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Kinematics

Kinematics - the science that deals with the description of


motion without concern about what causes that motion.

1D Linear Kinematics - motions along straight lines.

Uses four physical concepts: displacement, velocity,


acceleration and time.

There are four equations of Kinematics connecting three


out of the four concepts above.
Displacement Vector

DISPLACEMENT (x) = the vector connecting the position (vector)
 
x 0 , at (initial) time t 0 , with the position (vector) x at a later time t.

     
x  x0  x  x  x  x0 ;  m SI

MAGNITUDE (of displacement) is the shortest distance between the


 
two positions x0 and x.

DISTANCE (scalar)  path length traveled

Magnitude of Displacement  Distance Traveled !


Quiz #1
The car goes to the finish line and back.
What is the distance covered by the
car and what is the magnitude of its
displacement at the end of those
9.435 seconds?

A. 3218 m, 3218 m

B. 1609 m, 1609 m

C. 3218 m, 0 m
Velocity Vector

Average VELOCITY  v  is the ratio between the displacement and
the elapsed time.
  
 Displacement x x  x0  m
v    ,  v SI 
Time t t  t0 s

Instantaneous Velocity  v  is the velocity at each instant of time.
 
 x dx
v  lim 
t 0 t dt

Total Distance Traveled


Average Speed 
Time of Travel

Usually the Average Speed is NOT the same as the Magnitude of the Average Velocity.
Quiz #2
The car goes to the finish line and back.
What was the average velocity of the car
at the end of those 9.435 seconds and
what was the average speed associated
with the whole forth-and-back trip?

A. 0 m/s, 341.0705 m/s

B. 0 m/s, 170.5352 m/s

C. 341.0705 m/s, 341.0705 m/s


Quiz #3

Can an object move with constant (scalar) speed


and have a nonconstant (vector) velocity ?

A. No

B. Yes
Acceleration Vector

Average ACCELERATION  a  is the ratio between the change in
velocity and the elapsed time for that change.

  
 v v  v0  m
a  ,  SI 2
a 
t t  t0 s


Instantaneous Acceleration  a  is the acceleration at each instant of time.

  
 v dv d 2 x
a  lim   2
t  0 t dt dt

NOTE: in this class, acceleration will usually be considered


constant (in time), be it zero or non-zero in magnitude.
Acceleration Vector

An object can ACCELERATE (+a)  above   or DECELERATE ( - a) (below)  .


The Four Equations of Linear Kinematics
There are four (4) equations associating uniquely three out of four physical
quantities: DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY, ACCELERATION and TIME.
  m
For Uniformly Accelerated Motion  a is constant (in time) and a  0 2  :
 s 
 
   v  v0
1. x  x0   t  t0   associates: displacement , velocity, time
2

  
2. v  v0  a  t  t0   associates: velocity, acceleration, time


   a
3. x  x0  v0  t  t0    t  t0   associates: displacement , acceleration, time 
2

2
dot product
  
4. v 2  v02  2a   x  x0   associates: displacement , speed , acceleration 
Note: We often start the clock at zero time and set t0  0.
Graphs for Uniformly Accelerated Motion
x (m) v (m/s) a (m/s 2 )

x0 a  constant  0
v0

t (s) t (s) t (s)


slope  acceleration  constant  0
x vs. t - is a parabola, because x is quadratic in time  x   a / 2  t 2  v0t  x0  ,
with the intercept at x0 . If a  0, the graph is concave up ;
if a  0, the graph is concave down .
v vs. t - is an inclined line, because v is linear in time  v  at  v0  with the
slope a and intercept v0 .
a vs. t - is a horizontal line with intercept a  a0  0 m/s.
The area under this graph represents v  v0 .
Uniform Linear Motion
 m   
In the particular case of Uniform Motion  a  0 2 , v  v0 
 s 
the previous four (4) equations reduce to:

