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CHAPTER ONE

Introduction
1.1 Background
Lubricating oils or lube oil, as they are commonly called, are viscous liquids used

in lubricating moving parts of machineries. Lube oils are mainly a blend of base oil

and a number of chemical additives, giving products that last longer and allow the

machinery to work better under severe operating conditions. Lube oils are used to

protect rubbing surfaces from friction, wear and excessive heating. They also

provide a protective layer on metal surfaces to prevent corrosion in addition to

providing a tight sealing of spaces and engine cleanliness. A typical blend of lube

oils is shown in table 1.

Table 1.1: Typical composition of lube oils (Awaja and Pavel)

S/N Component Weight %


1 Base oil 86
2 Viscosity index improvers 5
3 Oxidation inhibitors 1
4 Detergent 4
5 Multi-functional additives (dispersant, pour point depressant) 4

During usage the performance of lube oil deteriorates over time. This is due to the

contamination of the lube oil with various foreign matters and the degradation of

the additives as a result of many physical and chemical interactions. However,

after about 5,000 kilometers of engine use, the oil can no longer provide desired

pg. 1
functions expected of it. Hence, it is discarded as used engine oil or waste engine

oil.

Used engine oil is known to have adverse impacts on both human health and

environment if not managed properly. The presence of degraded additives,

contaminants and by-products of degradation render waste oils more toxic and

harmful to human health and the environment than virgin base oils (Irwin 1978)

The used oil from one oil change can contaminate 1 million gallons of fresh

water—a years’ supply for 50 people (US EPA, Used Oil Management Program).

For mammals and birds, harmful impacts include toxic contamination, destruction

of food resources and habitats and impaired reproductive capability. Report has

shown that used oils contain more metals and heavy polycyclic aromatic

hydrocarbons (PAHs) that contribute to chronic hazards including carcinogenicity

as compared with the fresh oil. Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) are pollutants

associated with high blood levels in Children, anthralgia, colic and other human

health effects (Zhang et al 2012).

The main sources of used oils in Nigeria was categorized as; transportation,

industry and private electricity generation (Bamiro & Osibanjo, 2004). In Nigeria

the estimated used crankcase oil was 150 million liters per annum and industry-

based used oil was estimated at 50 million liters, leading to a total national oil

generating capacity of 200 million liters per annum (Bamiro & Osibanjo, 2004).

pg. 2
With this figure, efficient technology options for handling, treating and disposing

used oil in Nigeria becomes an issue of concern.

In Nigeria there is little or no organized disposal practices (Bamiro & Osibanjo,

2004). Common disposal methods of used oil by auto technician and allied artesian

include disposal into gutters, and indiscriminate dumping on land and waterways.

Some generators store it in plastic containers like kegs, jerry cans and drums,

where they are left until use was found for them or they were eventually sold to

dealers or direct users. Uses include direct reuse as; lubricants in old and worn

engines, weed killer to control weeds, dust control, wood preservation, rust

prevention, road construction, etc. Another means of disposal is open burning in

furnaces to generate heat for boilers, cement kilns, bakery oven, etc. These

primitive methods give rise to toxic air emissions that exacerbate air pollution

problems.

Used engine oil re-refining is a process that uses conventional refining steps to

recover new oil from the used oil by removing water, dirt, heavy metal, and

chemical impurities. In re-refining, the used oil is subjected to a complete physical

and chemical treatment aimed at recovering the properties of the base oil. The

properties of re-refined used lube oils are similar to the fresh ones. Therefore, re-

refining of the used oil leads to production of valuable base oils with quality

comparable with virgin base oils. The principle of refining waste oils utilizes the

pg. 3
following four steps: dewatering and defueling, de-asphalting, fractionation and

finishing process (Udonne, 2010). The re-refining process is depicted schematically

in Fig.1.

Figure 1: Flow diagram of the typical used oil re-refining process

The American Petroleum Institute (API) categorized base oils by composition (API

Publication1509) in 1993, as shown in Table 2. Modern regeneration technologies

pg. 4
allow to produce premium quality base oils belonging to at least Group I according

to the API base oils classification. Under more severe or solvent finishing

conditions, Group II base oils could be obtained.

Table 1.2: API base oil categories

Group Sulfur, wt. % Saturates, wt. % Viscosity index


I >0.03 <90 80 - 119
II ≤0.03 ≥90 80 - 119
III ≤0.03 ≥90 ≥120
IV All polyalphaolefins (PAOs)
V All others not included in Groups I, II, III, or IV

In Nigeria, there has been several studies on used engine oil and the need to set up

an organized re-refining plant. Key to the success of any re-refining project is the

technological backup of the processes. Hence, this paper gives an overview of the

available literature in used oil re-refining technologies.

1.2 Significance

This paper will contribute towards the analysis of technology choices regarding

used engine oil recycling while proffering possible solutions that will assist both

the public and private sector in making policies regarding the management of

waste oil in Nigeria.

pg. 5
1.3 Scope

This technical paper covers the applicability of five currently used technologies in

the re-refining of used engine oil to recover base oil.

pg. 6
CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

2.1 Re-refining Process Technologies

2.1.1 Acid-clay re-refining process

Introduction: The acid-clay re-refining process was the first regeneration process

commercialized in the 1960s by many companies in the USA, wherein large

amounts of sulfuric acid and clay were used to treat the waste oils. Acid-clay re-

refining processes have been widely used by re-refining facilities.

Process description: Used oil is pre-treated (preflash or vacuum distillation) for

separation of water and light hydrocarbons. Concentrated sulfuric acid (10–15 wt.

%) is added into dehydrated waste oil, wherein the foreign substances (e.g.

additives and sulfides) will form sludge, enabling deposition within 16–48 h which

is thereafter separated from the waste oil. The impurities such as colloids, organic

acids and waxy substances are removed by clays (porcelain clay or aluminum

silicate). Filtered oil is distilled to produce base oils with various characteristics

and gas-oil. Below is a block flow diagram of the process.

pg. 7
Figure 2.1: Block flow diagram of acid-clay process.

Performance: The base oil obtained has low quality with a lubricating yield of

62–63% on dry basis. The product oils are dark in colour and tend to have a

noticeable odour. Moreover, the products have from 4 to 17 times higher content of

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) than virgin oils. While the technology has

relatively low capital costs and simplicity of operations, as well as allowing

production of acceptable, although sub-standard, base oils, it also generates acid

tar, oil saturated clay, and other hazardous waste by-products. Under increasing

environmental pressure this technology has been banned in most countries

including many developing countries. Several plants with low capacity in Italy,

Belgium and Germany still employ this technology.

pg. 8
2.1.2 Hylube process

Introduction: The HyLube process is a proprietary process developed by

Universal Oil Products (UOP) for the catalytic processing of used lube oils into re-

refined lube base stocks for re-blending into saleable lube base oils. This is the first

re-refining process in which as received used oil is processed, without any

pretreatment, in a pressurized hydrogen environment. A typical HyLube process

feedstock consists of a blend of used lube oils containing high concentrations of

particulate matter such as iron and spent additive contaminants such as zinc,

phosphorous, and calcium.

Process description: The first part of the process involves separation of the lube

range and lighter components of the feed from the non-distillable residue portion.

After the separation step the light feed is flowed through the so-called ‘guard’

reactor where metal-containing compounds and other impurities are accumulated

in the large pore size catalyst. A simplified block diagram of the process is shown

in the figure below:

pg. 9
Figure 2.2: Block flow diagram of the Hylube process.

The treated feed is hydrogenated in the main reactor before the second separation

step. The Hylube unit operates with reactor section pressures of 60–80 bar and

reactor temperatures in the range 300–350◦C. As the feed is processed in

hydrofinishing reactors, contaminants are removed and the quality of the lube base

oil is rejuvenated and enhanced. In addition to converting hetero-atoms such as

sulfur and nitrogen, the catalyst is able to increase the viscosity index via

saturation of multi-ring aromatic compounds. After the hydrogenation, products

are stripped and separated in the fractionation tower to gasoline, petroleum, gas oil

and base oil fractions. Light ends from the high temperature separator are blended

pg. 10
with sodium carbonate and flowed to the low temperature separator, where the

waste water is settled and separated. The hydrogen rich vapor from the cold

separator is scrubbed, compressed, reheated and returned to the mixer. The

hydrocarbon liquids collected in the separators are sent to the product fractionation

section where the products are separated into various cuts to meet the desired lube

oil viscosity grades. The processed feedstock is converted into a wide boiling range

hydrocarbon product, which is subsequently fractionated into neutral oil products

of different viscosity to be used for lube oil blending.

Performance: Due to hydrogenation the properties of three different base oil

products are the same as the properties of fresh Group II base oils (Table 3) The

Hylube process achieves more than 85% lube oil recovery from the lube boiling

range hydrocarbon in the feedstock.

Table 2.1: Properties of base oil products of Hylube process.

Base oils
S/N Properties Light Medium Heavy
grade grade grade
1 Density @ 150C, kgm-3 850 855 860
2 Flash point, 0C 190 215 228
3 Pour point, 0C -12 -12 -12
4 Kinetic viscosity@ 400C, mm2s-1 13.5 29.5 58
5 Kinetic viscosity@ 1000C, mm2s-1 3.19 5.2 8.4
6 Viscosity index 100 115 116
7 Sulfur content, ppm 100 100 100
8 Saturates, % wt. >>90 >>90 >>90

pg. 11
2.1.3 CEP process

Introduction: The process was designed by Chemical Engineering Partners

(CEP), a process technology company offering a range of products and services for

re-refining waste lubricating oils. The CEP process is located in Hamina, Finland

and has a capacity of 60 000 tons/year with base oil production of 42000tons/year.

Process description: The process combines thin film evaporation and hydro-

processing (Fig. 2.3). The used oil is chemically pretreated to avoid precipitation of

contaminants which can cause corrosion and fouling of the equipment. The

pretreating step is carried out at temperatures from 80–170◦C. The chemical

treatment compound comprises sodium hydroxide, which is added in a sufficient

amount to give a pH about 6.5 or higher. The pre-treated used oil is first distilled

for separation of water and light hydrocarbons. Water is treated and sent to a waste

water treatment facility. Light hydrocarbons are used at the plant as fuel or sold as

a product. Thereafter, free-of-water oil is distilled under high vacuum in a thin film

evaporator for separation of diesel fuel, which can be used at the plant or sold as

fuel.

pg. 12
Figure 2.3: Block flow diagram of the CEP process.

Heavy materials such as residues, metals, additive degradation products, etc. are

passed to a heavy asphalt flux stream. The distillate is hydropurified at high

temperature (315◦C) and pressure (90 bar) in a catalytic fixed bed reactor. This

process removes nitrogen, sulfur, chlorine and oxygenated organic components. In

the final stage of the process, three hydrotreating (Hydrofinishing) reactors are

used in series to reduce sulfur to less than 300 ppm and to increase the amount of

saturated compounds to over 95%, in order to meet the key specifications for API

Group II base oil (Table 4). The final step is vacuum distillation to separate the

hydrotreated base oil into multiple viscosity cuts in the fractionator.

pg. 13
Performance: Hydroprocessing technology is one of the most widely used

distillation processes to eliminate undesirable components such as sulfur, nitrogen,

metals or unsaturated hydrocarbons. The yield of base oils is about 70%.

Table 2.2: Properties of base oil product of the CEP process

S/N Properties Medium grade


(Base oil – N150)
1 Density @ 150C, kgm-3 840 – 860
2 Flash point, 0C >200
3 Pour point, 0C <-9
4 Kinetic viscosity@ 400C, mm2s-1 26 - 32
5 Kinetic viscosity@ 1000C, mm2s-1 5–6
6 Viscosity index 110
7 Sulfur content, ppm >300
8 Saturates, % wt. >95

2.1.4 MRD solvent extraction process

Introduction: This technology has been processing and recycling used oil and oily

liquids since 1955. The applied oil re-refining process is based on a patent held by

AVISTA OIL. The ‘Enhanced Selective Refining’ process uses solvent N-methyl-

2-pyrrolidone (NMP), which is commonly used in the petroleum refining industry.

NMP is a powerful, aprotic solvent with low volatility, which shows selective

affinity for unsaturated hydrocarbons, aromatics, and sulfur compounds. Due to its

relative non-reactivity and high selectivity, NMP finds wide applicability as an

aromatic extraction solvent in lube oil re-refining. The advantages of NMP over

pg. 14
other solvents are the non-toxic nature and high solvent power, absence of

azeotropes formation with hydrocarbons, the ease of recovery from solutes and its

high selectivity for aromatic hydrocarbons. Being a selective solvent for aromatic

hydrocarbons and PAH, NMP can be used for the re-refining of waste oils with

lower sludge, carbonaceous particles and polymer contents, such as waste

insulating, hydraulic and other similar industrial oils.

Process description: The MRD solvent extraction process uses the liquid–liquid

extraction principle. Figure 6 provides the flow chart of the process. Vacuum

distillates from the flash distillation are used as feed. These distillates are processed

in a production cycle which can be adjusted to the quantity to be processed. Before

the distillate enters the extraction column, any residues of dissolved oxygen in the

distillate are removed in an absorber using steam.

pg. 15
Figure 2.4: Block flow diagram of the MRD extraction process.

Thereafter the distillate is sent to the bottom part of the extraction column. As the

distillate rises, undesirable aromatic hydrocarbons and other contaminants are

separated out by the counter-flowing heavier solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, which

is fed in at the top of the extraction column. The solvent containing raffinate phase

leaves the extraction column at the top and is routed to the downstream raffinate

recovery section consisting of a distillation and as tripping column where the

solvent is removed. The extract phase is continuously withdrawn from the bottom

of the extraction column, cooled down to a defined temperature and separated in a

separation drum from the separated secondary raffinate. The latter is returned to the
pg. 16
extraction column in order to optimize the process yield. The extract phase from

the secondary separation drum is sent to the extract recovery section where the

solvent is removed. The extract recovery section also consists of a distillation and a

stripping column. The resulting extract is routed to the off plot intermediate storage

tank and used within the refinery as an energy carrier or mixing component for

heavy oil. The dry solvent separated in the distillation columns of the raffinate and

extract recovery sections is returned to the solvent tank. The moist solvent

separated in the stripping columns of the raffinate and extract recovery sections is

returned to the solvent drying column, where excess water is removed.

Performance: The average base oil yield within the process is about 91%.29 The

base oils produced have high quality (Table 6).30 The process is characterized by

optimized operating conditions which allow elimination of toxic polyaromatic

compounds from the re-refined base oil and preservation of the synthetic base oils

like polyalphaolefin (PAO) or hydrocracked oils, which are increasingly present in

used oils.

pg. 17
Table 2.3: Properties of base oil products of MRD solvent extraction process.

S/N Base Oils


Properties Light grade Medium grade Heavy grade
KS-100 KS-150 KS-200
1 Density @ 150C, kgm-3 852 - 856 857 - 860 860 - 865
2 Flash point, 0C >220 >230 >230
3 Pour point, 0C -12 -9 -9
4 Kinetic viscosity@ 400C, mm2s-1 22 - 26 32 - 36 40 - 46
5 Kinetic viscosity@ 1000C, mm2s-1 4.4 – 4.9 5.5 – 5.6 6.4 – 7.1
6 Viscosity index 108 - 112 110 - 115 110 - 115
7 Sulfur content, % wt. <0.25 <0.25 <0.25

2.1.5 Ecohuile process

Introduction:

This re-refining process was based on vacuum distillation and acid-clay treatment

steps until the end of 2000. Clay adsorption was banned on 1 January 2001 and the

plant was modified and upgraded to the Sotulub process. Moreover, the addition of

injection facilities of so-called Antipoll-additive (1–3 wt. % of pure sodium

hydroxide) has been provided and has allowed solving the following basic

problems:

• corrosion of dehydration column and cracking column top section due to

the organic acidity of the used oil;

• plugging of equipment and piping due to polymer formation in the

cracking section;

pg. 18
• high losses of base oil in the oily clay due to the high consumption of clay.

Currently this technology is applied to recycle 125000 tons of used oil annually on

the Lillebonne site, recycling 45% of the used motor oils collected in France. The

recycled oil corresponds to 10% of the base oil market in France.

Process description: The Sotulub proces is based on treatment of the used oil with

an alkali additive called Antipoll and high vacuum distillation (Fig. 7). The used

oil is pre-heated to about 160◦C and mixed with a small amount of Antipoll-

additive, which decreases equipment fouling. In the next step, oil is drawn into the

flash-drum where water and light hydrocarbons are separated from the lubricating

base.

The dehydrated oil is additionally heated to 280◦C and stripped under vacuum to

remove the gas-oil fraction. Thereafter oil is distilled under high vacuum in a thin-

film evaporator. In the process asphaltic residue, containing heavy metals,

additives, polymers and degraded products, is separated from the bottom of the

column.

Distilled oil is condensed and treated again with a small amount of Antipoll to

eliminate all traces of undesirable compounds. This allows a final product to be

obtained with acceptable quality without any additional finishing stage. Oil is

additionally fractionated to obtain various base oil cuts.

pg. 19
Figure 2.5: Block flow diagram of the Sotolube process adapted from ref 1.

Performance: The process provides base oils with a yield of 82–92%. The

properties of the product base oils are listed in Table 8.

Table 2.4: Properties of base oil products of Ecohuile process.

S/N Base Oils


Properties Medium grade Heavy grade
SN 150 SN 400
1 Flash point, 0C >200 >230
2 Pour point, 0C <-9 <- 9
3 Kinetic viscosity@ 400C, mm2s-1 27 - 33 76 - 85
4 Metal contents, ppm <0.5 each <0.5 each

pg. 20
2.1.6 Revivoil process

Introduction: The Revivoil process was developed jointly by Axens and

Viscolube41 in Viscolube facilities. Currently the Revivoil process is applied in

the following locations:

• a 130000tons/year plant in Italy (Pieve Fissiraga);

• a 80000tons/year plant in Poland (Jedlicze);

• a 59000tons/year plant in Spain (Huelva).

Process description: Revivoil process is made up of three key sections: preflash,

thermal de-asphalting and hydrofinishing (Fig. 8). The filtered used oil from

storage tanks is heated to 140◦C and then distilled in a preflash column where the

water and light hydrocarbons are separated.

Figure 2.6: Block flow diagram of the Revivoil process.

The dehydrated oil is distilled at 360◦C in vacuum in a thermal deasphalting unit

(TDA), where the oil is separated from substances that can enhance fouling in an

pg. 21
intermediate tank. The asphaltic and bituminous products remain at the bottom and

three side cuts of different viscosities are obtained at the same time. Intermediate

gas oils collected from the top of the column.

For improvement of the product quality, oil cuts after TDA are treated with

hydrogen over the catalyst. The hydrofinishing process starts in a fired heater

where the oil and hydrogen are heated to 300◦C. They are then sent to a reactor

containing a catalyst favoring hydrogenation of the unsaturated compounds, as

well as Sulfur and nitrogen containing compounds. The reactor effluent is then

separated into two phases, the vapor phase and the liquid phase; the first one is

washed with water to remove the chlorine and Sulfur compounds, the second one

is stripped with steam to eliminate the most volatile compounds and restore the

flash point. The water contained in the oil after stripping is then removed in a

vacuum dryer.

Performance: The yield of base oils from the Revivoil process is about 72%.

According to the operating parameters of hydrofinishing, the final base oil quality

can be upgraded until the amounts of sulfur and saturated compounds fulfil the API

Group II requirements (Table 2.5).

pg. 22
Table 2.5: Properties of base oil products of Revivoil process.

Base Oils
S/N Properties Light grade Medium grade Heavy grade
1 Density @ 150C, kgm-3 852 853 858
4 Kinetic viscosity@ 16.5 30.6 55.2
400C, mm2s-1
5 Kinetic viscosity@ 3.6 5.3 7.8
1000C, mm2s-1
6 Viscosity index 101 106 107
7 Sulfur content, wt. ppm <300 <300 <300

pg. 23
CHAPTER THREE

Discussion of Result

3.1 Comparison of Applied Technologies

The above technologies reviewed can be compared in terms of operating and

capital costs, quality of feedstock and products obtained. The technologies

described can be divided into the following groups:

1. Solvent extraction process

2. Hydroprocessing; Combined processes:

3. Vacuum distillation or thin film evaporation and finishing process (solvent

extraction or chemical treatment)

4 Thin film evaporation and hydrofinishing

5. Thermal de-asphalting and hydrofinishing

General advantages for solvent extraction processes, such as MRD solvent

extraction process are the following:

• Toxic PAH and PAN are completely eliminated;

• All of the synthetic base oil compounds, such as polyalphaolefin

(PAO)/hydrocarbonoils are preserved;

• The process requires relatively low pressure and temperature;

• Used solvents are recyclable;

• The amount of waste produced is insignificant.

pg. 24
The drawback of solvent extraction technology is the dependence of the product oil

quality on the quality of the feedstock, since this process is a physical one and does

not involve any chemical reactions with formation of the desired hydrocarbon

structures. The process leads to diminishing concentrations of polychlorinated

biphenylenes, aromatic compounds and specifically polycyclic aromatic

hydrocarbons, which were formed during the oil use. Thereby the solvent

extraction technology allows the production of the re-refined oil bases of the same

but not superior quality to the feedstock base oils.

EcoHuile (Sotulub) process is based on the vacuum distillation of oil cuts in thin

film evaporators, which reduce coking caused by cracking of the hydrocarbons and

oil impurities at high temperatures. The process apply alkaline pretreatment of the

used oils, which requires the elimination of synthetic and vegetable oils in the

feedstock. Nevertheless, the quality of products is worse than in the above solvent

extraction processes. In order to produce high quality base oils finishing steps

should be added in this technologies, however such revamps will increase

operating and capital costs and the process could become less financially attractive.

Hydrofinishing processes are applied in such technologies as Hylube, CEP, and

Revivoil. The advantages of these technologies are listed below:

• High yield and quality of products independent of the feedstock properties;

• Efficient elimination of chlorides.

pg. 25
However, the hydroprocessing technologies have the following drawbacks:

• High pressure and temperature;

• A need for hydrogen gas supply facility;

• High safety standards;

• High operating and capital costs;

• Low operational efficiency;

• A need for feedstock analysis and pretreatment;

• A necessity for catalyst regeneration.

Hylube technology applying hydroprocessing allows production of high quality

base oil products, in which viscosity index is higher than 110 and sulfur content is

less than 100 ppm. The process feedstock is oils from different sources, however, a

key factor in maintaining stable Hylube catalyst activity is minimization of the

inorganic contaminants level in the reactor feed. Thus, careful monitoring of the

used oil for known catalyst poisons such as arsenic and silicon is needed. The high

quality of the products obtained is compensated by relatively high capital

investment and operating costs.

The CEP process, which is a combination of TFE and hydrofininshing step,

produces high quality product oils comparable with Hylube-products. Since this

process applies caustic pretreatment of the used oil, the amount of vegetable oils

pg. 26
and some types of synthetic oils should be eliminated. Off-site catalyst

regeneration causes an increase in the operating and capital costs.

The Revivoil process accepts all type of used oils. Thermal deasphalting combined

with hydrofinishing allows generation of high quality products with a yield of

about 72%. The advantage of this technology is regeneration of the used catalysts.

pg. 27
CHAPTER FOUR

Conclusions

1. Under increasing environmental pressure acid-clay treatment, which was the

first oil regeneration process used, was substituted in the majority of advanced

countries with new technologies based on solvent extraction and

hydroprocessing.

2. Leading industrial processes employ different technologies, such as combined

thermal de-asphalting and hydrofinishing (Revivoil), solvent extraction (MRD

process, Interline), thin film evaporation and different finishing process

(Ecohuile, CEP) and hydroprocessing (Hylube).

3. The technologies applying hydroprocessing obtain product oils with the highest

quality independently of the quality of feedstock. Thus technologies such as

Hylube, CEP, and Revivoil, produce high-quality base oils, which fulfill the

API Group II and even II+ requirements.

4. Catalyst poisoning is also one of the drawbacks of hydroprocessing. In this

regard feedstock should be carefully monitored to estimate catalyst poisons and

thereafter the feedstock should be pretreated to prevent catalyst deactivation.

The alkaline pretreatment of used oils is a commonly used process, however,

taking into account a trend towards more synthetic or semi-synthetic

compounds in lubricants, the use of alkali agents can cause problems during re-

pg. 28
refining some types of synthetic oils (based on esters for instance) which tend to

be less stable in the presence of alkali agents.

5. Thus, currently the most attractive method for re-refining used oil could be a

combination of MRD-solvent extraction and hydrofinishing, since application

of the hydrofinishing step gives product oils of high quality independent of the

feedstock nature. The MRD-solvent extraction process allows reduced catalyst

poisoning without any alkaline treatment of the used oil. Absence of a need to

apply alkali agents makes it possible to regenerate synthetic and semi-synthetic

oils along with mineral oils. The composition of hydroprocessing catalysts

could be optimized to increase catalyst stability and achieve the highest oil

conversion and yield.

pg. 29
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pg. 31