and the outstandirrg debts of each company
rnust be paid by Big. These debts are shown in the rnatrix,4. below
Due in
30 days 60 days
$60,ooo\ Cornpany 1
/$4o,ooo
,4 :
|
$2b, oo0 $15,000
|
Cornpany 2
\$35,000 $58,000/ Company 3
(a) If Big pays 35% of the arnourrt owed on each debt, what rnatrix B gives the remainirrg clebts? Express
B irr the forrn B :
,\,4 for some vahre of ,\.
(b)
Suppose instead that Big decides to pay 80% of all debts due irr 30 days and to increa^se debts clue
irr 60 days by 20%. Write the matrix C that gives the debts after these transactions are rnade. Carr
yorrexpressCintheformp'A?FindrnatricesDandEandscalars)arrdpsothatC:\D+rr,Il.
*24. In a government agency, paperwork constantly flows among five offices according to the following diagram.
(a) Corrstnrct matrix A with errtries
(t.
j
if paperwork flows directly from i to
0,ij:
if paperwork does not
flow directly from i to j.
\0,
(b)
Corrstruct rnatrix B with entries
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SECTION 4.2 47 entry of the product is the srrrn of the entries in row
SECTION 4.2
47
entry of
the product is the srrrn of the entries in row 1 of -4
multiplied by the corresponding
entries in
colurnn 2 of B, narnely, (f)(Z)+ (2)(0)+ (_3)(4)_
_iO.
Contirruirrg irr this way,
the product is
(
-t
-10 -18 -e \
\20
24
le
5s).
Example 4,2 Evahrate the foilowing proclucts, if they exist:
(') (-'3
3) (;; r', (-" ,) (i i _x) (.) (i i
.^,)
+) (i
Solution
(a) This is possible and the product is
(r
z\(t\
/rr\
\-a o/
\s
): \_s)
(b) This is not possible, the
mrmber of rows of the secorrd.
number of columns of the first matrix is not the same as ttie
(c) This is possible and the product is
(i ;: +) (i :):(:^;:)
Example 4.3 Evaluate AnT - gC tf
': (+ i) ":(i il
":(i s -if)
!, ?)
s 5
sorution ABr -r": (
l
f
\o
,)\'4
6
lz
17 27 gZ\
:lr
is
;;).
';
\+
8
12
16)
11
36
14
25
:l_8
_5 40
1
\4
2
$
_11
Some properties of rnatrix rmrltiplication are
A(BC) : (AB)C,
(Associativiry of rnultiplicariorr)
(4.6a)
(A + B)C :
AC + BC,
(Distributivity of
multiplicatiorr)
(4.6b)
A(B + C) :
AB +
AC,
(Distributivity of rnultiplicatiorr)
(4.6c)
0A:0, A0:0,
(4.6d)
(AA)(4B) : Q,p,)AB,
(a.6e)
(AB), :
Br Ar ,
(4.60
Arrrnln: InrAnrrn : Arrrn.
(4.6e)
Matrix rmrltipication is not, in gerreral, cornrmrtative; that is, in general,
AB + BA.
(47)
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SECTION 4.2 43 *21' rf two real nurnbers o' andb are such that a,b:0, then
SECTION 4.2
43
*21' rf two real nurnbers o' andb are such that
a,b:0,
then either
a,:0,
or
b:0,
or
both. This is not t're
for matrices. Show this by finding two nonzero matrices ,4 a'd B such that AB :
oi.
x22' Errcode the
rnessage "Attack at six a.rn." 'sing the errcocrirrg ,nati*
(l
l3). n
ig'
the mrmber 2g
4
totheperiod.
\L
/
-f
*23' Encode the rnessage "Attack at six a.rn." usi'g the encoding ^
r.o (?
l)
. o
,*"
the rurrnber
I
28 to the period.
\
-l
2 /
*24' A clothirrg rnamrfacturer has factories irr
Nlontreal, winnipeg, and vancouver. Sales of coats
C, shirts S,
pants P, and ties T (in thousands) during the first
quarter a]re summarized in the matrix ,4 below.
CS
PT
/qo
85 6
z\
Nlonrreal
,4:
63 b6 18 10
I
I
Wirrnipeg
\18 42 8
8/
Valcouver
(a) Drrrirrg this period the sellirrg prices of the coats,
shirts, pants,
ancl
ties
were
$100,
$20, s3b,
and
$15,
respectively' Use matrix multiplication to find a matrix B whose entries are total revenues fbr each
city.
(b) Wrat
rnatrices could be rnultiplied together to give total revemre for all cities? What is this total
revemre?
*25' A busirress plans to trse tlree rnethods of
advertisirrg: TV, raclio, and newspaper. Tle cost per acl (i^
thousands of dollars) is giverr by the rnatrix
/zo\
rv
c:l
s
I
naaio
\ 6 /
Newspaper
Suppose the business ha^s three fernale target populations for its
product:
teenagers,
single wornen
20
to
35,
and rnarried womerl 35 to 60' x'{atrix ? s}tows the mrmber of ads per mont}r clirectecl at each of these
groups.
TV Radio Newspaper 30 /so 5 \ Teenagers r:140 60 30 | Singte 20-3b 40
TV
Radio
Newspaper
30
/so
5
\
Teenagers
r:140
60
30
|
Singte 20-3b
40
\45
60 /
Marriecl3b-60
Find the matrix -4
that gives the cost of advertising for each group of wornen. Can you set 1p a prod'ct
of rnatrices to give A?
x26.
Suppose,4 is a diagonai.matrix with
diagonal entries arLt a22t
t
-'
ann. Calcrrlate A2 artd.-43, and
conject're the entries of Ar, , where m )
2 is a positive irrteger.
*27.
Repeat Exercise 26 for lower arrd upper triarrgular rnatrices.
t'
*28.
\
suppose l:(a+t
,r.^-^^'
^
""'"";"
,-,
(r
,whereoisarealrrtrrnber'
\
o,*1rl
Showthat A3:83+382 +38+12w1ere
o).
B:(o
\rr, a, /
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SECTION 5.1 45 To indicate that a vector is a unit vector, we place a
SECTION 5.1
45
To indicate that a vector is a unit
vector,
we place
a
circumflex
^
above
it:
f.
i
:
The
vector
(llJr,rl2,U2) is a u'it vector, as the notatio'irrdicates, sirrce (Ur/t), + (rl2)2 +
(rl2)2 :
r.
To rnultiply a vector v:
(u',ur,u,) by a scalar.\, we rmrrtiply each of its cornponerrts
bv tr,
)v - (.\o", \uo,),u").
(5.3)
What this
does is rnultiply the lerrgth of the vector
by
.\,
but leaves
wherr .\ > 0
and reverses its directiorr wherr .\ < 0. For
-.2\:
(-6,8,
-2).
The vector
"*urrpt",
-2v
is twice as
lorrg
as
v
ancl
ln
iHe'
To find a unit vector in the same direction as a given vector v, we divicle v by its le'gth,
^v
:
v
t-;.
(5.4)
lvl
For exarnple, a 'nit vector irr the direction of the vector v :
(2,-3,4) is
(2'
i
:
-3'4)
1
: JE*5ji:
-
,B(2'-3'4)'
Example 5'1 Find a vector of lerrgth
4 in the opposite direction to the vector frorn the point p(3, - 1, b)
to the point 0(6, 1,
_l).
solution The cornpo^ents of the vector from P to
e are
v: (3, 2,-6). A unit vector irr
this direction is
r:S:-1(r,2,-6).
36
\/9 +
4+
7'
A vector of lerrgth 4 in the opposite clirection is
-4i-: |{t,r,-u7
To add and sttbtract vectors
algebraically, we acld and subtract their comporre^ts. If
u:
(zr, u,g,u") arrd v:
(ur,us,ur), then
u*v:
(r,, lrr,u,
Iuy,u,"-lu"),
\o.oaJ
tl -
v :
(u,, -
rrru,n -
1Jytu,, - u").
(5.55)
To
add vectors geornetrically, we can use either triangles or
parallelograrns
as slown
in
Figures
5'4a,b, respectively' They can also be subtractJ with triangles and parallelograrns
(Figures 5.5).
Figure 5.4a
Figure 5.4b
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SECTION 5.1 47 Example 5'3 Find the angre between the vector. r: (2, -3, 1)
SECTION 5.1
47
Example 5'3 Find the angre between the vector. r:
(2, -3, 1) a'cr
v:
(b,2,4).
Solution Accordirrg to forrnula 5.11.
Example 5.4 Firrd the angle between the lirres :r l2A:
3 and 4:r _ 3y: 5 in the uy_plane.
Solution Since the
slope of r
2A:3 ts _1f2, a vector
along
this line is
:
u
(_2,1).
sirnilarly, a vector along4n
5lr.r:
-3y
(3,4).'rfd is the ung"I" t"t.";"rr these ou"to.r,
-
and therefore between the lines,
then
o:co
:cos-,(4:n\
^
-,(-z
-(-
-
) : t.zsraclians.
\\/51tr):uos
Tlre acrrte angle
Ines is n - I.Tb: l.3g raclians.o
The Vector Product
In many applications we need to
find a vector perpendicular to two given vectors. The cross
product of the two vectors
gives
such a vector.
The
vector
prodirct
(cross product or
outer product) of two vectors u: (u,r,,,y,u") and v(,r,,r, ,,o,r"1 i" defined as
u x v: (u,ru, -u,.uo)il (u,u, - u,,u)jl (u,,u, _ uru)k.
(5.12)
To eliminate the need for
rnemorizirrg the exact placing of the six
componelts
of u and
v in this definition, we borrow the
notation for determinanis from linear algebra. you have
probably seen this before^(and we will
study
deterrninants,
in general,
Iater).
We set
up
a
3 x 3 deterrninant.with i,
j, and rt ac.oss the top row and the cornponents ofu and v across
rne secolrcl and tJurcl rows:
ijk
'Il,r uu
112
ur
ua uz
If we apply the nrles for expansiorr
of a 3 x 3 determinant along its first row (namely, i tir.r",
the 2 x 2 determinant obtained by
deleting
the row and cohrmn
containing i,
j
,nirur.
tt.r".
the 2 x 2 deterrninarrt obtained by deleting the row and column
j,
containing
phrs
f ti-u,
the 2 x 2 determinarrt obtained by deleting the row and cohrmrr corrtairrilg"flj, *" Jt.irr-"
a
jk
I
:lA i"),-l:: ';'):.1:: 'i,:)r
u,u
11,a
',u,z
,UT
ua uz
But the vahre of a 2 x 2 deterrninant is
lo
bl
Lt:aa-oc.
dl
lc
Consequently,
jk
:
u,,,
(uou" - u"u)i
I
(u,"u, - u,u,)j I
'11,.
(u,*uo - urur)k,
lr
ug
'uz
and this is the sarne as
the right side of equatiorr 5.12. We may therefore write. as a
rnemory-savirrg device, that
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SECTION 5.2 49 11. vxw 12. (-3u) x (2v) 13. u. (v x w) 14.
SECTION 5.2
49
11.
vxw
12.
(-3u) x (2v)
13.
u. (v x w)
14.
Oxfv
1s. ((3u) x w) + (u x v)
16.
ux(3v-w)
wxu
14
r
|
. i--------
18.
luxvl
(u x w) - (u x v) * (u x (2u+v))
19. (uxv)xw
20.
ux(vxw)
In Exercises
2r-24 det,ermine whether the vectors are perpendicrilar.