  
1. x  x0  v0  t  t0 

 
2. v  v0  0 and is constant in time

  
3. x  x0  v0  t  t0 

4. v 2  v02  0 and is constant in time


Graphs for Uniform Linear Motion
x (m) v (m/s) a (m/s 2 )

x0 v  v0  0
v0
a  a0  0
t (s) t (s) t (s)
slope  constant  velocity slope  0  acceleration
x vs. t - is an inclined straight line (x  vt  x0 ) with the slope
equal to the constant velocity v  v0 and the intercept
equal to the initial position x0 .
v vs. t - is a horizontal line at v  v0  constant  0 m/s.
The area under this graph represents x  x0 .
a vs. t - is a horizontal line at a  a0  0 m/s 2 .
Objects at Rest
 m   m
In the even more particular case of Rest  a  0 2 and v  v0  0 
 s s 
the previous four (4) equations reduce even further to:

 
1. x  x0 the object is stationary

 
2. v  v0  0 at rest

 
3. x  x0 the object is stationary

4. v 2  v02  0 at rest
Graphs for Objects at Rest

x (m) v (m/s) a (m/s 2 )

x0
v  v0  0 a  a0  0
t (s) t (s) t (s)
slope  0  velocity slope  0  acceleration

x vs. t - is a horizontal line with intercept at x  x0   or  0  .


v vs. t - is a horizontal line with intercept at v  v0  0 m/s.
a vs. t - is a horizontal line with intercept at a  a0  0 m/s 2 .
Applications of (1D) Linear Kinematics 
 
When dealing with (1D) linear motion in a gravitational field, a  g ,
  m  
 g  9.8 2 
and x is usually replaced with the label y for height:
 s 

 
  v  v0 
1. y  y0   t  t0  displacement, velocity, time
2

  
2. v  v0  g  t  t0   velocity, acceleration, time


   g
3. y  y0  v0  t  t0    0   displacement, acceleration, time

2
t t
2
dot product
  
4. v  v  2 g   y  y0   displacement, speed, acceleration 
2 2
0
Object Dropped from a Height – Free Fall
    
t0 y0 v0 t y v a
0s  y0 0 m/s t y (t ) v(t ) 9.8 m/s 2
Considering the the upward direction to be
()
v0 = 0 m/s positive, the 4 kinematic equations become:
 v(t )  0 
1. y (t )  y0   t
 y0  2 
Note: v(t ) is negative
 m
2. v(t )  0   9.8 2  t
a  9.8 m/s 2  s 
 1 m
3. y (t )  y0    9.8 2  t 2
 2 s 
v(t )  m
y (t ) 4. v 2  02  2  9.8 2   y  y0 
 s 
Note: (y  y0 ) is negative  y  y0  .
Example #1
A ball is dropped off the top of a building. Knowing that
the magnitude of the velocity just before it hits the ground
is 20 m/s, figure out the height of the building and the time
it took for the ball to hit the ground.
Take upward as +y 
The fourth kinematic equation becomes:

 v    0   2   g   0  y0  ,so
2 2

 20 m/s   20.4 m


2
A. 10.2 m, 1.5 s v2
y0   
2 g 2(9.8 m/s 2 )

The second kinematic equation becomes:


B. 15.6 m, 1.8 s  v(t )
v(t )  20m/s    g  t  t   
20 m/s
 2.04 s
g 9.8 m/s 2
NOTE: this is not the only kinematic
C. 20.4 m, 2.04 s equation that could solve thisproblem.
An Object Thrown Downwards
    
t0 y0 v0 t y v a
0s  y0 v0 t y (t ) v(t ) 9.8 m/s 2
Considering the positive direction the upward
()
direction, the 4 kinematic equations become:
 v(t )  v0 
v0 1. y (t )  y0   t
 2 
Note: v (t ) is negative
 y0
 m
2. v(t )   v0    9.8 2  t
a  9.8 m/s 2  s 
 1 m
3. y (t )  y0   v0  t    9.8 2  t 2
 2 s 
 m
4. v 2   v0   2  9.8 2   y  y0 
2
v(t ) y (t )  s 
Note: (y  y0 ) is negative  y  y0  .
Quiz #4
A ball is thrown downwards off the top of a 50 m building .
Knowing that the magnitude of the velocity just before it hits
the ground is 35 m/s, calculate the magnitude of the initial
velocity of the ball.

A. 2.6 m/s

B. 15.7 m/s

C. 21.3 m/s
An Object Tossed Upwards
    
t0 y0 v0 t y v a
0s  y0 v0 t y (t ) v(t ) 9.8 m/s 2

() Considering the upward direction as positive,


ymax vtop  0 m/s the 4 kinematic equations become:
 v(t )  v0 
1. y (t )  y0   t
 2 
 m
2. v(t )  v0   9.8 2  t
 v(t ) a  9.8 m/s 2  s 
 1 m
3. y (t )  y0  v0t    9.8 2  t 2
 2 s 
v0  m
v(t ) 4. v 2  v02  2  9.8 2   y  y0 
y (t )  s 
Note: y  y0 is positive  y  y0  ,
 y0  
but v 2  v02  v  v0  for y  y0 .
Example #2
Someone tosses a coin up in the air and then catches it back at the
same height level when it returns. Knowing that the coin hits the
palm after 2 seconds, figure out the magnitude of the initial velocity
and the maximum height reached relative to the palm level.
Take upward as positive y.
From the third kinematic equation:
A. 2.8 m/s, 1.5 m 0  0  v0  2 s  
1
2
 9.8 m/s 2   2 s 
2

v0  9.8 m/s
From the fourth kinematic equation:
B. 5.2 m/s, 2.8 m 
v 2  v02  2 g ( y  y0 )
02  (9.8 m/s) 2  2(9.8 m/s 2 )( ymax  0)
(9.8 m/s) 2
 ymax   4.9 m
C. 9.8 m/s, 4.9 m 2(9.8 m/s 2 )
From the first kinematic equation:
 0  v0 
y  0   t  1 s half-way  4.9 m
D. 24.2 m/s, 8.5 m  2 
Quiz #5
Someone tosses a coin up in the air with an initial speed of 7 m / s.
Figure out the time when the coin is 1m above the palm (zero) level.

A. 0.16 s, 1.27 s

B. 0.09 s, 2.31 s

C. 0.31 s, 1.98 s
Topic #5 Solutions

One  Dimensional Kinematics
Quiz #1
The car goes to the finish line and back.
What is the distance covered by the
car and what is the magnitude of its
displacement at the end of those
9.435 seconds?

A. 3218 m, 3218 m

B. 1609 m, 1609 m d  2(1609 m)  3218 m


  
x  x f  xi  0
C. 3218 m, 0 m
Quiz #2
The car goes to the finish line and back.
What was the average velocity of the car
at the end of those 9.435 seconds and
what was the average speed associated
with the whole forth-and-back trip?

A. 0 m/s, 341.0705 m/s

B. 0 m/s, 170.5352 m/s


 x  x
 x
v  0
f i

C. 341.0705 m/s, 341.0705 m/s t t


d 3218 m
v 
t 9.435 s
v  341.0705 m/s
Quiz #3

Can an object move with constant (scalar) speed


and have a nonconstant (vector) velocity ?

A. No

B. Yes

An object can move in a circle with constant speed while the


direction of the velocity (vector) changes all the time. The
object is constantly accelerating toward the center of the circle.
Quiz #4
A ball is thrown downwards off the top of a 50 m building .
Knowing that the magnitude of the velocity just before it hits
the ground is 35 m/s, calculate the magnitude of the initial
velocity of the ball.

Taking upward as +y and y  0


at the bottom of the building 
A. 2.6 m/s
v2   v0   2  9.8 m/s 2   y  y0 
2

(35 m/s) 2  v02  2  9.8 m/s 2  (0  50 m)


B. 15.7 m/s
v0  (35 m/s) 2  2  9.8 m/s 2  (50 m)  15.65 m/s

C. 21.3 m/s
Quiz #5
Someone tosses a coin up in the air with an initial speed of 7 m / s.
Figure out the time when the coin is 1m above the palm (zero) level.

By using the third kinematic equation:


1  2
y (t )  y0  v0t  gt
2
1 m  0   7 m/s  t   9.8 m/s 2  t 2
1
2
Solve this quadratic equation for the two
A. 0.16 s, 1.27 s
times. The two solutions correspond to
the times when the coin is 1m above the
B. 0.09 s, 2.31 s palm (zero) level on first on its way up
and then again on the way down, respectively.

C. 0.31 s, 1.98 s