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Graphene Nanoplatelet-Based Superhydrophobic Spray-Coatings

Applied to Rapidly Deployable Humanitarian Relief Tents


Kathryn Khaw4, David Gordon2,3, Mauricio Alvarez1,2, Jane Shmushkis4, Griffin Murphy4, Sisan Dorsu1, Orkan Telhan7,8, Zahra Fakhraai1,8, Russell Composto5,8, Kristin Field8, Daeyeon Lee6,8
University of Pennsylvania, School of Arts & Sciences: 1Chemistry, 2Biology, 3Architecture
School of Engineering & Applied Sciences, 4Bioengineering, 5Materials Science & Engineering, 6Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
School of Design, 7Fine Arts ๏ 8Research and Education in Active Coatings Technologies for the Human Habitat Collaboration

Tents & Water Management Graphene Nanoplatelet-Coated PET Optimized Use of Coating
Daily Water Usage in Tent Camp Solutions Available Visualize hierarchical roughness and measure the coat’s contact angle and Improve durability and performance by refining a process for coating
Survival needs: Drinking and food (+) 2.5-3 liters per day Lifestraw sliding angle fabrication
Depends on the climate and individual physiology
(Requires Training)

Basic hygiene practices (+) 2 - 6 liters per day


Depends on social and cultural norms
Filtration Pouch Graphene Nanoplatelet PET Coatings Coating Process
(Requires Filter to be Replaced)
Basic cooking needs (+) 3 - 6 liters per day
Depends on food type and social and cultural norms
Graphene Structure 5 Wt% Graphene Nanoplatelets
Chlorine Tablets ● Graphene chosen for its chemical structure
Total basic water needs 7.5 - 15 liters per day which provides intrinsic hydrophobicity
(Potential for chemical poisoning)
Figure adapted from the Sphere Handbook Standards ● 5 wt.% demonstrated dispersion with
agglomeration
● Graphene demonstrated higher durability 15 Layers of
than silica nanoparticles, TMPTA polymers,
Purpose & Approach and teflon nanoparticles
Graphene Coat

Rubber
Cement Layer
Design a rapidly-deployable relief tent and develop active coatings that allow Uncoated PET Fabric Control 15-Coat Graphene Nanoplatelets Uncoated
Fabric Spread on
Substrate
Heated
Graphene Spray
Coat
Sample
Heated
1 Hour in
Oven At 80ºC
Fabric
the tent to interact with its environment, enabling water collection
● Uncoated PET fabric possesses
macroscale hierarchical roughness Testing Improved Coatings
Design Considerations Coating Methods Coated Particles Coating Analysis ● 15 coats provided uniform coverage
Modular, Adaptable Blade Coating Silica Nanoparticles Light Microscope Final Coating Retains Slippery Behavior Following Durability Tests

Rapidly Deployable Spin Coating Teflon Nanoparticles Electron Microscope


Final Coating Retains Contact Angle After Durability Tests Final Coating Retains Angle Hysteresis After Durability Tests
300µm 300µm
Customizable, Livable Dip Coating TMPTA Polymers Goniometry SEM Images Obtained By Evan Dolling

Graphene
H2O Management Spray Coating Durability

Contact Angle (º)


Nanoplatelets
Graphene Nanoplatelet Coating Analysis

Hysteresis (º)
Refinement & Optimization SEM images Capture Hierarchical Roughness
Usability Annealing Coating Distribution Layering
Coated Uncoated
Sample Sample Uncoated Graphene Cement & Cement &
Sample
Fabric Graphene Rubbed Graphene Graphene
Rubbed
Contact

Coating Methods
Sliding
155.31º 145.34º Angle (º) 90 <10º 90º <10º 20º
Angle

Sliding ● High hysteresis and high sliding angle in uncoated sample prevent effective collection of water
10º <90º
Angle ● Graphene coating decreases hysteresis and increases contact angle to allow water collection.
● After durability tests, graphene coating has a high angle hysteresis, thus preventing effective water collection.
● Nano- and micro-scale roughness results from graphene coating ● Additional cement adhesive layer allows coating to maintain slippery behavior after durability tests
Impart appropriate roughness and surface chemistry by depositing coatings ● Fabric threads impart coating pattern
onto tent surface fabric, creating a contact angle >150° and low hysteresis ● After durability tests, graphene coating is removed and did not retain 100 µm
superhydrophobic properties