2r. (7,2), (3,5)
22. \2,4), (_8,4)
23. (7,3,6), (_2,1,_4)
24. (2,3, -6), (_6, 6, 1)
In Exercises 25-30 find the angle between the vectors
25. (3,4), (2,-5)
26. \r,6), (_4,7)
27. (4,2,3), (r,5,6)
28.
(3,1,
(_2,t,4)
-1),
29. (2,0, 5),
(0, 3, 0)
30.
(1, 3, -2), (-2, _6,4)
In Exercises 31-33 find components for the vector.
31. Perpendicular to the vectors (1,3, b) and (_2,I,4)
32. Perpendic'lar to the y-axis arrd the
vector joining the points (2,4,-g) ancr (1,5,6)
33. Perpendic'lar to the triarrgle with vertices
(_1,0,3),
(b,
1, 2),
and,
(_6,2,4)
*34' Show that the cross-product is not associative; that is, irr general u x (v x w) + (u x v) x w.
$5.2 Planes and Lines
Planes in Space
A plarre in space can be characterized irr
various ways: by two irrtersecting lines,
by
a line and a point rrot on the line" or bv
three noncollinear points. For our p.eserrt
plrrposes, we llse the fact
that given
a
point P(e;e, ys, zs) and a vector (A, B
(Figure 5.6), there is one and only orre
C)
,
plane through P that is perpendicular
to (A,B,C). To find the equation of this
plane we note that 1f
Q(:r,y,z)
is any other
Figure 5.6
point in the plane, therr
cornponents \:t - t:0,
vector pe with
,
u
-
- ro)
Iies in the
uo,
plarre. But p Q rmrst tlen be perpendicrrlar
to (A,B,C); hence, their clot product rmrst be zero,
(4, B,C) . (* - ro,!/ - Uo, z -
g.
zs) :
Because this equation must be satisfied
by every point
(r, y,
z)
inthe
plane (and at the sarne
time is not satisfied by any point not in the plane), it musi be the
equation
of the plane
tlrrough P and perpendictilar to
(A,B,C). If we expand the scalar pro61ct, we obtairr the
equation of the plane in the forrn
A(r: - :r:o) + B(u - Ao) + C(z - zd :0.
Tlrrrs, the
equation for the plane through the point (t:s,!o,20) perpendicllar to the vector
(A, B,C) is
A(r - q) + B(a - yo) + C(z -
zs) :
s.
(5.15)
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SECTION 5.2 51 vector equa para_ th nce again erized u,) along it. d irrto
SECTION 5.2
51
vector equa
para_
th
nce again
erized
u,)
along it.
d irrto
ely, every poirrt on .t is
represented
by
sorne
: 1 gives the point at the tip of v in"Figure
,,
If rrorre of t)r, tts, amcl-u"
is equal to zero, we can solve equatiorrs 5.1g fbr rf arrd equate
the three expressiorm to obtairr
lL -
lLn
'lt -
z-zo
\,
:_
'tt^
o
'\,
Ur
(5.le)
u",
uz
T':,;:"jf q"il[T.::illH*:n,i::J H'',',1;,:,iT:,.;d;1;j,J,i;:]'#'"'"
tt,(It - y()) :
ur(r -
ns) ancl u.(A -
ys) :
ur(z _ zs),
or
,uua :
ua:I: -
uano _ rna|t ,,az _ uz!/ :
,u.uzo _ uzao.
Since the first of these is linear in
n
and, y
arrd the seconcl
is lirrear
in
y
and
z,
each4escribes
a plane' The line has been described as the curve of intersectiorr of tiro pl"rr"s.
Example 5'8 Find, if possible, pararnetric ancl
syrrunetric
equations
for
the
line throlgh the points
l-I,2,1) arrd (3,-2,1). Find two pLanes that irrtersect along the lirre.
Solution A vector
along.
the line is (8,_2,1)
_
(_1,2,I) :
(4,_4,0), arrcl so too is
(1, -1,0) . pararnetric equatiors for the line are tirerefbre
:r:t-L,
!/:-t12,
z:L
Becatrse the z-cornponent of every vector alorrg the lirre is zero, we cannot write
f\ril
syrn-
metric
equatiorrs for the line. By elirninating rf between the :r- arid y-equations, however, we
can write
*11:!:3.
z:r.
If weset rf
L:2-u,z:1,or
n-ttl:l,z:l.werepresenttheLirrea^stheintersection
:1
of the planes xt + A
and z :
1.o
Example 5'9 Findtheequationof theplanecontainingtheoriginandthelile2z -tl)-z:4,r+z:b.
points
on the plane.
Fo
r,:0,
:5arrdg:9;
andif
:r::b
0), as well as
0(0,0,0),
arre. It
:
vectors
(5, -6,0) are
vector
li
j
kl
oP x oQ: l0
9
5l : (30,25,_45).
15 -6 0l
The vector (6,5, -g) is also norrnal to the plane, and the equation of the plarre is
0:
(6,5, -9) .(:r - 0, U -0,2 - 0):
6r-lEy -92.o
Example 5.10 Find syrnrnetric equations for the line z* U _22:6,2:r_BA+42:L0.
Solution To find symmetric
equations,
we
require
a vector parallel
to
the line
and
a
point on it. By setting:r:0 arrd sorving u -22:6,
-Bu-t4z:10, we obtairr a: _22,
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SECTION 5.2 53 18. Through the point (2, 0, g) and parallel to : the
SECTION 5.2
53
18. Through the point (2, 0, g) and parallel to
:
the line n :
4 t
t,
!
2, z :
6 _ 2t
xl9. Through the poirrt of intersection of the lines
n-L
y+4
z-2
and ,-1_
A-t4 _z-2
2-35
6
3
4'
-:-
and parallel to the line
joining the points (I, B, _2) and (2, _2,I)
+20. 2r - U :
z :
5, 3n * 4y t
I0
*21. Through the point (-2,3,1) and parallelto the line
x*A:B,2r_A+
z:
_2
*22. Does the
line (r -3)/Z:A -2:
(z +I)/alie in the plane n _A+22: _I?
*23. Show that a
vector perpendicuiar to the line,4.rr * Ba +C:0 in the
egrplane
is (,4,8).
*24' show that if
a
r/a-ty/b* zf c: L
plane has no'zero intercepts a, b, and. c on the n-, a-, and z-axes, then its eqrration is
'*25' verify that the eqtation of the plane pasqing
throrrgh the
three points
p1(21
,ar,zL), pz(rz,g2,z2), attd.
fif:., ar,4) can be written in the form
prF
prf,
.
x prp, : 0, ,h
'p(
iiy,
"j' i"any poinr in rhe
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SECTION 6.1 oo The vahres :r : _23 and y : g do satisfy the
SECTION 6.1
oo
The vahres :r :
_23 and y : g do satisfy the following equations
rl3U:4,
2rlSY:-1.
3t -l6Y: -15'
These tlrree lines intersect at the poirrt (-23, g).
For
large
systerns
of linear
equatiorrs, the eliminatiorr rnethod is far easier to follow.
It can be described in a sequence of
operations that can be incorporatecl into a cornpll;er
prograrn' In general terrns, the sequence of
operations replaces the giverr systern wiih arr
equivalent systern that is easier to solve, so easy irr
fact, that we can sirnply write down the
solution (or solutiorrs). We illustrate with system 6.2.
If we interchange the first two equations, the system is the same. Whatever values of
t:, y, amd z satisfy 6.2 also satisfy
:r-1 2!l-z:3,
2n-3yl3z:6,
(6 3)
4/ ,t,-qt-Lz-9
|
4
A
-\
-
and vice versa' We rrow elirninate z from the secorrd and third
equations. We do this by
multiplying the first equation by -2 arrd adding it to the second, and
then rnuliiplyilg the
first equation by -1 and addirrg it to the third equation. The res'lt is
n129-z:3,
-TA I 5z :0,
-3a l-22: -L.
(6.4)
This systern is equivalent to 6.2 irr that they have exactly the same sohrtions;
systern
6.4 is,
however. sirnpler tharr
system 6.2. II we rnultiply the secorrd arrd third eqrrations by -1, we
obtairr the equivalent svstem
n+2A-z:3,
7y - 5z:0,
(6 5)
39-22:1.
If we
rmrltiply the third equation by -2 arrd add it to the secorrd equation, an eqlivalent
svstem is
r-l 29-z:3,
ot-ry--1
.,
(6.6)
3y-22:1.
Multiplyirrg the second equation by -3 arrd addirrg it to the thircl gives the equivalerrt systern
n)-2y - z:3,
qt
z
_') 4,
(6.7)
-
-
We now have a much sirnpler system of
equations equivalerrt to 6.2; but becalse they are
equivalent,
they have the same solutions. In fact,
the
third
equation
in
6.2 telis us that
z:7'
rf we substit'te this into the second equatiorr in 6.2, we obtain y:5,
and if these
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SECTION 6.1 ot The augmented matrix for this systern is -!, (i i' In doing
SECTION 6.1
ot
The augmented matrix for this systern is
-!,
(i i'
In doing tl:is exarnple, we introduce notation
that, in the future, will elirninate the neces-
sity of explaining in words what elernentary row
operations are being used. We begin by
interchanging the first two rows. we denote this as foilows
-!,
(i
I)E::E: + (i
-1
1
r-2
,'
1-3
Rr --+ Rz irrdicates that row 1is
replaced by row 2; R2 - + R1 irrdicates that row 2 is
replaced
by row 1'
Now, we add -2 times
the first iow to the second row, and -5 times the first row
to the third
row.
The
notation is
(ii'i
-,'
\
+
(il'r
Rz--2RrtRz
+
|
7 /
R"r-5r?r*fts
Were we to return to a systern of equations at this
point,
the second
and
tirird equations
would not contain z. we rrow add -2 tirnes the second row to the third row,
-s\
10
I
(it'+
(i :' -t
)
n"-
-
zz
-2Rzt Rs
Tlre tlrird row is rnost irrforrnative if we corrvert it back to an
equation.
:2,
We
obtain
0
an
irnpossibility. Consequently the systern of equatiorrs ha^s no solrtions; it is a' irrconsisterrt
systern.
we do one rnore exarnple usi'g the operationar notation, ornitting the words.
n-3y+22:6,
3:r t 2y - 4z :7,
(6.11)
7a - l}y i
4z: 31.
The augmented matrix is
-32
-32
.tA
(i
*
9
)
o,
*
Rz -----+ ft
11
-3Rr
-10
-10
31f
f,t--TRt+Rt
4
\o
11 -10
Rs -
-Rz-l Rs
2
2
_10
j')
., .- Rz/tr
-r0/rr
0
:')
0
when converted back to eq'atio's, we obtain the eq'ivalerrt system
r-3y+22:6,
10
U - Uz: -L'
two equations in three variables. What we
have shown is that the third equation in the
original system was a combination of the
first
two
equations.
The
second
equation
in
the
redtrced systern tells us that y:
l0z/ll- 1, and ifthis is substituted into the first equation.
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SECTION 6.2 59 (i ii i) Second row does not have leading 1 (:i; Leading
SECTION 6.2
59
(i ii
i)
Second row does not have leading 1
(:i;
Leading 1 in row 2 is rrot to left of leading 1 in row 3
;)
","*t.,f::"JTf-:1"":*:f:ni.,ffiiiH:f:','J';:llf f ;".'J,i#E::ti.#:rnil:,,",'r;
step
1'
Firrd
the leftrnost variable cohrmn that has a nonzero
entry
in it. choose a nonzero
entry i'
this cohrrnn and intercha"nrge rows, if necessary, ," p
Jirrr,,
entry in the
top row.
step 2' Divide the top row by the nonzero
entry found irr step 1 so that the leftrnost entry
irr the row is 1. This is the leading 1.
step 3' Add
rnultiples of the top row to the rows beneath it to create 0,s berreath the
leadirrg 1.
step 4'
Pretend the top row is not there and repeat steps 1, 2, and,3 on the remaining
rows.
The row
echelorr form for an atrgmented rnatrix
is
not
rurique; the forrn
depe'cls
o'
the sequence of
steps
usecl
to arrive Jt it (see Exarnple 6.1).
It is irnportant to note that
it is not always advisable, at
least with small systems that are
being simplified by hand, to
follow Garssian elimination to the
Letter. In pu.tl"utu., to create a
leacling
I by
clivision,
a^s
in step 2, tnay lead to fractions; other
alternatives are available (see Exarnple 6.1 again). It
may also be advantageous to at least
ternporarily
create
a
ieading
mrmber other than 1 an.
change this mrrnber to 1 rater in the procecl"." 1.t* Example 6.2j.
Example 6'1 use Gaussian elimination to find
two row echelon forms for the augmented matrix associated
with the systern of linear equations
2niU-32:6,
:t-yl2z:-4,
z:
n 1-3U -
I.
Solution The following sequence
matrix to row echelon forrn
of ernentary row operations reduces the augmerrterl
6\Rl
R2
-4\ 6
R,
R1
-14 )
| R2--2RrrRz
-
+
I
/
Re--ftr*fta
-1
2
2
-4\
(:
rl
-7
-7
14
R2-R3
|
4
_J
Rs --+ -Rzl Rs
/1
-9 /
Rs---+ ft2
-i2 T4
2
-1 T4
o
-l
Rs -
0
-SRz1_ Rs
-19
Rs -
-Rs/r9
-+ (i i'i
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SECTION 6,2 61 16\ .t J 1E | ftz --+ R2lto - I(, -56 ------+
SECTION 6,2
61
16\
.t
J
1E
| ftz --+ R2lto
- I(,
-56
------+
-312
o/
0
0
We rrow convert to the equivalent system of equations
r-2A*32:16,
a-'":-5 328
Variables r anrd g corresporrd to the leading 1's in the row echelorr forrn; they are called
leading variables. When the system has an infinity of solutions we always solve for leading
variables irr terrns of rrorrleading variabies. In this exarnple, the second equation gives 37 :
3z 12 - 28/5, which substituted into the first equation gives
.-,(+-?) i,z:,6
,A
:r:
D -.
Thus, we have a l-pararneter farnily of solutions, with z as pa.rameter,
24
3z -
28
*:
A: t
z arrntraty
T,
E,
EXERCISES 6.2
Use Gaussian elimination
and the augmented matrix to find all solutions for the system of equations in
Exercises 1-22.
x-l 2Y-32:13,
lD-A+42:7,
1.
2x * ll - 4z :73,
t: -f 39 -
2x -l tJ -
6z :
-I3,
3:r.-2y+z:-5.
4z :
-10.
lL+11
-22:4,
2:tlll-32:4,
3.
2nI3y * z:
n-!J
-6,
-6,
h1-4Y-z:-2.
5:t:l!)-62:14.
nlY-z:0,
3n *4t - 4z :0,
5.
2:r'ly z:0,
r +'!l + 3z :0,
:0.
3t: -
4y I2z
-
:tIA
0.
r-A+22:0,
7.
3x*A-42:0,
3x l-U - z:0,
n - 2Il *32 :0,
2n -l2y - 6z :0.
5n-3y*52:0.
n-Ylz:4,
3n-4ylz:1,
9.
2nI3y +22:6,
10.
2r-UI4z:-3,
6x-UI6z:20.
r-3A-32:2.
r+A-22:4,
4rl-U-22:4,
11.
r-l 3ylz:6,
12.
2x-t3yIz:6,
3r-y-f2z:7.
3r-AI2z:7.
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63 This is called the reduced row echelon form for the augrnerrted rnatrix. If we
63
This is called the reduced row echelon form for the augrnerrted rnatrix. If we use it to
write a systern of lirrear eqrrations equivalent to the original systern, we obtain
t::0,
ll:b,
z:7.
In other words, we have the solutiorr to the systern.
Let us repeat the procedure with system 6.11,
r-3yI2z-6,
:7,
3:r: I29
-
4z
-t 4z :31.
7n -
l0g
rnatrix is
6\
6\
7 | Rz--3Rr I
Ez
(ili-is
-ll
n)
-
I
ns- -7Ri+ Rt
-Il /
Rs -
-Rz
l- Rs
2
-32 1
u
n, --BRzrRr
\
j')
", + R2ttr
-10
-10l11
i')
00
0
+ (l :
'{,1
+)
This is reduced row echelon form. When we recreate equatiorrs,
,r-Lr:3.
,-!":-t.
tt
ll
We now solve for the leading variables r and y in terrns of z,
r:
z arbiftary,
fi'+ B,
u : fr" - t,
a 1-parameter family of solutiorrs.
What distingrrishes reduced row echelon form, then, is that 0's are always created
above, as well a,s below, each leading 1. The advarrtage of reduced row echelon forrn is that
back substittrtiorrs are unnecessary wherr the augrnerrted rnatrix is returned to a systern of
eqlrations.
We showed that the row echelorr forrn of an augmented rnatrix is not urrique. Accordirrg
to the following theorem, the reduced row echelorr forrn of arr augrnented matrix is unique.
Theorem 6.2 An augrnented matrix has exactly orre reduced row echelon forrn.
It is permissible therefore to a*sk for the redrrced row echelon forrn of an arrgrnented
matrix, wherea^s we ask for a row echelon forrn. Because the reduced row echelon forrn is
unique, it follows that the mrmber of leading
1's in the reduced row echelon form for the
augrnerrted rnatrix of a systern of lirrear
equations is urrique. We call it the rank of the
augmerrted rnatrix.
Definition 6. 1
The rank r of the augmented matrix of a systern of linear equations is the mrrnber of leading
1's in its reduced row echelon forrn.
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SECTION 6.3 65 Food I Food II Food IIi Food IV Total Arnourrt :LAZU) Nrrtrient
SECTION 6.3
65
Food I
Food II
Food IIi
Food IV
Total
Arnourrt
:LAZU)
Nrrtrient A
55105
10,000
Nutrient B
10
o
30
10
20,000
Nutrierrt C
LO
10
25
20,000
We can forrn the reouirements
5t: -t 5y -t
l0z -l5Tr : 10,000,
l\n I 5y -l
302 *
10u : 20,000,
5n -l I1y -l L)z * 25ut :20,000.
The augrnerrted matrix
is
(5
5
10 5
000\ Rl --> fu15
/t
|
2 1
10,
2. 000 \
5
30 r0
#
1
110
20,
000
lR2-Rzl5
+, ooo I
Rz ---+
-t Rz
-2Rt
\5
15 10 25
oo0/
fu-Rsl'
lz \t
3 2 6 2
20,
Re--Rr*Rs
5
4,000 )
(r
r
2 1
r21
(t
Rr
Rt --+ -Rz I
-----+ l0
-1
2
|
0
'' 3oo
)
Rz --+ -Rz
-----+
-2 0
'' 3oo
)
\o
2
o 4
204
2,000 f
\0
2,000 f
Rs --+ -2Rz I
Rs
041
-l Rr
+(: i+i
Rt ---+ -4Rs
ft
|
';1,')
'' 3oo)
-2 0
Rz --+ 2Rs
I
Rz
011
2,000 f
\o
00
-J
10
2
01
''',')
1
500
/
Wherr we corrvert back to eouations.
:t -
0,
3ut :
ll -t 2w: 1000, z + 1D :
500.
Solvirrg for leadirrg variables gives
':r :Stu, U :1000 -2u,
z -500 -ut,'ur arbitrary.
We have any infinity of possible ways to combine the four types of plant food. Because each
(
variable rmnt be nonnegative, para^rneter u rmrst lie in the interval 0
of the food can be expressed in terrns of ur,
tu ( 500. The cost
C(ta) :
15(3u) + 16(1000 -
2u) *
l4u,
19(500 - T,) * 20w :25,500 I
0 (
tu < 500.
This is srnailest when 'ur :
0, irr which case the rnrrnber of bags of each plant food shorrld be
0 of type I, 1000 of type II, 500 of type III, arrd 0 of type IV.o
We have one last rernark, arr irnportant one, aborrt the reductiorr of an augrnerrted
rnatrix to reduced row ecltelon forrn by Gauss-Jordan elirnirration. We can ofben be more
efficient in performing the calculations if we create 0's in a different order to that suggested
by Gauss-Jordarr elirnination. We arrive at the same RREF (sirrce it is rufqre), but we get
there rnore qrickly and with less likelihood of error. To achieve RREF usirrg Gauss-Jordan
elirnirratiorr,
each time a leading 1 is created, 0's are created both above the leading
1 and
below it. We suggest an a.lterrrative. Create leadirrg 1's as usual, and 0's below thern, just
as is done in Gaussian elimination. This results in row echelon form. Once this is finished,
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SECTION 6.3 67 r2-30 Er -+ 3Es + ftr +fi;T + 0 1 -1 0
SECTION 6.3
67
r2-30
Er -+ 3Es + ftr
+fi;T +
0 1
-1 0
Rz
--+ Rs I
Rz
0010
00
01
.+fti,i
-3\
Rr -
-2RzI Rr
lr
00
0
-zl
00
+
1
sf
l0 l0
10
0
4/
\o o
01
EXERCISES 6.3
For Exercises 1-22 find the reduced row echelon form for the augmented matrix in exercises l-22 of Exercises
6.2, arrd obtain all solutions of the systern.
23. What is the difference between an augmented matrix in row echelon form and one in reduced row echelon
forrn?
24. What is the advarrtage of having an augrnented rnatrix irr reduced row echelon forrn rather than row
echelorr form?
*25. A biologist hus a40To solution and a 10% solution of the sarne plant mrtrierrt. How rnarry cubic centirnetres
of each sohrtion should be mixed to obtairr 25 cc of a 28% sohrtion?
*26. Four one way streets feed into a traffic circle that must flow counterclockwise as in the left diagram below,
where traffic flows are measured in cars per minute. We must determine the flows fr, fz, fu, and fain
the circle.
(a) Use the fact that traffic flow into any intersection must equal the flow out of the intersection to set
up four equatiorts in f1, f2, fs, and fa.
(b) Solve the resultirrg equations.
(c) Which part of the circle carries the least amount of traffic, and which carries the most?
In 100
Out 600
Out 200
In 300
0ut200 In200
*27. In the analysis of traffic flow, a city estimates the situation for an area of its downtown district in the
right figure above. The arrows indicate the flow of traffic on the four one-way streets. If /1 represents the
nurnber of cars travelling from intersection A to B, f2 the number from B to C, /3 the rnrrnber from C to
D, arrd /a the number frorn D to A, we can formulate equations based orr the principle that the mrmber
of cars enterirrg an intersection rmrst be equal to the mrrnber leavirrg the intersection.
(a) Forrnulate equations for each intersection.
(b) Solve the equatiorrs for fi, fz, fs, and fa.
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SECTION 6.4 69 AX: B. (6.15) For exarnple, the system 2r-l 3y-42-tu-10, :t lyI3to:I5, A-z-4lu:0,
SECTION 6.4
69
AX: B.
(6.15)
For exarnple, the system
2r-l 3y-42-tu-10,
:t lyI3to:I5,
A-z-4lu:0,
is writterr a^s
(; ii i) (il t*l
It is corrvenient to divide discttssions irrto two cases deperrding orr whether al1 the b; are
zeroj or at least one of thern is not zero.
Definition 6.2 System 6.14 of linear equations is said to be homogeneous if all the bi are eeual to zero.
If at least one of the bi is notzeror the systern is said to be nonhomogeneous.
Nonhomogeneous
Systems
There are three possibilities a^s far a^s the rrurnber of solutiorrs of a nonhornoseneous
system IS concerrled:
1. No sohrtion (when the systern is inconsistent)
2. Exactly one sohltion (wherr the system is corrsistent and r : n)
3. An infinity of solutions (when the system is consistent and r ( n)
This is rnost ea^sily seen if we consider the possible reduced row echelon forrns of augmented
rnatrices (and rernember that the reduced row echelorr form of a given systern is urrique).
A system has no solution if at any stage in the simplification of its augmented matrix to
reduced row echelorr form, a row is encountered consisting of all 0's except for the la^st entry.
We will take this last entry to be 1, but it could be any other rurrnber,
0 0 0
0
0
Were we to convert this row to an equation, we would obtain the contradiction 0 :
l.
Corrsequently, the system is incorrsistent and has no solutions (see systern 6.10).
For the remainder of our discussiorr in this sectiorr, we a^sslune that a row such a^s that
in the previous paragraph is not encountered. Hence, the systern has at least one sohrtiorr.
The systern has exactly one sohrtion if r:
n,, the mrrnber of leadirrg l's irr the reduced row
echelon form is equal to the rnrrnber of unknowns. This carr happen orrly if nt ) n; that is,
the mrrnber of equations is greater than or equal to the mrrnber of unknowns. We corrsider
an exarnple of each possibility. The systern
nl2Y:-6,
2r-g-3,
3t:+y:-3.
-:t l3Y :
-$,
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SECTION 6.4 7t o\ (r -: :n lr o -R /11 7 | to l0
SECTION 6.4
7t
o\
(r -: :n
lr o
-R /11
7 |
to
l0
-r0lrr
srl
\z
-10 4
\o o
0
We have 2 leading l's arrd 3 urrkrrowrrs
(,
<
r,). There is an infinity of solutions, a 1-
pararneter farnily r :
3 I 8z f ll, A :
-l
)
l0z f
ll,
w[ere again n - r :
2 :
J -
1.
The augrnerrted rnatrix for the systern
z-t2A-32:I,
3y + 4z :6,
2:r -
3:r-ylz:7,
-t*5Y-Tz:-5,
which has more equations
tharr unknowns (nr. ) n), reduces frorn
lr
1\
2
/r0
-o
-r/7
r
/l
6
-3
La
to
-roll
t I2 3
I
-r
i
T
l
lo lo o
o
I \1R \
-r
-b/
\o o
o
-7
o
Tlrere is 2 leading 1 's, one less than the mrrnber of unknowns (, < n,) . The system
parameter family of solutions r : l5l7+z17,A : -4lT+l0zlT. Once again n-r :
has
a 1-
g-2:
L
ffomogeneous Systems
Systern 6.14 is
hornogeneous when all rnrrnbers on the riglrt sides ofthe equations are zero;
it takes the forrn
{111:I:1 I
0,pn2 I
!
alnrn -
0,
021:L1 I
.
aZZiLz I
.
.
!
a2nrn -
0,
(6.16)
o,p1n1 i
a22L2 !
.
.
.
I
:
anrn:I:n
Q.
Unlike nonhomogeneous systems, when no solutions
rnay exist, it is clear that 11 :
n2 :
:
'
'
'
tn:
0 always satisfies the homogeneous system. It is called the trivial solution. The
real question for ltornogeneotrs systerns is whether there are norrtrivial solutions, sohrtions
other tharr the trivial solutiorr. There a,re two possibilities as far as the rmrnber of solutiorrs
is concerrred:
1. Exactly one solution, the trivial solution (when r : n)
2. An inflnity of solutions (when r <n,)
We can see this once again by exarnirring the two possible reduced row echelon forrns for
hornogeneorrs systerns. Hornogeneous system 6.16 ha^s orrly the trivial sohrtion if the mrrnber
of leadirrg
1's irr the redrrced row echelon forrn is equal
to the mrmber of unknowns.
This
carr
happen only if n I
m; that is, the mrmber of unknowrrs is less tharr or equal to tfie
mrrnber of equatiorrs. For exarnple, the systern
nI2Y-32:0,
2n-3yl4z:0,
n+A-z:01
3riz:0,
ha^s four equations with three rrnknowns. Its augmented rnatrix
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SECTION 6.4 73 Basic Solutions The homogeneorrs systern of equatiorrs irr Example 6.4 ha^s a
SECTION 6.4
73
Basic Solutions
The homogeneorrs systern of
equatiorrs
irr
Example 6.4 ha^s a 2-pararneter familv of
solrrtions
n:2U
*tu, z:
-2u. Suppose we
write the sohrtions as a colurrm vectoi. or
matrix.
Using the operatiorrs of matrix addition and scalar rmrltiplication in Section 4.1, we carr
write
(i)
ffi.(+) :,ffi) .,(+)
It is straiglrtforward to check that the four
rurrnbers:r::2, ll
:
I, z:0,
and u.r :
0 in
the first
column matrix on the right satisfy the original
system
of
equations.
Likewise, the
valrres e; :
r,
u:0,
z -
and ur:
-2,
1in the seconcl coruml rnatrix also
satisfy
the
systern' Tltese are called basic
solutions of the system. We have expressecl all solutiorrs of
the system
as a cornbination of the ba^sic solutiorrs. It is said to be a linear combination
of the basic
sohrtions- Bariic solrrtions always exist for homogeneous systerns that have an
infinity of solutions.
The situation has some similarities, but it
is definitely not the same, when the system
is nonhomogeneous and has an infinity of solutions. For
example, the reduced row echelon
forrn for the augrnerrted rnatrix of the no'homogeneo's system
n+2t/-3zl4ta:5,
(6.17)
2t:-yI4z-2tu:-5,
IS
(r
1
0
I -2 2l
0
|
-1\
\0
s
)'
When we convert to equations,
,r_L
ry _
_1 rt
-1
tt-9zI9crr-?
u--
U:22-2utl3,
a 2-pa,rarneter fa"rnily of sohrtiorrs. We can write them in cohrrnn rnatrix form as follows:
0 ?'=Ti') :(l') .'(,') .'(',)
Urrlike tlre hornogeneor$ ca^se, the nurnbers in the cohrrnrr matrices
following
tlte z and. u
do
not satisfy system 6.17. They are rrot basic sohrtiorrs. It is straightforward to check that
they
do satisfy the hornogerreous systern obtained by replacing the b ancl -b with zeros,
narnely
tl2t/-32*4tu:0,
2:r-yl4z-2w:0.
On the other hand, the mrrnbers x :
-I,
U :
3, z:
0, and ru :
0 in the first column matrix
do satisfy 6.17' Brrt urrlike the homogeneous ca^se, a constant
multiplying
these mrrnbers
does not yield additional solutions, and we do not therefore catt this a basic solution.
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SECTION 6.4 ,D EXERCISES 6.4 In Exercises 1-18 rrse Garrss-Jorda,rr elimination, or otherwise, to simplify
SECTION 6.4
,D
EXERCISES 6.4
In Exercises 1-18 rrse Garrss-Jorda,rr elimination, or otherwise, to simplify the augmented matrix to redrrced
row echelon form and find all solutions of the system. For each consistent system, show that the number of
paxameters in the sohrtion is n - r where n is the mrmber of unknowns and r is the rank of the augmented
matrix.
r
I29
:13,
-
n-2Y:7'
I.
2.
2n+Y:3'
2r-4Y:f,,'
r*3u:1.
n-u:7'
3.
4.
2n!6Y:).
x -f39 :
1,.
x*29-32:1,
n-A+42:7,
5.
2r -l ! - 4z:3,
6.
't*39-62:-13,
3u-29+z:-5.
2n-f2y -22: -10.
n-A+421w:7,
nI29-32:13,
x-f39-Bz-2w:-I3,
7.
2r-fA-42:L3,
8.
2n-fa-42-2w:-10,
3nI3y-Tz:26.
3n*A-z-2w:0.
re1-2y-32-2w:13,
r-U+42*w:7,
2u1-A-421.:t3i,
r-t3y-62-2w:-13,
9.
10.
3n-29Iz-ro:-5,
2r*A-42:-10,
n+A+z+w:2'
4r*3y-62-w:0.
nI2g-3zIw:L3,
L-A+42*u:0,
2n*A-42-2w:13,
r*3y-62-3u.r:0,
11.
3r-29-lzlw:-5,
2n*A-42:0,
6rl-U-6z:2L
SrlU-22-u:0.
r-l 29-32-w:13,
:x-A+4zl2w:7,
13. 2n*A-4zlw:13,
L4.
n t3y - 6z -2w:
-L3,
3n -29 * z -2w:
3n*5A-82-2u:1.
-5.
x1-2y-32:13,
n-A+42:7,
2r*A-42:13,
n -l3y - 62 :
-13,
3r-2glz:-5,
2r-tU-42:-10,
6rIU-62:2L
6z :2.
4x I3y -
nI29-32:13,
n-A+42:0,
2r-lA-42:L3,
r-l 39
-62:0,
L7.
18.
2rIA-42:0,
3r*3y -Tz:26,
-n+A-lz:0.
4n*3y-Gz:0.
*19. Prove that a nonhomogenous system has a unique solution if and only if ranks of coefficient and augmented
matrices are eqrral.
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SECTION 7.1 77 CHAPTER 7 DETERMINANTS 87.1 Determinants The deterrninant of a sqlrare matrix A
SECTION 7.1
77
CHAPTER 7
DETERMINANTS
87.1 Determinants
The deterrninant of
a sqlrare
matrix A is a mrrnber denoted in one of two ways
clet,A
or lAl. we define it in stages. The determinant of a 1 x 1 rnatrix A -- (o,)vt is defined
as the vahre of the sirrgle entry det A :
o. Herein is the only confrrsion with the rrotation
lAl:
kt).
The vertical bars could be rnisinterpreted as the absohrte value of n instead of
the deterrnirrant of the matrix A :
("). Sirrce we shall herrceforth rrever have the rreed to
mentiorr the determinarrt of a 1 by 1 matrix, rro confusion will arise. The cleterrninant of a
2 x 2 matrix is defined as
la
b
|
,l:40,-oc.
I
(7.1)
lc
0l
For example,
13
- -4- 6: -10,
I 9l: 12-12:o
oA
For matrices of higher dimensions we need two preliminary definitions.
Definition 7'1 The minor rnii of the (2, j)th errtry of asquare rnatrix A:
(onj)nrn is the deterrninant of
the square matrix of size (tt - 1) x (n - 1) obtained by cleletirrg the row and cohrrnn of -4
containing r.r,1i.
F'or exarnpre, ,, r:
(i
rl,e'
:
i)
tl
,l
,rrr:11 o,
l:-r-o:-8,
nr3s-
l;
;l-2-6:-4.
-r
I
Definition 7.2 Tlie cofactor qi of the (f , j)t}' entry of a square matrix A:
(o,ai)nrn ts
cii: eI)i+im;i.
(7.2)
Cofactorsrnaychangethesignsof rninors. If i+ j iseverr,therrqT:nlijtandif
i+j
is odd, thencii - -vr"ti.It is the position of an elernerrt of ,4 that deterrnirres whether its
cofactor has a A1 attached to its rnirror. The followirrg rnatrix of sigrrs illustrates whether
signs of rninors are charrged when forming cofactors
(:; i;
)
(7.3)
ft;:; ::)
For the above 3 x 3 matrix,
c12 : (-t)l+'*rr:
-nlr2:3.
ca3 : (-1)3+3rlrg - mss: -4.
We are now ready to define determinants of square matrices with dimensions greater
than 2.
Definition 7.3 The deterrnirrant of an n x n rnatrix A (n > 2) is the mrmber obtained by surnrnirrg the
entries irr any row or cohunrr each multiplied by its cofactor. If the sum is along the itlt row,
therr
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SECTION 7.1 79 0 30 2 0 0 :(3)(2x-4): -24. 00 -4 Findirrg tlte deterrninant
SECTION 7.1
79
0 30 2
0
0 :(3)(2x-4):
-24.
00
-4
Findirrg tlte deterrninant of a square rnatrix rnay require the evaluatiorr of
arr unwieldy
mrrnber of 2x2 deterrnirrarrts. F'or irrstance, evahration of the deterrninant of a b x b rnatrix
requires five 4 x 4 deterrninants, each of which involves four 3 x 3 determinamts, each of wlich
requires three 2 x 2 deterrninarrts. In all we would have
60 2 x 2 deterrninants. Forturrately,
there is a mtrch sirnpler way to evahrate deterrnirrants of
large rnatrices.
T[e
main reslit
is the third of the following theorems. The theorems describe the effect of elementary row
operatiorrs on deterrninants, operations that can be performecl on cohrrnns as well as rows.
Theorem 7-3 If two parallel lines of a rnatrix ,4. are irrterchanged, the deterrninant of the 1ew rnatrix is
-Al.
Proof This carr
nants. The deterrni
( c
deterrnirrant of
\(,
lh
rr\.,
\a
c)tsoc-o'a'
valid for determirrants of rnatrices of size ii x ll, ancl consider the deterrninant of a rnatrix,4
of size (Ai + 1) x (k + 1
)
We shall prove that
interchanging the first two rows of -4 chariges
the sign of the deterrninant. The proof is similar when
any
other rows, or colurnrrs, ire
interchanged. Let B denote the matrix obtained by interchanging the first two rows of ,4
Suppose we expand
l,4l
and lBl along the sarne row
arrcl let that row be any row except the
first two' Cofactors of elements in this row of A are
identical to corresponding cofactors
of elernents in this row of B, except that the first two rows
are interchanged.
Since these
cofactorsaredeterrninarrtsof sizekxk,they areoppositeinsigrr. HencelBl
:-l,al.
This
proves the result for deterrninants of size (t+ + 1) x (k
+ 1), and hence by mathernatical
inductiorr, the resuit is valid for determirrants of all sizes.r
Let us illrrstrate with the deterrnirrant of
1
o
ls)
1
If we expand along the second row,
|a| :1-211-rlll
ol
?l*rli :l-2(e)+4(3) :30
lr
lr
ol
Suppose we interchange the second arrd third colurruts,
":(+ i l)
The determirrarit of this rnatrix, if we exparrd alorrg the secorrd row, is
?l :rr-q-4(3) :-30
1a| - 1-r11-'1ll ll
*nr-'rl1
'lo
.rl
'lr
0l
The sign of the determinant ha^s charrged.
Theorem 7.4 If all entries in a line of a matrix .4 are mrrltiplied by the sarne mrrnber k, then the determi-
nant of the new matrix ha^s value kl,4l.
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SECTION 7.1 81 a-t Expanding once again along the first row gives lAl: -17(r4 _
SECTION 7.1
81
a-t
Expanding once again along the first row gives
lAl: -17(r4 _ 20) + 4(56 _ 112)l :
266.
13
-4
3
4t
-,'
-:
Example 2.2 Evat'ate l,4l :
l:
o
_z
l"
4l ?l
14, 2
b
6l
Solution If we
add multiples of row 2 to the other three rows, we can create three zeros
in the first column.
2
l0
L2 _21
:10
_2 _3
t^t
11
2l
I,'r
7
4
0il.
lo
10 rT -21
If we now expand along the first column,
z
I
12 _21
l,4l :(1)(_1)17
4
01.
| 10 17 -21
If we expa.nd this 3 x 3 determirrant along the second row,
l,4l :
-[-7(-24+ 34) + 4(_4+ 20)] : 6.o
It is surprisingly sirnple to take the determirrant of the prodrrct of two rnatrices. It is
not simple to prove the result.
Theorem 7.6 If -4 and B are n x n rnatrices, then
lABl: lAllB|
(7 5)
Example 7.3 Ilhrstrate Theorern 7.6 by evahrating left and right sides of equatiorr 7.5 when
r:ll
It
o -2\
4
3\
4l
lo
n:1,
1
ol.
\2 -5
rl
\r
_1 4l
so,ution si^""A':1,l
i
1'\(S
:
S) :f7
S ;i)
\z
-b
1/\1
-1 4l
\-o 2
n)
lABl: -2(40) - 6(285) - 5(e3) : _2255.
On the other hand,
l,4l lBl : [1(21) _ 2(_17)][_4(B)+ 3(_3)] : (55)(_41) : _2255.o
EXERCISES 7.1 In Exercises 1-12 find the determinant of the matrix. 1. (t g) \-2
EXERCISES 7.1
In Exercises 1-12 find the determinant of the matrix.
1.
(t
g)
\-2
r/
/t
b
-2\
B.
1
l-z
3l
\3
-1
r/
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SECTION 7.2 83 o,+b a o, 0 o, o,Ib o u, 0, o, o,*b *20.
SECTION 7.2
83
o,+b a
o,
0
o,
o,Ib
o
u,
0,
o,
o,*b
*20. Evahrate
o,
'
i
i
:
I
0
0
0,
,
o,+b
nxn
*21' The strm of the erttries of arry lirre of a sqlrare
rnatrix each rmrltiplied by its cofactor is the d.eterrnina't
of the rnatrix' Show that the surn of the errtries
of any
line of u
rqrrur" rnatrix each rmrltiplied by the
cofactor of the corresponding entry in a parallel line is always zero.
57.2 Cramer's Rule
Deterrnirrants have many uses in mathernatics. We rnake
use of thern in two ways i1 this
section, to solve linear systems, and to irrdicate the mrrnber
of solrrtions of lilear systems
without actually finding the solutions. According to Cramer's rule in the
following thlorem,
sohrtiorrs of sorne lirrear systerns can be represented as ratios of deterrninants.
Theorem 7.7 (Cramerts Rule)
Consider the systern of n linear equatiorrs irr n urrknowrrs
{1121 !
-l .'
.
a12:L2
I
alnnn :
Sr,
.'
{t21x:1 I
.
o,22:L2 *
!
o,2n:r:, -
b2,
AX:B
+
o,nt't I
*
an2L2 I
{t,nnnn: [n,
where l-41 I
0. The systern has a unique sohrtion giverr by
lAdl
",, -
(7.6)
|A|,
where ,4.1 is matrix,4 with its ith colrrrnrr replaced by B.
We shall prove Crarner's nrle irr Sectiorr 8.4. It is ilhrstrated irr the following examples.
Example 7.4 Use Crarner's mle to solve
3r + 49:3,
2t:-59:-$.
A
Solution Since It
-23 + 0,
4l
13
lr
3l
-51_
e
12
-61
:
-24 24
"
l-6
,:
-=n-
-23
-23,
13:
23''
Example 7.5 use cramer's rule to find only the value of y satisfyirrg the systern
2':t: -t
3y -
4z :
6,
:L-A+z:51
3n1Y:4.
23-4
1
:
Solution
Sirrce
-1
3(-1) - 1(6) :
1
-e,
310
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SECTION 7.2 85 lB -R I r) Rz +-tul Et(Rz -t Rz) -l EzRz l
SECTION 7.2
85
lB
-R
I
r) Rz
+-tul
Et(Rz -t Rz) -l EzRz
l
RrRz -f ftrfts * RzRs
RtRz-t Erfia -F RzRt'
n, nrl
lnt+
-R"
E,l
Ez(h-t Rz)-r &Rz
| t'
rz -
RtRz -t Rt Rs -t RzRs RrRz -l RrRs'l RzRs
The upward current through R2 is
Er(Rz+Rs)+EzRz
Ez(h+R2)+ELR2
ErRt - EzRt
1'2:
?'L -
RrRz -t RrRs + RzRs RtRz 1- RrRt I
RzRs
RtRz -l RtRt I
RzRs-
With the specified resistances and voltages,
20(1000) - 40(2000)
:-3o.
xL-1'2:
(2000)(3000) + (2000)(1000) + (3000)(1000)
bbu
The negative crtrrent irrdicates that it is downward through ,R2.o
Notice irnportantly that Crarner's mle applies orrly when the mrrnber of unkrrowns is
tlte sarne a^s the mrmber of equations. When this is the case, Cramer's nrle can be used
to give information about the number of solutions to expect, even without finding them.
Suppose first of all that the system is homogeneous. We have seen that there are only two
possibilities as far as the rlrmber of solutions is concerned, onlv the trivial solution or arr
infinity of solutions. If lAl + 0, then Crarner's nrle irrdicates that the orrly solution is the
trivial one. It follows that the system has an infinity of solutions when l,4l :
0. Cramer's
rule cannot find them, but the fact that l,4l :
0 tells us there is an infinity of solutions.
This gives the following theorern.
Theorem 7.8 A hornogeneorrs systern of n linear equatiorrs irr n unkrrowns, AX :
0, ha^s orrly the trivial
solution if and only rt lAl+ 0; it has nontrivial solutions if and orrly if l,4l : 0.
Now suppose we have a nonltomogeneorr systern of n lirrear equations in n unknowns.
There are three possibilities when it cornes to the nurnber of sohrtiorrs: one, none, or an
infinity. There is one solution when l,4l f
0, so that wherr l'4l :
0, we have either
no
solutions or an infinity of solutions.
Theorem 7.9 A rrorrhomogeneoln systern of n linear equations in n unknowns, AX :
B, has a unique
solution if arrd orrly If lAl + 0; it has either no solutions or an infinity of solutions if and
orrly if l,4l :
0
EXERCISES 7.2
ln Exercises 1-10 use Cramer's rule to find the solution of the system.
:n + 2I) :
13,
:L-2A:7,
1.
2x+g:3'
, 2:r-39:$.
:r*3u:1.
iL-U:7,
3.
4.
2n-t5Y:)'
n-l 3Y:1,.
- 32 :1,
:r l2y
r-ll+42:7,
5. 2r-tU-42:3,
6.
n+311
-62:-13,
3:r-2ylz:-5.
2x-29-42:-10.
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SECTION 7.3 87 .'. I o,Lr + b:I:z I bt:s 1 bnn : 1, bnt
SECTION 7.3
87
.'. I
o,Lr +
b:I:z I
bt:s 1
bnn :
1,
bnt I
o.:rz I
brs
a
I
bun :
1,
bq I
bnz t
aT s a
1 br.n :
1.
-fa,rn:1.
b:r1 lht:2 l-bns |
$7.3 Linearly Independent and Dependent Vectors
Vectors play a prorninent role irr this section arrd again irr Chapter g. In Section 5.1, it
wa^s pointed out that the tail of a vector can be placed at any point. Irr sorne applications
of vectors, there is a specific place to place the tail. For instance, when a force F acts on
a particle a^s it rnoves around in space, it is custornary to place the tail of the vector orr
the particle. Likewise, the velocity arrd acceleratiorr vectors have their tails placed on the
particle. On the other hand, the displacernent vector is drawrr with its tail at the poirrt frorn
which displacernerrts are lnea^sllred, usually the origin. Here and in Chapter 9 we suggest
that all vectors be drawrr with their tails at the origirr. This will facilitate discussions.
We discrns here what it rneans for vectors to depen,d on other vectors. andfor vectors
not to depend orr other vectors.
Definition 7.4 A vector v is said to be a lirrear combirration of vectors llr, n2,
., n/" if there exist scalars
Cr, Cz, . ' ., Cn srrch that
v :
Cflr I C2t2t
* C;,up.
(7.7)
We have already seen an extremely irnportarrt instance of this. To say that the components
of a vector v are (u,,'t)aluz)
is to say that v:
,ri+ t4j+u"i.
The vector v is a linear
cornbination
of i, j, arrd i. Tlmt, every vector in space carr be written as a linear cornbinatiorr
of i, j, and k.
Vectors irr the :lg-pla"rre carr be expressed irr terrns of i and j. th"." vectors i arrd j are
special being perpendicrrlar to each other and of lerrgth orre. Vectors in the ry-plarre carr be
expressed in terrns of other pairs of vectors also, but not all pairs. We illustrate algebraically
and geometrically. Suppose ul :
(2,I) and u2 :
(1,3). Let v:
(q,uz) be any vector in
the plane, and consider finding constants Cr and Cz such that
v :
gro, t
(rrr, 'u2) :
C2u2 :
Cr(2,1) +
C2 (1, 3).
By equatirrg components, we obtain a pair of equatiorrs for Cr arrd Cz irr terrns of tr1 and 'u2,
2Cr + C2: ur,
CrlSCz:uz'
Becarrse the determinant of this systern is not zero, there is a lrnique solutiorr for Cy and C2
for any given o1 and u2. Irr other words, there is a lrniqlre represerrtation of every vector v
in terrns of u1 and u2. We can see this geornetrically as well in Figure 7.2. We draw lines
through the tip of v parallel to u1 and u2 to intersect u2 arrd u1 at ,4. and B. It follows
then that v - OB + OA. Vector OB is a multiple of u1 arrd OA is a multipie of u2; that
is, OB : Crur and OA : Czvz. Hence, v : Gur I Czrtz.
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SECTION 7.3 89 this rnearrs that q is in the plane defined by u1 and
SECTION 7.3
89
this rnearrs that q is in the plane defined by u1 and u2. Because v is not irr this plarre, it
carurot be expressed in terrns of u1, u2, and u3.
FinaJIy consider expressirrg t :
(-5, -2, -4) in terrns of u1 :
\-I,2,0), u2 :
(0,3, 1),
and u3 : (2,5,3),
v :
(-5, -2, -4) : Crur I C2t2t Ceus : Cr(-1,2,0) + C2(0,3,1) + Cr(2,5,3).
Irr this case,
-Cr -t 2Cs: -5,
2Ct -f3Cz -t 5C3: -2,
Cz I
SCs:
-4'
Although the determinant of the coefficient matrix is once again zero, there is an infinity of
solrrtions for C1, C2, and Cs. The rea^sorr is that v is in the same plane as nl, ll2, and u3.
There is an infinity of ways to express v in terrns of u1, u2, and u3.
Whether an arbitrary vector v irr the r3rplarre can be expressed irr terms of two given
vectors u1 arrd u2, ofld wltether arr arbitrary vector v in space can be expressed in terms of
three given vectors llt, rr2, and u3 is closely connected to whether the u vectors are what
are called linearly i,nde.pendent. This is defined as follows.
Definition 7.5
A
set of k nonzero vectors u1, u2,
., u/r is said to be linearly dependent if one or more
of the vectors is a lirrear combinatiorr of the others. They are linearly independent if none
of the vectors is a lirrear combination of the others.
An equivalerrt characterizatiorr of lirrearly irrdeperrderrt and dependerrt vectors is corr-
tained irr the followirrg theorem.
Theorem 7.10
A
set of k nonzero vectors ul , u2r
,
uk is lirrearly deperrdent if there exist scalars Ct, Cz,
,
Ck, not ail zero, strch that
Crur * Cztz * "' I
g'
Cutp :
(7.8)
The vectors are
linearly independent if the only way to satisfy this eqrration is for C1 :
Cz: "' : Cu:0.
Proof
Suppose that the k vectors are linearly dependerrt. Then, at lea^st one of thern is
a linear combination of the others. Without loss in generality assurne that
rut: Czuz * Csua * "'*
C6up'
Then,
-ur * Czuz lGus + "' * Cnut :
0,
and we have satisfied equation 7.8, where the coefflcients are not all zero. Conversely,
j,
slrppose there exist constants, rrot all zero, such that 7.8 is valid. If Cj + 0, for sorne
therr
divisiorr by Ci gives
o,: -*o,
!u,-,
-9#u,*,
L:i
Ui
"
,,%un'
-t
Ui
We have therefore expressed ui irr terrns of the other vectors, alrd the set is linearly
deperrderrt.o
The following facts are easily seen geometrically and easily verified algebraically.
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SECTION 7.3 91 This indicates that there is an infinity of nontrivial solutions, and therefore
SECTION 7.3
91
This indicates that there is an infinity of nontrivial solutions, and therefore the vectors are
lirrearly deperrderrt. To express orre of thern irr terrns of the other two, we rreed one of these
solutions. we simplify the augrnented rnatrix to reduced row echelon forrn
fi'i
t)
and corrvert to equations,
rl'rs, c1 : 3cs and ,,: -i;:;?*:
,, !:,
ii:",
:,
and cz :
-2 rlris means
that
3\I,2, -2, -t) - 2(2,I, -t, -2) + (1, -4,4, -t) :
g,
(which is easy to check). Corrsequerrtly,
(1, -4,4, -l) :
-3(1,2, -2, -I) + 2(2,1, -L, -2).c
Example 7.9 Show that the followirrg vectors are linearly independerrt
(r,2, -2, -r),
(2,1, -1, -2), (1, -4,4,3).
Solution We consider solving
c1(1,2, -2, -l) r c2 (2, t, -r, -2) + c3 (1, -4, 4, 3l :
g.
This can be converted to scalar equations by equatirrg componerrts,
Ctl2Cz*Cs:0,
2Ct -t Cz - 4Cs :
g,
4Cg :0,
-2Cr - Cz I
-Cr-2Cz+3C":0.
The augmented matrix is
01
2
/r
|
0
l
fiz
--2RtlRz
+
l
0 -3 3 -o
olRs--+2Rr+Rr
[o
6
0/ R+-+RttRs
\O
0
4
+ftii
0\ Rr--2BzfRr
0
/I
0\
-3
Er
Er ---+ 3Ra *
3l
Rs-R+ -
+13'r?
's)"'-2Rst Rz
o/
Rq-Rs
\o
o
o
t)
Tlre only sohrtion is Cr :
Cz :
Cs: 0, and therefore the vectors are linearly independent.o
The following two results can simplify determirrirrg whether vectors are lirrearly depen-
dent or irrdependerrt.
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SECTION 7.3 93 the vectors are linearly dependent.r EXERCISES 7.3 In Exercises 1-10 deterrnine whether
SECTION 7.3
93
the vectors are linearly dependent.r
EXERCISES 7.3
In Exercises 1-10 deterrnine whether the vectors are lirrearly dependent or linearly irrclependerrt.
1.
(1,2), (3,5)
2.
(2,-l), (-4,2)
3.
(1,3), (2, -3), (4,10)
4.
(t, -2,4), (2, -5,0)
5.
(2, -4,1), (1, -3,5), (5, -11, 7)
6.
(3,2,
(3,5,9), (-2,4, 1)
-1),
7.
(3,2,-1), (3,5,8), (-2,4,1), (1,1,1)
g. (1, -1, 1, -1), (1,3, -2,5),
(4, 0,2, 5)
9.
(2,0,3,4), (1, -3,5, 1), (l-,0,0,3), (4, _3,9,9)
LO. (2,0,3,4), (1, 1, 1, 2), (_2,4,1,3), (4,3,2,1)
11. Show that the vectors (2,-1,4), (3,5,-2), arrd (1,1,0) are Jirrearly indeperrdent. Express the vector
(3, 5,8) as a iinear cornbirration of these vectors.
12' Show that the vectors (2,-1,4), (3,5,
-2),
arrd (I,-7,10) are linearly dependerrt. Show that the vector
(3, 5,8) cannot be expressed as a linear
cornbination of these vectors.
13. Show that the vectors (2,-1,4), (3,5,
-2),
\-4,-1I,8) carr be expressed as a linear
arrd (1,-7,10) are linearly dependent. Show that the vecror
cornbination of these vectors.
14. Suppose the set of vectors vl,
, v7, o,r€ linearly dependent. Does it follow that V1 can be expressed in
terrns of y2t
.i v6. Explairr.
,Uz(t:),
In differential equations we are concerned with whether n functiorrs y1(n),
., An(:r) are linearly
irrdeperrdent
or deperrderrt (rather
than
vectors).
It turrrs out that the firrrctiorrs
are lirrearly
indeperrderrt on
an interval I if and only if there exists at least one point in I at which the foliowirrg Wronskiarr deterrninarrt
is not zero
AL
Uz
Un
ut
ai
aL
W(at,ar,." ,!ln) -
a* _tt
a\- ,) aL"_ rt
In Exercises 15-20 deterrnirre whether the firnctions are linea,rly indeperrderrt or linearly dependent orr the
interval 1,
x15. {1, n, t2) on -oo < r < oo
*16. {r,
2:r
-3n2,
12} on
< r < oo
-oo
*17. {sinr,
cosr} on 0 <. n 12r
*18.
r (
{z,
t:et, t:2er} on 0 (
1
r19,
{zsinr, e2')
oL -oo ( e; < oo
*20. {sin r, cos r,
r
I
2 sirr e; -
cos r}
on 0 (
2r
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SECTION 8.2 95 2. Suppose ,4 is a sqlrare matrix and there exists a nonzero
SECTION 8.2
95
2.
Suppose ,4 is a sqlrare matrix and there exists a nonzero rnatrix .B of the sarne size s'ch that AB :
o.
Show that ,4 rmrst be sirrgular.
3.
What is the irrverse of the iderrtity rnatrix?
4, Does a square zero rnatrix have arr inverse?
5.
It A and B are invertible matrices of the sarne size, does A+ B have an inverse?
6.
If A is a diagorral rnatrix and rrone of the errtries orr the cliagonal are zeror show that r4. 1 exists and find
it.
*7.
If A is invertible, show that so also is A
(n ) 2 an integer),
and (,4')-1 : (A-r)n.
*8, A rnatrix ,4 is said to be idempotent if A2 : A. Show that the only invertible idempoterrt is f.
x9.
(a) Show
that if A2 :0, theri I -
A tsinvertible, arrcl that e
-
n1-t :
I
+ A.
(b) Show
that
if
A3 :
6, therr 1 - ,4. is irrvertible, and
that
(I
l1-r : I + A + A2 .
-
(c) Conjecture a result for a rnatrix ,4 for which An :0
for
n )
2.
**10. Show that when A is square and there exists a rnatrix B srrch that AB: I, or BA: I, tSen B :
A-r.
fi8.2 Direct Method for Matrix Inversion
There are two methods
for finding
the inverse of
a matrix;
we discuss what is called the
direct method in this section, and the adjoint method irr section g.3.
Theorem 8.3 If an n x n matrix -4 ha^s arr inverse, it can be fourrd by performing elernentary
row operations
orr the rnatrix lAlI"l so as to reduce Ato In. In the process, I, becornes,4.-1.
For example, to find rhe inverse ", o - (t simprifl,,4 in l),-. ,o,rs: (L
For example, to find rhe inverse ", o -
(t
simprifl,,4 in
l),-.
,o,rs: (L i l; ?)
to 12. The calculations are
1
o\
tL
(t
3
1
o
|
o\
I
\2
0
r)
Rz--+-2RttRz -
4
\o -zl-z
t)Rz--+-Rzl2
(t,
Bl1
o
\Rr.--+-JRz1_Rr
(t
o
-2
3/2\
\o 111 -U2)
1
-
\o
I
-rl2)
The inverse of ,4 is
r-!
(-z
3/2\
r/-+
B\
\r
-u2/-2\2 _r)'
It is a sirnple rnatter to check our calculations by rnuitiplying
r(_4
s\/r
s\
lt
o\
^ ^:i\z
^_r^
-li
\z
+):\o
r)
(r
-l
-1\
Example 8.1 Find the inverse of A:
4
| 2
-3
.
|
r
\3
-2/
Solution We sirnplify A in
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SECTION 8.2 97 and multiplying each by /-t: -+ (-', ;n), | ( z /ss\
SECTION 8.2
97
and multiplying each by /-t:
-+ (-',
;n),
|
(
z
/ss\ /rs\
r(z
-a\/ar\
/r\
-a\
-to\-s
t
)\+s):\t/'
-ro
r
/ \ss ):
\ro)'
(z
L
(zz\
t(z \-s
-a\/zs\
-+\/rrs\
/s\
-to
\-e
r
)\nz ): \ts/'
-ro
r
/ \
os
):
\r, )'
-a\/ar\
/r\
r(z \-s
-+\/sg\
(zz\
-10\ r(
t
-io
)\n):\ro/'
\-s
r
/ \roo ): \tn)'
r(z
-a\/zr\
/rr\
|
(
z
/rzz\ /r+\
-ro\-s
-to\-e
-a\
r
)\zs):[ts./'
r/\oo
):\rr)'
The nunbers
13, 5, 5, 20,27, 13,5,27, I,20,27,14,15, L5, L4,27,
a,re now trrrned into letters and spaces rrsing
abcdef
ghi
j
k
I
m n
o p
q
r
s
t
u
vwxyz
r 2 3 4 5 6 7 I
I
10 11 L2 L3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2r
22 23 24 25 26 27
The resrrlt is "meet me at noon".
EXERCISES 8.2
In Exercises 1-16 find, if possible, the inverse of the matrix.
'n
'(l :' 3)
/z
+\
^ (; s)
[z
s)
(+
z\
\z
r )
'(;
7.
'(,;
"(i
,2(:ii)
11.
34\
311
rl
13.
', i)
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SECTION 8.3 f 1 I r ,,,adj Al:;lA(adjA)l: L A | L lfrl j lnl
SECTION 8.3
f 1
I
r
,,,adj Al:;lA(adjA)l: L
A
|
L lfrl
j
lnl
A similar proof shows that
tl
LEI*j A)A: I
I
Thus, ,4.-r : $adj A
val
Theorem 8.4 gives us a quick way to decide whether a rnatrix is singular (whether it
has an inverse). Since the adjoint of a square matrix always exists, we have
Theorem 8.5 A square matrix L hari an inverse if a^nd only if lAl + 0.
To find inverses by the adjoint method, we suggest a three step procedure.
1. Form the matrix of minors of A.
M:
(mti),
where rnai is the determinant of the matrix obtained by deleting the row a.rrd cohrmn con-
taining aii in A.
2.
Forrn the rnatrix of cofactors
c:
(qi);
this attaches the appropriate signs to the minors.
3.
Form the inverse by taking the transpose of. C and dividing by 1,41,
-
1
tr./r
A-': lal"aj o: Vl-
We illustrate with the two examples frorn Section 8.2.
Example 8.2 Firrd the inverse "t d, :
(
!
:
)
4/
\z
Solution We are assrrred that -4-1 exists since lAl: -2. First we form the matrix of
minors,
*: (t ?)
Next, the matrix of cofactors is
-")
(:,
":
Firrally,
r (4
_3\
,r_r_r.r_
r(_4
u
-:AL-
3\
:
-z\-z
t ):i\z
-r)t
/t
-1
-1\
Example 8.3 Find the inverse of ,q:
2
4
|
-3
.
\a
r
|
-21
Solution We are assrrredthat A-r exists since lAl :
1(2)+(-1)(-1)(-16)-1(11) :
-25.
First we form the matrix of minors
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in pan or in full, is strictly prohibited.
SECTION 8.4 101 :(i i :) Solution The coefficient matrix is,4 We fourrd its inverse
SECTION 8.4
101
:(i i :)
Solution The coefficient matrix is,4
We fourrd its inverse in Exarnple
8.1,
O-:*
The sohrti
rl\
,/-s\ /-ris\
_',;\
:
n
,t
r-;/ :,''
[, -ii)
l, -','/J/
Thus, z:
:
-3/5
The use of irrverse rnatrices to solve linear systerns is highly restrictive, a^rrd even when it
cart be used, it is ttsually not the rnethod ofchoice. First ofall, the nurnber ofequations rnust
be the same as the number of unknowns, otherwise the coefficient matrix is not square. Even
when we have equal numbers of equations and unknowns, the determinant of the coefficient
matrix rnust be nonzero, else ,4.-1 does not exist.
We never use inverse matrices on homogeneous systems. If the inverse of the coefficient
rnatrix exists, therr, becatrse B irr 8.7 is zero, the solutiorr is the trivial
sohrtion. By checking
that l-41 f
0, we co'ld arrive at the same conchrsiorr rmrch rnore easily.
For efficiency reasons, we do not even recommend using inverse matrices for nonhomo-
geneous systems. For instance, to find the inverse of the coefficient matrix for the system
3r-2gl2z-4w:5,
2:tl5A+6u:-1,
n-t39-22:0,
6Y-3zl4w:6,
we would use elementary row operations to reduce the first 4 x 4 block of
fi' \t
'':i)
to the identity. Solving the system by Gaussian elimination
involves reducins the first 4 x 4
block of the augmented rnatrix
ooA
ouo
(;
aon
o
v
-a
6-34
;')
to the iderrtity. Exactly tlte sarne row operatiorrs would by used, but they would be perforrned
on three less colurnns in the augrnented rnatrx.
The only time that it is advarrtageous to use inverse rnatrices to solve a nonhornogeneols
system is when the righLhand sides ofthe equations are unspecified constants. For instance,
slrppose we need to solve the systern
2,:t:Iy
-32-,
2:rI49lz:,
)+-L9>-
le
|
4--1
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SECTION 8.4 103 o l\ /r -(i i x -T 8 Rt --+ 7Rz -t
SECTION 8.4
103
o
l\
/r
-(i i x
-T 8
Rt --+ 7Rz -t Rt
2 -r 2
3lnr--;R2lB -----lo
1
,7, ih i)
b
|
2
0/
\0
e
_4
Ra --+ -9Rz * Rs
Lrls a\
lt
o
1413
-(i :i
43
R1
2ls
r
R1 ---+ -43Ra *
213
|
I
--lo
b
Rz --+ -l&s + Rz
R"---+-Rrl49
-o
-4
-9/
\0
0
1
00
4rlr47 231r47
5/4e
\
10
231r47
381r47
4l4s
5l4e 4l4s
I
01
el4e /
Tlns, ,4-l :
. It follows then that
-1
.,
: zm [?l
l+t
2J
rr\
?! :?)
+ rr \
-,
unt
f
+23E2
+
taar
\
;t"
) : T.fr \'lut;,**t:r";,.'it: )
IEL+2382+rg43
23h+3882-1583
l\h+1282+3EB
;. -
t470
L2-
'
r470
I470
Proof of Cramer's Rule
With inverse matrices we can offer the following proof of Cramer's rule: If AX : B
represents a systern of n equations in n unknowns, arrd
,4-1 exists,
the soirrtion carr be
expressed in the forrn X:
A-LB. When we write this more fully, and rrse the adjoint
representation for r4.-1,
/"t\
l*'l I
1
1
t_
lAl' _("djA)B_,^
l:l \/
lAl
\:Ln '/
wlrere qi is the cofactor of a,ii irr ,4. We prove Crarner's nile for t1; the proof is sirnilar for
the other urrknowns. When we equate entries irr the (1, 1) positiorr irr the above equation,
,r, :
czrhz+
+ cntbn).
1"r, br I
fr
To verify Crarner's nrle for ul, we rnust show that 11 is
(B)l divided by l,4.l, where,41(B)
l,a1
is the rnatrix ,4 with its first column replaced by B. Suppose we expand
along the first column,
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SECTION 8.5 105 for r, g, z, and u in terms of a,, b, c,
SECTION 8.5
105
for r, g, z, and u
in terms of a,, b, c, and d,.
{j8.5 comparison of Methods for Solving systems of Linear Equations
We now have three rnethods for solving systerns of lirrea,r equatiorrs:
1. Gaussian or Gauss-Jordan elirnination and ausrnented rnatrices
2. Crarner's nrle
3. Nlatrix inverses
A surnrnary outlirrirrg the advarrtages and disadvarrtages of each method relative to the others
is rrsefill.
Gaussian or Gauss-Jordan Elimination and Augmented Matrices
For rnost situations, it is the method of choice. It always works, for homogeneorrs ancl
nonhornogeneotrs systems, for any rrurnber of equations and any mrmber of rtrrknowns. Irr
addition, it is more efficient than the other two methods, especially for large systems.
Cramerts Rule
Cramer's mle applies orrly to systerns when the rnrrnber
of equations
is equal
to the rrurnber
of unknowrrs. It provides the unique sohrtion to the systern when the deterrnina^rrt
of t|e
coefficient matrix is nonzero. It has the ability to isolate on any particular unknown without
determining the remaining unknowns. If the determinant of the coefficient matrix is zero,
and the system is nonhomogeneous, either there is no solution or an infinity of solutions. If
the determinant is zero, and the system is homogeneous, there is an infinity of solutions. In
neither case, can Cramer's rule provide the infinity of solutions.
Matrix Inverses
Irrverses can be used only wherr the rurrnber of equatiorrs is equal to the nurnber of rrnkrrowns.
It provides the unique solution to the system when the determinant of the coefficient matrix
is nonzero since the inverse exists in this case. It faiis to give any irrforrnation when the
coefficient matrix is singular. It is useful when right sides of nonhomogeneous equations are
unspecified constants.
The followirrg eqrrivalence is a cornbinatiorr of previous results.
Theorem 8.7 For arr n, x n matrix A, the followirrg are equivalent:
r. lAl+0
2. ,4-r exists
3. AX - B ha^s a unique solution for any B.
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SECTION 9.1 107 Here is another physical exarnple. Example 9.3 Suppose forces F with cornponerrts
SECTION 9.1
107
Here is another physical exarnple.
Example 9.3 Suppose forces F with cornponerrts (F,, Fa,F") act at the point (1,2,3)
in space.
The
rnornents (or torques) M ofthese forces about the origin are defined as
M:
(1,2,3) x F.
Set this up as a transforrnatiorr frorn vectors F to vectors M.
Solution Sirrce
ijk
M:
'lDa
:
(1,2,3) x F:
(2F. - 3Fr)i + (34 - F,)j -r (F, - 2F*)t ,
trtrF,
rn describe the transforrnatiorr a^s follows if we set M -- (Mr, Mu, A["),
IV' :2P" - 3Fa,
T : ArIo :3P, - P,,
M":Fa-2F,'o
,,."TIffi ;;Til:,'i,iilTlr'JH;'.1ffi """#:iillt?l::"9#"Lflif,*'1lT;f :ff ;
only to the preserrt context.
Definition 9.1 A trarrsforrnation ? from R' to R' is lirrear if for every pair of vectors u and v in R', and
every real rnrrnber c, the following two properties are satisfied:
7(u+v) :r-(u)*?(v),
(e.2a)
(e.2b)
?(cv): "[r(")].
The transformation irr Exarnple 9.1 is rrot linear; it violates both conditions. For irr-
stamce, if v -
(1, 0, 0)
and c :
2,
: T(2,0,0) : (4,6,0) whereas Z[r(")] :2T(1,0,0) : 2(1,3,0) : (2,6,0).
"(cv)
The transforrnations in Examples 9.2 a^rrd 9.3 are both linear. We illustrate with Exarnple
9.3. We could use the cornponent representation, but it is easier to use the cross prodrrct
form. Irrdeed, for any two force vectors F and G arrd any constarrt c,
:" x
(F+G)
x F)+
G) :T(F)+"(G),
: ("
(r x
"(F+G)
T(cF) :rx(cF) :c(rxr) :c[r(r)].
The following is an equivalent definition of linearity.
Deflnition 9.2 A trarrsforrnation v/ :
of R to E is lirrear if the components of v' are linear cornbi-
"(.r)
nations of those of v; that is, if
'tt',: lrrtut * o,tzuz + '''+
a1n't)n,
ut2 :
{t,21u1 1- 0,22u2+' ., + o'2n'Dn,
(e.3)
un:
tt'n1'tt1 !
o,n2tt2 + "'+
o,nn'Dn.
Notice that the transforrnatiorr irr ExampLe 9.1 is not of this form, but the trarrsformations
irr Exarnples 9.2 arrd 9.3 are.
Example 9.4 Firrd ?(1, -3,5) if
?(v) : T(u1,u2,'u3) :
(3u1 -2u2,4u1 -2r,+ 'u3,3u3 -4tt).
solution T(1, -3, 5) :
(3(1) - 2(-3),4(1)
-
2(-3) + 5, 3(5) - 4(1)) :
(e, 15, 11)o
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SECTION 9.2 109 3. A trarrsformation ? frorn A3 to R3 rnaps vectors v :
SECTION 9.2
109
3. A trarrsformation ? frorn A3 to R3 rnaps vectors v : (rr1, u21q) to v' :
(ul,u'r,ut"l according to
ut:
ur -
rt2 t
2tt3,
T :
uL:2t\ -l3us,
DL:3ut-uz*\us.
(a) Firrd the irnage of v :
(-5,2, 10).
(b) Is
lirrear?
"
(c) Find the vector v, or vectors, that rnap to v/ : (2,6,8).
*4.
A transforrnation ? frorn R3 to r?3 adds the rrorrzero vector u :
(rr, u2,u,s) with corrstarrt componerrrs
to every vector v irr R3. Deterrnine, with proof, whether ? is linear.
*5.
Deterrnirre, with proof, whether the tra,rrsformation that rnaps every vector v in space orrto the unit vector
in the sarne direction as v is linear.
*6.
A transforrnation ? frorn R3 to R3 rnaps the vectors i, j, atrcl li a^s follows:
"(i) :zi-sj+k, rf; : i-r., "([) : si-4r-zi.
(a)
Fincl r1i+4- 6k).
(b)
Find the vector
v that ha^s
v' :
3i -
2: a*s its irnage.
A transforrnation ? frorn R3 to -R3 maps vectors by subtracting 2 frorn each of its components. Deterrnine,
with proof, whether ? is linear.
*8.
A trarrsforrnatiorr ? frorn R3 to R3 rnaps a vector v : ori + u2: + u3f orrto
f^
*
2u7i + uzrk' if u2
)
0
]
'
"i
I uri -
D2: + u3k,
1[ u2
10.
"(rn) :
Deterrnine, with proof, whether the trarrsforrnatiorr is lirrear.
[i9.2 Matrices for Linear tansformations
The forrn of a linear transforrnation in equatiorrs 9.3 suggests a corrnectiorr with rnatrices.
We define the matrix associated with the linear transformation in 9.3 as
Witlt coiumn vectors or matrices representing v and v',
":
(;)
Iirrear trarrsforrnation T in 9.3 can be written irr matrix forrn
v' :
Av.
(e 4)
Instead of using 9.3 to find the components of v/, we simply rnuitiply ,4 by v. Here are sorne
examples.
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SECTION 9.2 111 Rr-t9na*Er o -le -1 \ + (:I;# -tJ -1\ r -+ lo
SECTION 9.2
111
Rr-t9na*Er
o -le
-1 \
+ (:I;#
-tJ -1\
r
-+
lo lr
I n, --
-r4
-r
L4Rt t
Rz
7 /n"-Rsl80
\0
0
1
7180 /
srTso
\
sl40
|
7l8o /
Tlre reqrrired vector is v :
(53/80, 91a0,7 180).t
A very important realizatiorr about the rnatrix associated with a linear transforrnation
comes from the following observatiorr. Suppose ? is the linear transformation of Example
9.6 with rnatrix
^:(+ t i)
The irnage of tire vector i - (1,0,0) is
r{ol:{-s r il{;)-t-,)
/r\
/z
-3
4\/,\
/o\
\o/
\z
a o/\o/
\r/
Sirnilarly, irnages of j arrd I are
/o\
/ z
z
-3
4\
/o\
/-e\
/o\
/
-3
a\
/o\
/+\
4'l{'l:{n)'
r{ol
(-s
n'l(o):('l
"('l:(-s
\o/
\2
3 o/\o/
\r/
\r/
\z
s o/\r/
\o/
Notice that these irnages are the cohrrnns of ,4. This is not coirrcidence; it always occrrs.
Theorem 9.1 The ith colrrmrr of the rnatrix associated with a linear trarrsformation ? is the irnage of the
vector whose cornponents are all 0 except for a 1 irr the ith positiorr.
This turrrs out to be a very useful fact when linear trarrsforrnations a,re described by
their actions rather than giverr in comporrent form.
Example 9.8 Firrd the rnatrix associated with the linear transformation ? of R3 to ,R3 that rotates vectors
by angle d around the z-axis when 0 < 0 <2r. Then find T(1,3,-2).
Solution Fipure 9.1 ilhrstrates that
"(i) - (cosd,sirrd,0) and
- (-sirrd,cosd,0).
"(j)
:
F\rrthermore, "(k)
k. Tlur., the rnatrix a^ssociated with the trarrsformation is
cosl
0\
f
-sind
A:lsind
cos? 01.
\
o
o
t)
It is now easy to find ?(1,3 -2)
r(,,3,-,,: (ttfg ;::,'i l) (i) : (f:f;;:::3) .
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SECTION 9.3 113 *6. Find the rnatrix of of the lirrear transforrnation ? from R3
SECTION 9.3
113
*6. Find the rnatrix of of the lirrear transforrnation ? from R3 to R3 that rotates every vector around the
g-axis by arrgle a./3 radians, clockwise as viewed frorn the point (0,2, 0), arrd therr intercharrges its ri ancl
3r-cornponents.
*7. A lirrear transforrnatiorr ? frorn R3 to ,?3 has matrix
(t.
?
A:l-r
^
3 5I.
-t\
\o
4
6/
It rnaps vectors v to v/ :7(").
A secorrd lirrear transforrnation ,S ha^s rnatrix
lz
-3\
B-lr
4 o
2
|
\5 -2
r /
It rnaps vectors v' to vtt :f
$').Let ,S? denote the transforrnation that combirres,S and ?,
v":
(ST)(v) : S[r(")].
(a)
Show that ,97 is a linear transformation by finding the components of v/' in terms of those of v.
(b)
Show that the rnatrix a^ssociated with ^9? is BA.
*8. Forces F act at a fixed point (re,
!0,2(t)
in space. Moments of these forces about the origin are defined
a^s M: r x F, where r::loi+Uoj+
"ot. H ? is the lirrear trarrsforrnation frorn F to M, find its matrix.
x9. Repeat Exercise 5(a) but replace the plane ll:
n wjth the plarre l):2tr:.
* 10. Repeat
Exercise 5(a) but replace the plane
g :
z
with the plane !) :
o,x), o, >
0.
*11. Firrd the rnatrix of the linear trarrsforrnation T frorn ,R3 to R3 that projects every vector into the plarre
A:r''
*12. Repeat Exercise 11 but replace the plane U : I with the plarre Il :2r;.
*13. Repeat Exercise 11 but replace the plarre Il:
t: with
the plane A: o,n, a> 0.
*14. Repeat Exercise 5(a) but replace the plane g : r with the piane z : n +A.
i.15. Repeat
Exercise
11 but replace the plarre g :
e; with the plarre z :
n *
A.
*x16. Repeat Exercise 5(a) but replace the plarre ?l :
t: with the plane z :
A:r I
B3r, where A arrd B are
positive constants.
**17. RepeatExercisellbutreplacetheplarreU:t
withtheplane z:An*By,where AatrdB arepositive
constants.
$9.3 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
Every linear transformation of R' to R' ha^s arrnx n rnatrix associated with it. Corr-
versely, n x n, matrices define linear transformations of R" to R". Lirrear transformations
define square matrices and square matrices deflne linear transformations. E'igermectors of
rnatrices (or lirrear transformations) are irnportant irr applicatiorrs of rnatrices (or linear
transformations). We first define them geometrically in R2 and .,?3; an algebraic definition
follows that carr be rrsed in R'.
Definition 9.3 Arr eigenvector v of a linear transformatiorr ? orr R2 or R3 is a rronzero vector that does
not charrge direction when mapped by ?.
An eigerrvector v rnay charrge its length, arrd even be irr the opposite directiorr,
-v,
but
it canrrot be in any other directiorr. Sirrce all vectors irr the direction of v or -v can be
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SECTION 9.3 115 Before making some general observations, we illustrate how the characteristic eqrration gives
SECTION 9.3
115
Before making some general observations, we illustrate how the characteristic eqrration
gives eigenvalues in the earlier examples of this section. The matrix associated with the
linear transformation of Example 9.9 is
/z
o
o\
e:lo
-2
ol.
\0
0
2/
Its eigenvalues are defined by the characteristic equation
2-^
0
0
:
0: lA
\.rl
0
-2-.\
0
l:-(2-))2(2+)),
0
0
2-^
Sohrtions are ):
t2. These were the eigenvalues found in Example 9.10.
The matrix associated with the linear transformation of Example 9.8 is
fcos0 -sind
0\
,4:lsind
cosO 01.
\
0
0
rl
Eigenvalues are defined by the characteristic equation
lcosd-,\
0
-sind
I
0:lA-.\rl :l
sind coso-.\
0
l:(t-.\)[(cose-^)'+sin2A].
I
o
o
1-,l.l
First we set
6:
(cosd - l)'+
sirr2 d:
cosz 0 -
2\cos0 + tr2 + sin2 0 :,\2 -
2,\cos0 + 1.
Sohrtions of this qrradratic are
,
2cosl+t@'
:cosd+V-sln-d'
^:
2
an impossibility. Thrrs, (cosg - l)2 +sin2 e +0, and the only eigenvalrre is.l:
1, as was
discovered in Example 9.11.
Here is another example.
Example 9.12 Find the eigenvalues of the linear transformation with matrix
/s
-B -B\
,t-l
A:l_6
E
0
|
\ 12 -r2 -r0 /
Solution Eigenvalues are given by the characteristic equation