Samples Following Durability Tests in Predicted Tent-Environments


Acknowledgements
Spray Coating Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) School of Engineering & Applied Sciences
Uncoated Control Nitrile Rubbing x 15 times Coating Self Friction Grant PI & Project Advisor
Daeyeon Lee (PI) Russell Composto (Co-PI) Kristin Field (Co-PI)
Project Advisor & Co-PI
Shawn Maguire Evan Dolling Katie Rose Graduate Student Mentor
Scalable
School of Arts & Sciences
Lab Mentors
Zahra Fakhraai (Co-PI) Connor Woods Aixi Zhang
Rapid 15-Coat Graphene Water Stream x 30 sec Adhesive Tape and Sonication Funding & Support
School of Design
110 Denier Fabric Lightweight Orkan Telhan (Co-PI) Michael Hogan
Surface Topography
Independent Funding & Support
Non Soaking Widely Used
CURF SURGG Grant REACT, NSF-PIRE ShelterBox
Durable Tmelting is 268ºC 1 OCHA. (2004). A Guide to the Use and Logistics of Family Tents in Humanitarian Relief. United Nations.
Allen, K. (2013, October 14). Beyond the Tent: Why Refugee Camps Need Architects (Now More than Ever). ArchDaily.
Norwegian Refugee Council. (2015, July 13). Global Estimates 2015: People Displaced by Disasters Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre.
After durability tests that mimicked tent environments, coating was removed and did not retain superhydrophobic properties. Mittal, Et Al. (2010). “Flow-directed assembly of nanostructured thin films from suspensions of anisotropic titania particles”. Nanoscale.
Schutzius, Et Al. (2013). “Water-Based, Nonfluorinated Dispersions for Environmentally Benign, Large-Area, Superhydrophobic Coatings”. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces.
Graphene Nanoplatelet-Based Superhydrophobic Spray-Coatings
Applied to Rapidly Deployable Humanitarian Relief Tents
David Gordon1,2, Kathryn Khaw4, Mauricio Alvarez2,3, Jane Shmushkis4, Griffin Murphy4, Sisan Dorsu3, Orkan Telhan7,8, Zahra Fakhraai3,8, Russell Composto5,8, Kristin Field8, Daeyeon Lee6,8
University of Pennsylvania, School of Arts & Sciences: 1Architecture, 2Biology, 3Chemistry,
School of Engineering & Applied Sciences, 4Bioengineering, 5Materials Science & Engineering, 6Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
School of Design, 7Fine Arts ๏ 8Research and Education in Active Coatings Technologies for the Human Habitat Collaboration

Tent Camp Uses & Issues Prototypical Design Coated Fabric & Water Management
Relief tents are responses to environmental and humanitarian disasters Material Superhydrophobicity

26.4 Million 22.5 Million 65.6 MIllion


People displaced by climate or Refugees Worldwide Forcibly Displaced People Worldwide
weather-related events (2008-2015) Today Low Hysteresis
Norwegian Refugee Council, 2015) (UNHCR ,Figures At A Glance) (UNHCR ,Figures At A Glance) “Slippery”

Tent camps are used beyond their useful lifespans


Contact Angle> 150º
About 1 Year 7-17 Years
Lifespan of standard canvas Average lifespan of a tent-based Superhydrophobic
relief tent left outside exposed to relief camp
sunlight (Allen, 2013)

Tent camps offer benefits, but still have room for improvement Prototype Functions Next Steps
Shelter Health Privacy

No Water Management Solution Little Flexibility Complex to Build


2

Purpose & Approach Tent Dimensions Modular Tent Allows For Reconfiguration

Design a rapidly-deployable relief tent and develop active coatings that allow
1 coat Cement Based Layer, 15 coat 5 wt%
the tent to interact with its environment, enabling water collection Graphene Nanoplatelets After Being Rubbed
and Rinsed
2.1m

Design Considerations Coating Methods Coated Particles Coating Analysis


1.8m

● Improve coating adhesion by modifying the graphene solution


Modular, Adaptable Blade Coating Silica Nanoparticles Light Microscope ● Tent coating enables and directs water runoff ● Optimize manufacturing process for mass production
● Runoff is collected and filtered at tent apexes ● Test different colored coatings
Rapidly Deployable Spin Coating Teflon Nanoparticles Electron Microscope ● Collected water is further purified using existing
technologies
Customizable, Livable Dip Coating TMPTA Polymers Goniometry 14m2
Graphene
H2O Management Spray Coating Durability
Nanoplatelets

Refinement & Optimization


Acknowledgements
Usability Annealing Coating Distribution Layering 120°
School of Engineering & Applied Sciences
Grant PI & Project Advisor
3.0m 3.9m
Daeyeon Lee (PI) Russell Composto (Co-PI) Kristin Field (Co-PI)
Project Advisor & Co-PI

Coated Fabric Scheme Shawn Maguire


School of Arts & Sciences
Evan Dolling Katie Rose Graduate Student Mentor

Lab Mentors
Zahra Fakhraai (Co-PI) Connor Woods Aixi Zhang
Funding & Support
School of Design
Tent Flaps Allow For Adequate Ventilation Tent Design Meets or Exceeds Relief Tent Standards
Orkan Telhan (Co-PI) Michael Hogan
✔ 14m2 area for a 4 person tent
Funding & Support

✔ Tent adaptable to many uses CURF SURGG Grant REACT, NSF-PIRE ShelterBox

✔ Water does not leak through the covering OCHA. (2004). A Guide to the Use and Logistics of Family Tents in Humanitarian Relief. United Nations.
Zhang, Et Al. (2016). “Lotus effect in wetting and self-cleaning”. Biotribology.
Allen, K. (2013, October 14). Beyond the Tent: Why Refugee Camps Need Architects (Now More than Ever). ArchDaily.
✔ > 33% headroom Above 1.8m Norwegian Refugee Council. (2015, July 13). Global Estimates 2015: People Displaced by Disasters Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre.
Hensel, Et Al. (2016). “The springtail cuticle as a blueprint for omniphobic surfaces”. Chemical Society Reviews.
Closed tent Ventilating tent Open tent UNHCR Standards; Sphere Handbook Mittal, Et Al. (2010). “Flow-directed assembly of nanostructured thin films from suspensions of anisotropic titania particles”. Nanoscale..
Schutzius, Et Al. (2013). “Water-Based, Nonfluorinated Dispersions for Environmentally Benign, Large-Area, Superhydrophobic Coatings”. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces