Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 212


s~ 62 f

. Smith and Thompson's

Head of Latin Department

Belmont Hill School • Belmont, Massachi.wetts

Boston • Rockleigh, N.J •• Atlanta • Dallas • Belmont, Calif.

~ (} _. I
·,; •
~"140Y\ -
J} ?. 7-y'/O
Experientia docet.

· rr~.~f>()UoA.,,
.: Experience is the b.est ~eacher. ,1 /
C'T--- . ,::,;
I The First r:. ..
De~lens!_o~ ._
C/ ;c / .. , .
, .
,.,:...t. . .. ·-· .. . ,. (:

,1 • _;/,i
{'~c~~ ~~ ~1,...~.~~{( ..

~ck~)-~~~ tJ-.J-,,:,J/~~ 1

1. The First Declension. First decle~o~s end in -a in

the nominative singular and in -ae in the genitive singular. They,
are mostly feminine, except a few denoting males. /~·~
Femina, fem., a woman BASE, femin- /' ~~
t'I f1'·Ml)II. Norn. fe'min a, a woman a
~Gen. fe'min ae, of a woman ae
l'Hl,,.,l.(<JJI" ot,.Dat. fe'min
to (for) a woman
a woman

.')~:ff/bl. fe'min i, by or with a woman


..{ r-. ~ a1 / Norn. fe'min ae, women ae

.!a.· ."

. · , ·

. Gen. femin i'rwli,

Dat fe'min is,
Ace: fe'min is,
of women
to (for) women
Ab/. fe'min is, by or wifh women is

(a) The base is obtained by dropping the termination (case end-

ing) of the genitive singular: feminae,base femin-. Note how the
terminations are added directly to the base throughout.
(b) There is no word in Latin for a, an, or the. Femina may be
translated by woman, a woman, the woman, according to the sense.

HELPS AND HINTS. To learn the declension, say the · forms

rhythmically, noting the accent. Get the swing of it. Then
write them, giving the meaning of each case. Repeat them until
they "say themselves." Notice which forms are alike and how
the ablative singular differs from the nominative. The vocative
is omitted, since it is lik~ the nominative.
" VOCAB~~"y .. . .... .
[ l\,t.C-~ agri'cola, -ae,
· ·
farmer (agricul- ·poe'ta, -aG. poet (poetic) I\~
provin'cia~ovin'ciae, f., province
HELPS AND HINTS. In the vocabularies the gerut1ve singular
ending is given after the nominative to show the declension.
"m." stands for masculine gender, "f." for feminine.
a'qua, -ae, f., water (aquatic) (provincial)
fe'~a,~f.:.o-woman (feminine) puel'la, -ae, f., girl
Gal'lia~-Gal'liae, f., "1uul (Gallic) sil'va, -ae, f., forest (sylvan) EXERCISES
lit'tera, -ae, f., letter (of the alpha- vi'ta, -ae, f., iijJ (vital)
bet); pt;: letter, episrle, or /effers (a) Pronounce, give case and nuf'l-ber,and translate: .,i . t)
(literature) est, is . ~ f~. .~ .~-- <->-
. (: '11. natii'ra, -ae, f., n<;1ture(natural) sunt, are _(ablativ~:, i~~ 3.J~ae
1...-J..i.ttens (T~.f.. ways)
, , . .....,./ .,;,,l"Vt/t
4. ~r.15. Puelld"liwo waysf. 6,: Vil¥..:.J7."'cra'.lii!jst If~
Decline each of these nouns like femina. Avoid accenting the ~ri~ 8. Poetae sunt agricolae. 9. ~~iifwii. 10. A:gric~las.
last syllable. (b) Transla~e, giving case and number: _ .~ t?4~
2. Word Work. Under this title throughout the book you wil\ 1. Th~1~cc.). 2. Tb,~~TfiwJ wqrfL.J· Orthe
find many interesting words. Some you will know; others you ~aj~~:. 4. For e women. 5~Bv~r . . §.,..J3yruu~.7. The
must look up, so that you can use them correctly. : f.iTmersare (.. ts. 8. The ro~m · is d'a~ 9. Of th~o'fest.

i 10. For the far ers.

These first declension nouns are borrowed from Latin and takeri
over into English without any change: READING LESSON

area, arena, camera, formula, inertia, militia, and villa (Ui\ EUROPA

Sev.eral words like these form the English plural by using thi · Gallia est in ~opa. Gallia est provmcia. Italia est in
Latin form. The final -ae is then pronounced like e in be. I Europa. Germania est in Europa. Roma est in Italia, et Genava
in Helvetia. Poetae in Italia sunt. Feminae et puellae in Italia
alga, a/K"le; larva, larvae; alumna, alumnae; antenna, a~lennae
et in Germania sunt. Agricola in provincia est. Poetae et
feminae natiiram (object) aroaot~(love).

HELPS AND HINTS. New words in the Reading Lessons will

be found in the General Vocaqulary at the end of the book.
But before looking up a worcJ!' try to work out its meaning
from its similarity to English and to other Latin words.


Answer orallf the following questions in Latin, pronouncing eac/i

word carefully:
1. Ubi (where) est Gallia? 4. Ubi sunt poetae?
2. Ub1 est Italia? 5. Quid (what) feminae
3. Ubi est Roma? amant?

Regnant populi. VOCABULARY
The people rule. a'mo, I love, I like (amiable) por'to, I carry (portable)
Morro OF ARKANSAS Iau'do, I praise (laud) pug'no, / fight (pugnacious)
oc'cupo, I seize (occupy) spec'to, I look at (spectacle)

I pa'ro, / prepare (pare) vo'co, / call (vocation)

The Present-1:~ Conjugate each of these verbs like porto.

Indicative-~'ts:c~ 4. Word Work. Other interesting words that are almost the
same in English as in Latin are:

~ ,v,. ,;µ~
' t" , ' . .
llnea, line; materia, matter, stuff; moneta, money; persona, person;
AA~ bestia, beast; schola, school; planta, plant
3. Verbs;.....English shows the person and number of a verb by
a pronoun subject. In Latin these are shown by the personal S. Agreement. In Latin, as in English, the subject of a finite
endings of the verb, the pronoun subject being expressed only verb is in the nominative case, and verbs agree with their subjects
when it shows emphasis or contrast. in person and number.
Below are the personal endings of the active voice:
The girl loves. Puella amat.
Sll',;GULAR PLURAL The farmers are fighting. Agricolae pugnant.
First Person. -ii or -m, I -mus, we
Second Person. -s, you -tis, you EXERCISES
Third Person. -t, he, she, it -nt, they

Present Tense of par' to, I carry

(a) Divide into syllables, show accent, and pronounce:
SINGULAR PLURAL ExAMPLE: prolvin'lcilae.
1. por't o, / carry l. porta'mus, we carry
2. por'ta s, you carry 2. porta'tis, you carry oic~mus fe1infs port~is agri~ctaf um
3. por'ta t, he carries 3. por'ta nt, they carry
(b) fta~e: ~~ ~ ., .~~
Latin has no special progressive or emphatic forms. Port;> ~uJam~ _2. fc>cftis.-
3. Spe~ 4. Paro. 5. Occu-
means I carry, I am carrying, or I do carry, whichever sounds be&;t ~nt. 6. Plili;i-a~t. 7. Agricolae pu#a;it 8. Portamus.
in the sentence. I 9. Feminae laudaot. 10. Paratis. 11. Puellae vocant. 12. Spec-
tamus. 13. Occupatis. 14. Occupo. 15. Poetae laudant.
HELPS AND HINTS. If you learn these endings now, so that
you repeat them automatically, you will have little trouble ~ _(\~t
learning other tenses. The first person singular personal ending
in -m is used in other tenses but never in the present indicative 2. We do .WY~·/.1..J. I t~
of reg1:1larverbs. ar ·Ca ing. 5. You (si;;;;lw)seize. 6. We are
When the subject of a Latin verb is not expressed by a separate pr pa ng. The girls are praising. 8. You (plural) are looking
word, we have to get it from the personal ending by translating at. 9. The poet is calling. 10. We fight. 11. The woman pre-
the word backward. For example: agricola portat = the farmer pares. 12. The poet loves. 13. They are seizing. 14. The girl
/" carries, but portamus = -mus, we + porta, carry = we carry.
!\ calls. 15. He carries.
.k~ ~
J~~ 5
.i'r'w,,iJ..t , 1)~
J .....
.;i .,,,. ~~
11,;v...1 ,pc.,,...;4,e
_ ;;t,.p,,.-J ;i:.~r?,
Monstrat viam.
][][[ It shows the· way.


The Direct Object


6. Direct Object: In English the direct object of a verb is in
Poeta in Gallia est. Gallia provincia est. Poeta Galliam the objective case. In Latin, it is in the accusative.
(object) laudat. Agricolae in provincia sunt. Agricolae poetam I am carrying water. Aquam porto.
(object) amant. Poetae naturam spectant. Natura est pulchra We love poets. Poetis amamus.
(beautiful). Poetae naturam laudant. Feminae poetas (object)
laudant. Puellae aquam poetae (for the poet) portant. Litteras VOCABULARY
poetarum (of the poets) laudamus.
amici'tia, -ae, f.,friendship pa'tria, -ae, f., country, native land
de'a, -ae, f., goddess (patriot)
fi'lia, -ae, f.,'daughter ter'ra, -ae, f., earth, land (terrain)
QUESTIONS fortii'na, -ae, f., chance, fortune (for- tu'ba, -ae, f., trumpet (tuba)
tunate) vi'a, -ae, f., way, road (viaduct)
Answer the following quesTions orally, after finishing the Reading lin'gua, -ae, f., tongue, language lta'lia, -ae, f., Italy
Lesson: ' (linguist) Ro'ma, -ae, f., Rome
memo'ria, -ae, f., memory (memo-
l. Ubi est poeta? 5. Qui (who) poetam rial) non, not
2. Quid est Gallia? amant?
3. Quis (who) Galliam 6. Quid poetae spectant? The dative and ablative plural of filia and dea is irregular; of
laudat? 7. Quid poetae laudant? filia, it is filiibus; of dea, it is deabus.
4. Ubi sunt agricolae'! 8. Quid puellae portant?

HELPS AND HlNTS. In English it is hard to syllabicate ;· for we

have forms like na-ture and nar-ural, but Latin usage is uniform.
There are as many syllables as vowels (or diphthon~), and
single consonants go with a following vowel: najtiilra! · 'When
two or more consonants come between two vowels, the last
one usually goes with the following vowel: pugjnas, specjto. VENUS, DEA AMORIS
The rules are fully explained in the Introduction before Lesson I.

6 7
7. Word Work. The following girls' names are derived from
Latin. A large dictionary wj]l tell you what they mean. (a) Give the construction of each noun, and translate :
Amy, Clara, Norma, Rose, Stella, Victoria, Viola, Vera
I. Agricola patriam amat. 2. Puellae amicitiam laudant.
3. Litteras non portamus. 4. Feminae silvam amant. 5. For-
HELPS AND HINTS. Nothing is so important in Latin as learn- tiinam amiimus. 6. Agricolae tubam laudant. 7. Vias para.tis.
ing the vocabulary. Try pronouncing the Latin word after the 8. Provinciam occupatis. 9. Puella tubas portat. 10. Silvam
teacher, giving the translation. Then reverse the order. Write
the Latin words in one column and the English in another, spectas.
and cover the columns alternately, giving the translations of (b) Translate:
the uncovered columns. Try it up and down, and also skipping
about. Always think of derivatives to help you. This gives 1. We praise the poet. 2. The farmers are looking at the
you practice in hearing , seeing, speaking , and writing Latin. forest. 3. You (sing.) are preparing the road. 4. The women
do not carry water. 5. The farmer praises the trumpet. 6. The
girls do not fight. 7. The poets are looking at the roads. 8. The
women love the goddess. 9. The poet praises friendship. 10. The
farm eris calling the women.
8. Latin Questions. When asking a question which may be
answered-by yes or no, add -ne to the first word. The accent is
on the syllable before -ne. The -ne is calleq an enclitic.
Is the girl calling the farmer? Vocat'ne puella agricolam?
Yes. (J>uellaagricolam) vocat.
No. (J>uellaagricolam) non vocat.
Yes is usually expressed by an affirmative statement or expres-
.sion; no, by a negative statement or expression, usually with non,
Note that Latin has no words corresponding exactly to yes
' though the Romans used words like sic, so, vero, in truth,
lllinime, not at all, by no means.
When the question is introduced by an interrogative pronoun or
adjective, the eilclitic is not used. See the questions at the end of
· Lessons I and. II.
Quid feminae amant?

HELPS .~o HINTS. Notice how simple Latin is: you don't
· have to ·worry about pronoun subjects, or special progressive
and emphatic forms. About the only thing· to make trouble
i~}he ablative, and as you progress you will find this a very
handy case. '

10 11
HELPS AND HINTS. Observe that in Latin, the order of the
ARENA ROMANA words makes little difference. Whereas in English the order is
important in determining the subject and the object, in Latin
Spectate (look at) p1cturam. Arena in Italia est. Arena est it is entirely a matter of endings. For instance, the sentence
magna (large) et pulchra. Roma est in Italia. Romani (the The poet praises the farmer may be written in Latin Pqeta agri-
Romans) arenam laudant. In arena feminae et agricolae et colam Iaudat or Agricolam laudat 'poeta or Laudat poeta agri-
puellae liidos (games) spectant. Magnae arenae etiam (also) in colam. In each case, the nominative ending on poeta shows
that it is the subject of laudat, and the accusative ending on
5 Gallia sunt. Romani arenas in multis (many) terris aedificabant agricolam shows that it is the direct object of laudat.
(built). Arenae magnae sunt. In pictiira magnam arenam spec- The normal order, however, is subject, object, and verb.
tatis. Lfldos in arena laudamus. Roman, et filiae etiam lfldos
spectant et laudant. Poetae lfldos amant. Puellae in arena
poetas et feminas spectant.
·-"-- -
Answer orally the following questions, pronouncing each word
1. Ubi est arena? 5. Ubi etiam sunt arenae Ro-
2. Ubi est Roma? manae?
3. Quid Romani laudant? 6. Quid in pictflra spectatis?
4. Quid feminae in arena 7. Quid Romani et filiae spec-
spectant? tant?
Fortuna caeca est.
Fortune is blind.
• •

The Conjugation
9. Sum, I am, is an irregular verb, but it has the regular personal
Present Tense
I. SU m, I am su' n1us, we are . PA L\IB
2. es, you are es' tis, you are AOVITVR
3. es t, he , she, it is, SU nt, they are, ~ALax·
there is there are HARVNDO
10. Predicate Nominative. As in English, a Latin noun oi;
pronoun used in the predicate as the complement of a linkin~
ver~ is in the nominative case. This is called the pre!!J£.ate
n@ve. I
The farmer is not a sailor. Agricola nauta non est. !

VOCABULARY 11. Word Work. You will be interested in the Latin origin
of the names of our months.
in'sula, -ae, f., island (insulate) ni'vigo, I sail
nau'ta, -ae, m., sailor (nautical) January - from Iinus, the god of beginnings
por'ta, -ae, f., gate (portal) sed, conj., but February - from februa, a Roman ceremony of purification
vil'la, -ae, f., farmhouse, villa et, conj., and j March - from Mars, god of war
Euro'pa, -ae, f., Europe -que, conj., and (always connectf April - from aperio, to open (as of buds)
Germi'nia, -ae, f., Germany words of like construction. Transt May - from Maia, daughter of Atlas
Hispi'nia, -ae, f., Spain late it before the word to which if June - from the Roman family name, Iiinius
is joined.) I July- from liilius, to honor Julius Caesar
August - from Augustus, the name of the first Roman emperor
do, I give
'I September, October, November, December - from the Roman numerals
septem (7), octo (8), novem (9), and decem (10). These were Hie
seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth months of the Roman year, since
March was the first month before the calendar was rearranged.

12. Ablative with in. The ablative is used after in to show
position in or on something. This construction is usually called
the Ablative of " Place Where."
They are fighting in the forest. In silvii pugnant.


(a) Read the Latin and translate:

1. Sumus agricolae . 2. Femina in villa est. 3. Esne puella?
4. Nauta in silva est. 5. Sum in Germania. 6. Non sumus
puellae. 7. Feminae in silvii vocant. 8. Filiae feminas spectant. ·
9. Portae in villa non sunt. 10. Nautae ad (toward) insulam
(b) Translate:
1. The women are in the farmhouse. 2. He is not a sailor,
3. We are in Italy. 4. The girl is in the province. 5. The sailor~
are on the island. 6. The farmers are carrying water. 7. The
sailor is looking at the women. 8. Are you (pl.) in the road;
9. They are not in the forest. 10. There are not gates on a farm{
house. i

Answer orally the following questions in Latin:
Gallia est provincia magna in Europa. Italia etiam in Europ;
est. Gallia est patria agricolarum. Agricolae et poetae provint 1. Ubi est Gallia?
ciam amant. Poetae natflram laudant. Multae silvae in provinci~ 2. Estne Gallia provincia Romana?
sunt. Puellae silvas Galliae amant. : 3. Qui provinciam laudant?
s Viae longae etiarn sunt in Gallia. Agricolae vias parant. Es~ 4. Quid poetae laudant?
via longa ab Italia in (into) Galliam. Romani silviis Gallia~ 5. Suntne silvae multae in Gallia?
occupant. Poetae Romani silvas in provincia spectant et laudant'. 6. Quid puellae amant?
Deae italiam et provinciam amant. Agricolae deiis laudant. 7. Quid agricolae parant?
Multae villae in provinciii Gallica sunt. Villae sunt magnay 8. Quid Romani occupant?
10 et pulchrae. Agricolae et feminae cum (with) puellis et puerii; 9. Quid poetae Romani spectant?
(boys) in villis habitant. ! 10. Qui provinciam amant?
14 !t 15
V 7. pugnas 9. occupo
8. amatis 10. vocasne?

I Review
D. Give the Latin for:
1. We are preparing
They carry
He is sailing
We give
I am looking at
You (sing.) seize
4. You (pl.) fight 9. Do you (pl.) praise?
5. She loves 10. They call
13. Vocabulary.
E. Give the following forms:
A. Give the genitive, gender, and meaning of the following ', ·
1. the genitive singular of via, dea, nauta.
2. the dative singular of amicitia, silva, vita.
agricola fortuna nauta silva 3. the accusative singular of patria, insula, tuba.
amicitia insula patria terra 4. the nominative plural of porta, silva, femina.
aqua lingua poeta tuba 5. the accusative plural of littera, dea, agricola.
via ;, . 6. the ablative plural of fortiina, terra, villa.
dea littera porta
femina memona provincia villa :
filia natiira puella vita
15. Exercises.
B. Give the meanings of the following verbs: A. Translate:
amo navigo porto voco 1. Feminae non navigant. 6. Filia feminas amat.
do occupo pugno est 2. Nauta in villa est. 7. In via pugnamus.
laudo paro specto sunt 3. Poetae deam laudant. 8. Tuba in villa est.
4. Germania in Europa est. 9. In provincia estis.
14. Drills. 5. Puella litteras parat. 10. Villae in insula sunt.
A. Decline nauta, singular and plural, giving the name of each !
case. : B. Translate:
B. Conjugate the present tense of voco and sum, with meanings. :
1. We look at the poet. 6. We love the goddess.
C. Translate the following verbforms:
2. Theforest is in Germany. 7. They are seizing the land.
1. laudatis 4. dat 3. You (pl.) praise nature. 8. The farmer carries the girl.
2. navigant 5. spectamus 4. Heis preparing a letter. 9. We are calling the women.
3. portas 6. parant 5. The girls carry water. 10. The sailors praise the trumpet.
Ditat Deus.
V][ God enriches.

I. The Second

16. There are five declensions of Latin nouns. They are dis-
tinguished by the ending of the genitive singular.
Second dedension nouns end in -i in the genitive singular. They
are usually masculine if they end in -us or -er in the nominative
Ami'cus, m.,friend Pu'er, m., boy A'ger, m.,field
BASE, puer-
- BASE, agr-
BASE, amic-


Nom. aml'c us pu'er a'ger us, er

Gen. aml'c i pu'er i a'gri i
Dat. amI'c o pu'er o a'gr o 0
Acc. .aml'c um pu'er um a'gr um um
Ab/ . . aml'c o pu'er o a'gr ·O 0


Nom. aml'ci pu'er i a'gr i

Gen. amlc o'rum puer o'rum agr o'rum orum
Dat . . aml'c is pu'er is a'gr is . is
Acc. amI'c os pu'er os a'gr os os
Ab/. aml'c is pu'er is a'gr is is

a'ger, a'grl, m.,fteld (agrarian) ·Iii'dus, -i, m., game; school (inter-
ami'cus, -i, m., friend (amicable) lude)
an'nus,-i, m., year (annual) pu'er, pu'eri, m., boy (puerile)
cam'pus,.·.1, m.,fteld, plain ser'vus,-1, m., slave (servant)
e'quus, e'qui, m., horse (equine) viI',vi'ri, m., man (virile)
Uga'tus, -1, m., lieutenant, ambas-
. sador (legate)

17. Word Work. Among the Latin words of the second de-
clension which have been taken into English without change are:
campus, chorus, circus, discus, and genius
The following retain in English the Latin form of the plural in
-i (pronounced like J):
alumnus, alumni; bacillus, bacilli; fungus, fungi; radius, radii;
and stimulus, stimuli . SERVUS TUBA VOCAT
Latin nouns ending in -er taken into English without change
arbiter, cancer, minister

... 18. Use of the Genitive. The genitive case is used in Latin to
lF ··limit or define a noun. It is usually translated by of When it
] ,.denotes pos~ession, either of or the apostrophe with s may be used
5?{ to translate it.
1ffe\ '['hehorse of the man or the man's horse. Equus virl.
A friend of the ambassador or the ambassador's friend. Amicuslegati.


(a) Translate and give the construction of each noun:

1. Legati agros virorum occupant. 2. Amicum agricolae
amat. 3. Equos viri vocamus. 4. Puer tubam legati portat.
5. Legatus feminas vocat. 6. Amici agricolarum terram oc-
cupant. 7. Equos in provincia non laudamus. \8. Amicus pueri
silvas spectat. 9. Viri agros legatorum spectant. 10. Equi
aquam portant.
(b) Translate; watch your noun and verb endings:
1. The slave is calling the man's friend. 2. The women praise
the boy's memory. 3. The boys are looking at the lieutenant's
horse. 4. The men seize the farmer's fields. 5. You (sing.) love
the horses of the farmers. 6. The boys do not carry the lieu-
tenants' trumpets. 7. We are looking at the games of the boys . ..
8. The slaves carry the letters. 9. The friends of the slaves are
calling the lieutenant. 10. Are the men fighting in the fields?


LEGATUS Answer orally the following questions in Latin. Practice correct

In pictiira legatum spectatis. Legati cum militibus (soldiersj
in Gallia et in Italia pugnant. Servus legati milites (accusativel 1. Quern (whom) in pictiirii spectatis?
tuba (with a trumpet) vocat. Servi tubas ad bellum (war) por1' 2. Ubi legatus pugnat?
tant. Multi viri et pueri milites spectant. Viri legatum et 3. Quos servus legati tuba vocat?
5 servum laudant. Nautae cum militibus ad Britanniam navigant! 4. Quid viri et pueri spectant?
In Britannia, Romani cum militibus Britannis pugnant( 5. Quos viri laudant?
Milites Romani Britannos superant. Milites legatum laudant\ 6. Quo (where) nautae niivigant?
Legatus milites laudat. Equus magnus legatum per (through~ 7. Ubi Romani cum Britannis pugnant?
campum ad castra (camp) Romana portat. Castra in silvii sun~ 8. Quos amici legiiti laudant?
10 Amici legati milites et legatum laudant. Pueri in equis legiitWli' 9. Ubi sunt pueri?
vocant et laudant. Legiitus pueros et milites amat. I 0. Quis pueros et milites amat?

22 23
Ad maiorem Dei gloriam.
i (ab, abs)-, away: absum, be away, be absent
V][][ To the greater glory of God.
ad-, to, on, toward: advoco, call to, summon
con-, with, together: convoco, call together
con- (with an intensive meaning), thoroughly, completely: con-

I Prepositions
firmo, strengthen thoroughly
de-, (down)from: deporto, carry from
e (ex)-, (out) from: exporto, carry out from
in-, in, on, toward, into: importo, carry into
post-, behind, after: postpono, put after
sub- under: subscribo, write under

19. Prepositions. In Latin, some prepositions govern the ac-

cusative case, some govern the ablative; a few, like in, govern 21. Word Work. Certain combinations of letters are hard to
the accusative with one meaning, and the ablative with . another pronounce. Many of these occur when a preposition is prefixed
.- -
to a verb, and often they are changed slightly for the sake of
easier pronunciation.
He runs into the forest, in silvam. (Place "to which") It is easier to say "import" than "inport," "support" than
He lives in the forest, in silva. (Place "where")
"subport," "appello" than "adpello." This is true in both Eng-
lish and Latin. This change for the sake of easier pronunciation is
VOCABULARY called assimilation.
a or ab, prep., with abl., from, · prep., w1·th abl ., z'n, on ,· wt'th
m, What other examples can you think of?
away from, by (absent) acc., into, against (invoke) .
ad, prep., with acc., to, 10ward, near per, prep., with acc., through, by, lpy
(advent) means of (perspire)
ante, prep., with acc., before (ante- post, prep., with acc., after, beh{nd
cedent) (postpone) '
cum, prep., with abl., with sub, prep., with abl., under; wfth (a) Translate:
de, prep., with abl., down from, con- acc., up to, close to (subway) · 1. ex aqua
trans, prep., with acc., across (tra~s-
6. ab Italia
cerning, from (deport)
e or ex, prep., with abl., out of,from late) 1 2. in patria 7. sub aqua
(export) 3. ad Galliam 8. cum agricola
4. cum feminis 9. in provinciam
20. Prepositions as Prefixes. The Latin language often u~es 5. trans viam 10. de campo
prepositions as prefixes. In studying a vocabulary always lopk
carefully at new verbs to see how they are formed, for many ~re (b) Translate into Latin:
formed by the use of prefixes. Then try to see how many Engl~h
1. through the forest 6. from Spain
words you can form by using different prefixes with each of tp e
2. across the fields 7. into Gaul
verbs. ;
3. with the men 8. after a year
Notice the effect of the following prefixes and make up oth~rs
4. to the island 9. out of the water
for yourself. Check your compounds with the Vocabulary. ·
5. under the land 10. with a girl



In Gallia est templum pulchrum. In templo sunt filii et filiae

Gallorum. Galli templum amant et fortiinam bonam laudant.
In templum peciiniam magnam portant. Romani templum spec-
Augustus Caesar
tant , signum tubis 1 dant, copias multas convocant. Galli filias
PECUNIA ROMANA et filios ex templo in agros convocant. s
In silva pro templo Romani cum Gallis gladiis 1 pugnant.
Pugna est longa, et Galli multos Romanos vulnerant, sed Romani
HELPS AND HINTS. Notice that the ablative shows rest in or Gallos feros superant et templum occupant. Galli Romanis
motion from, the accusative usually mo1io11 towards. Which gladios et arma dant. Romani filias et filios Gallorum liberant,
prepositions take only the ablative? Which take only the
sed peciiniam in Italiam portant. 10
accusative? Which take both?
To distinguish the meanings of ab and ad, notice that the
loop in bis away from a while the loop in dis 10ward a. 1 Ablative of means. See Lesson Xlll.



(a) Translate, giving the construction of each noun:

I. Agricolae puellas in via spectam . 2. Feminae in Germapia
aquam non ponant. 3. Cum nautis ad insulam navigamus.
4. Occupatisne terras in Italia? 5. Femina filiam ex via \ in
villam vocat. 6. Puellae agricolas in agro laudant. 7. Femra
cum puellis non pugnat. 8. Viri aquam ad equos in campo
portant. 9. Puer tubam legati amat. 10. Servi in agris terrfm
spectant. 1

(b) Translate: l
I. We are praising the farmer in the field. 2. The slaves 4re
carrying water to the horses. 3. You (sing.) sail from Spain ho
the . island. 4. The lieutenant is fighting with the men in the
road. 5. The boys are under water. 6. We are sailing with the (.

sailors from the island. 7. The slave is carrying a letter frqm

the fa,rmhouse. 8. The men look at the girls in the plain. 9. ,e
boy carries a trumpet into the farmhouse. 10. He loves je
horses in the field. , I

26 27
Post proelium, praemium.
After the battle, the reward.

I Second

22. The Second Declension. Second declension nouns which

end in -um in the nominative singular are neurer.
Bel'lum, n. (neut,:r), war B ASE, bell-

Nom. bel'l um um bel'l a a

Gen. bd'l i bell o' rum orum
Dal. bel'I o 0 bel' l is is VOCABULARY
Acc. bel'I um um bel'l a a
is bel'lwn, -1, n., war (bellicose) ver'bwn, -i, n., word (verbal)
Ab!. bel'I o 0 bel'l is
cae'lam, -i, n., sky (celestial)
Neuter nouns of all declensions have the nominative and acczifa- do'nwn, -i, n., gift (donation) de'us, 1, m., god (deity)
tive cases alike and in the plural these cases always end in '."a.
! friimen'tum, -i, n,, grain fi'lius, fi'li, m., son (filial)
' I op'pidwn, -1, n., town g)a'dius, gla'di, m., sword (gladia-
I peri'culum, -i, danger
· reg'nwn, -1, n., kingdom; royal power
niin'tius, niin'tl, m., messenger (nun-
(reign) cio)
Decline the neuters above like bellum.

HELPS ANO HINTS. Second declension nouns ending in -ium

or -ius usually have the genitive singular in -i instead of -ii.

'V . 23. We>tdWork.. English has borrowed many Latin second

declension neuters withoµt change; for example:
aquarium, auditorium, curriculum, forum, fulcrum, herbarium, honora-
rium, irttfrregnum, ·momentum, moratori~m, nasturtium, rostrum, sana-
torium, ·spectrum '
qf·Nasturtium is said to come from the Latin meaning "nose-
t~\,twister," referdng to the flqwer's pungent odor.

(a) Pronounce and translate:

1. Oppida et insuliis non occupiitis. 2. Yiri bellum amant.
3. Frumentum agricoliirum portiimus. 4. Agricolae caelum
spectant. 5. Pueri dona ad villam portant. 6. Filius nunti
feminam vocat. 7. Legiiti gladios in oppidurn portant. 8. Reg-
n um est in Italia. 9. Servi frumentum agricolae laudant. 10. Dei
viros feminiisque amant.
(b) Translate, giving special attention to the nouns:
1. The boy and the girl are friends. 2. The men seize the
island and the town. 3. The farmer's horses carry grain into
the town. 4. The slaves look at the gifts of the messenger.
5. God loves boys and girls. 6. Men and women in Italy love
the gods and goddesses. 7. The sailors are sailing to the king-
dom in Spain. 8. There is danger of war in Gaul. 9. The lieu-
tenant calls the messengers into the farmhouse. 10. We do nqt
like the words of the messenger.


PAN, DEUS SILVARUM Multi milites in Gallia bellum parant. Antebellum Gallia non
est provincia Romana. In Gallia sunt magni campi et multae
silvae. Romani oppida Gallorum occupant. Frumentum et arma
in oppida portant. Agros etiam (also) et silvas Galliae occupant.
Romani feminas cum puellis ex campis per vias longas in oppi- s
dum portant. Galli post bellum sunt servi Romanorum.

30 31
Pro bono publico.
HELPS AND HINTS. Adjectives may either precede or follow
][X For the public good.
the noun modified. In general, adjectives of quantity precede
the noun. In Caesar's Gallic War magnus precedes the noun
hundreds of times, but the adjective also follows the noun in

I Adjectives
many instances. Furthermore, Caesar says decima legio eight
times, and legio decima seven times, when mentioning the tenth
legion. For the present, at least, the endings are more im-
portant than the order is.

24. Latin adjectives have masculine, feminine, and neuter forms al'tus, al'ta, al'tum, high, deep (alto) mag'nus, mag'na, mag'num, large,,
to agree with the noun modified. Most adjectives have femininf bo'nus, bo'na, bo'num,good (bonus) great (magnify)
forms like first declension nouns and masculine and neuter form,s fe'rus, fe'ra, fe'rum, wild, fierce, sa~- ma1us, ma1a, ma1um, bad (malice),
like masculine and neuter nouns of the second declension. ! age me'us, me'a, me'um, my ·
! la'tus, li'ta, lii'tum, wide, broad (lati- muJ'tus, muJ'ta, muJ'tum, much,.
Magnus,great, large BASE, magn- l tude) many; pl., many people (multiply}
SINGULAR lon'gus, Jon'ga, lon'gum, long, tall par'vus,par'va, par'vum,small, little
MASCULINE FEMININE NEUTER (longitude) tu'us, tu'a, tu'um,your
Norn. mag'n us mag'na mag'num
Gen. mag'n i mag'nae mag'ni 25. Word Work. This vocabulary suggests some interesting
Dat. mag'no mag'nae mag'no
mag'n um mag'nam mag'n um derivatives.
Ab!. mag'no mag'ni mag'n o Can you remember which is longitude, and which latitude? Do
you take multiple-choice examinations? Then there are the mal-
Nom. mag'ni mag'nae mag'na prefixes: ma/apropos, malevolent, malformation, malcontent, and
Gen. magno'rum magnii'rum magno'rum others; from bonus (adverb bene) there are benevolent, beneficent,
Dat. mag'n'is mag'nis mag'nis benediction, benefit, and many more.
Acc. mag'nos mag'nis mag'na
Ab/. mag'n is mag'nis mag'n is
26. Agreement of Adjectives. An adjective agrees with its
NOVACULA noun in gender, number, and case, whether it modifies the noun
directly or is used as a {redicate adjective.
A little girl is calling. PueJJaparva vocat.
The boy is small. Puer parvusest.
The farmers are good. Agricolaeboni sunt.
Notice that the adjective does not always end as the noun does.
Agricolae, although first declension, is masculine from its meaning;,
so boni is masculine, nominative plural, to agree with it.
Decline via longa, nauta bonus, puer parvus, donum magnum.

HELPS AND HINTS. Be careful about the first declension nouns
agricola, nauta, and poeta. They take a masculine adjective.
Multi may be used alone to mean many people, or many men.



In Gallia magnum oppidum est. In oppido viri et feminae,

pueri et puellae sunt. Romani oppugnationem (siege) in op-
pidum parant. Galli multum frii.mentum et aquam ex agris et
f silvis in oppidum portant. Pueri parvi viros spectant et laudant.
Periculum est magnum. Legatus viros ex agris in oppidum s
·· vocat; Equos in oppidum etiam du.cunt.
Romani ad oppidum appropinquant (approach), et campos
et silvas et vias circum oppidum occupant. Sunt multi Romani,
et campos magnos occupant. Nii.ntius signum dat et viri pug-
nant. Feminae Gallicae pugnam spectant et viros Gallicos 10
laudant. Milites per campos et in viis ante oppidum gladiis
pugnant. Legati viros vocant et laudant. Romani tandem
EXERCISES Gallos superant et oppidum occupant. Magna est victoria
(a) Translate, giving rhe reason for the ending of each adjectiv~:
1. Villa in insula magna est. 2. Multa bella longa sunt.
3. Multum friimentum portamus. 4. Legati et niintii in silva
magna pugnant. 5. Puer parvus dona amat. 6. Vir longai;n
tubam pueri spectat. 7. Femina pueros bonos vocat. 8. Puellae
tuos equos amant. 9. Viae non longae sunt. 10. Equus magni
servi parvus est.
(b) Translate:
1. The towns are not large. 2. Many men seize the small'
town. 3. The good farmers are preparing the long roads. '- ROMANI ET GALLI
4. The small boy is my friend. 5. There is a large gate in the ·
town. 6. Many women and girls are looking at the games in tqe
field. 7. We call your friends out of the forest. 8. Are the~e
many towns in your country? 9. The sailors are carrying long
swords. 10. My daughters are sailing to a small island in Europe.

X 3. across the small town 7. through many fields
4. into a wide forest 8. with the bad messengers
5. under the high gate 9. concerning the good grain

I Review
6. toward your province

E. Give the foil owing forms:

1. the
10. in my farmhouse

genitive singular of ager, mius, vir.

2. the dative singular of oppidum, niintius, ager.
3. the accusative singular of gladius, servos, vir.
4. the nominative plural of equus, donum, annus.
27. Vocabulary.
5. the genitive plural of gladius, deus, bellum.
A. Give the genitive, gender, and meaning of the following
29. Exercises.
ager deus legatus regnum
amicus donum lfldus servus A. Translate:
annus equus niintius verbum 1. Multi pueri ad insulam longam navigant.
bellum filius oppidum Vlf 2. Mei amici tuam patriam amant.
caelum frumentum periculum 3. Litteras multas per magnam silvam portamus.
campus gladius puer 4. Magnae puellae bonos pueros vocant.
B. Give the meaning of Thefollowing adjectives: 5. Gladii legatorum multorum magni sunt.
6. Uidos puerorum in campo la.to spectamus.
alt us longus malus multus 7. Parasne dona tua?
bonus magnus meus parvus 8. Regnumdei la.tum et magnum est.
latus tuus 9. Bona est vita nautarum.
C. Give the meaning of the following prepositions, and the case 10. Niintii mali cum meis amids pugnant.
each one governs:
B. Translate into Latin:
a,ab cum in post
ad de per sub 1. The field is broad and the forest is large.
ante e, ex trans 2. The messengers are carrying many letters.
3. My daughter loves the language of the good poets.
28. Drill. 4. The good women praise the gods and the goddesses.
A. Decline throughout: campus latus, ager parvus 5. The sons and daughters of the farmer look at the grain.
B. Decline: regnum magnum 6. There is a large farmhouse in the town.
C. Decline in all genders, singular and plural: longus 7. Your small son carries a long sword.
D. Translate into Latin: 8. The water is deep and the danger great.
9. The sailors look at your friends on the road.
1. from the large islands 2. after the long war 10. We are carrying many gifts toward the kingdom.

36 37
Facta, non verba.
XJI Deeds, not words. appel'lo, I call, name (appellation)
con'voco, I call together, summon
nar'ro, I tell, relate (narrative)
niin'tio, I announce, report
(convocation) su'pero, I conquer, defeat (insuper-

exspec'to, I await, wait for (expect) able)
ha'bito, I live, dwell (habitation) vo'lo, I fly (volatile)
ID1perf ect and labo'ro, I work, labor (laboratory) vul'nero, I wou/¥i(vulnerable)

31. Word Work. Explain the meaning of the italicized words

Future Tenses in the following expressions; consult your dictionary, if neces-
Parliament was convoked; they listened expectantly; the land
30. The present system includes the tenses formed from the was not habitable; their defense was invulnerable; he stayed all
present stem: present, imperfect, and future. day in his laboratory.
The present is formed by adding the regular personal endings As you learn each vocabulary, be sure to learn the English words
to the present stem, omitting the a of the stem before the o in in parentheses. These words are derivatives from the Latin. They
the first person singular, and shortening the a of the stem in the help you to remember the Latin and also increase your English
third person, singular and plural. vocabulary.
The imperfect adds the tense sign -ha-or -ha- to the present
stem and then adds the personal endings. HELPS AND HINTS. Note that in spelling .expect in English,
The future adds the tense sign -bi- to the present stem ~nd the s is dropped after the x. Exspecto, wait for, takes a direct
then adds the personal endings, omitting the i of the tense sign object in the accusative case. Do not let the for deceive you.
before the o of the first person singular, and changing i to u in
the third person plural.
por't o I carry porta'mus, we carry
por'ta s, you carry portii'tis, you carry (a) Analyze each form and translate:
por'ta t, he carries por'ta nt, they carry
I. Vulneriibam, vocabis, amatis. 2. Parat, portamus, oc-
cupiibunt. 3. Damus, laudiibat, convociibunt. 4. Pugniibis,
porta'bam, I was carrying portii ba'mus, we were carrying
portii bi'tis, you were carrying spectiibant, superamus. 5. Vulnerabit, occupabimus, dabunt.
portii'bis, you were carrying
portii'bat, he was carrying portii 'bant, they were carrying 6. Voliibiis, laudabatis, exspectabimus. 7. Occupant, vulnerii-
bit, dabitis. 8. Porto, laudabit, amabunt. 9. Niintiabit, laborii-
I shall (will) carry portii 'bimus, we shall (will) rorry bant, habitamus. 10; Dabo, narrabitis, habitabas.
portii'bis, you will carry portii 'bi tis, you will carry
portii'bunt, they will carry (b) !'"rranslate:
portii 'bit, he will carry

The imperfect indicative represents an act as going on in past 1. They will fight, I was fighting, we shall fly. 2. We are
calling, he will call, I am calling. 3. They are, they are awaiting,
time or as repeated in past time. "I was carrying," "I kept carry-
ing," "I used to carry," "I carried," are all possible translations. '. they were awaiting. 4. You were praising, we shall praise, they

praise. 5. I shall give, you (pl.) are flying, they will give. 6. He
was working, we shall announce, they tell. 7. You (pl.) wound,
we were living, I shall work. 8. They will conquer, he awaits,
you (sing.) were announcing. 9. We shall announce, they were
wounding, she was waiting for. 10. I shall call together, he con-
quers, you (pl.) will live.


(a) Read the Latin and translate:

1. Pueri in agris laboriibant. 2. Feminae filios et filias con-
vociibunt. 3. Legatus servum in via vulnerabat. 4. Bonam
fortiinam meam niintiabo. 5. Dei deaeque in caelo habitant. ,
6. Meos amicos non superiibitis. 7. In villa magnii habitii"".
biimus. 8. Agricolae in silvii laborabunt. 9. Amici viroru~
bonorum nfmtios exspectiibant. 10. Spectabam filium meu~
post villam tuam. AMICI ROMANI

(b) Translate:
1. We shall fly to the large island. 2. They were calling READING LESSON
together the boys and girls. 3. The women live in a small farm,
house. 4. Will you carry the water into the road? 5. I wa~ Duo AMici
working in my fields. 6. The messengers were carrying many Marcus et Lucius erant amici. In Gallia habitabant. Post
swords. 7. The son of the lieutenant was looking at the gifts; bellum, Gallia provincia Romana erat. Marcus erat filius agri-
8. The slaves were preparing the grain. 9. The good sailor wilJ colae Romani, et Lucius erat filius Iegati Romani.
not wound the boy. 10. The horses will carry the grain into Pueri in agris cum multis servis laboriibant. Servi erant captivi
the town. qui ii (by) Romanis in hello superati erant (had been conquered). s
Agricola erat vir bonus, et servis dona multa dabat. Marcus et
Lucius ad servos qui in agris laboriibant cibum (food) et aquam
portiibant. Servi frumentum ab agris ad villam portabant.
Erat magna silva prope (near) agrum ubi servi laboriibant. In
silva erant multa animalia. Marcus et Lucius per agros in silvam 10
ambµlabant, et animalia spectabant. Pueri gladios ob (on account
of) periculum in silva portiibant. Marcus animalia amabat et
vociibat. Maxime (especially) cervos (deer) amiibat. Sub arbore
exspectabat, dum (until) cervus adveniret (might come near). Ubi
(when) cervus parvus ad eum (him) ambulabat, cibum dabat. 15
Tum Marcus et Lucius fugam cervi per arbores spectabant.

40 41
Alis volat prQpriis. VOCABULARY
X[][ She flies with her own wings. li'ber, -era, -erum, free (liberty) con'trii, prep., with acc., against
MOTTO OF OREGON mi'ser, -era, -erum, wretched, un- (contradict)
happy (miserable) in'ter, prep., with acc., among, be·
nos'ter, -tra, -trum, our tween (intercept)
pul'cher, -chra, -chrum, beautiful ob, prep., with acc., because of, on
(pulchritude) account of
Adjectives in -Er sa'cer, -era, -crum, sacred, holy
ves'ter, -tra, -trum, your (when "you"
prop'ter • prep., with acc., because of,
on account of
are more than one) si'ne, prep., with abl., without

33. Word Work. List in your notebook all the words you can
think of that are related to those in the vocabulary.
32. Adjectives ending in "-er" are declined as follows: Miser comes from miser; liberal, liberate, liberty, all come from
Miser, wretched BASE, miser- liber.
SINGULAR What are interscholastic sports?
MASCULINE FEMININE NEUTER What is feminine pulchritude?
Nom. mi'ser mi'ser a mi'ser um Interlude, intervene, and intercept all come from inter, plus ludo,
Gen. mi'ser i mi'ser ae mi'ser i venio, and capio, in later lessons.
Dar. mi'ser ii mi'ser ae mi'ser ii
Acc. mi'ser um mi'ser am mi's.:r um
Ab/ . mi'ser ii mi'ser ii mi'ser ii


Norn. mi'ser i mi'ser ae mi'ser a

Gen. miser o'rum miser ii'rum miser ii'rum
Dar. mi'ser is mi'ser is mi'ser is
Acc. mi'ser os mi'ser iis mi'ser a
Ab/. mi'ser is mi'ser is mi'ser is
Pulcher, beautiful BASE, pulchr- ANTIQUUS


Norn. pul'cher pul'chr a pul'chr um

Gen. pul'chr i pul'chr ae pul'chr i
HELPS AND HINTS. There is no .new difficulty in the declen-
Dar. pul'chr ii pul'chr ae pul'chr ii
sion of these adjectives. The masculine is like .puer and ager,
Acc. pul'chr um pul'chr am pul'chr um
pul'chr ii
Jhe rest like magnus.
Ab/. pul'chr ii pul'chr ii
~ Note that Uber and miser retain thee, like puer; pulcher and
PLURAL vester drop -it, like ager. To remember which words drop the e
Norn. pul'chr i pul'chr ae pul'chr a and which keep it, think of English derivatives: liberate, miser-
Gen. pulchr o'rum pulchr ii'rum pulchr o'rum able, puerile, agrarian, and pulchrifude. Most second declension
Dat. pul'chr is pul'chr is pul'chr is adjectives in -er drop the e. Liber and miser are the commonest
Acc. pul'chr os pul'chr iis pul'chr a ones that do not.
Abt. pul'chr is pul'chr is pul'chr is

42 43
34. Indirect Object. The indirect object is put in the dative.
It shows to or for whom or which something is said, given, shown,
or done. Notice that in English we often omit the preposition SERVUS MALUS
to or for.
In oppido nostro erat vir bonus. Viri equus in agro sub arbore
The indirect object usually comes before the direct in Lati.n.
erat. Marcus erat viri amicus. Marcus equum amabat, sed viri
The farmer gives the boy water. Agricola puero aquam dat. servus equum non amabat.
He is preparing grain for the horse. Equo friimentwu parat. In ag~o erat fossa (ditch) alta. Servus miser pilum (javelin)
longum m fossa celabat (concealed). Factum malum in animo s
(mind) servi erat. Marcus servum spectabat, tum sine mora
EXERCISES (delay) clamabat, "Equumne pilo vulnerabis? Equus non tuus
est, _sed mei_amici." Mar~us amico signum dabat, et eum (him)
(a) Read the Latin and translate:
vocabat. Vu servum glad10 vulnerabat. Servus pilo equum non
I. Nostri amid puelliis pulchriis spectiibant. 2. Propter vulnerabat. 10
bellum sine frumento sumus. 3. Inter bonos amicos habitiibiitis. Vir diligentiam Marci laudabat. Marco donum magnum et
4. Patria nostra libera est. 5. Vestri servi miseri in campis latis pulchrum propter diligentiam dabat.
laborabant. 6. Miseri viri in Europa pugnabanr. 7. Deis dona
multa et pulchra dabimus. 8. Cum amids nostris ludos spec-
tabimus. 9. Sumus sine aqua, sed laborabimus. IO. Trans
agros frumentum portabatis.
(b) Translate:
1. The words of the gods are sacred. 2. Our horses are small
and beautiful. 3. Will you give your grain to the slaves? 4. The
sailors are wounding your small son. 5. On account of the
dangers, we shall not sail to Germany. 6. Our friends are un-
happy. 7. Will they fight in the fields of Germany? 8. We .
shall give much water to the horses. 9. There are memories of!
great friendship among the women. IO. Your beautiful <laugh-\
ter is looking at the sky.

HELPS AND HINTS. Do not confuse the indirect object con-

struction with the prepositional phrase, to the city, to Italy.
The indirect object is used after verbs meaning to give, show,
say, etc., when the "receiver" is in the immediate presence of
the "giver." If there is motion from one place to another, as
"He sent money to his friend," the accusative with the preposi-
tion ad is used.

Sum quod eris.
XI[[ I um what you will be.

I More Conjugation
of Sum

35. Imperfect and Future of sum.

Imperfect Indicative
e'r am, I was er ii'mus, we were
e'r is, you were er ii'tis, yo11 were
e'r at, he was e'r ant, tl,ey were SIGNUM ROMANUM

Future Indicative
e'r o, I shall ( will) be e'r imus, we (will) shall be
e'r is, you will be e'r itis, you will be
e'r it, he wili be e'r unt, they will be

A'frica, -ae, f., Africa do'minus, -i, m., master, lord (dom- ·
a'nimus, -1, m ., mind, spirit; pl., inant)
courage (animated) fii'ma, -ae, f., rumor, report (fame) 36. Word Work. This vocabulary contains some interesting
A'sia, -ae, f. Asia fu'ga, -ae, f., flight (fugitive) words. List ten derivatives, in addition to those given.
auxi1ium, -i, n., aid, help; pl., troops, li'ber, li'bri, m., book (library) Dominie, from the vocative of dominus,is a word often used of
auxiliary forces (auxiliary) magis'ter, -tri, m., teacher, master . ministers.
capti'vus, -i, m., captive (captivate) (magistrate)
cas'tra, -orum, n., pl., camp nu'merus, -i, m., number (numeral) . The suffix -ter (tor) means doer, so a minister is a doer of the
co'pia, -ae, f., supply, plemy; pl., sig'num, -i, n., signal, sign, military : lesser things (minus means less), while a magister is a doer of the
troops, forces (copious) standard (sign) greater things (magis means greater).

HELPS AND HINTS. Compare liber and Uber. The words

\. 37. Ablative of Means or Instrument. Means or instrument is
library and liberate will help you remember how they. are de- expressed by the ablative without a preposition. Notice that it
clined, but notice that the quantity of the i in each Latin word is regularly used of things, not persons, and is usually translated
is the opposite of that in its English co~nate. . with or by.
Remember that the plural of copia 1s practically a separate
word meaning forces. They carry grain with horses. Friimentum equis portant.
A slave gives the signal with a trumpet. Servus tubii signum dat.

46 47
Via trita via tuta. VOCABULARY
X[V The beaten path is rhe safe one.
am'bulo, -ii're, -ii'vi, -iitii'rus, walk ar'ma, armo'rum, n., pl., arms, im-
(perambulator) plements (armaments)
clii'mo, -ii're, -ii'vi, -iitii'rus, shout consi'lium, con'sili, n., plan, advice

I Principal
of Verbs
confir'mo, -ii're, -ii'vi, -ii'tus,
strengthen, declare (confirmation)
demon"stro,-ii're, -ii'vl, -ii'tus, show,
point out (demonstration)
li'bero, -ii're, -ii'vi, -ii'tus, set free,
impedimen'tum, -i, n., hindrance; pl.,
heavy baggage (impediment)
proe'lium, -i, n., battle
te'lum, -i, n., weapon
free (liberate) nunc, adv., now
Signal for battle is expressed in Latin by signum proeli.

38. The principal parts of a Latin verb are the present indicative, , , 40. Word Work. There are several words in this vocabulary
present infinitive, perfect indica1ive, and perfect passive participle. ; which suggest material for your notebook . Add to your lists all
These are called principal parts because, when they are known, the derivatives you can think of from climo, demonstro, libero,
an the other forms of the verb may readily be formed. signum, and comlffllo.
Pres. Ind. Pres. Inf. Per[. Ind. Perf. Pass. Part.
porti're porti'vi portii'tus 41. Interrogative Particles. When a negative answer (no) is
I carry to carry I (have) carried (having been) carried
-i suggested, a Latin question is introduced by Num; when an af-
i1 firmative answer (yes) is suggested, the question is introduced
Form the principal parts of: by Nonne.
8180, laudo, occupo, paro, specto, appello, habito ! The slaves are not good , are they? Num servi bonl sunt?
I Are not the slaves good ? Noone servi boni sunt?
39. Verb Stems. The fixed parts of a verb, to which the dif-: I
ferent endings are added, are called stems. Every regular ve~b l
has three stems: present, perfect, and participial, to be found lil ! ORAL EXERCISE
the last three principal parts. 1
Answer these questions in complete Latin sentences:
Present: porti- Perfect : portiv- Perfect Passive: portit- . t
The first conjugation includes all verbs ~ho s~ . presen~ stem•. l l. Nonne legati gladiis pugnant?
2. Num servi miseri erant?
3. Eritne numerus Gallorum in oppido magnus? 4. Eratne
ends in i-. This is obtained by dropping the mfimtive endmg -re. I 5. Nonne domini gladiis pugnabunt?
Give the present stem of: !
convoco, libero, narro, supero 'f ' HELPS AND HINTS. See how Latin questions correspond to

HELPS AND HINTS. Intransitive verbs-, i.e. verbs which do not

II English. If we expect the answer y es, we put not in the question ,
just as Latin does. · Don't you like this? You're going, aren't
. I
take a direct object, are given the -iirus ending for the fourth you?
principal part instead of -us. . _
l; When we expect the answer no, the question is affirmative.
The principal parts of sum are sum, esse, fua, futurus. You don't like this, do you ? YoU;'re not going, are you?

50 51
52 53

(a) Read the Latin and trunslate: BRITANNIA

l. Puella bona nautas convocat. 2. Legati cop,as magnas insula Britannia est contra (opposite) Galliam. Caesar olim
non exspectant. 3. Agricolane equo multum frumentum dat? (once) cum multis militibus a Gallia ad Britanniam navigabat.
4. Niintios et legatos superamus. 5. Amicum nunc vulneratis. Magnae erant undae, et venti etiam erant magni. Sed milites et
6. Puer amico dona dat. 7. Dasne nautis copiam frumenti? nautae laborabant et tempestatem superabant.
8. Nonne servos in tua patria liberabis? 9. Legati in proelio In Britannia, multi milites in litore (shore) ambulabant. Clama- s
telis pugnabant. 10. Num signum ad proelium portatis? bant et magnas copias convocabant. Britanni multa arma et tela
Romanis demonstrabant. Sed Romani egredi poterant (were
(b) Translate: able to land). Longum erat proelium et Romani castra Britan-
l. Will the masters set free the captives? 2. We were conquer- norum tandem occupabant et multos milites vulnerabant. Multi
ing the forces of Gaul. 3. The man is not wounding the boy's Britanni captivi facti sunt (became), et ad Galliam reportati sunt 10
horse, is he? 4. Are the sailors waiting for the signals'? 5. The (were carried back). Romani amicitiam confirmabant, et multos
plans of our lieutenant are good. 6. Will you give the signal servos etiam liberabant. Etiam nunc in Britannia multa signa
with a trumpet? 7. I was praising the plans of the men in the victoriae Ro:µianae sunt.
battle. 8. They are pointing out the weapons of the messenger.
9. The boys were shouting after the battle. 10. The women
were walking through the fields with the girls.
xv 43. Drill.

A. Decline:

fuga longa
dominus noster
consilium malum
B. Conjugate, translating each form, the present, imperfect,
and future tenses of sum.

42. Vocabulary. C. Translate:

I. exspectabo 6. habitabit
A. Give the genitive, gender, and meaning of the following nouns:
2. clamatis 7. confirmabunt
animus copia magister 3. liberabant 8. ambulas
arma dominus numerus 4. nfmtiat 9. laborabitis
auxilium fama proelium 5. vulnerabatis IO. appellamus
captivus fuga signum
castra impediment um telum D. Translate:
consilium liber .., 1. we were living
2. he will shout
B. Give the principal parts and meaning of the following verbs: i 3. they point out
narro 4. you were freeing
ambulo demonstro
nuntio 5. we shall conquer
appello exspecto
supero 6. was he announcing?
clamo habito
volo 7. will they not work?
confirmo laboro
vulnero 8. you were not waiting, were you?
convoco libero
9. they are calling
10. I shall fly
C. Give the meaning of the following:
E. Write in Latin the italicized words, and account for the case
liber nunc pulcher ()f each noun:
miser sacer
noster vester 1. They were flying to Asia.
2. He gave a gift to the messenger.
\ 3. He gave a signal with a trumpet.
D. Give the meaning of ihe following prepositions, and the case ! 4. We are friends of the lieutenant.
each one governs: If 5. He fights with a sword.
propter sine ' 6. He is a good friend.
contra inter ob

54 55
B. Translate:
44. Exercises.
.. J
\ 1. The messengers wait for the men in a small farmhouse.
A. Translate: 2. The lieutenant was reporting the number of captives.
1. Multi captivi in agro cum legatis ambulabam. 3. The boys were wounding the slave with swords.
2. Castra nostra in silva in Germania erunt. 4. I shall give the signal to the men with a trumpet.
3. Libri puellae parvae erant magni. 5. The women were calling together the girls into the field.
4. Magistri servos miseros liberabunt. 6. The unhappy sailors were flying from the island.
5. Sine telis pugnabam. 7. The farmers will carry a large supply of grain from the field.
6. Filius agricolae equis frumentum et aquam dabat. 8. Were you looking at the games in the town?
7. Puerum gladio vulnerabat. 9. On account of the danger of war, they were preparing many
8. Clamabuntne viri post proelium? _ weapons.
9. Magnus numerus librorum sacrorum in Italia est. 10. My daughters were giving help to the wretched slave.
10. Impedimenta captivorum in via sunt.
In principio creavit Deus caelum et terram.
XVI /11 the beginning God created heaven and earth.

The Perfect Tense

45. The perfect stem is found by dropping i from the perfect

indicative active, the third of the principal parts - portavi:
stem, portav-. The perfect indicative active is formed by adding
to the perfect stem the following personal endings.
First Person. -i -imus
Second Person. -isti -istis
Third Person. -it -erunt

Perfect Indicative Active

I carried, I have carried, I did carry
porta'v i portii'v imus
portiiv is'ti portiiv is'tis
portii'v it portiiv e'runt
l~' i>ppug'no, -ii're, -ii'vi, -ii'tus, attack
Following the same rules as for porto, conjugate in the perfect i eris, adv., tomorrow (procrastinate)
ser'vo, -ii're, •i'vi, -ii'tus, save, guard ciir, interrog. adv., why
indicative: (conservation) di'ii, adv., long, for a long time
sum (perfect, fui) sto, sti're, ste'ti, stiitii'rus, stand he'ri, adv., yesterday
vulnero temp'to, -i're, -i'vi, -i'tus, try, at- ho'dii!, adv., today
nii.ntio tempt, test (temptation) iam, adv., now, already
do, da're, de'di, da'tus, give i'bi, adv., there, in that place
ma1e, adv., badly (malefactor)
HELPS AND HINTS. The perfect indicative represents an act be'ne, adv., well (benediction) post'ei, adv., afterwards
as completed at the time of speaking (have carried), or _mer~Iy
as having occurred in past time (carrfed). Cont~·ast th_1swith 46. Word Work. From which meaning of tempto does the
the imperfect, which expresses an act10n as continued m past word temptation come? Do you know the word procrastinate?
time: I was carrying.
The word hodie comes from the two Latin words hoc die, mean-
The verb do, dare, has a instead of ii in the present system,
except for second person, present indicative, and the imperative ing this day. Postei is an adverb; don't confuse it with the prepo-
singular. sition post. Similarly, there is an adverb antea, beforehand, pre-
viously, and the preposition ante, before.

60 61

(a) Translate:
(a) Translate:
1. Laudavisti, laudabas laudabis. 2. Nuntiavit, vocavistis, 1. Cur pueri servos ibi convocaverunt? 2. Magistri non diii
- - t 3 Dedi dabo erant miseri. 3. Multi equi in via hodie steterunt. 4. Vul-
paraverun . . , , datis.
_ _ . 4. Spectavi,
_ . habitabamus,
clamabis. 5. Servat, demonstraverunt, oppugnav1st1. neravistine virum hodie gladio? 5. Friimentum ad nostros
amicos eras portabimus. 6. Pueri mali sine amicis fuerunt.
(b) Translate into Latin: 7. Equos servorum diii servavimus. 8. Legato dona eras dabi-
1. We have given, they will sail, he stood. 2. I have prepared, mus. 9. Pueri cum niintiis bene pugnaverunt. 10. Oppidum
they have wounded, you (pl.) stood. 3. He has _announced: he parvum gladiis telisque liberavimus.
was attempting, they were fighting. 4. We shall !ree? you (smg.)
(b) Translate:
will tell, they named. 5. He is looking at, they will g1ve,we have
seized. 1. The horses have been without water today. 2. Why did
you wound the boy with the weapon? 3. Will you give the
books to the teacher tomorrow? 4. I fought for a long time
with the captives. 5. He has given many good arms to the slaves.
6. Yesterday we were waiting for the women in our camp for a
long time. 7. Afterwards he will report to the lieutenant concern-
ing the dangers. 8. You have worked well for a long time.
9. The year has been long and we have been unhappy. 10. Many
men in Europe are now free.



Viri Romani multas terras oppugnaverunt. Provincias et op-

pida occupare temptaverunt. Fama belli magna erat. Romani
post belllµIl servos et captivos ad Italiam portiiverunt. Posteii
per Romam in magno triumpho ad Capitolium vecti sunt (they
were carried). Romani bane (this) pompam (procession) "trium- s
phum" appelliiverunt.
In triumpho erant arma et signa et equi et servi et peciinia et
. interdum (sometimes) regina-barbara. Poetae et puellae et feminae
captivos spectiiverunt et laudaverunt. Memoria factorum longa
erit. Bellum longum erat sed fortiina Romiinorum bona. 10
Romani militibus multa praemia, pulchra arma, et pecfmiam
dederunt. Feminae et viri triumphum amiiverunt.

Dux femina facti. 48. WordWork. Latin has two words for school, both of which
XVI][ A woman was the leader of the deed . are interesting to American students.
Liidus originally meant game or sport. It was the word for
the great Roman public games in the arena. Then it came to
Pluperfect and mean a place for training not oply the 1:,odypµt the mind. Finally,
it was used to describe a place for learning the elements of knowl-
Future Perfect edge, like the "three R's."
The other word, schola, was the Greek for leisure. In their
Tenses leisure time men came together to discuss various matters, espe-
cially philosophy, so that finally a group of philosophers came to
be called a schola, which then was applied to any learned assembly
47. The pluperfect and future perfect tenses indicative active of people intent on improving their minds.
are formed on the perfect stem.
Pluperfect tense = perfect stem + tense sign -era- or -era-
+ regular personal endings. ORI LL ON VERB FORMS
Future perfect tense = pe1fect stem + tense sign -eri- + regular
personal endings. 1 (a) Analyze each form and translate:
Pluperfect Indicative - / had carried I. Pugnaverat, vulnerabunt, pugnavisti. 2. Parabat, con-
porta'v era m portav era' mus firmaverunt, nuntiat. 3. Occupavi, parabam, portaverit.
porta'v erl s portav era' tis 4. Dedimus, dant, dederas. 5. Convocabit, spectavisti, serva-
porta'v em t portiiv' era nt
verunt. 6. Vocabamus, vocaveritis, superavistis. 7. Exspecta-
Future Perfect Indicative - / shall have carried verat, amamus, laudavero. 8. Eramus, fuerint, fuerunt:
porta'v er o portav e'ri mus 9. Fuisti, fueras, fuerit. IO. Liberabant, appellaverunt, servabo. -
portii'v eri s portav e'ri tis
porta 'v eri t porta'v eri nt l (b) Give the following synopses:
Following the same rules, conjugate sum (perfect fui) through The indicative active of the person and number in which the
the pluperfect and future perfect indicative tenses. . forms occur: laudo, pugnis, occupat, sumus, datis, vulnerant.
HELPS AND HINTS. Notice how the endings correspond to i'
(c) Translate:
the imperfect and future of sum. What one is different? All
I. I have saved, you were strengthening, you will call. 2. We
Latin verbs form these tenses like porto, so learn these thor- f
oughly now, and they will never trouble you. ,. shall have praised, he gave, they had fought. 3. You had carried,
they will have wounded, we are looking at. 4. They have seized,
i' we shall conquer, he calls together. 5. They will have prepared,
A synopsis of a verb is a group of forms of any person and num- i'
ber of that verb throughout all the tenses. !'
I shall name, we prepare. 6. You have set free, I had set free,
Synopsis of porto in first person singula~ indicative a,:tiv:: they loved. 7. They have been, he was, you will have been.
porto, portibam, portabo, portiivi, portaveram,portavero. 8. They had been, we shall be, I have been. 9. You have been,
he had been, we shall have been. 10. I shall await, they wounded,
1 Except in the first person singular.
I he had announced.

64 65

In liido (school) Romano erant pueri sed non multae puellae.
Liidus bonus erat et pueri magistro peciiniam dabant. Magister
saepe (often) erat servus fidus. Docebat (he taught) pueros
grammaticam, rhetoricam, arithmeticam.1 Si (if) pueri discipuli
s (pupils) boni erant, eos (them) laudabat. Si pueri mali et non
studiosi erant, eos (them) castigabat (chastised).2 Paedagogus
pueros exspectabat et libros portabat. Fortuna puerorum non
mala erat si pueri boni erant. ·.
Puellae domi (at home) erant. Matres (mothers, subject)
10 puellas artes domesticas docebant. Nonne vita puellarum bona
Rodie in patria nostra pueri puellaeque in liido sunt.
multis ludis oppidum libros comparat. Fortuna vestra bona
est. Nunc magna copia librorum bonorum est sed Romae (at
15 Rome) libri pauci erant.
In pictura pueros Romanos in liido cum magistro videre potestis
(you can see).

1 Doceo may take two accusatives, one of the person taught, the other of the thinq.
2 Pedagogue, a slave who accompanied boys to and from school. I
66 /

Da dextrammisero. HELPS AND HINTS. Do, dare has -ii in the imperative singu-
XV][][][ Lend a hand to the wretched. lar and -ate in the imperative plural.
The imperative and vocative frequently occur in the same
sentence: Come here, boys. Fight hard, soldiers.
Usually the imperative comes first in the sentence and the
vocative second. Remember that the plural of all Latin nouns
Imperatives has the vocative the same as the nominative.

and Vocatives
(a) Give and translate the imperative singular of:
porto, cliimo, pugno, voco, sto.
49. Imperatives. The present imperative singular in Latin is
i (b) Give and translate the imperative plural of·
regularly the same as the verb stem - porti, carry. The plural
adds -te to the singular- portite, carry. I do, laboro, demonstro,nivigo, specto.
The singular form is used when one person is addressed; the l! (c) Give the vocative singular of the fol/owing nouns:
plural is used when more than one person is addressed. puer, amicus,servos,filia, Liicius,agricola,filius, vir.

50. Vocatives. The vocative case in Latin is the same as the

I (d) Give the vocative plural of·
nominative in all declensions, except for second declension singu- nauta, filius, dominus,femina,vir.
lar nouns ending in -us or -ius. Nouns of the second declension
singular ending in -us have -e as the vocative ending, as amice, 0
friend! But filius, and proper nouns ending in -ius, have the voc-

ative ending in -i: fm,(my) son; Iiili, Julius. (a) Read the Latin and translate:
1. Portate, pueri, aquam ad equos mgros. 2. Date, filii,
VOCABULARY pecuniam vestds amicis. 3. Sumus parati; navigate ad insulam,
al'bus, -a, -um, white nautae. 4. Cur epistulae non gratae sunt, mea regina? 5. Narra,
cau'sa, -ae, f., cause, reason 1

epis'tula, -ae, f., letter (epistle) ami'cus, -a, -um,friendly I Maree, fibulam tuorum periculorum. 6. Lucius cum amicis per
fi'bula, -ae, f., story (fable) gri'tus, -a, -um, pleasing, welcome; I silvis diii ambulaverat. 7. In oppidum peciiniam heri porta-
ho'ra, -ae, f., hour grateful (gratitude) I verunt. 8. liilia pulchra erat, sed inimica. 9. Bene et diii, pueri,
pecii'nia,-ae, f., money (pecuniary) iniml'cus, -a, -um, unfriendly .1 laboravistis. 10. Castra et oppidum eris occupibimus.
regI'na,-ae, f., queen ni'ger, -gra, -grum, black t
Iii'Ua,-ae, f., Julia no'vus, -a, -um, new (novelty) I·

Lii'clm, -i, m., Lucius pari'tus, -a, -um, prepared t, (b) Translate:
Mir'cus, -i, m., Marcus (Mark) ve'rus,-a, -um, true !
1. Many men had given letters to the messenger. 2. Look at
51. Word Work. Notice the effect of the prefix in- in inimicus. the queen, Marcus; she is beautiful. 3. We have walked for a
What would ingritus mean? However, an innovation is ·some- . long time through the forest. 4. ,Give money to the friendly
thing new. Epistulais a letter or epistle, not a letter of the alpha- l slave, Julia; he is unhappy. 5. TQmorrow we shall have seized
the camp. 6. Free the slaves, master; they are good men.
bet; compare littera. t.
68 i 69
7. The queen was giving beautiful gifts to the little girls. 8. Hav..~ Appia" appellata est (was called). Erant multae aliae (other)
you prepared the letter, son? 9. We shall s~il tomor~ow, m~n; viae in Italia sed Via Appia clarissima (most famous) erat.
prepare your arms. 10. The lieutenant has given the signal with In Via Appia multi Romani ambulabant. Agricolae frumen-
tum portabant et amicos saliitabant. Poetae et feminae in via 10
a trumpet.
ambulabant, et albos equos agricolarum spectabant. Julia et
puellae Romanae locum prope (near) viam occupiibant. Inter
READING LESSON feminas et viros erant pueri et puellae. In carris stiibant et cum
amicis in via clamabant. Magnus numerus agricoliirum in villis
prope Viam Appiam habitabat. Diii laborabant, et multum 1s
Romae (at Rome) erat vir, Appius Oaudius nomine (by name). friimentum cams ad villas portabant. Vita agricoliirum erat
Magnum et longum aquaeductum aedificavit (built). Romani bona, sed difl laboriibant.
hunc (this) aquaeductum ab eius (his) nomine (name) appelliiverunt. Appius Claudius patriam suam (his) amabat et cum hostibus
Aquaeductus bonam aquam in urbem Romaro portiivit. . (enemies) Romanorum semper (always) pugnabat. Via et aquae-
s Appius Claudius etiam (besides) longam et bonam viam ductus in Italia hodie manent (remain). 20
Capuam, oppidum Italiae, aedificavit. Haec (this)
Nihil dictum quod non dictum prius. 53. Word Work. Explain the meaning of the italicized words:
Nothing is said which has not been said before.
a popular decision; a penal institution; the locale of the battle;
the locativecase; an associate of mine; their audacity was beyond
belief; a ubiquitouswoman; his job was a sinecure
Whose motto is semper paratus?
Adverbs What state has the motto sic sempertyrannis?

(a) Read the Latin and translate:
52. Adverbs. The adverb ending is regularly -e,added to the
base of the corresponding adjective of the second declension: 1. Carris magnis pueros ad lfldos portabimus. 2. Interim
socii in agris saepe laborabant. 3. Regina servos amice laudavit.
adjective: liitus, wide 4. Peciiniam miseris sociis libere dabo. 5. Tuis amicis, puer,
adverb: late, widely
fabulam vere narra. 6. Ad multa loca in Italia navigavirnus.
Learn the meaning of. these adverbs: 7. Propter inopiam aquae in oppido non habitabimus. 8. Niin-
tius poenam nostrorum legatorum confirmavit. 9. Ubi viri femi-
alte, highly, deeply longe, far off, at a distance naeque nunc ambulant? 10. Reginae tuas litteras, Maree, da.
amid, in a friendly manner misere,miserably, wretchedly
lite, widely pulchre, beautifully, nobly (b) Translate:
libere, freely, willingly vere, truly, really
l. We shall praise the gods freely. 2. Many people in Spain
work in the fields. 3. We shall wait for our sons in the town
VOCABULARY on account of the lack of water. 4. The sailors were looking at
the games in the kingdom of the queen. 5. The farmers are
audi'cia, -ae, f., daring, boldness po'pulus, -i, m.,people, nation (popu- carrying the grain in (by) a large wagon. 6. Save the letter,
(audacity) lation)
cii'ra, -ae, f., care, anxiety so'cius, -i, m., ally, comrade (social) Marcus, and give (it) to the queen. 7. They are preparing for
ino'pia, -ae, f., lack, want war but we shall not fight. 8. We have given many weapons to
i'ra, -ae, f., mwer in'terim, adv., meanwhile our allies in Europe. 9. In my country the people often live in
poe'na, -ae, f., punishment, penalty sae'pe, adv., often large towns. 10. I shall point out to the master the flight of
(penal) sem'per, adv., always the slaves.
car'rus,-1, m., wagon, cart tum, adv., then
lo'cus, -1, m., place; pl., loca, loco'- u'bi, adv., where, when
rum, n. (local) HELPS AND HINTS. Do not be disturbed about adverbs formed
from first and second declension adjectives ending in -er. They
follow the rule given; for example, free, llber; freely, libere
HELPS AND HINTS. The word populus in Latin was generally (base Uber+ e).
used in the singular, as in the phrase populus Rominus. It was A few adjectives you have had are exceptions to this rule and
used in the plural to mean nations or tribes. Note that many their adverbs will be studied later. Among these are bonus,
people in Latin was generally multi. (See Lesson IX.) magnus,multus, and parvus.

72 73
READING LESSON partem "atrium" appellabant. Ibi in media domo erat apertum
spatium. Pluvia (rain) per id spatium in "impluvium" descende- 10
Do.MUS Row.NA bat. Dominus in atrio amicos saepe convocavit. Paries (the wall)
Spectate pictiiram domi Roma.nae. Ante ianuam (entrance) picturis saepe virorum, fem.inarum, puerorum, puellarum, et
erat vestibulum. Consuetudo (custom) erat in limine (threshold) ~ animalium pulchre omatus erat. In "tablino," quod erat proxi-
"Salve" scribere. mum (next to) atrio, dominus pecuniam servabat.
Janitor ad ianuam saepe stabat . Ibi canis saepe erat, aut in Peristylium erat tertia pars domi, pulchra et magna. Hie (here) 15
s solo (floor) pictiira canis cum verbis "Cave (beware) canem" erat. pulchri flores erant, et fontes columnis marmoreis inclusi (en-
Super ianuam interdum scriptum erat, "Nihil intret mali" (Let closed). Inter tablinum et peristylium velum (curtain) erat. Si
nothing evil enter). domus fenestras habebat, in superiore parte parietis erant et
Interior domus in tres partes divisa est. Romani primam parvae.

74 75
xx 3.
accusative singular of: via, vir, ager
genitive plural of: gladius, arma, locus
5. the ablative plural of: hora, castra, telum
6. the vocative singular of: Marcus, rilius, vir

B. Give a synposis of these verbs, with meanings:

Review 1. servo in the third person singular
2. do in the third person plural
3. sum in the second person singular
4. sto in the first person plural
54. Vocabulary.
C. Give the imperative, with meanings, of the following:
A. Give the genitive, gender, and meaning of the following nouns:
1. the singular of:
audacia fabula peciinia climo, sto, pugno
carrus hora poena
2. the plural of:
causa inopia populus
ciira ira regina nivigo, ambulo, demonstro
epistula locus socius
D. Decline throughout: gritus, noster
B. Give the principal parts and meanings of:
E. Form adverbs from the following adjectives:
oppugno servo sto tempto
liber, litus, miser, pulcher, verus
C. Give the meanings of these adjectives:
albus gratus niger paratus 56. Exercises.
amicus inimicus novus verus
A. Translate:
D. Give the meanings of these adverbs:
1. Pueri diii pugnaverunt et dominos superaverunt.
bene heri interim semper 2. Paratisne, puellae, nunc libros novos?
eras hodie male tum 3. Servos nostrc'?shodie liberavimus.
ciir iam postea ubi 4. Nonne tuas filias ex via vocabis, Luci?
diii ibi saepe 5. Sociis nostris peciiniam libere dederimus.
6. Ubi equi albi sunt, et cur in nostro agro non sunt?
55. Drill. 7. Portate·vestros libros hodie ad meam villam.
8. Laudate magistros vestros; pericula demonstraverunt.
A. Give the following forms: 9. Agricolae multum friimentum ad oppidum carris porta-
1. the genitive singular of: ciira, magister, auxilium verunt.
2. the dative singular of: inopia, deus, niintius 10. Convoca, Maree, servos in villam.

76 77
78 Console Planco.
B. Translate: XXll When P/ancus was consul.
l. They had carried the arms from many places into the road. A ROMAN PHRASE FOR "THE GOOD OLD TIMES"'

2. We have often looked at the beautiful queen.

3. The friendly sailors love the people of our country.
4. He has reported the lack of grain to the lieutenant.
5. Did you sail yesterday toward Spain?
6. The sailors have seized a small camp on the island.
I The Third
7. On account of the danger of war we have been without arms.
8. After the battle, many men looked at the unhappy captives.
9. I lived in a small farmhouse in Germany for a long time.
10. Stand in the road, men, and wait for the lieutenant. 57. The third declension includes all words whose genitive
singular ends in -is. They may be masculine, feminine, or neuter.
Many nouns of the third declension have their nominative
just like the base, or the base and the nominative differ only in
the quantity of the last vowel. Note that masculines and femi-
nines are declined alike.

Consul, m., Soror, f.,

consul sister
BASE, consul- BAsE, soror-

Norn. con'sul Nom. so'ror

Gen. con'sul is Gen. soro'r is is
Dar. con'sul i Dat. soro'r i
Acc. con'sul em Acc. soro'r em em
Ab/. con'sul e Ab/. soro'r e e


Norn. con'sul es Norn. soro'r es es

Gen. con'sul um Gen. soro'r um um
Dat . consu'l ibus Dat . soro'r ibus ibus
Acc. con'sul es Acc . soro'r es es
Abt. consu'l ibus Ab/ . soro'r ibus ibus

HELPS AND HINTS. If you compare the case endings of the

three declensions, you will see that in all three (1) the accusative
singular ends in -m, (2) the genitive plural ends in -um, and
(3) the accusative plural (masculine and feminine) ends in -s.

Cae'sar, -aris, m., Caesar mi'les, mi'litis, m., soldier (military)
din'sul, -ulis, m., consul pa'tcr, pa'tris, m., father (paternal)
dux, du'cis, m., leader rex, re'gis, m., king (regal)
fra'ter, frii'tris, m., brother (frater- so'ror, -o'ris, f., sister (sorority)
imperii'tor, -o'ris, m., general, com- delec'to, -ii're, -a'vi, -a'tus, please
mander (imperative)
n,a'ter, ma'tris, f., mother (maternal) mox, adv., soon

58. Word Work. Whenever you see a Latin word ending in

-tor (-sor), like imperitor and victor, you can be sure that it means
"one who" does whatever the root word means. For example:
imperitor, "one who" commands, from impero, command.
captor, "one who" takes, from capio, take.
competitor, "one who" seeks something along with someone else
or a rival, from competo, seek with
creator, "one who" makes, from creo, make.
creditor, "one who" trusts, from credo, trust.
Similar words are curawr, dictator, doctor, educator, estimator,
gladiator, janitor, libera10r, pastor, possessor, professor, rector,
sculptor, spectator, speculator, sponsor, violator.

HELPS AND HINTS. The vocative of the third declension is

like the nominative in both the singular and plural. Mater,
Mother! Milites, Soldiers!


(a) Translate: (b) Translate:

1. Caesar erat imperator magnus in Gallia. 2. Pueri patres l. The general praised the sons of the consul. 2. The soldiers
matresque laudabant. 3. Marcus est dux multorum militum. fought for a long time in a field behind the camp. 3. Where did
4. Ad regnum regis mox niivigiibimus. 5. Sorores consulis agros Caesar defeat the consul's troops? 4. After the battle there
multos et latos spectabant. 6. Magister sorori parvae dona will be a new commander. 5. Wait for Julia in the farmhouse
pulchra dedit. 7. Lucius fratres et sorores ex silvii liitii in op- Mother; I shall walk to town. 6. My brother and your siste;
pidum vocavit. 8. Ubi erat pater consulis? 9. Imperator cum have flown to Europe. 7. We had given many beautiful gifts to
rnilitibus in proelio pugniibat. 10. Filii irnperiitoris patrem our sister. 8. Tell a story to your little brother, Julia. 9. My
delecta bant. father was a friend of the consuls in Italy. 10. The leaders will
soon call the new soldiers into the camp.
Mens sana in corpore sano.
XX[[ A sound mind in a sound body.

I Third Declension,

59. Neuters of the third declension have different endings from

those of masculines and feminines in the nominative and accu-
sative, singular and plural. Other case endings are like the
Caput, n., head Fliimen, n., river Corpus, n., body
BASE, capit- BASE, fliimin- BASE, corpor-


Nom. ca'put flii'men cor'pus
PYRRHUS Gen. ca'pit is flii'min is cor'por is is
Dat. ca'pit i flii'min i cor'por i
Olim multi Graeci Italia habitabant. Hi (these) Graeci cum Acc. ca'put flii'men cor'pus
Romanis pugnaverunt. Pyrrhus erat rex Epiri in Graecia et im- Ab/. ca'pit e flii'min e cor'por e e
perator bonus. Graeci in Italia auxilium Pyrrhum contra PLURAi.
Romanos rogabant (asked for). 1 Graeci Pyrrhum anxio animo Norn. ca'pit a flii'min a cor'por a a
s (anxiously) diu exspectiibant. Gen. ca'pit um flii'min um cor'por um um
Pyrrhus tandem cum elephantis et multis militibus in italiam Dat. capi't ibus' fliimi'n ibus corpo'r ibus ibus
Acc. ca'pit a flii'min a cor'por a a
venit. Tum primum Romani cum hoste transmarino pugniibant. Ab/. capi't ibus fliimi'n ibus corpo'r ibus ibus
Consul Publius Valerius Laevinus contra eum pugnavit. In
primii pugna Graeci auxilio elephantorum Romanos supe-
10 raverunt. Sed Romani multos Graecos vulneraverunt et
2 HELPS AND HINTS. To learn the third declension neuter easily,
ceciderunt. note that:
Mox c(msul Fabricius contra regem missus est (was sent). · (1) The accusative singular is the same as the nominative.
Romani multos Graecos in pugnii superiiverunt. Pyrrhus ad (2) In the plural the nominative is formed by adding -a to
Graeciam rediit (returned) et caesus est (was killed). the base, and the accusative is the same.
(3) All other cases are formed the same as the other third
1 Rogo takes two accusatives : ''They asked Pyrrhus for help." declen~ion nouns you have already studied, that is, by adding
2 After his terrible losses in the first battle, Pyrrhus is said to have exclaimed:
"Another such victory and I am ruined!" From this we get the expression Pyrrhic the ·third declension terminations to the base.
victory, one in which the winner suffers so severely that victory is as bad as defeat.

.. 83
ca'put, ca'pitis, n., head (capital) tem'pus, tem'poris, n., time (tem-
car'men, -inis, n., song, poem poral)
cele'ritis, -ti'tis, f., speed (celerity) vul'nus, vul'neris, n., wound (vulner-
cor'pus, -oris, n., body (corpse) able)
diligen'tia, -ae, f., diligence, care
(diligence) Germa'nus, -a, -um, adj., German
flii'men, -inis, n., river (flume) Grae'cus, -a, -um, adj., Greek
i'ter, iti'neris, n., march, route, jour- Hispa'nus, -a, -um, adj., Spanish
ney (itinerary) Roma'nus, -a, -um, adj., Roman
no'men, no'minis, n., name

60. Word Work. In studying a vocabulary, always look care-

fully at new words to see how they are formed. The following
endings show that the words are nouns formed from adjectives.
These rules will help with new Latin words .
The endings -tis, -tiido, -(t)ia suggest the English endings
-ship, -ness, -tude, -(t)y. These suffixes help to form abstract
nouns which denote .. condition or quality."
Uber(free) + tiis = libertiis, liberty, freedom
magnus (great) + tiido = magnitiido, greatness, magnirude 61. Ablative with Cum in Expressions of Manner. The manner
miser (wretched)+. ia = miseria, misery, wretchedness
of doing something (how it is done, as opposed to the means by
Latin words of this sort are: which or with which it is done) is expressed by the ablative with
cum. Cum, however, may be omitted when the ablative is modi-
-tis - hfimanitas, libertas, liberalitas, aequitas, sanitas, dignitas,
celeritas, fertilitas, brevitas, difficultas, fitilitas, cupiditas, feli- fied by an adjective. This usage is called the ablative of manner.
citas, necessitas. He works with care. Cum diligentia laborat.
-tiido - latitfido, multitiido, magnitudo, longitiido, altitude, con- He works with great care. Magni cum diligentii laborat.
suetfido, fortitude. or
Magni diligentii laborat.
-(t)ia - miseria, mernoria, inifiria, gratia, audacia, invidia, amici-
tia , dementia.
HELPS AND HINTS. Review the rule dealing with means.
Look up the meanings of any of these Latin words that you Whenever you want to translate "with," test the sentence care-
cannot reason out by derivation. fully .to .see if "with" indicates means. You can do this by
substitutmg "by means of" for "with." If this substitution
does not make sense, you are pretty safe in using cum and the
HELPS AND HINTS. Adjectives like Germanus and Romanus ablative.
are sometimes used as substantives. When the noun of a prepositional phrase is modified by an
Romani, the Romans Germani, the Germans adjective, the adjective is often placed before a monosyllabic
Poenus, a Carthaginian Graecus, a Greek preposition.

84 85
16 87

(a) Read the Latin and translate: CARTHAGO

1. Viri cum celeritate ad flumen navigabunt. 2. Milites magna Carthage oppidum in Africa erat. Romani Carthaginienses
cum diligentia in oppido laborabant. 3. Magistri cum amicitia non amabant. Romani Hannibalem, ducem Carthaginiensium
pueros spectaverunt. 4. Corpus et caput equi spectamus; equus (of the Carthaginians), timebant, quod magna cum virtfrte pugna-
cum diligentia laborat. 5. Corpora militum Romanorum magna bat. Hannibal duces Romanorum multis pugnis superaverat.
non erant. 6. Copiae Germanae in castris Romanis pugnabant. Erat homo magnae virtiitis. s
7. Fliimen latum et longum et pulchrum est. 8. Nomen fratris Tandem Romani Hannibalem et Poenos superaverunt in Italia.
mei parvi est Marcus. 9. Carmina matres puellarum delectabant. Mox ad Africam navigaverunt. Imperator Romanus, P. Corne-
10. Pueri Graeci magna cum celeritate laborant. lius Scipio nomine, Poenos in magna pugna ad Zamam superavit.
Ha_?nibal cum paucis amicis effiigit. Post hoc proelium Scipio
(b) Translate: in ltaliam rediit (returned), et magna gloria triumphavit. Postea 10
Romani Scipionem "Africanum" appellaverunt.
1. Jhe man wounded the horse's head with a long weapon.
Tertio hello contra Poenos, consules Romani in Africam
2. The good' teacher will work with great care. 3. The man's
transierunt (crossed) et Carthaginem oppugnaverunt. Scipio
body was large, but (his) head was small. 4. Why did you carry
Aemilianus erat imperator Romanus. Poeni semper nomen
the grain to the town, Marcus? 5. We shall give a new name
Scipionis timebant. Post victoriam Romani eum (him) Scipionem 15
to the great Roman consul. 6. They carried the grain across
"Africanum Minorem" appellaverunt.
the river with great speed. 7. Call the soldiers from the forest
Romani, quod Carthaginem timebant, earn (it) deleverunt (de-
into the camp, Lucius. 8. The journey was long, but the boys
walked with great speed. 9. The wound was not large, but the
small boy was unhappy. 10. The king and the lieutenant were
in the water in the river.
Auribus teneo lupum. se'deo, -e're, se'di, sessii~s.us, sit ti'meo, -e're, -ui, fear, be afraid of.
XX[[[ I hold a wolf by the ears. (session) .,,. (timid)
TERENCE te'neo, -e're, -ui, tenftus,' hold (te- vi'deo, -e're, vi'dl, vi'sus, see (visi-
nacious) ble)

64. Word Work. The stems of the verbs above show us a

The Second number of familiar English words.
Moneo gives us admonish, admonition, premonition, monitor.
Conjugation monitorial, monitory. Do you know what these words mean?
See how many words you can find associated by derivation with
the other verbs in this vocabulary, using a dictionary if you want
a large list. You will find it helpful to try various prefixes.
62. The Four Conjugations. There are in Latin four regular
conjugations of verbs. They are distinguished by the vowel 65. Imperative. The imperative of the second conjugation ends.
before -re in the present infinitive active. Their stems are all in -ein the singular and -ete in the plural: moue, monete
found in the same way as those of porto.
Pres. Ind. Pres. Inf Perf Ind. Part. Vowel
1st por'to porti're portii'vi portii'tus ii (a) Analyze each form and translate:
2d mo'neo mone're mo'nui mo'nitus e
3d dii'co dii'cere diix'i duc'tus e I. Habebam, habuit, habebunt, habueratis. 2. Videmus, vidi- .
4th au'dio audi're audi'vi audi'tus mus, videt, vidit. 3. Timebo, timuerant, monuerat, monebunt.
4. Sedebat, sederit, mansit, manet. 5. Tenebitis, tenuistis,
63. The Second Conjugation. The same rules as to stem, tense movebatis, moveras. 6. Portat, laudavi, timui, niintiavit.
sign, and personal ending are followed for forming the various 7. Paravisti, vidistis, dedi, appellabamus. 8. Times, tenuero,
indicative tenses in the second conjugation as in the first. The h.abebat, viderunt. 9. Eramus, confirmas, monet, mansimus.
present stem is moue-; the perfect stem, monu-. 10. Oppugnavit, fuit, dederat, sederimus.
In the first person singular of the present tense e of the stem
(b) Translate:
is retained before the personal ending -o, moneo, but it is short-
ened. The quantity of e corresponds to that of a in the first I. We were moving, tg,~y .rad moved, he will remain. 2. I
conjugation. Both are shortened in the third person singular shall warn, you had warned, 't~y will see. 3. We have feared,
and plural. This second conjugation is so easy that you can recite they have seen, I have. 4. We w01e"sitting, they sit, I shall have
it from the rule above without even looking at the paradigm. sat. 5. You held, you will remain, they will sit. 6. He had, you
Try it before consulting the Appendix, § 246. will have, they had had. 7. She has been, we had remained,
they are warning. 8. Will you see? will they not fear? they
VOCABULARY were not moving, were they? 9. He gave, we stood, you have
called. 10. He had announced, we shall have lived, they will save.
ha'beo, -e're, -ui, -itus, have, hold mo'neo, -e're, -ui, -itus, warn, ad-
(habit) vise (admonish) '· (c) Give synopses of the following verbs:
ma'neo, -e're, man'si, mans'iirus, mo'veo, -e're, mo'vi, mo'tus, move; I. babeo in the first person singular. 2. maneo m the third
stay, remain (permanent) (with castra) break (movable) ·
person singular. 3. video in the 'third person plural.

88 89
READING LESSON Fortes fortuna adiuvat.
XXllV Fortune favors the brave.

Coriolanus malus Roma.nus erat sed bonus miles. Romani

nuUum friimentum habebant et timebant magnam famem (fam-
ine). Rex Siciliae multum frumentum miserat (had sent) sed
Coriolanus friimentum pauperibus (the poor, <lat.) non dedit.
s Pauperes (the poor peopl e) Coriolanum ex oppido egerunt (drove).
I Third Declension
Postea Coriolanus dux Volscorum (of the Vo/scians) erat et
cum militibus Romanis pugnabat. Romanos multis pugnis
superavit. Romani dixerunt (said), "Mox Coriolanus Romam
occupabit." 66. Adjectives of the third declension are declined like nouns of
the third declension. Those ending in -er have a different form
10 Mater igitur Coriolani et uxor et filii et filiae ex oppido pro-
for each gender in the nominative singular and are called ~djec-
peraverunt. Mater dixit (said) "Paree (spare, w. <lat.) Romae,
tives of three endings: icer, acris, acre. Learn the declension of
Coriolane." Coriolanus respondit, "Romae parcam (/ will spare),
acer,§ 229.
maier. Servavisti Romam sed amisisti (you have lost) tuum
Those ending in -is have the masculine and feminine alike in
filium." Tum Coriolanus cum militibus abiit (went away) et
15 mater eum (him) numquam postea vidit.
the nominative singular and are called adjectives of two endings:
fortis forte. Learn the declension of fortis, § 230.
Those not ending in -er or -is and not of the comparative
degree have only one ending in the nominative sin~ular and ~re
called adjectives of one ending. Learn the declens1oa of potens,
§ 231.

HELPS AND HINTS. Third declemiion adjectives are really very

simple to decline. Only the nominat!ve and acc~~tive c~ses
need cause you any special thought smce the gemt1ve, dative,
md ablative, singular and plural, are alike throughout for _all
genders. The main points to re~ember ar~. that all third
declension adjectives end in -ium m the gemt1ve plural; the
nominative and accusative neuter plural end in -ia; and the
ablative singular.regularly ends in -1.

i'cer, i'cris, ii'cre, sharp, fierce bre'vis, -e, short (brevity)
(aerie!.) ; ce1er, ce1eris, ce1ere, swift, quick
au'dix (gen. audi'cis), bold, daring . (accelerate)
(audacity) ; 'fa'cilis, -e, easy (facility)

90 91
for'tis, -e, brave (fortitude) si'milis, -e, like, similar (b) Translate:
gra'vis, -e, heavy, severe (grave) Britan'nus, -a, -um, adj. British
om'nis, -e, all, every (omnibus) Gal'lus, -a, -um, adj., Gallic 1. All the boys were looking at the powerful soldier. 2. The
po'tens (gen. poten'tis), power/it! (po- Helve'tius, -a, -um, adj., Helvetian sons of the consul remained in the fields with the men. 3. The
tent) Troia'nus, -a, -um, adj., Trojan women are sitting on the ground across the river. 4. The weap-
ons of the bold lieutenant are heavy. 5. The road from our
67. Word Work. Many adjectives in this lesson form Latin
farmhouse to your town is not short. 6. The brave messenger
nouns by the ending -tis; the equivalent English ending is -ty.
warned the people about the dangers. 7. The small girls were
What English words of this sort do you know that come from
afraid of the fierce soldiers. 8. Look at the wounds on the body
these adjectives? See how many you can find.
of the horse, Father. 9. The Trojan soldiers fought with heavy
68. Ablative with Cum to Express Accompaniment. With, in swords. 10. The beautiful songs of the Trojan girls pleased the
the sense in English of "close to," "in company with," or "along Roman soldiers.
with," is expressed in Latin by the ablative with cum. This use READING LESSON
is called the ablative of accompaniment.
The boy is with his father. Poer cum patre est.
Caesar with his soldiers Caesar cum militibus oppidum In Italia erant multi servi qui (who) in liidis piiblicis pugna-
freed the town. liberavit. bant. Romani hos (these) servos gladiatores appellaverunt.
Spartacus dux gladiatorum erat. Gladiatores crebras pugnas
HELPS AND HINTS. Cum with the ablative must never be used non amabant. Cum ceteris servis et cum Spartaco duce gla-
to tell with what means or instrument an act is done. The diatores a dominis defecerunt (revolted). Magna cum celeritate s
"means" idea is expressed by the ablative without a preposition, ad Vesuvium properaverunt. Multae legiones Romanorum cum
as you have already learned, § 37.
servis pugnaverunt sed servi libertatem amaverunt et Romanos
He fights with a sword. Gladio pugnat.
But - He is fighting with a sailor. Cum nauta pugnat.
Tandem Spartacus constituit (decided) servos ex Italia educere
(to lead out). Sed servi ire nolebant (did not wish to go). Cum 10
EXERCISES Romanis igitur servi iterum pugnaverunt, sed Romani brevi
tempore superiiverunt. Crassus dux Romanorum erat et Sparta-
(a) Read the Latin and Translate: cus servorum.
I. Dux potens cum matre et patre erat. 2. Mater cum filio
forti erit. 3. Omnes Galli cum Caesare pugnabant. 4. Pater
audax cum filiabus 1 est. 5. Malus vir militem telo gravi vul-
neraverit. 6. Frater consulis tuo patri tela dabit. 7. Duces
fortes cum multis militibus oppida magna oppugnaverant.
8. lter ad oppidum est breve et magna cum celeritate ambula-
m us. 9. Multos milites in castris videbam. 10. Reges potentes
insulam in flumine spectabant. GALEA GLADIATORIA

Remember that the dative and ablative plural offilia is filiabus,

C. Give the meanings of the following:
acer facilis mox
69. Vocabulary. audax fortis omnis
brevis gravis potens
A. Give the genitive, gender, and meaning of the following nouns: celer similis
caput diligentia iter rex 70. Drill.
carmen dux mater soror A. Decline:
celeritas fl.ii.men miles tempus
consul frater nomen vulnus dux fortis flumen latum rex potens iter breve
corpus imperator pater
B. Give a synopsis with meanings of:
B. Give the principal parrs and meanings of: 1. sedeo in the second person singular
2. maneo in the third person singular
delecto moneo teneo 3. moveoin the first person plural
habeo moveo timeo 4. teneo in the second person plural
maneo sedeo video 5. video in the third person plural

94 95
2. Sorores ducis in via diii manebant.
C. Give the following forms:
3. Post proelium milites cum celeritate castra moverunt.
1. the dative singular of pater, fliimen, celer 4. Vidistine equum meum in itinere?
2. the accusative singular of rex, tempos, omnis 5. Mane in villa, frater; ad oppidum eras navigabis.
3. the ablative singular of soror, nomen, gravis 6. Captivos audaces in castris tenebamus.
4. the nominative plural of mater, caput, audax 7. Rex bonus servis peciiniam donaque dabat.
5. the genitive plural of consuJ, corpus, facilis 8. Pulchrae erant filiae nostri imperatoris.
6. the dative plural of frater, vuJnus, omnis 9. Pueri Troiani magna cum diligentia hodie laborant.
IO. Consules gladiis in proelio cum militibus pugnaverunt.
D. Translate the italicized words in these sentences:
B. Translate:
1. He is running with great speed.
2. He wounded his horse with a sword. 1. Our camp is always in a large field.
3. He is walking with a friend. 2. Have you not seen the heavy sword of the lieutenant?
4. They are sailing to the river. 3. We looked at the swift river for a long time.
5. He is giving aid to che soldier. 4. Caesar often used to fight in Gaul with the soldiers.
6. The boys are brave and good. 5. Carry all your swords to the camp now, Marcus and Lucius.
7. The girls are afraid of the general. 6. The journey from Spain to Italy is long.
8. We are friends of the consul. 7. The messenger will warn the German king about the danger
of war.
E. Translate: 8. Where did you see my friend's new horses?
9. All the soldiers in the road were large and fierce.
1. manserant 6. timebas 10. The songs of the soldiers in the Helvetian camp pleased
2. habebit 7. eritis the leaders.
3. fuerit 8. movit
4. monent 9. sedimus
5. tenuisti 10. viderint

F. Translate:
1. He will remain 6. They had had
2. You were fearing 7. You have been
3. They have moved 8. We were warning
4. We are sitting 9. You saw
5. He will have held 10. They will be

71. Exercises.
A. Translate:
I. lmperator castra nostra trans fliimen videbat.
Tempora mutantur. ero for the future perfect. The ending of the participle (-us, -a,
-um) agrees with the subject.
XXVI Times are changed.
Perfect- I have been (was) carried, etc.

port i'tus { port i'ti { su:'?us
(-a, -um) est (-ae, -a) :U*:5
The Passive Voice Pluperfect - / had been carried, etc.

port i'tus { e'~ port a"'ti- { eri'mus

e'ras eri'tis
(-a~ -um) , t (-ae, -a) ,
era e rant

Future Perfect - I shall (will) have been carried, etc.

72. The passive voice is used to show that the subject, instead port i'tus { e'~ port i'ti { e'rimus
of being the doer of the action, is acted upon. The passive voice ( e'rlS e'ritis
-a, -um) e'rit (-ae, -a) e' runt
has the following personal endings:
Conjugate portoin the feminine and neuter through the perfect,
-r -mur pluperfect, and future perfect tenses in the passive voice.
2d -ris -mini
3d -tur -ntur

The present, imperfect, and future indicative passive are formed

like the active voice, with the passive personal endings in place
of the active endings.
Present Indicative
I am (being) carried portii.'mur, we are carried
por'to r,
you are carried portii.'mini, you are carried
he is carried porta n'tur, they are carried
portii.'tur, '
Imperfect Indicative i J:{ELPS AN? ~INTS. This looks like a hard lesson, but there is
portii'ba r,
portii. bii'ris,
I was (being) carried
you were carried
portii. bii'mur,
portii. bii'mini,
we were carried
you were carried
! httle new m 1t to be learned except the passive personal endings.
Note that the vowel i does _not appear in the tense sign of
portii bii'tur, he was carried portii. ban'tur, they were carried
the first and second person smgular and third person plural
Future Indicative 1•. of the future passive.
portii.'bo r, / shall (will) be carried portii.'bimur, we shall (will) be carried ! . Notice _alsothe difference in quantity of the italicized vowels

portii'be ris, you will be carried portii bi'mini, you will be carried l m the active and passive forms which follow:

••:::·,.:::,:::gate w;!/ b< ,=;,d
porto, portor;
portat, portatur;
portibii, portibor
portibat, portibatur
Compare carefully the English translation of the active and
73. The perfect tenses in the passive are formed by combining 1. passive of each tense. Do not confuse I was carried with J was
the perfect passive participle (the last one of the principal parts) .i carrying.
with forms of sum for the perfect, eram for the pluperfect, and ,

Lu ante c(1oiautrisintra i a1bictmtltll: /
rt danfo oftio oia vatri tlti't m abfc&>ito:rt }"lt}
tuns qui vitiet i abfco11Dito rcoortnbi .0mntts i
autt nolite1nulti1logu1:f101titlmicifuriun~·J
pumnt eni:'l' in n1ultiloquiofuoe~auotitt\U'.:!,.
"l\oliteergo affunilarias.$citeni }'ltervefi<'. ;
quioopus lit vobis:4l11tcquan1 ptttttistu .Sic j
ergo vos 02abitis.~aternofterqui tsin cdis,'.t
fm1Ct1.ft,&nomentuu.Aoueniat ttgnutu~. ;r; DRILL ON VERB FORMS

~at voli'1tnstua:fiatti «lorti tmtt. ~"*t }· (a) Analyze each Latin form and translate:
\Inn ftt~fubrmtiale nobisl:ooie.ttoi,ni~ ·:~ 1. Spectantur, laudiiti sumus, pariivi. 2. Portiiberis, portatum
11obist>tbitnnoftm: fteut<J.:..,nosoin1ittttn,1st erat, portor. 3. Pugnavimus, vulnerabunt, pugnaveriimus.
ttbimrib,11oftri.s.€tne uos moua1s1n~~ ~ 4. Occupiita sunt, occupiita est, servatur. 5. Amiibimini, superati
erimus, amatae erant. 6. Vulneriitus es, vulnerabamini, exspec-
tione:feohbemnos" malo.Si n,1oi1nifentis AI
taberis. 7. Dantur, dabuntur, dedimus. 8. Data erunt, ap-
l,o,nib)pecca to;i :oi1nittrtrt vobispater pellaberis, amabuntur. 9. Convociibamur, confirmavistis,
celeftis0tlictn,'fftn1.ji autt nooin1ifmtisl~t:f vocatum erat. 10. Paravit, nuntiabitur, liberata est.
b.>:nec patervdterobnittrt\'obispecattnvfq.} (b) Translate:
Cun,autt itittnatis: nolittfim fia1t~~ ;f' 1. You will be wounded, it was being announced. 2. They
triftts. fptnnina t tni fndts fuas:ut ~rt~,t L had been called, I shall be praised. 3. She has been carried,
bo1ntbJ iriunates.-,Cn1et1
t>ICOvobis:qnta t;t:{ they have been saved. 4. He is being conquered, we were being
aptri'tt mtrantfit a. ! .
freed. 5. They will be carried, you had been praised. 6. The
fields have been seized. 7. The women have been praised.
} 8. The boys had been called. 9. The money will be given.
10. The mothers are loved.



Pater noster qui es in caelis, sanctificetur nomen tuum: ad-

Above: "PATER NOSTER" ANTIQUUS veniat regnum tuum: fiat voluntas tua sicut in caelo et in terra.
Right: STILUS ET ATRAMENTARIUM Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis hodie : et dimitte nobis
ROMANUM debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris: et ne
nos indiicas in temptationem: sed libera nos a malo .

Roma aetem1l.
HELPS AND HINTS. The verbs iubeo and debeo frequently
XXVllll Rome the eternal.
require another verb in the infinitive to complete their meaning.
The infinitive is the second principal part and is translated to-.
Examples: amare, to love; tenere, to hold.

I Second
We ought to fight. Debemus pugnire.

76. Ablative with a or ab and passive voice. With a passive

..verb, the person by whom something is done is expressed by the
ablative with i or ab. This is called the ablative of personal agent.
A or ab in this use is always translated by, not from.
74. The passive of the second conjugation is formed according
The good boy is (being) praised Puer bonus i patre
to the same rules as that of the first conjugation. See Lesson by his father. laudatur.
XXVI. The book was (being) carried Liber a magistro porta-
See if you can conjugate moneo according to the rules before by the teacher. batur.
consulting the book; then compare with § 246. The victory will be announced Victoria i niintio
by a messenger. niintiabitur.
aes'tiis, -tii'tis, f., summer iu'beo, -e're, ius'si, ius'sus, order HELPS AND HINTS. To tell the ablative of agent from the abla-
hi'ems, hi'emis, f., winter prohi'beo, -e're, -ui, -itus, prevent, tive of means, think of three words beginning with p. There
liix, lii'cis, f., light (translucent) keep ... from (prohibition) must be a passive, a preposition, and a person for an ablative
pax, pa'cis, f., peace respon'deo, -e're, -spon'di, -spon'- of agent.
sa 1iis, salii'tis, f., safety, welfare sus, reply, answer (response)
(salutary) reti'neo, -e're, -ui, -ten'tus, hold back,
vox, vo'cis, f., voice (vocal) restrain (retentive)
ter'reo, -e're, -ui, -itus, frighten, scare
de'beo, -e're, -ui, -itus, owe, ought (tenify)
do'ceo, -e're, -ui, doc'tus, show, teach
(a) Analyze each form and translate:
(doctor) 1. Habet, monemur, datur. 2. Visae sunt, viderunt, reti-
3. Tenetur, tenebatur, retinuerant. 4. Movi, motus
7S. Word Work. Adjectives are formed from nouns and other
_,est, movebitur. 5. Habebit, timebas, servaveris. 6. Movit,
adjectives by adding different endings called suffixes.
vidit, dedit. 7. Timueramus, moti eramus, moverint. 8. Move-
Thus Rominus is formed by adding to Rom-, the base of Roma,
. buntur, datum est, moniti sumus. 9. Vulnerati eratis, liberabi-
the suffix -inus (which means pertaining to). The equivalent
tur, vocata eris. 10. Fuerant, era tis, fuimus.
English ending is -an (Roman).
Show how the following adjectives were formed: (b) Translate:
veterinus 1. You were seen, they will be held. 2. He had been held,
Troiinus . I am moved. 3. They will have ijeen warned, she was terrified.

102 103
4. He has been prevented, it has been held back. 5. You are
ordered, they were being shown. 6. He had been seen, he will be
restrained. 7. They are moved, she has been warned. 8. He
will be saved, I shall be called. 9. They were freed, we were
moved. 10. He is terrified, you have been conquered.


(a) Read the Latin and translate:

1. De periculo hiemis in Gallia ab amico bona morieberis.
2. Milites ex portis castr6rum magna cum celeritate a nfmti6
vocabantur. 3. Copiae Romanae bellum paraverunt et multa
oppida Galliae occupaverunt. 4. Novi nfmtii a ducibus vide-
bantur. 5. Roma a Gallis difl oppugnata erat. 6. Puellae a
pueris in equis territae sunt. 7. Tuam filiam a flumine retinere
debemus. 8. Milites in castris manere iussi sunt. 9. Multa
oppida pulchra in Hispania a nostris amicis visa sunt. 10. Hiemes
in Gallia breves sunt.

(b) Translate:
I. They wounded many soldiers with weapons and saved
Rome. 2. Many large towns had been seized by the forces of
the Roman consul. 3. The dangers of a winter in camp were
reported to the Roman soldiers. 4. The German camp was
seen by the brave lieutenant. 5. The general had been warned
about the water in the river. 6. Order your men to walk with
great speed, lieutenant. 7. Now I shall give the signal for battle
with my trumpet. 8. The horse in the field was frightened by the
voices of the farmers. 9. The king's sisters were carried by a
wagon across the river. 10. The farmer's daughter was waiting
for (her) mother in the farmhouse.


106 107
READING LESSON auxilium exspectatur. Galli antea superati sunt, et iterum super-
abuntur. Nunc ad portas nostras properant. Magnum est
Dux MiLITIBUS periculum, sed fortiina etiam est magna. Proelium a patribus
"Castra nostra mox a Gallis oppugnabuntur. Copiae hostium et liberis spectabitur. Brevi tempore, si fortiter pugnaveritis,
convocatae sunt, et per silvas cum celeritate iter facere iubentur. victoria a nuntio omnibus finitimis nostris nuntiabitur.
Litterae ad nostros amicos a me mittuntur (is being sent), et "Nunc signum datur; pugnate pro patria et pro deis!"


E pluribus uoum. Sici'lia, -ae, f., Sicily o'lim, adv., formerly, once upon a
· Tro'ia, -ae, f., Troy time
XXV[lI[ Out of many, one.
quod, conj., because
at'que, conj., and si, conj., if (with the future or future
aut, conj ., or perfect to show implied future

I Numerals
aut ... aut, either ... or



The conjunctions et, "and," and et .. . et,

"both ... and," express simple connection; -que, "and," ex-
presses a closer connection; atque (or ac), "and also," expresses
a close connection, and usually makes that which follows
slightly more important.
77. Numerals. The basic numerals are:
78. Word Work. The numerals furnish English with many
I. ii'nus, -a, -um (unit) 8. oc'to (octagon) derived words, particularly in music. Explain the derivation
2. du'o, du'ae, du'o (dual) 9. no'vem (November) and meaning of each of the following: duet, trio, quartet, sextet,
3. tres (m. and f), tri'a (n.) 10. de'cem (December) octet, octave.
(triangle) l I. iin'decim
4. quat'tuor 12. duo'decim (duodecimal)
5. quin'que (quinquennial) 20. vigin'ti
6. sex (sexennial) 100. cen'tum (centennial) EXERCISES
7. sep'tem (September) 1000. mille (millennium)
(a) Read the Latin and translate:
pri'mus,.first (prime) sex'tus (se~tant) 1. Decem viri captivi post victoriam tenebantur. 2. Pugna
secwt'dus, second (secondary) sep'timus (septet) erat acris et copiae Germanae superatae sunt. 3. Quinque pueri
ter'tius, third (tertiary) octi'vus (octave)
quar'tus (quarter) no'nus (nonagenarian)
et quattuor puellae per agros ambulabant. 4. Propter iniurias
quin'tus (quintet) de'cimus (decimal) regis cum populo Siciliae pugnabant. 5. Duo oppida magna a
occupabuntur. 6. Si in Helvetia pugnabimus, copias
(a) The cardinals from quattuor,.four, to centum, one hundred, Helvetias superabimus. 7. Novem servi ad villam agricolae
inclusive, are indeclinable. Onus, duo, treshave some irregular ambulabant. 8. Populus Britannus in silvis agrisque olim habi-
forms. For the present we shall use only the forms here given. tabat. 9. Regem et reginam laudamus quod populum amant.
Like any adjective they agree with the noun they modify .. 10. Magna cena in nostra mensa est.
(b) The ordinals are declined like magnus and agree with the
noun in gender, number, and case. (b) Translate:
VOCABULARY 1. We saw eight little German boys in the large town .
ce'na, -ae, f., dinner sel'la, -ae, f., chair · 2. The camp of the German troops was occupied by the Roman
fenes'tra, -ae, f., window victo'ria, -ae, f., victory soldiers. 3. We like the queen of Sicily but we do not like the
iniii'ria, -ae, f., wrong, injury Britan'nia, -ae, f., Britain
.__king. 4. After the victories in Europe our soldiers ought to
men'sa, -ae, f., table Grae'cia, -ae, f., Greece
Helve'tia, -ae, f., Switzerland _;,.remain in our country. 5. Twenty horses were seen in the
pug'oa, -ae, f., fight

108 109
farmer's fields. 6. The boys were ordered by the general to
stay in the town. 7. The lands will be guarded by the consul's
forces. 8. The farmer's life is not unhappy, because he has large
fields and much money. 9. A thousand soldiers were ordered
to break camp and move the heavy baggage across the river. qui ad Etriiscos pertinebat. Horatius ad extremam partem
I 0. There are many chairs near the window in our farmhouse. (end) pontis processit atque ibi constitit. Solus multos hostes
READING LESSON Etriisci magna vi (violence, abl.) in Horatium pugnant.
HORATIUS COCLES Friistrii pugnant. Minas adhibent. Sed neque minis nee telis 10
virum terrent. £ proelio excedere coacti sunt. Interim a tergo
Porsena, rex Etriiscorum, cum Romanis bellum gerebat. pons interscissus erat (cut down). Tum Horatius armatus, ut
Castra trans flumen Tiberim posuerat, et urbem Romam multis (as) erat, ad Romanos incolumis triinavit.
militibus obsidebat. Horatio pars agri piiblici satis ampla a Romanis lege data est,
Erat apud Romanos vir fortis, Horatius nomine, Codes ap- quod per virtutem .ac natiiram egregiam viri dignitas populi 15
pellatus (called), quod oculum amiserat. In flumine pons erat, . Romani servata erat, nee Romani in servitiitem redigebantur.

110 111
Ignis fatuus. gens, gen'tis, f., tribe, nation mors, mor'tis, f., death (mortal)
XX][X Will o' the wisp. bos'tis, -is, m., an enemy; hos'tes, ni'vis, -is, f., ship (navy)
-ium, the enemy (hostile) pi'nis, -is, m., bread
ig'nis, -is, m.,fire (ignite) pons, pon'tis, m., bridge

ma're, -is, n., sea (marine) urbs, ur'bis, f., city (urban)
mons, mon'tis, m., mountain, high
Third Declension: hill (mountain)

I-Stems 81. Declension of I-Stems

Hos'tis, m., enemy Ma're, n., sea


79. Third declension nouns which have i before, or in place of, Norn. hos't is ma're is (e)
the vowel of certain endings are called i-stems. Gen. hos't is ma'ris is is
Dat. hos't i ma'ri
In the first declension we noticed that a seemed the predomi- Acc. hos'tem ma're em (e)
nant vowel; in the second, o. So we speak regularly of the a- Ahl. hos't e ma'ri e
declension and the o-declension and we say their stems end in a PLURAL
and o. Similarly we speak of the third declension as the conso- Norn. hos't es ma'ria es ia
nant or i-declension, because its stems end in a consonant or in i. Gen. hos'tium ma'rium ium ium
In the consonant stems which we have studied so far the stem is Dat. hos't ibus ma'ribus ibus ibus
Acc. hos'tes ma'ria es ia
just like the base. We are now to study i-stems. Their stem is Ahl. hos't ibus ma'ribus ibus ibus
made by adding i to the base.

80. I-Stems include the following: HELPS AND HINTS. Originally the accusative singular of mas-
1. Masculines and feminines which end in -es and -is, and have culine and feminine i-stems ended in -im, the ablative singular
in -i, and the accusative plural in -is; but these endings have
the same number of syllables in the genitive as in the nomina- been largely displaced by -em, -e, and -es. The accusative
tive: caedes, slaughter; finis, end. 2. Nouns which end in -ns ending -is is not used in this book.
and -rs and monosyllables whose base ends in two consonants:· The distinctive feature of i-stems is -ium in the genitive plural.
mens, mind; pars, part; nox (base, noct-), night. This is common to all i- stems.
These all (1 and 2) end in -e in the ablative singular, -ium in the
genitive plural, and -es in the accusative plural.
3. Neuters ending in -e, -al, or -ar.
These end in -i in the ablative singular, -ium in the genitive
plural, and in -ia in the nominative and accusative plural.

a 'nimal, -i'lis, n., animal fi'nis, -is, m., end; plural, territory
ci'vis, -is, m. and f., citizen (civic) (final)

82. Word Work. With the help of the vocabulary explain what lorum, quod longe a provincia Romana sunt. Etiam sunt proximi
is meant by the italicized words in the sentences below: Germanis, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum (with whom)
saepe pugnant. Helvetii quoque sunt audaces, quod proeliis s
This was the final battle. The men were hostile. Gasoline
cotidianis (daily) cum Germanis contendunt.
ignites readily. He planned an itinerary for his summer vacation.
Ripae fluminis Rheni sunt altae. Id flumen agros Belgarum a
:Vlarine life is exhibited in the aquarium. Urban recreation is
Germanis dividit; etiam agros Helvetiorum. Flumen Garumna
different from that in the country.
(Garonne) Gallos ab Aquitanis dividit. Et Matrona (the Marne)
/vlountain comes from the Latin by way of the French and a et Sequana (the Seine) Gallosa Belgis dividunt. 10
" la,e Latin" word but is originally descended from moos. Adapted from Caesar


(a) Read the Latin and translate:

1. Multa animalia in ma ri fuerunt. 2. In finibus Britannis
aestates sunt longae. 3. Urbem hostium igne oppugnaverunt.
4. Milites tela a portis urbis portabunt. 5. lgnes in finibus
hostium a montibus ad mare visi erant. 6. Erunt semper memo-
riae victoriae Caesaris in Gallia. 7. Pons in flumine ab agro ad
urbem erat. 8. Marcus cives omnes in urbem saepe convocabat.
9. Trans maria itinera semper longa sunt. 10. Panis in mensa
ad fenestram erat .
(b) Translate:
l. Did you see the fires on the mountain? 2. Many ships on
th e sea were sailing to the island. 3. In the enemy's camp were
r A E
many German citizens. 4. In battle there is always the danger A L
of death. 5. The mountains in Switzerland are high and beauti-
ful. 6. The ships were being moved through the water toward
the land. 7. On the bridge was a soldier with four friends.
S. The horse is a good and friendly animal. 9. There was a
beautiful city in the territory of the Trojans. 10. A long bridge
was seen by our messengers in Germany.


Gallia est divisa in tres partes. Belgae flnam partem, Aquitani

aliam, Celtae tertiam incolunt. Belgae sunt fortissimi Gal-

114 115
5. the nominative plural of bostis, hiems, omnis
XXX 6. the genitive plural of ignis, pons, animal
7. the dative plural of aestis, vox, gravis

8. the accusative plural of liix, mare, iter

B. Give a synopsis of doceo in the third person singular, active

Review and passive, with meanings.
C. Translate:
I. prohibebatur 6. terrebimur
2. tenuistis 7. iussus est respondere
83. Vocabulary. 3. mota est 8. debent videre
A. Give the genitive, gender, and meanings of the following 4. mansimus 9. retenti erant
5. moniti erunt 10. docuero
aestii.s hiems mensa · pons D. Translate:
animal hostis mons pugna
mors salus 1. we are terrified 6. she has had
cena ignis
navis sella 2. they will be seen 7. we have been
civis iniuria
panis urbs 3. he had feared 8. they owed
fenestra lux
pii.x victoria 4. she has been warned 9. he ought to teach
finis mare
vox 5. you will be moved I 0. we were ordered to fight
B. Give the principal parts and meanings of: E. Translate the italicized words:
debeo iubeo retineo I. They gave money to the citizen.
doceo prohibeo terreo 2. He was killed by a soldier.
respondeo 3. He was struck by a weapon.
4. I ran with great speed.
C. Give the cardinal numbers from 1 to 12, and 20 and 100.
5. He ran with the boys.
D . Give the ordinal numbers from 1 to 10.
6. They will go home after the war.
E. Give the meanings of:
7. They played behind the camp.
atque aut olim quod si 8. Caesar's troops fought bravely.

84. Drill. F. Which of the following nouns are i-stems:

A. Give the following forms: 1. collis, collis, m. 6. mensis, men sis, m.
l. the genitive singular of gens, orbs, celer 2. sol, solis, m. 7. pars, partis, f.
2. the dative singular of pons, mare, lii.x 3. mens, mentis, f. 8. Hix, liicis, f.
3. the accusative singular of moos, ca put, potens 4. opus, operis, n. 9. agmen, agminis, n.
4. the ablative singular of piinis, mare, facilis 5. insigne, insignis, n. 10. classis, classis, f.

116 117
G. Give the following imperatives: Montani semper liberi.
(in the singular) moneo, iubeo, demonstro XXXJ[ Mountaineers are always free.
(in the plural) doceo, video, narro

85. Exercises.
A. Translate:
l. Multae naves ad fines hostium navigabant.
I The Third
2. Mors imperatoris militibus miseris a legato nfmtiata est.
3. Cives fortes in pugna cum militibus diii manebant. ·.1

4. Gens Romana magna cum diligentia semper laborabat.

5. Caesar cives de periculis hiemis monuerat. 86. Third conjugation verbs end in -ere in the present infinitive.
6. Nautae fortes in navibvs manere iussi erant. The principal parts of diico, / lead, are: dii'co, dii'cere, diix'i,
7. Vide ignes, Luci, in monte et in silvis. duc'tus. The tense stems are: present stem, diice-; perfect stem,
8. Pons longus a pueris fortibus visus est. diix-; participial stem, duct-.
9. Montes in Italia non alti sed pulchri sunt. The tenses are formed as shown below. Note especially the
I 0. Ob inopiam panis nautae in oppido non manebant. absence of -b- in the future. The -b- is used as a tense sign only
in the first and the second conjugations.
B. Translate:
Indicative Active
1. The great victory of our sailors will be reported to the citi-
2. Carry your fire to the cities of the enemy, soldiers. dii'c o I lead dii'ci mus
3. The wretched animals were sitting in the streets of the town. dii'ci s dii'ci tis
dii'ci t dii'cu nt
4. Five or six boys were seen on the large ship.
5. With the brave lieutenant were the two bold consuls. IMPERFECT

6. There is a long road from my town to your city. diice'ba m I was leading diiceba'mus
diice'ba s diiceba 'tis
7. The cities were being attacked by many citizens with (their) diice'ba t diice'ba nt
8. Many ships were seen on the river under the wide bridge.
dii'ca m I shall (will) lead diice'mus
9. The punishment of the unfriendly tribes will be severe. du'ce s diice'tis
10. The signal was given; then the soldiers were ordered to dii'ce t dii'ce nt
attack the enemy's camp.
di'co, -ere, dix'i, dic'tus, say, tell carry on; with helium, wage war
(diction) (dig~stion)
dii'co, -ere, diix'i, duc'tus, lead (via- mit'to, -ere, mi'si, mis'sus, send
duct) : (transmission)
ge'ro, ge'rere, ges'si, ges'tus, bear,


pe'to, -ere, peti'vi, peti'tus, ask, scribo, -ere, scrip' si, scrip'tus, write
seek, beg (petition) (transcribe) HELPSAND HINTS. The imperative of the third conjugation
po'no, -ere, po'sui, po'situs, put, vin'co, -ere, vi'ci, vic'tus, defeat, regularly ends in -e in the singular and -ite in the plural. Ex-
place; with castra, pitch camp conquer (victor) amples: vince, vincite. However, dlco and diico in this lesson,
(position) and facio and fero in later lessons, drop the e in the singular
(die, diic, fac, fer). Fero also drops the i in the plural (ferte).
87. Word Work. This vocabulary illustrates how prefixes may
be used with a Latin verb to form compounds. Knowing the
meanings of prefixes and of common Latin verbs often helps you
to reason out the meaning of an unfamiliar English word.
English derivatives are obtained both from the present and par-e CINCINNATUS
ticipial stems, diice- and duct-. Examples: adduce, deduce, educe,
induce, introduce, produce, reduce. Look up the meanings of any Romani cum suis finitimis semper bellum gerebant. Olim
of these words you do not know; then see how many English verbs milites Romani diicebantur a consule imperito (inexperienced)
you can find ending in -duct and English nouns ending in -duction et in valle inter montes ab hostibus circumcliisi sunt (were sur-
and -ductor. rounded). Quinque autem equites effiigerunt (escaped) et Romam
Make lists of compounds derived from present and participial (to Rome) properaverunt. Hi (these) niintii Romanis dixerunt: s
stems of mitto. "Si ad consulem auxilium non mittetis, consul et milites eius (his)
From vinco, you will find convince from the present stem, and .vincentur."
victorious and victory from the participial stem. Study also tran- Romani iinum virum, peritum ducem, habebant, quern (whom)
scribe and scripture. statim vocaverunt. Cincinnatus in agris arabat sed statim
Romam cum niintiis properavit. Ibi milites cibumque coegit 10
(he collected) et solis occasii (at sunset) copias ex urbe ediixit .
DRILL ON VERB FORMS Per noct.em iter non intermittit et prima liice habet omnes
hostes .'ig.ter copias Romanorum. Hastes timent et arma depo-
(a) Analyze each Latin form and translate: ..nunt. Tum Cincinnatus hostes sub iugum (under the yoke) misit,
- 1. Diicent, diicit, ducitis. 2. Mittimus, mittebat, mittam. quod (which) magna contumelia erat. 15
3. Petes, poms, petebant. 4. Vincimus, vincemus, vincis. Mox Cincinnatus suos milites rediixit et Romani ei (to him)
5. Gerunt, scribit, petitis. 6. Ponebas, diicunt, vincet. 7. Scri- magnum triumphum decreverunt (decreed). Celeriter autem
bere, peto, mittere. 8. Vincebam, dicetis, diicebatis. 9. Bellum · Cincinnatus imperium dictatoris deposuit et dornum (home)
gerent. 10. Castra ponebant. rediit (returned). Egregius sed modestus vir erat et suam villam
et agros magis (more) quam magnos honores arnabat. 20
(b) Translate:
1. We shall place, they were wntmg. 2. I shall lead, they HELPSAND HtNTS. This story contains some reasoning tests.
will ask. 3. You send, he was sending. 4. We are placing, he There are .several third conjugation verbs in the perfect active
will conquer. 5. We are writing, you will say. 6. I was sending, and passive. As they are formed like the first and second con-
1 jugations, see if you can reason them out from the principal parts.
we were defeating. 7. He is begging, you will write. 8. She is ·
If necessary, you may refer to the sample conjugation of diico in
sending, they carry on. 9. We shall pitch camp. 10. They are
the Appendix.
waging war.

120 121
Cedant arma togae.
XXXJIJI Let arms yield to the toga.

I Third Conjugation:
Perfect Tenses

88. Third Conjugation, Perfect Tenses. Following the rules

in § 45 and § 47, conjugate diico through the perfect, pluperfect,
and future perfect active. Compare with § 247.

a'go, -ere, e'gi, ic'tus, do, drive e'do, e'dere, e'di, e'sus, eat (edible)
(transact) re'go, -ere, rex'i, rec'tus, rule (re-
bi'bo, -ere, bi'bl, bi'bitus, drink (im- gent)
bibe) relin'quo, -ere, reli'qui, relic'tus,
co'go, -ere, coe'gi, coic'tus, compel, leave (relinquish)
collect (cogent) sur'go, -ere, surrex'i, surrectii'rus,
cur'ro, -ere, cucur'ri, cursii'rus, run rise, stand up (resurgent)
(current) tri'do, -ere, tri'didi, tri'ditus, hand
defeo'do, -ere, defeo'di, defen'sus, over, hand down, surrender (tradi-
defend (defense) tion)

89. Word Work. By now you should be able to understand

more clearly the meaning of the following expressions. If you
do not know their meaning, look them up in your English dic-
The sailboat had an auxiliary engine. The glass is translucent.
The matter is of prime importance. The boys were foolishly scrib-
bling. He was conscripted. His argument is not defensible. They
relinquished their seats. The goods were transported by sea. lt
was a c()gent argument for peace. There was a mild insurrection.


HELPS AND HINTS. Note that the future active participle is
given as the fourth principal part of intransitive verb s, cursiirus.
(a) Read the Latin and translate:
1. Marcus, noster dux, militem miserum defenderat. 2. Ciir
90. Apposition. A noun in apposition with another noun or cives Romani ad socios trans mare auxilium non miserunt?
with a pronoun agrees with it in case. The noun in apposition 3. Caesar, imperator, oppidum post primam victoriam reliquit.
aiways refers to the same person or thing as the noun or pro- 4. Caesaris milites hostes in Germania et Gallia vicerunt. 5. Lu-
noun to which it applies. The appositive (underlined in the dovicus, rex Germaniae, multas et longas litteras ad copias
sentence below) follows the noun to which it refers. scripsit. 6. Cur ex oppido trans flflmina cum auxiliis copias
The boy loves his sister Julia. Puer sororem liiliam amat. moverant? 7. Pueri magna cum celeritate ab nautis inimicis
cucurrerunt. 8. In finibus Britannorum rex potens regebat.
ORI LL ON VERB FORMS 9. Dux cum militibus Quintum, fratrem consulis, defenderat.
10. Milites in castris panem edebant et aquam bibebant.
(a) Analyze the form, and translate:
(b) Translate:
1. Tradidi, cucurrerat, egit. 2. Reliqui, rexerit, coeg1mus.
3. Defendisti, surrexerint, egerat. 4. Surget, defendemus, cogit. 1. Our leader, Lucius, sent aid to the troops with great speed.
5. Surgite, rexit, coegerat. 6. Vicisti, duxi, petiverit. 7. Gessit, 2. Our men will not leave the town, but they will defend the
dixerunt, duxerant. 8. Currere, curre, tradent. 9. Misimus, fatherland. 3. Why have they left the auxiliary forces across
mittimus, posueras. 10. Tradit, relinquent, agebat. the river with the new troops? 4. I shall write letters and send
(them) to our friends across the province. 5. Why did the
(b) Translate:
general leave the soldiers behind the camp? 6. Ten men left
1. We shall have ruled, he had left. 2. You have defended, the battle and were seen by the lieutenant. 7. The soldiers and
I handed over. 3. He has run, we have compelled. 4. He said, sailors were writing letters to (their) friends in the city. 8. The
we rose. 5. Run! he did write. 6. To hand over, he collected. citizens gave the money to Marcus and he will send (it) to the
7. He had asked, you will rule. 8. I shall defend, ihey drive. people in Spain. 9. Stand up, men and women; I see the horses
9. You will have written, we had sent. 10. Did he run? are of the king and the queen. 10. The good farmer was eating
they not placing? dinner in a chair near the table.

Vigilia pretium libertatis.
XXXJrJlJI Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty.

I The Demonstratives
Is, Hie, and Ille

91. The demonstratives point out a person or an object; they

are used as either adjectives or pronouns. As adjectives they
READING LESSON agree with and modify nouns: is puer, that boy. As pronouns
they are used alone: video eum, / see him.
Always observe the demonstratives carefully to see whether
Erat in agro arbor, in qua (on which) poma multa erant. Puer they are used as adjectives or alone as pronouns.
poma vidit. Prima like in arborem ascendit et duo poma ab
is, ea, id, this, that; he, she, it; plural, these, those, they
arbore edebat. lam ex arbore eum descendere oportuit et ab
-agro discedere; sed agricola, qui puerum viderat, magnum canem SINGULAR PLURAL

s in agrum duxit. MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.

Tum puer perterritus (thoroughly frightened) magno clamore Norn. is e'a id ·e'i e'ae e'a
locum complevit; sed auxilium af uit (was not at hand). Agricola Gen. e'ius e'ius e'ius eo'rum ei'rum eo'rum
Dat. e'i e'i e'i e'is e,-IS e'is
appropinquavit et puerum ita monuit: "Poma non tua sunt. Acc. e'um e'am id e'iis e'is e'a
Cur poma aliena ab arbore removebas? Non aequum erat. Fur Ahl. e'o e'i e'o e,-IS e,-IS e,-IS
10 es, et canis fures mordebit. Bonus puer esse debes." Tum puer
exclamat: "Numquam iterum fur ero. Nunc canem ex agro HELPS AND HINTS. The declension of is, beginning with the
educ (lead out)." ablative singular, is exactly the same as that of magnus, with
Agricola risit (laughed) et canem abdiixit. Puer incolumis the endings added to e- as a base.
relictus est, et poma non edit. Bonum consilium agricolae Note that the genitive singular forms are the same throughout,
also the dative singular. Just learn these and the nominative
1s memoria tenuit neque postea ab arbore eius (his) poma removit.
and accusative singular; there is nothing else new here.

HELPSAND HINTS. Oportuit means it was necessary; it is an

impersonal verb, i.e., a verb used only in .the third person · 92. The demonstratives hie and ille are often called demonstra-
singular, without a personal subject. Here the infinitives de- tives of the first and third persons, respectively; they are used
scendere and discedere form the subject of oportuit. Eum in as either adjectives or pronouns: • hie, this (near the speaker);
turn is the subject of the infinitives. The literal sense is, for ille, that (remote from both speaker and the person addressed).
him to climb down was necessary.
Learn the declension of hie and µle, § 241.

126 127
HELPS AND HINTS. When his, her, its, and their do not refer
aucto'ritis, -ti'tis, f., authority, in- libertas, -ta'tis, f., freedom, liberty to the subject, use eius, or eorum, earum.
fluence, prestige pe' des, -itis, m., foot soldier; plural, Hie and ille are sometimes used to mean "the latter" and
a'vis, avis, m. or f., bird (aviary) infantry (pedestrian) "the former," respectively. Hie refers to the nearer noun,
ca'nis, canis, m. or f., dog (canine) "the latter," ille to the more remote, "the former."
cla'mor, cliimo'ris, m., noise, shout hie, haec, hoc, this The Gauls and the Romans were Galli et Romani pugnabant; hi
e' ques, -itis, m., horseman, knight; H'le, il'la, il'lud, rhat fighting; the latter conquered. superiiverunt.
plural, cavalry (equestrian) is, e'a, id, this, that; he, she, it

93. Word Work. Note carefully the derived English words to .

help you to distinguish between the following:
to set free (liberate) (a) Give the case and translate:
libero, -are, -avi, -atus,
liber, -era, -erum, free (liberal)
1. huius peditis. 2. illius navis. 3. cum eo animali. 4. ab
libertis, -atis, freedom (liberty)
eis ducibus. 5. horum montium. 6. ad illos cives. 7. eae puel-
liber, libri, book
lae. 8. sub illo ponte. 9. ad haec fliimina. 10. cum eis amicis.
(b) Translate:
1. this horseman. 2. of that city. 3. with these soldiers.
{ A. to that island. 5. under this road. 6. by means of these
· swords. 7. this fire. 8. by this foot soldier. 9. of these citizens.
,?10. those wounds.
94. Ablative of Time. Time when, or within which, is ex-
' pressed by the ablative without a preposition.
They werefighting at the tenth hour. Decimi hora pugniibant.
Many towns were stormed in one Multa oppida iino anno
year. oppugniita sunt.
Within five years. Quinque annls.

(a) Read the Latin and translate:
1. Cives huius oppidi captivos ad regem diicebant. 2. Hae
naves magnae sunt; illae sunt parvae. 3. Copiae Romanae cum
;, illis hostibus aestate diii pugnaverant. 4. Mittite has epistulas
'ad vestros amicos, cives. 5. Nostri equites multis proeliis equites
:,hostium vicerunt. 6. Ei equi m~gna cum celeritate ex agro in
;;-. ~iam currebant. 7. Ille rex bonus omnibus servis libertatem hoc
f Anno dedit. 8. Patriam nostram magna cum audacia defendemus.
128 129
9. lnopia friimenti multos c1ves urbem relinquere coegit. Putatisne fabulam de hoc augurio veram esse? Nonne milites,
10. Canis niger sub mensa ad fenestram aquam bibebat. imperatore interfecto (if their leader has been killed), semper
fortius (more bravely) pugnant?
(b) Translate:
DECIUS CONSUL (Painting by Rubens)
1. The general told the people about the victory of the cavalry
in Germany. 2. These boys were running down from the moun-
tain at the tenth hour. 3. The noise of the trumpets frightened
the horses in battle. 4. The friendly king ruled the people of
that kingdom for a long time. 5. Our infantry and cavalry waged
war with a powerful enemy in Spain. 6. This little girl is writing
a letter to (her) brother in Britain. 7. Freedom was given to
those captives by the Roman lieutenant. 8. The enemy sur-
rendered (its) arms to our infantry at the seventh hour. 9. Were
you frightened by the noise of the wagons in the street? 10. Many
white birds were flying toward the small island.



Samnites (The Samnites) finitimi Romanorum erant et cum

eis saepe bellum gerebant. Decius, consul Roma.nus, in quodam
(a certain) hello militibus Romanis praeerat (was in command
of, w. dat.). Ante proelium augures Romani praedixerunt deos
5 (that the gods) victoriam eis daturos esse (would give) quorum
imperator suam vitam pro patria primus dedisset (gave).
Decio hoc augurium niintiatum est. Cum primum (as soon
as) signum proeli datum est, in medios hostes incurrit (rushed),
et a Samnitibus mox interfectus est (was killed).
10 Tum milites Romani, elati (encouraged) hoc exemplo, fortiter
in hostes contenderunt. Diii et iicriter pugniitum est. Tandem
autem Romani hostes (obj.) vicerunt et Decius non friistra mor-
tuus est (did not die).
In historia Romana sunt multa exempla militum qui pro patria
1s suam vitam dederunt. Eorum factis Roma magno periculo saepe
liberata est.

130 131
Veritas vos liberabit. VOCABULARY
XXX[V The truth shall make you free.
iii'dex, -icis, m.,judge (judicial) ego, pronoun, /
la'pis, -idis, m., stone nos, pronoun, we
le'gio, -io'nis, f., legion tii, pronoun, you (sing.)

I Personal Pronouns
nox, noc'tis, f., night (nocturne)
prin'ceps, -ipis, m., chief (principal)


vos, pronoun, you (pl.)

The preposition cum is always appended

to the ablative of personal and reflexive pronouns; it is usually
appended to the ablative of relative and interrogative pronouns.
Notice the order of personal pronouns in Latin: first, second,
third. The personal pronoun as subject is expressed only when
95. The Personal Pronouns. The personal pronouns are ego
there is emphasis or contrast.
for the first person and tii for the second. The personal pronoun
of the third person is supplied by the demonstrative is.
SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL 96. Word Work. The following words of the third declension
Norn. e'go, J nos, we tii, you vos, you have the same form in English and Latin:
{nos'trum {ves'trum
Gen. me'i tu'i
ves'tri animal, apex, arbor, ardor, axis, basis, candor, censor, cognomen,
no'bis ti'bi vo'bis color, competitor, consul, dictator, error, favor, finis, furor, genus,
Dat. mi'hi
me nos te VOS gladiator, honor, horror, interior, janitor, labor, languor, liquor,
Ahl. me no'bis te vo'bis major, minor, multiplex, odor, omen, onus, opus, orator, pallor,
pastor, posterior, prior, ratio, senator, senior, speculator, splendor,
superior, tutor, ulterior, vapor, vertex, victor, vigor


(a) Translate the italicized words:

1. Eius amici navigabant. 2. Ad urbem mecum ambulabant.
3. Eorum princeps diicebat. . . . 4. Librum eis dedit. 5. Te ad
oppidum ducam.... 6. Cum eis ambulabo. 7. Id vobis dede-
runt. . . . 8. Me et te videbat. 9. Vobiscum currebat ....
10. Ego tibi don um dabam.
(b) Translate the italicized words:
1. Give the book to me.2. He saw us. 3. Their friends came
4. We looked at him. 5. I gave to you (pi.). 6. We
were seen by them. 1. His horse fell. 8. I can go with you
9. I gave the money to him. 10. He was walking with

132 133

(a) Read the Latin and translate:

I. Princeps me vidit et mihi gladium dedit. 2. Milites deci- ; j
mae legionis a Caesare amabantur. 3. Nocte noster princeps tj ~
legionem ad montem duxit. 4. Amici iudicis te et tuos fratres ' ··.·.·..~?.t·./, ·
vocabant. 5. Mihi libertatem da, domine; servus miser sum.
6. Eorum equi in nostros agros currebant. 7. lllae puellae
nobiscum ad flumen ambulabant . 8. Princeps legionem oc-

tavam cum multis equitibus ad castra duxit. 9. Clamor tubae me ! ;;J

et meam sororem terrebat. 10. Eius frater mihi pecuniam dabit. ! ;]
(b) Translate: I\J
l. The chief left the foot soldiers in the camp and led the j ·~
ca val? to battle .. 2. T~e tenth legion fought :"ell in Gaul _for a j j
long time. 3. Will he give a present to the chief? 4. The Judge I fl
was walking with my father and mother. 5. The enemy will ! /I
surrender to us (their) arms and horses. 6. His sister was friendly f L~
to the sailors but they did not like her. 7. In summer we shall J
send our sons to Italy. 8. Within five years you will see many Ji
Spanish chiefs in this country. 9. He has written a letter to her, ·;
b~t he did n~t send it. 10. At night many fires were seen on that! J
high mountam. 1 '.i

L:~:N 1;
Olim erat Romae (at Rome) servus qui (who) Androclus ap- ·'
pellatus est. Memoria tenetis liidos (games) Romanos. ,i
Hidis gladiatores et servi pugnabant inter se (with each other) et it
interdum cum animalibus. Androclus erat servus et in arenam ]''
s missus est (was sent). In arena erat leo magnus. Androclus
leonem vidit et timuit, sed leo Androclo non nocuit (did not .;i
harm, w. dat.). Leo Androclum memoria tenebat quod Andro-
clus spinam ex pede leonis in desertis locis (the desert) olim
extraxerat (had drawn out). Romani attoniti (astonished) erant
10 quod Androclus salvus erat. Leo igitur Androclo datus est et
Androclus a domino liberatus est.

5. the nominative plural of hie, pedes, animal
XXXV 6. the genitive plural of vos, is, gens, canis
7. the dative plural of nos, is, orbs
8. the accusative plural of hie, rmis, tempos

B. Give the following synopses, with meanings:

Review 1. mitto in the first person plural, active only.
2. pono in the second person plural, active only.
3. videoin the third person plural, active and passive.

97. Vocabulary. C. Translate:

A. Give the genitive, gender, and meaning of the following nouns: 1. curretis 6. dixero
2. cogebas 7. bibam
auctoritas eques libertas 3. regunt 8. surgis
avis iiidex nox 4. tradiderat 9. cucurrit
canis lapis pedes 5. petivisti 10. gesseramus
clamor legio princeps
D. Translate:
B. Give the principal parts and meanings of the following verbs:
1. we shall rule 6. he has risen
ago edo rego 2. he has defended 7. we were placing
bibo duco relinquo 3. they lead 8. they will seek
cogo gero scribo 4. you had left 9. you are handing over
curro mitto surgo 5. I have conquered 10. she has eaten
defendo peto trado
dico pono vinco E. Translate the italicized words:
1. I saw his brother. 6. I was walking with them.
C. Give the meanings of:
2. He went with me. 7. He took those books.
ego ille tii 3. Come to us. 8. Have you seen him?
hie is VOS 4. He and I knew her. 9. I went with her.
nos 5. They spoke to us. 10. He gave it to me.
98. Drill. F. Translate the italicized words:
A. Give the following forms: 1. I went at night. 6. They fought across the river.
1. the genitive singular of hie, ego, tii, eques 2. They come in summer. 7. In winter it is cold.
2. the dative singular of ille, is, ego, auetoritas 3. He ran with speed. 8. Within six years he will do it.
3. the accusative singular ofclimor, ille, lapis 4. He was seen by us. 9. He saw Caesar, the general.
4. the ablative singular of is, moos, mare 5. He was wounded by a stone 10. I work with great care.

136 137
G. Give the imperatives of the following verbs: (In) hoc signo vinces.
XXXV][ By this sign (the cross) thou shalt conquer.
1. (in the singular) edo, relinquo, dico, diico, moneo, porto.
2. (in the plural) surgo, video, diico, ambulo, bibo, dico.

99. Exercises. Third Conjugation:

A. Translate: Passive
I. Omnes viae ad nostram urbem Romam diicunt.
2. Rex ab omnibus servis timebatur.
3. Nostros gladios eis tradere iussi sumus. 100. Following the rules in Lesson XXVI, conjugate diico
4. Equites hostium telis nostrorum peditum vulnerati sunt. through the indicative passive. Compare with § 247.
5. Ubi regina per portam ambulavit, populus surrexit. The only peculiar form in the third conjugation passive is the
6. Ad ignem nocte sedebamus, et nobis de bello narrabat. second person singular of the present, where you might expect i
7. liidices pecuniam ab civibus potentibus petiverunt. instead of e before -ris. Remember that the future has no -ho.
8. Duos pueros tecum, Maree, et quinque canes vidi.
9. Nautae cum neque 1 peditibus neque 1 equitibus erant. VOCABULARY
10. Libertas captivo data est, ubi princeps vulnera eius vidit. anti'quus, -a, -um, old, ancient (an- conten'do, -ere, -ten'di, -ten'tus,
tique) strive, struggle; hasten (contend)
cli'rus, -a, -um, clear, bright, fa- de'ligo, -li'gere, dele'gi, delec'tus,
B. Translate: mous (clarity) choose
fini'timus, -a, -um, neighboring; as disce'do, -ere, -ces'si, -cessii'rus, go
1. Many of you will be ordered to leave the city. a noun, neighbor away, depart, leave
2. The name of this boy is Lucius, - of that girl, Julia. , pau'ci, -ae, -a,few, a few (paucity) exce'do, -ere, -ces'sl, -cessii'rus, go
3. The chief was leading the eighth legion through the forest . re'liquus, -a, -um, remaining, the rest out, leave
at night. ···.of; as a noun, the rest redii'co, --ere, -diix'I, -duc'tus, lepd
4. We shall pitch camp tomorrow; then we shall defend our back (reduce)
consti'tuo, -tu'ere, -sti'tul, -stitii.'tus,
city with arms. .decide, determine, set up (consti-
5. The king had ruled the people in the kingdom for a long . tution)
6. We looked at him, and he looked at us. HELPS AND HINTS. When discedo or ;excedo is used for leave,
7. Before the battle the soldiers were preparing the weapons. ab or ex and the ablative is commonly used; relinquo, leave,
8. He has sent many letters to the chief in Gaul, but the chief however, takes a direct object _in the accusative case.
has not replied. Ex castris excessit.
Castra reliquit.
9. Julia, my sister, has sought aid from the people of the town.
"The rest of" (reliquus) is an adjective in Latin and agrees
10. Will you eat this dinner, Lucius, and drink this water?
with the word it modifies. Do not be_misled by the of; reliquus
does not take a genitive depending on it.
neque • • • neque neither •. . nor.

138 · 139
101. Word Work. What is meant by the following? (b) Translate :
paucity of money, constitutional rights, clariry of thought, 1. They have been conquered, we shall be led. 2. It is being
events of antiquity, to reduce a fracture, contending for the prize sought, you will be defended. 3. She has been left, he will be
sent. 4. I am compelled, you (sing.) will be chosen. 5. It will
have been placed, they have been compelled. 6. They will be
ORI LL ON VERB FORMS left, I shall be sent. 7. You have departed, she has decided.
8. He is being defeated, we shall not hasten. 9. They were
(a) Analyze each form and translate: being led back, we have been put. 10. They had run, it has been
I. positus est, coacti sunt . 2. ducebantur , tradita sunt. decided.
3. vincar, redflcetur. 4. delecta est, m1tt1tur. 5. victi erunt,
duceris. 6. duceris, positum erat. 7. missa erat, relinquar. EXERCISES
8. constituetur, discesserant. 9. cogimur, vincentur. 10. con-
1enderunt, agebaris. (a) Read the Latin and translate:
1. Principes telis a paucis militibus victi sunt. 2. Et nautae
FILIUS ROMANUS MATRI "VALE" DICIT .et milites Gallos gladiis cum celeritate vicerunt. 3. Pauci
de;....· pedites decimae legionis in castris relicti erant. 4. Vera nomina
li: ,.,reliquorum principum in libro scribuntur. 5. Dux equites
"f .)'timuit et auxilium decimae legionis petivit. 6. Reliquos milites
·t,ti:j ~tmagna auxilia Caesar ex oppido ad castra reduxit. 7. Oppida
st_·finitima a nostris fortibus peditibus oppugnata sunt. 8. Castra
·t :. postra ad pontem in insula parva posita erant. 9. Si magna
~;: icum audacia pugnabimus, hostes vincentur. 10. Castra nocte
,.f ,~t hieme defendere coacti sunt.
(b) Translate:
1. The aid of our cavalry was sought by the rest of the allies.
~. Our men have not been conquered in battle this summer .
.J. Our messengers were sent into the town by the lieutenant.
4. The name of the famous general has often been written by
Ronian boys. 5. In summer and in winter we shall fight with
r,i~~( great daring against our enemies. 6. If you are forced to leave
·?;.:--the town, ...hasten to the small farmhouse across the river.
i{; 7.The tenth legion was being led through the forest by the
'./'brave chief. 8. Stand up, men; the general and (his) com-
::panions are walking toward us. 9. After the war the people
_\chose Lucius {as) king. 10. The old wagon was driven to the
( city by the rest of the boys.

Pueri Romani, si patres opulenti (wealthy) erant, ad Graeciam
saepe missi sunt. lbi cum notis magistris habitabant et doctrinam
(learning) petebant. Haque Iulius Caesar adulescens (as a youth)
ad Graeciam a patre missus est. Ab Italia igitur navigavit sed
in itinere navis a piratis capta est. Reliqui socii et nautae trucidati s
sunt (were slain) sed Caesar multos dies (for many days) feliciter
(happily) cum piratis habitabat. Nam piratae eum servaverunt
quod praemium exspectabant. Postea amici Caesaris magnam
peciiniam 1 piratis dederunt et Caesar liberatus est.
Statim Caesar milites et nautas convocavit et naves com- 10
·paravit. Mox piratae capti sunt et Caesar, ut (as) piratis pro-
,_miserat, eos criici affixit (crucified them).
1 We usually say much money, but the Romans did not use multa with pecunia.

Qui non proficit, deijc~. _
XXXV[[ Who does not advance,falls behind.

Relative Pronoun

. .. t'
102. The relative pronoun is declined as follows: ' ., )
··, .I;

qui, who, which, what, that

: -~
Norn. qui quae quod
Gen. cu'ius cu'ius cu'ius
Dat. cui cui cui
Acc. quem quam quod SOLEAE
Ab/. quo qui quo

quae quae
Norn. qui
Gen. quo'nun qui'rum quo'rum ci'vitas, -ta'tis, f., jtate, citizenship pars, par'tis, f., part, direction (par-
Dat. qui'bus qui'bus qui'bus ho'mo, -inis, m., man, human being tial) •
Acc. quos quis quae
hor'tus, -i, m., garden pes, pe'dis, m.,foot (pedal)
Ab/. qui'bus qui'bus qui'bus
la'bor, -oris, m., work; difficulty, ti'mor, timo'ris, m.,fear (timorous)
103. Agreement of the Relative. A relative agrees with its hardship (labor) vir'tiis, virtii'tis, f., bravery, courage
lex, li'gis, f., law (legal) (virtue)
antecedent in gender, number, and person, but its case is de-
multitii'do, -inis, f., crowd,great num-
termined by its use in its own clause. ber (multitude)
I saw the man who was present. Virwn qui aderat vidi.
The gate which you see is wide. Porta quam vides lata est. DRILL ON RELATIVE PRONOUN
They are the women whom he chose. Feminae sunt quas delegit.
(a) Translate the italicized words:
Notice that qui in the first example is masculine gender, singu-
lar number, third person, like its antecedent virum, but it is nomina- 1. Pueri, qui sunt... 2. Mea filia, cui dedi. . . 3. Frater im-
tive as subject of the verb aderat. In the second example quam is peratoris, quem vidi. . . 4. Pedites quibuscum discedebiimus .. .
feminine gender, singular number, third person, to agree with 5. Flii.men, quod ~st liitum . . . 6. Feminae, quiis spectiivi . . .
porta, but accusative because it is the object of the verb vides. 7. Milites quibus victoriam nuntiiivi . . . 8. Eques, ii quo pedes
In the third example, what is the antecedent of quiis? What vulneriitus est.. . 9. Nautae, quorum naves erant.. . 10. Ani-
case is feminae? What case is quiis? Why? malia, quae sedebant ...

144 145
(b) Translate the italicized words:
1. I know a boy whose name is . . . 2. The women, to whom
I gave... 3. The farmers, whom we saw... 4. We captured a BRUTUS ET 0RACULUM

city which is in . . . 5. He spoke to the messengers, with whom Tarquinius Superbus, qui erat fmus ex primis regibus Romae,
you were leaving . . . 6. He was killed by a man whosefriends ... non bonus erat sed criidelis iniquusque. Timebat iram populi
7. Give back the money, which you took.. . 8. I see some girls, cuius rex erat et vita non salva erat.
who are. . . 9. Julia, who is my sister.. . 10. This is a town in Olim in regia (royal palace) Tarquinius omen vidit. Anguis
which many people ... (snake) qui ex columna lignea venit Tarquinium et farniliam s
perterruit. Statim Tarquinius suos duos filios cum amico, Bn1to,
EXERCISES ad oraculum Apollinis, quod in Graecia erat, misit. Ibi ora-
culum pro rege consuluerunt.
(a) Read the Latin and translate: Oraculum rogaverunt, "Quis post mortem Tarquini regnum
Romanum obtinebit?" Pythia sic respondit. "ls erit rex qui 10
1. Multos milites, qui in magno bello pugnaverunt, vidi.
prim us matri osculum dabit." Statim duo fratres sortes de
2. Gravia erant tela quae portabamus. 3. Caesar, qui ab Italia
regno duxerunt. Sed Brutus terrae osculum dedit, nam putavit,
discessit, nunc est in Gallia. 4. Decima legio, quae a Marco
"Terra est mater omni um hominum."
ducta est, bene pugnavit. 5. Ubi sunt puellae feminaeque qui-
Tum tres iuvenes Romam (to Rome) properaverunt. Mox
buscum ambulabas? 6. Legatus qui e proelio excessit ad italiam
populus Roma.nus Tarquinium et filios ex urbe expulit, qui 15
missus est. 7. Ad amicum meum libros quos scripsi misi.
criideles erant, et Brutus consul creatus est.
8. Legionem ad flumen quod in provincia est duxit. 9. Dux
cui periculum niintiatum est ad castra currit. 10. Milites a
quibus castra defensa sunt proelium parant.
(b) Translate:
1. The messenger whom you sent to the general has reported
the victory. 2. I saw the slaves who had been led to the city.
3. Many people who live in farmhouses do not like the life of
the city. 4. These girls, whose friends are brave, are terrified
by the noises. 5. I have seen a large city in Switzerland in
which many people live. 6. Those rivers which you were look-
ing at in Gaul are wide and deep. 7. A part of the city, which
was ruled by a powerful chief, was conquered by our soldiers.
8. The women whom we led from the farmhouse were frightened
by the fire. 9. Did you st:e the men to whom I gave the money?
10. Near the farmhouse there was a large garden, in which the
farmer and (his) sons were working.


XXXVI][[ To whose advantage? ci'bus, -i, m., food commit'to, -ere, -mi'si, -mis'sus, en-
mo'dus, -i, m., manner, way (mode) trust; with proelium, begin, join
mii'rus, -i, m., wall (mural) battle (commission)
nihil, indeclinable noun, nothing expel1o, -ere, -puli, -pul'sus, drive
vi'num, -i, n., wine
Interrogative out, drive away (expel)
red'do, -ere, red'didi, red'ditus, give
amit'to, -ere, -mi'si, -mis'sus, lose back, restore
106. Word Work. This vocabulary suggests the following
English derivatives:
104. The interrogative pronoun is declined as follvws: committed to an asylum; several students were expelled, but
the expulsion was not approved by the board; the mural paintings
at Pompeii; the army was annihilated; their mode of living
Nom. quis quid
Dat. cui cui
Acc. {jUt,DI quid
(a) Translate the italicized words:
Ab/. quo quo

PLURAL 1. Quis pugnat? 2. Quid vidisti? 3. Quorum equi erant in

MASCULINE FEMININE NEUTER agro? 4. A quibus ducti sunt? 5. Cui pecuniam dedit?
Nom. qui quae quae
(b) Translate the italicized words:
Gen. quo'rum qua'rum quo'rum
Dal. qui'bus qui'bus qui'bus 1. Whom were they defending? 2. What is in- the road?
Acc. quiis quas quae
Ab!. qui'bus qui'bus qui'bus 3. With whom was he fighting? 4. Whose friend is he? 5. To
whom are you speaking?
105. Use of the Interrogative. The interrogative pronouns are
used to ask questions, either direct or indirect. The English
equivalents are as follows: nom., who? what? gen., whose? of
whom? dat., to or for whom? acc., whom? what? ab/., by or with
whom? The singular and plural are the same in English.
Who saw .. • ? in Latin can be Quis vidit?
Qui viderunt?

HELPS AND HINTS. The interrogative adjective is declined

like the relative pronoun, but is seldom used.
The indirect question will be taken up in a later lesson.


(a) Read the Latin and trans/are:

1. Quibus pecfmiam et dona commisistis? 2. Quis vidit prin-
cipem cuius amicus ex oppido missus erat? 3. Quern ducebat
ex castris ad fliimen? 4. Quibuscum proelium eras committemus?
5. Quern iussit cibum animalibus dare? 6. Quid post portam
castrorum vidisti? Nihil vidi. 7. Ad quam urbem feminae am-
bulabant? 8. Cuius equi in nostro agro currunt? 9. Quis in
civitate Germana manere iussus est? 10. Agricolae in villa vinum
et aquam bibebant.
(b) Translate:
1. Who gave back the money to the unhappy slaves? 2. Whose
sons are fighting with the men who are in Gaul? 3. By whom
was the little girl frightened? 4. What did the farmer's daughter
give to the consuls? 5. To whom were you giving back the books
which I wrote? 6. Did you order those boys to run to the camp?
7. What was the judge saying to the captives? 8. Who was com-
pelled to surrender arms to the leader of the enemy? 9. What did
she write in the letter which you have? 10, Were the sons of the
general leading the infantry into battle?


In Gallia, quae in Europa est, fuit rex, qui multos milites
habuit. Magnum numerum militum, equitum peditumque, con-
scripserat. Saepe rex milites ex castris ediicebat. lta populos
finitimos terrebat.
5 Bellum a finitimis concitatum est. Rex milites eduxit et Sed iter longurn fuit, et milites defessi (tired) erant. Barbari
magna voce dixit: "Pacem non iam (longer) habemus. Nurre non aderant. Rex principes consuluit. Breve tempus (accusa-
est tempus cum barbaris bellum gerere. Negotium est difficile, tive) militibus ad quietem dedit; tum sine proelio milites in
sed, si fortes (brave) eritis, patriam defendetis et homines malos castra rediixit et copias barbarorum exspectabat. Sed barbari
in servitiitem redigetis." Tum ad extremum finem regni processit regem timuerunt et in silvis manserunt. Mox barbari pacem 1s
10 et milites secum (with him) duxit. petiverunt et rex copias in suum (his) regnum rediixit.

150 151
Quorum magna p~nsfuj.
HELPS AND HINTS. Nouns of the second and fourth declen-
XX.XIX In which I was a prominent actor. sions both end in -us in the nominative singular. Fortunately,
(Of which I was a large part.) however, the fourth declension nouns are comparatively few in
VIRGIL number and you will have no difficulty if you master these.

There are scarcely any neuters except cornii.

Domus, f., house, home, sometimes has the endings of the

Fourth Declension second declension in the genitive, dative, and ablative singular,
and in the genitive and accusative plural. See Appendix, §227.
108. Word Work. Explain the meaning of the following ex-
107. The fourth declension consists o_f t~ose n.ouns whos~ pressions without reference to the dictionary, if possible:
genitive singular ends in -iis. Those endmg m -us .m the nom1- domestic duties, his own domicile, an impetuous youth, manual
native singular are masculine, with a few exceptions. Those labor
whose nominative ends in -ii are neuter.
If the Latin verb exerceo means to train, can you see how exer-
Exer'citus, m., army BASE, exercit· citus means army?
SINGULAR PLURAL TERMINATIONS When articles we're made in homes in the days of the Pilgrims,
exer'cit iis us iis manufacture, "made by hand," properly described the process.
Norn. exer'cit us
exerci't uwn iisuum
Gen. exer'cit iis
exerci't ibus ui ibus
Dat . exerci't ui
exer'cit iis um iis
Acc . exer'cit um
exerci't ibus ii ibus
Abl. exer'cit ii

Cornii, n., horn BASE, corn-

cor'n ii cor'n ua ii ua
cor'n uum iis uum
Gen. cor'n iis
cor'n ibus ii ibus
Dat. cor'n ii
cor'n ua ii ua
Acc. cor'n ii
cor'n ibus ii ibus
Ab!. cor'n ii

adven'tus, -iis, m., arrival, approach im'petus, -iis, m., attack (impetu-i
ous) · 1
cor'nii, -iis, n., horn; wing (of an ma'nus, -iis, f., hand; band (of sol-1
army) (cornucopia) diers) (manual) l
do'mus, -iis, f., house, home (domes- ~~'sus, -iis, m., setting (of the sun~
exer'citus, -iis, m., army
ftuc'tus, -iis, m., wave (fluctuate)
pas'sus, -iis, m., pace (about fiv~
feet) (pace) I

What idea does manufacture convey today? This word shows very (b) Translate:
plainly how the meanings of words can change. 1. My father's house is across the road. 2. Who led the army
out of the camp into the plains? 3. A large band of foot soldiers
109. Genitive of the Whole. The genitive denoting the whole .
was wait~ng for the arrival of our general. 4. Whose garden did
of which a part is mentioned is called the "Genitive of the Whole"
you see m that town yesterday? 5. The horns of the animals
or "Partitive Genitive."
wer~ large. 6. What did the general of the army say to the
A part of the army remained ill camp. Pars exercitus in castris manebat. I soldiers who were defeated in the battle? 7. Eight of the boys
The use of the partitive genitive is the same as the use of the j were led to the t~wn by the lieutenant. 8. Many of the girls
objective with of in English. were ordered to give back the money which the men had given
Substitutes for the Genitive. The ablative with de or ex is i to them. 9. The attack of our foot soldiers forced the enemy to
sometimes used instead of the genitive of the whole, especially ! run down the mountain toward the river. 10. By whom was
after cardinal numbers and pauci. I the army being led into the territory of the Germans?
One of the boys. Onus ex pueris.
Few of our soldiers were seen in the Pauci de nosrris militibus in
field. agro visi sw11.
(a) Translate: ! "MDCIUS SCAEVOLA
. I Porsena, _re~ Cliis~, Romaro diu obsederat (had besieged) et
1. m magnis fl~ctibus 2. o~casii s~lis 3: magna pars urbis ,.
4. septem ex puellis 5. adventu nostn exercuus .. magna fames m opp1do erat. C. Miicius Romam servare voluit

(b) Translate: I (wished) itaque (and so) in castra Porsenae extra urbem con-
tendit. lbi multos milites vidit sed Porsenam d8 facie non novit
1. ten of the men 2. the leader of their army 3. by means (did not know Porsena by sight). Tandem per errorem scribam s
of a fierce attack 4. part of our band 5. the rest of the army (secretary) pro Porsena Miicius occidit.
Milites Miicium statim comprehenderunt et eum ad Porse-
EXERCISES n~~ _traxerunt (dragged). Porsena magnopere iratus est et iussit
m1ht~s accendere ignem, nam Mucium igne consiimere volebat.
(a) Read the Latin and translate: Mucms autem neque ignem neque Porsenam timuit sed dixit 10
1. Domus Helvetiorum quae erant inter flumen et montes "Ci vis Romanus sum neque mortem timeo." Deinde dextra~
manum in ignem imposuit.
vidimus. 2. Decem ex militibus erant magni et fortes. J. Do-
mus Caesaris erat pulchra. 4. Adventus nostri exercitus ab Porsena, admirans I virtu,tem Miici et timens 1 alios Romanos
civibus exspectabatur. 5. Pars exercitiis per silvas diicebatur qui. eum interficere volebant, Mucium Romaro (to Rome) dimisit.
a ducibus. 6. Castra Caesaris in monte posita erant. 7, Pauci Demde ex agris Romanis exercitum rediixit et Roma salva erat. 1s
ex nostris equitibus in agris equis cibum aquamque dabant. :o~tea Mucius "Scaevola" appellatus est quod dextram manum
8. Manus peditum in ponte laborabant. 9. Erant fluctus magni
in fliimine in Gallia. 10. Exercitus Caesaris in multis finibus 1
admirins(admiring) a119timens(fearing) are present participles.
diu et bene pugnavit.

154 155
4. the ablative singular of impetus, civitis, hie
XL 5. the nominative plural of labor, comii, ille
6. the genitive plural of exercitus, pars, brevis

7. the dative plural of lapis, fluctus, quis
8. the accusative plural of manus, modus, similis

Review B. Give a synopsis of imitto in the third person singular, active

and passive, with meanings.
C. Give a synopsis of iubeo in the second person singular, active
and passive, with meanings.
110. Vocabulary. D. Translate:
A. Give the genitive, gender, and meanings of the following
1. discesserant 6. delectus sum
•ouas: 2. reducta est 7. expulsi erant
adventus fluctus manus passus 3. redditum erit 8. constitues
cibus homo modus pes 4. excedet 9. amisisti
civitas hortus multitudo timor 5. contendebamus 10. proelium commissum erat
cornii impetus murus vinum
E. Translate:
domus labor occasus virtus
exercitus lex pars 1. he has lost 6. they have been chosen
2. we were deciding 7. we were hastening
B. Give the principal parts and meanings of: 3. she was expelled 8. it had been lost
contendo expello 4. they will go out 9. you have been conquered
reddo 5. he is being led back IO. they will join battle
committo deligo
constituo discedo reduco F. Translate:
1. part of the legion 6. a few of the soldiers
C. Give the meanings of: 2. five of the men 7. the rest of the citizens
3. at the arrival of the army 8. by our soldiers
antiquus finitimus pauci
reliquus 4. with (by) my hands 9. within ten years
clarus nihil
5. with much work IO. he gave them to her

111. Drill. 112. Exercises.

A_. Give the following forms: A. Translate:
1. the genitive singular of adventus, homo, quis 1. Qui sunt viri quibuscum laborabatis?
2. the dative singular of occisus, pes, ego 2. Naves quae ad terram navigabant spectabat.
3. the accusative singular of virtiis, manus, quis 3. Cuius frumentum agricola carro antiqµo ab agro portat?

156 157
Veni, vidi, vici.
4. Eius manus parvae sed eius pedes magni erant.
5. Quos in horto post villam vidistis? _ _ . .
XlLI I came, saw, conquered.
6. Post adventum equitum, exercitus noster pugnare const1tmt.
7. Tua domus, quae est non parva, antiqua et pulchra est.
8. Naves Hispanae inter fluctus altos in mari erant.
9. Miles miser unam manum in proelio amiserat.
10. Servum cui princeps libertatem dabat spectavimus. Fourth Conjugation
B. Translate:
1. Are these the boys with whom you were defending your
camp? 113. Fourth conjugation verbs end in -ire in the present infini-
2. What did they put on the head of the general who defeated tive: au'dio, audi're, audi'vi, audi'tus, hear. The stems are:
the German army? present stem - audi-, perfect stem - audiv-, participial steni -
3. The horns which I saw on that animal were not large. audit-.
4 • Soldiers' defend this town in which we are all living. . . ? (a) Learn the indicative, active and passive, of audio, § 248,
5. Will you give the letter to that girl who is flying to Bntam. noting the peculiarity of the imperfect and the future.
6. To whom was the arrival of our army reported, - to the (b) Learn the fourth conjugation verbs in this vocabulary.
general, or to (his) lieutenant?
7. Much food was given to the woman who had been lost VOCABULARY
in the forest. au'dio, -i're, -l'vi, -i'tus, hear, listen conve'nio, ·l're, -ve'nl, -ventii'rus,
8. We have decided to go out of the city and to live in an old to (audition) come together, assemble (conven-
farmhouse. . impe'di6, -i're, -l'vl, -l'tus, hinder tion)
9. The women in the garden are eating bread; they will not (impede) inve'nio, -i're, -ve'nl, -ven'tus, find,
mii'nio, -i're, -i'vi, -i'tus, fortify, come upon (invention)
drink the wine. .
10. In summer and in winter he worked with (his) hands m build (munitions) perve'nio, ·l're, -ve'ni, -ventii'rus,
ve'nio, ·i're, ve'ni, ventii'rus, come reach, arrive (with ad and acc.)
that farmer's fields. (convene)

HELPS AND HINTS. If you have mastered the third conjuga-

tion, the fourth will present little difficulty.
In the present indicative, note (1) where the i of audio appears
and (2) the quantity of the i. This affects the accent. Except
for vowel quantity, what forms are different from the third
In the imperfect and future notice again where the i appears.
With this exception, the formation of these two tenses is exactly
the same as in the third conjugation.
Perfect tenses are formed in the same way for all conjugations
and should cause no trouble.

HELPS AND HINTS. The imperative of the fourth conjugation
has the endings -1 (sing.), -lte (pl.): audi, audite, hear Translate into Latin the italicized words:
1. I saw one thousand girls. 2. I saw five thousand boys.
H4. Word Work. Bearing in mind the meaning of the Latin
3. They came one mile.. 4. They came ten miles. 5. He spoke
root words which you have learned in the vocabulary, try to give
to four thousand citizens. 6. They fought with eight thousand
the meaning of the words below without consulting the dictionary:
foot soldiers. 7. He walked twelve paces. 8. They stayed for nine
auditorium, audition, auditory (nerve), audible, audit, im- years. 9. We carried the weapons of one thousand soldiers.
pediment, impede, munition, immune, convene, invent 10. He lived in Europe for twenty years.

(a) Read the Latin and translate:
(a) Analyze eachform and translate it:
1. Decem horas urbem oppugnaverant et Gallos magna multi-
I. Audis, audietur, auditur, audiemus. 2. Veniebat, convene- tiidine telorum expulerant. 2. Legatus quinque milia passuum
runt, perveniunt, venerant. 3. Muniebamus, miiniverunt, muni- ad oppidum finitimum venit. 3. Propter fluctiis in fliimine dux
tum erat, miiniam. 4. Impedient, impeditus sum, inveneram, octo horas in castris manserat. 4. Brevi tempore multi Roma-
perveniet. 5. Conveniebant, auditus erit, munivimus, venietis.
ni in urbem nostram convenient. 5. Quis imperatorem audie-
(b) Translate: bat ubi de victoria niintiabat? 6. Milites friimentum mille passus
l. We shall hear, they are building. 2. He has been hindered, ad fliimen portaverunt. 7. Nautae ex navibus venerunt, sed tela in
ponte reliquerunt. 8. Mater mea ad villam agricolae septima
they were coming together. 3. She had arrived, I shall have
hora pervenit, et tres horas manebat. 9. Navigabimus multa
come. 4. It has been fortified, you were finding. 5. They are
milia passuum ad fines nostrorum sociorum in Europa. 10. Quos
listening to, we shall come together. invenisti ubi ad castra pervenisti?
115. Mille, a (one) thousand, is an indeclinable adjective. To
refer to two or more thousands, milia is used. Milia is a neuter
noun declined like the plural of mare, and is followed by the PANTHEUM:TEMPLUMROMANUM
genitive of the objects enumerated. A thousand men, mille
t.umines; but eight thousand(s of) men, milia bominum octo.
There is no single word in Latin for mile. A mile was one
thousand paces, mille passiis; plural, milia passuum. A Roman
pace was the distance from where one foot touched the ground to
where the same foot touched again, that is, two of our paces or
about five feet.
116. Accusative of Time and Space. Duration of time and
extent of space are expressed by the accusative.
They have come six miles. Milia passuum sex venerunt.
Theyfought for five hours. Quinque horas pugnaverunt.


.·: ,;
Populus vult decipi.
(b) Translate: XL[[ The people like to be deceived.
I. We did not hear the signal and we remained in camp for
four hours. 2. We have come a mile and we have not found a
river. 3. We carried the grain and water to the horses many
miles across the plains. 4. They are building a large camp in
the territory of the friendly Gauls. 5. I saw the men who had
Third Conjugation
come from the neighboring city. 6. In my farmhouse there are
the horns of many animals which I found in the woods. 7. What
Verbs in -Io
did you hear when you arrived at the villa of the consul? 8. The
attacks of our infantry were hindered by the lack of food and
water. 9. We had decided not to leave the city when the mes- 117. A few important verbs of the third conjugation end in
senger arrived. 10. For many years she has waited, but the -io. They have the forms of the fourth conjugation wherever
letters from him have not come. the fourth has -i- followed by a vowel.
According to the above rule conjugate capio in the indicative
READING LESSON active and passive. Compare§ 249.

Dum Pyrrhus cum Romanis pugnat (was fighting),. p~cem
confirmare temptavit. Legatos igitur ad Romanos mis1t, mter ca'pio, -ere, ce'pl, cap'tus, take, acci'pio, -ere, -ce'pi, -cep'tus, re-
quos erat Cineiis, homo eloquentissimus. Cineiis autem pacem seize, capture (captive) ceive, accept (acceptable)
cu'pio, -ere, cupl'vl, cupi'tus, wish, confi'cio, -ere, -fe'cl, -fec'tus, ac-
neque verbis neque peciinia (bribes) confirmare poterat. . desire (Cupid) complish, finish (confection)
s Postea Fabricius legatus (as ambassador) Romanorum m taber- fa'cio, -ere, fe'cl, fac'tus, make, do; coni'cio, -ere, -iE'cl, -iec'tus, throw,
naculum Pyrrhi venit. In medio colloquio elephantus que~ with iter, march (factory) throw together (conjecture)
Pyrrhus post vela celaverat magnum sonit~ fecit (made}. Fab~- fu'gio, -ere, fii'gl, fugitii'rus, flee inci'pio, -ere, -d'pl, -ceptii'rus, be-
cius autem, quamquam (although) perterntus erat, pacem non (fugitive) gin (incipient)
ia'clo, -ere, iE'cl, iac'tus, throw (inject) interfi'cio, -ere, -fe'cl, -fec'tus, kill
confirmavit. Iterum Pyrrhus et Romani hello contenderunt.
10 Paulo (a little) post medicus Pyrrhi ad Fabricium litteriis
misit in quibus scripsit: "Pyrrhum veneno interficiam (/ will HELPS AND HINTS. Notice that when capio, facio, and iacio
kill) si Iilihi (to me) peciiniam dabis." Quamquam (although) become compounds by the use of prefixes, capii becomes -cipio,
Pyrrhus et milites hostes Romanorum erant, Fabricius magno- faclo becomes -ficio, and iacio becomes -icfi. So too in the
perfect passive participle captus becomes -ceptus, factus becomes
pere iratus erat. Litteris non respondit sed eas ad Pyrrhum -fectus, and iactus becomes -iectus.
1s misit. Perfidus medicus, a servis Pyrrhi comprehensus, 1 inter-
fectus est. Propter hoc (this) beneficium Pyrrhus Fabricjum
· magnopere admiriitus est (admired) et dixit: "Facili~s. e~set 118. WordWork. The verbs in this lesson have many English
(it would be) solem a cursii avertere quam te, praeclanss101e derivatives from both the present and participial stems. See how
Fabrici, a via virtiitis." many of these derivatives you can list, using the prefixes here
and others you have had.
1 Perfect passive participle: seized.

) 163
Explain the meaning of the italicized words in the expressions EXERCISES
(a) Read the Latin and translate:
an incipient rebellion, a capacious pocket, an accepted hy-
pothesis, to hazard a conjecture, a delicious confection, a fugitive 1. Milites tela capiebant ab hostibus qui vulnerati erant.
from justice, great cupidity 2. Multi et fortes viri qui hostes in hello vicerunt postea inter-
fecti sunt. 3. Milites in castra hostium tela iecerunt quae hostes
vulneraverunt. 4. Regis frater aut unus ex filiis regnum accipiet.
DAILL ON VERBS 5. Exercitus iter ad illam urbem quattuor milia passuum facit.
6. Tim ore liberabimur, si nostri pedites id oppidum capient.
(a) Translate: 7. Tertia nocte exercitus ex castris excessit et ad urbem hostium
l. Capientur, incipiet. 2. Confecimus, fugiam. 3. Fugistis, iter fecit. 8. Pedites tela coniecerunt et equites proelium con-
iaciebatis. 4. Cupiverat, fecimus. 5. Conicient, interfecti sunt. fecerunt. 9. Ubi servi fugere cupiebant, dominus eos liberavit.
6. Accipiebam, facti erant. 7. lacta erunt, fugiunt. 8. Capitur, 10. Agricola equum qui vulneratus erat interfecit.
accipimus. 9. Fugeras, incipiebas. 10. Interfecit, capta erat. (b) Translate:
(b) Translate: I. Our sailors captured the enemy's ships which were waiting
1. We shall throw, he was fleeing. 2. They have fled, they for a message in the river. 2. Tomorrow I shall finish the work
desire. 3. He has been accepted, they will finish. 4. We have which I began yesterday. 3. The horsemen who had been defeated
killed, I shall make. 5. They wt:re beginning, you (sing.) are fled toward the forest. 4. The bridge between Caesar's army
throwing. 6. He will be killed, she has been captured. 7. They and the army of the enemy was not long. 5. The messenger
will have fled, I shall have finished. 8. We were throwing, who announced the plans of the war will be received with great
you will be heard. 9. We throw together, he has fled. 10. We friendship. 6. If you will leave the forest, you will free me
desire, he wished. from great fear. 7. The enemy will be defeated within a few
hours, and the leader killed. 8. The horses carried the grain
119. Ablative of Separation. Separation is expressed by the for four miles toward the river. 9. We shall fortify this ancient
ablative sometimes with, sometimes without a preposition. The town which we captured this summer. 10. The Roman army
preposition is generally used with persons and concrete nouns, was marching through the territory of the Gauls.
and omitted before abstract nouns.
He went out of the camp. Ex castris excessit.
You willfree me from great fear. Magno timore meliberabis. LmRi SmYLLiNi

DOMUS SIBYLLAE Haec fabula de libris Sibyllinis ab antiquis Romanis narratur.

Olim ad Tarquinium Superbum venit anus (old woman) quae
(with her) novem libros ferebat. "Libras tibi dabo," inquit,
mihi magnam peciiniam dabis." Tarquinius interrogavit,
est in libris ?" Anus respondit, l'Praedicta rerum futurarum s
Roma.norum in libris sunt; in libros autem intueri
(to look) tibi non licebit."

\" 165
Quamquam libros habere cupiebat, Tarquinius anum dimisit . Carpe diem.
quod pretium tantum erat. Anus autem erat Sibylla (the siby[), XLllll][ Seize the opportunity.
1o vates magna, et Tarquinius hoc sensit (realized). HORACE

Mox anus ad Tarquinium iterum revertit. Eo tempore sex ·

libros ferebat sed pretium idem erat quod anteii fuerat. Iterum
Tarquinius earn dimisit.
Tandem tres libros ad Tarquinium tulit, atque ei dixit, "Reliqui
1s sex libri exusti sunt." Pretiurn tamen idem erat. Tum Tar-
I Fifth Declension
quinius sine mora libros emit et in templo deposuit. Per multos
annos, si civitas in magno periculo erat, Romiinorurn principes
eos libros semper consuluerunt et bonum consitium acceperunt.
120. The fifth declension consists of nouns whose genitive singu-
lar ends in -ei or in -ei. 1 They are feminine, with a few exceptions.
SUMMARY Di'es, m., day Res, f., thing
BASE, di• BASE,r-
The following uses of the five cases have been explained in the j
preceding lessons: i Nom.
res res
es es
Gen. di i'i di e'nun re1 re'nun el, ei &um
Dat. di i'i di i'bus re'i Ii'bus ei, ei ebus
1. Subject of a finite verb Pueri currunt.
Acc. di'em di'& rem res em es
2. Predicate nominative l\1iircus est puer.
Ab/. di'e di i'bus re Ii'bus i illus
I. To show possession Agricoliirum equi , , , VOCABULARY
2. Partitive (of the whole) Magna pan urbia •••
a'cies, acie'l, f., line of battle spes, spe'i, f., hope
Dative di'es, die'i, m., day2
1. Indirect object Peciiniam militi dedi. ia'nua, -ae, f., door e'tiam, adv., also, even
Accusative lec'tus, -i, m., bed i'taque, conj., and so, therefore
1. Direct object Pueros diicebat • • • 1
merl'dies, -e'i, m., midday, noon, nam, conj., for
2. Duration of time Multos annos • . . !! south (meridian) ne'que, conj., and not, nor
3. Extent of space Decem milia passuum... res,re'i, f., thing, affair, matter ta'men, conj., nevertheless (postposi-
4. Place "to which" ad urbem ! res pii'blica, re'l pii'blicae, f., com- tive)
5. After the prepositions ad, ante,
contri, in (into), inter, ob, per,
monwealth, state (republic)

post, propter, sub (close to), trans

I! Respii'blica= res+ fem. adj. pii'blica, meaning state affair,
Ablative common interest, that is, the state. Both parts of the word are
1. Means (no preposition) gladio declined.
2. Personal agent (with ii or ab) ii milite
3. Place "where" in silva 1 The genitive and dative singular end in -ei when a vowel precedes the ending, in

4. Place "from which" (separation) ex agris -el when a consonant precedes.

5. Time when, or within which nocte; decem annia 2 When dies refers to a definite and fixed time in the singular, it is usually feminine

6. After the prepositions ii, ab; cum; de; but otherwise masculine. Example: coostitilti die on the appointed day, but multi
e, ex; sub (under); sine die late in the day. In the plural dies is always masculine.

166 167
121. Word Work. Notice the force of the suffix -or us.ed to
form a noun from a verb. Nouns formed with this suffix denote
action in process or the result of an act; e.g., timor comes from
timeo, and means the act off earing, or fear.
Words similarly formed include: clamor, furor, amor, terror,
error, tremor, horror, candor, pallor, favor, vigor.
Many of these words have been transferred unchanged into
English and -or is then the English suffix, as in terror, terror.
Meridies, from medi + dies, the middle of the day, furnishes
an example of how the Romans changed their spelling for eu-
phony, that is, to make a word sound better.

(a) Translate:
1. Mater filiiis parviis ob eiirum diligentiam multis rebus laudii-
bit. 2. Leges nostrae rei piiblicae bonae sunt. 3. Hostes cum
nostrii primii acie sine spe pugnabant. 4. Meridie amici ducis
cibum aquamque accipient. 5. Rex imperatori multiis res de re ;
piiblica dicebat. 6. Haec est res piiblica in qua omnes cives 'I
patriam amant. 7. Ante meridiem pedites in tertiii acie bene I READING LESSON
pugniibant. 8. Acies Germana fugere constituit ubi nostriis I
copiiis vidit. 9. Captivi in oppidum eras meridie diicentur. ! METTIUS CURTIUS

10. Hostes fortes sunt; tamen magnii cum audiiciii pugniibimus. ! Olim in Foro Romano magna rima (crevice) subito appiiruit.
i Romani perterriti erant et in rimam saxa et terram iaciebant,
(b) Translate: ! sed friistra. Rima alta et Iii.ta multos dies manebat. Tum Ro-
1. In our commonwealth the judges have praised the citizens j mani auxilium ii deo oriibant. Deus respondit, "Si in rimam
on account of (their) great courage. 2. Who will come with me i optimam possessionem quam Romani habent ieceritis, tum 5
at noon to that villa? 3. The soldiers decided to break camp on !I.. rimam explebo." Hoc oriiculum cum dubio animo Romani
account of the lack of food and arms. 4. In my country the audiverunt. Rogiiverunt, "Quae est optima possessio Romiino-
days are short in winter and long in summer. 5. The enemy's I rum ?"
line of battle remained in the plain for many hours. 6. The boys I Tandem Mettius Curtiu&dixit, "Optima possessio Romanorum
were throwing stones down from a high house into the street. I. est intrepidus animus." Tum suum equum phaleris (trappings) 10
7. The rest of our first line of battle was killed by the heavy pulchris exornat (adorns) et armiitus in Forum equitat. Oum
weapons of the Germans. 8. At the arrival of the king, all of l cives spectant, subito incitat suum equum in rimam. Statim deus
the women who were sitting down stood up. 9. He also reported l rimam explevit, ut (as) promiserat.
about the great hope of the citizens for peace. 10. There wa·s a l Mettius Curtius ii Romanis semper amiitus est quod suam
small table between the two beds near the window. · vitam pro re piiblica dederat. 15

168 169
Nee possum teeum vivere, nee sine te. The present passive infinitives of the four regular conjugations
XL][V I can't live with you, nor without you. are formed as follows:
MARTIAL portiiri to be carried
moneri to be warned
diici to be led
capi to be captured
Possum audiri to pe heard
Objective Infinitive. Iubeo, cogo, and prohibeo take an objec-
and Infinitives tive infinitive with the subject of the infinitive in the accusa-
Caesar ordered the soldier to fight. Caesar militem pugniire iussit.
122. Conjugation of possum, I am able or I can ( = pot(is),
able+ sum, I am). Principal parts: possum, posse, potui. It HELPS AND HINTS. Note that the objective infinitive requires
has no passive voice. a new subject for the infinitive, whereas the complementary
Possum= pot+ sum; the t becomes s before those forms of the infinitive has no separate subject of its own.
verb sum which begin with s. The perfect stem tenses are formed
according to the formula given for those tenses. DRILL
Conjugate the indicative mood of possum, according to the
above. Compare with § 250. (a) Translate: -
1. Poterit, potu~rit, possumus. 2. Potuistis, potes, poterant.
I 3. Aberit, aderat, afueramus. 4. Adfuerimus, possunt, aberunt.
VOCABULARY ! 5. Adest, potestis, afuerunt. 6. Potest continere. 7. Iussimus
gau'dium, -i, n., joy, gladness conti'neo, -e're, -ti'nui, -ten'tus, hold! pueros venire. 8. Poteramus audire. 9. Coegit hominem labo-
offi'cium, -i, n., duty (office) together, restrain; bound (conti- j rare. IO. Poterunt invenire.
prae'mium, -i, n., reward (premium) nent) I
praesi'dium, -i, n., guard, garrison dor'mio, -i're, -i'vi, -itu'rus, sleep I (b) Translate:
ter'gum, -i, n., back pos'sum, pos'se, po'tui, be able, can j l. We are able, he can, you will be able. 2. They were able,
susti'neo, -e're, -ti'nui, -ten'tus, hold Ii
she could, I had been able. 3. He was absent, they are present,
ab'sum, abes'se, a'fui, afutu'rus, be in check, withstand (sustain)
absent, be distant, be away (absent) in'quit (pl., in'quiunt), he says, they I they are away. 4. He will be able, they can, I shall have been
ad'sum, ades'se, ad'fui, adfutu'rus,
be present, be near
say (placed after a part of a direct l
quotation) i able. 5. We shall be away, he was near, they have been away.
6. You were able to flee. 7. They could withstand. 8. He forced
the men to fight. 9. I ordered the messenger to report. 10. They
i will be able to sleep.
123. Complementary lntinitive. Possum and some other verbs
require an infinitive to complete their meaning. This is called a 124. Adverbs. In Lesson XIX it was shown that adverbs were
complementary infinitive. formed from adjectives of the first and second declensions by
adding -eto the base of the positive.
Caesar could fight. Caesar pugniire potuit.
We ought to love our country. Patriam amare debemus. wide, liitus; widely, late.

170 171
From third declension adjectives adverbs are formed by adding (b) Translate:
-(i)ter to the base (-er to the base diligent-). t. In five days they were able to fortify a large camp which
acer, sharp acriter, sharply they had captured from the enemy. 2. Who will flee with me
diligens, care/ ul diligenter, carefully from this wretched place? 3. Our forces withstood the enemy's
attacks for a long time. 4. Behind (his) back he held the reward
which (his) father had given (to him). 5. The duties of the
Roman consuls were many and not easy. 6. The attack of the
(a) Translate: German cavalry was hindered by the cries of our men who were
i fighting fiercely. 7. The garrison remained on the bridge for
l. Puer miser domum amici invenire non poterat. 2. Eq~ ten hours at night. 8. We shall not be able to be present, but
ducum Romanorum in proelio aderunt. 3. Princeps praemi~ we shall send (our) son and daughter. 9. The teacher was
magno cum gaudi6 accepit. 4. Caesar praesidium militum i~ forced to be absent on that day. 10. The boys in camp dip not
ponte reliquit. 5. Pauci aderant, sed multi aberant. 6. Impet~ sleep in beds; they slept on the ground.
hostium ab nostris peditibus fortibus sustinebantur. 7. Poter9
ad tuam urbem venire eras, si pecfmiam invenero. 8. Pedit9
ad castra hostium celeriter cucurrerunt. 9. Quis hanc epistul~ READING LESSON
ad imperatorem per fines hostium portare poterit? 10. Multo~
dies nostrae copiae impetus hostium fortiter sustinebant. I A ROMAN POET

I Gaius erat poeta Romanus, qui, puer, in parvo oppido Verona
habitabat. Is et frater cum matre patreque aestate semper ex illo
oppido ad lacum, 1 cuius nomen erat Benacus, iter faciebant; in
eo loco diii manebant. lbi, primis diei 'horis, a patre duo filii
d<:>cebantur. Pueri per reliqflas horas aut ad villas finitimorum s
ambulare aut per agros currere aut in lacii navigare poterant.
Post paucos annos pater constituit Gaium ad urbem Roman
..)Ile . filic:>,"In ea urbe," inquit, "a viris clans bene
qoceberis .- Audi magna cum cura ea quae dicent novi magistri
) pi.''..G?-i,us~llhi adurbem venit, miser erat quod lacus et oppidum 10
~licta erant. Postea in Iii.do Romano magistros audivit bonos,
·<iµ.µlto~·libros pACtarum antiquorum legit, ac carmina etiam scrip-
.~f; qua~ .ijodie legi 2. possunt.
..·}\~i ap,,l~aµi n.avig?,veris,et oppidum Veronam et lacum Bena-
, c;µni videre poterk '' Tum in animum tuum veniet ille poeta 1s
: ',\tomanus}lll;i carm4tibus pulchris haec loca clara fecit.
N.A.I.S. Alpha Exam, 1964

· 1 lacm, -iis, m. ·lake

• legi, pres. passiveinf. of legere, to be read

172 173
Antiquis temporibus urbs Troia capta est. Aeneas, princeps
Troianorum, quod a deis monitus erat, cum civibus fortibus trans
maria paucos an nos navigabat. Haec fuerant verba deorum:
"Ad terram novam , dux dare, socios tuos ducere debes. Te
s italiam petere i ubem us."
Interim liino 1, dea potens, quae Troianis inimica semper fuerat,
I Review
eos ab Italia prohibere cupiebat. Ad regem ventorum 2 venit cui
consilium audax demonstravit. liino, "lnimici mei," inquit, "ad
Italiam iam iter faciunt. Nonne in scopulos 3 naves eorum agere
10 potes? Ventos convoca omnes et eos trans mare volare iube! 125. Vocabulary.
Uxorem 4 pulchram , tuum praemium , tibi trad am."
Hae re rex delectatus est. Itaque acres vemi fluctusque brevi A. Give the genitive, gender, and meaning of the following nouns:
tempore surrexerunt atque magnum erat periculum. Postea ei acies gaudium lectus officium praesidium spes
Troiani qui ad Africam pervenerant novis e periculis servati sunt . dies ianua meridies praemium res tergum
1s Quae erat causa salucis? Datum est Troiani s auxilium a pulchra
Africae regina. B. Give the principal parts and meaning of these verbs:
Post hiemem brevem et multum gaudium hac ex terra discessit j
Aeneas cum sociis et Italian: navibus petebat. Mox princeps, ubi I absum
terram vidit, clamavit: "ltaliam , nostram patriam , spectate,
adsum contineo fugio inquit sustineo
20 Troiani. Vicimus! "
audio convenio iacio invenio venio
Acriter contra eos labor averat dea , sed vicerunt homines!
capio cupio impedio miinio

C. Give the meaning of:

1 liino, liinonis: Juno, queen of the gods.
2 ventus, -i, m.: wind. etiam itaque nam neque tamen
a seopulus, -i, m. : reef
• uxor, -oris, f. : wife.
126. Drill.

A. Give the following forms:

1. the genitive singular of meridies, praemium,manus
2. the dative singular of spes, praesidium,cornii
3. the accusative singular of acies, passus, virtiis
4. the ablative singular of res, tergum, impetus
5. the nominative plural of res, gaudium, domus
6. the genitive plural of dies, praemium, lex
7. the accusative plural of officium, fluctus, comii
8. the ablative plural of res, exercitus, homo

174 175
B. Decline throughout: dies, passus. 127. Exercises
C. Give a synopsis of iacio in 1hefirst p erson singular, active A. Translate:
only , with meanings. 1. Cives illius oppidi imperatorem multas horas audiverant.
D. Give a synopsis of audio in the third person singular, passive 2. Septimo die pedites castra oppugnaverunt et ducem hostium
only , with meanings. ceperunt.
3. Exercitus in urbem meridie venit et cibum petivit.
E. Give a synopsis of possum in the third person plural with 4. Tertia acies in monte post castra a legato tenebatur.
meanings. 5. Milites qui pugnare non poterant in miiro sedebant et
F . Give a synopsis of absum in the first person plural with proelium spectabant.
6. Legiones paucis diebus aderunt si Germani victi erunt.
7. "Tela vestra de nave iacite," inquit; "hostes adsunt."
G . Translate: 8. Ubi legiones nostras viderunt, cum celeritate fugere m-
1. impediebant 6. inquit 11. aderimus 9. Canis albus sub mensa in horto diii dormiebat.
2. mc1piam 7. potuisti 12. pervenerunt 10. Pueri iter Iongum ab hoc oppido per silvam ad urbem
3. miiniverant 8. convenimus 13. interfectus erat magnam faciebant.
4. audiuntur 9. afuit 14. fugere
5 . cupiverint 10. miinita sunt 15. facietisne? B. Translate:
1. Our horses desire grain and water, which we are not able to
H. Translate:
1. we shall begin 6. he desired 11. we shall build 2. When he left Gaul, the leader said, "I have conquered the
2. he was throwing 7. we have arrived 12. they were found enemy."
3. Come! (pl.) 8. he is absent 13. you could 3. Within six days we shall march through the enemy's ter-
4. they were captured 9. will you come? 14. he will flee ritory.
5. she was making 10. to kill 15. Throw! (sing.) 4. The messenger who was carrying my letter was killed by a
I . Translate: 5. The first line of battle ran towards the enemy and made a
1. for five days 6. nine of the soldiers fierce attack.
2. a thousand boys · 7. within four years 6. After the arrival of the messenger, our forces waited in
3. ten thousand men 8. at night camp for the legions.
4. to free from fear 9. by our cavalry 7. Where are the men who desire to work with me in the fields?
5. quickly and bravely 10. with much joy 8. We decided to remain with our friends in Spain for a few
J. Form adverbsfrom these adjectives: 9. Caesar ordered the cavalry to make an attack on the wing
1. audax 3. verus 6. miser 9. acer of the enemy.
2. potens 4. gravis 7. clarus 10. malus 10. Many beautiful gifts were given to the queen by the people
5. celer 8. brevis of the kingdom.

176 177


Haec fabula ii poetis de Perse6 niirriitur. Perseus filius erat

Iovis, maximi deorum. Avus Persei propter 6riiculum eum time-
bat itaque eum adhuc infantem cum matre interficere cupiebat.
In arcam igitur ligneam eos inclusit et in mare coniecit. Tempes-
tas enim magna mare turbiibat et mors et infanti et miitri adera~. PERSEUS LEA YES THE ISLAND
luppiter tamen omnia haec vidit et filium suum serviire constl- Perseus ab insula discessit et diu Medusam frustrii quaesivit.
tuit. Perduxit igitur arcam in longinquam insulam, ubi Perseus Tandem per auxilium deorum ad sorores Medusae pervenit, a
cum matre multos annos habitavit. Polydectes, rex huius insulae, quibus tiiliiria galeamque magicam accepit. Apollo autem et
Danaen (acc.), miitrem Persei, magnopere amiibat atque earn in Minerva ei falcem et speculum dederunt. Tum, postquam
matrimonium ducere volebat. Hoc tamen consilium Perseo mi- talaria pedibus induit (put on), in a.era ascendit et tandem ad 5
nime gratum erat. Polydectes igitur Perseum dimittere cupivit. eum locum pervenit ubi Medusa cum ceteris Gorgonibus habita-
Eurn ad se vocavit et haec dixit: "lam dudum tu adulescens es. bat. Gorgones autem monstra erant specie horribili, capita enim
Ternpus igitur est arma capere et virtfltem ostendere. Hine abi ea.rum serpentibus multis contecta erant. Manus ea.rum ex aere
(go away) et caput Medusae ad me refer." factae erant.

178 179

Ubi Andromeda, ad litus deducta, ad riipem adligata est

(nam ita oriiculum iusserat), Perseus subito accurrit. Totam
rem audit et puellam videt. Simul monstrum procul conspicitur.
magnii celeritiite ad locum ubi puella est monstrum appro-
pinq uat. s
~>- · At Perseus, ubi haec vidit, gladium strinxit, et, postquam
\. ·taliiria induit, in caelum altum voliivit. Diii et iicriter cum
monstro pugnat. Tandem Perseus monstrum occidit et Andro-
meda salva erat. Pro tanto beneficio Cepheus Perseo Andro-
meoam in miitrimonium dedit. In finibus Aethiopum Perseus 10
et Andromeda paucos annos in magno honore habitiiverunt.
Tandem autem Perseus cum Andromeda sU:ammiitrem quaesivit
et earn salvam invenit. Paulo post Polydectes et avus Persei quod
fuerant, ii Perseo interf ecti sunt, ille in saxum conversus
(turned), hie disco occisus. 1s


Res difficillima erat caput Gorgonis abscidere, conspectu enim

;!ius homines in saxum vertebantur. Propter bane causam
Minerva speculum Perseo dederat. Ille igitur tergum vertit et
in speculum inspiciebat. Hoc modo caput eius fmo ictii abscidit.
C~terae Gorgones, e somno excitatae et irii commotae, Perseum
necare studebant, sed Perseus fugiens galeam magicam induit.
U bi hoc fecit, statim e conspectii earum eviisit (vanished).
Post haec Perseus in fines Aethiopum (of the Ethiopians)
v~nit, in quibus C~pheus rex erat. Cepheus et Neptiinus, maris
deus, inimici erant; Neptfmus igitur monstrum saevissimum e
mari cotidie misit quod homines devorabat. Cepheus oraculum
consuluit et ii deo iussus est filiam monstro triidere. Eius filia,
Andromeda, pulcherrima erat et a patre magnopere amiibatur; ·
rex tamen imperiita dei facere non dubitavit.

XLVI Higher.
ae'quus, -a, -um, level; fair, just lae'tus, -a, -um, happy
no'tus, -a, -um, famous, well-known
am'plus, -a, -um, large, ample (noted)
bar'barus, -a, -um, foreign, barbarous pos'terus, -a, -um,following, next
(barbarian) prox'imus, -a, -um, nearest, next to
Comparison cer'tus, -a, -um, sure, certain (with dative) (proximity)
dex'ter, -tra, -trum, right; as a sinis'ter, -tra, -trwn, left; as a femi-
of Adjectives feminine noun, the right hand (dex- nine noun, the left hand (sinister)
terity) sum'mus, -a, -um, highest, top of;
di'ligeos, -en'tis, careful, diligent (dili- greatest
gence) tris'tis, -e, sad
128. Regular Comparison. Latin adjectives regularly form the fe1ix, fell'cis, happy, lucky ii'tilis, -e, useful (utility)
comparative by adding -ior, masc. and fem., -ius, neut., and the ini'quus, -a, -um, unequal, unfair,
superlative by adding -issimus, -a, -um to the base of the positive. unfavorable quam, adv. and conj., than, as; how
iiis'tus, -a, -um, right, just (just)
long, longus, -a, -um; longer, longior, -ius; longest, longissimus, -a, -um
swift, velox; swifter, velocior' -ius; swiftest, velocissimus, -a, -um 131. Word Work. Explain the following expressions without
consulting your dictionary:
The comparative may be translated swifter, too swift, or rather
a sinister influence; he works with great dexterity; ample
swift; the superlative, swiftest or very swift. Remember, too, that
room; a diligent worker; in the proximity of our house; public
longer English adjectives form the comparative with the word
utilities; a noted juror; barbarous customs
more instead of adding -er, and the superlative with most instead
of -est: clirior, -ius, more famous; clirissimus, -a, -um, most 131. Ablative of Comparison. The ablative is used to denote,
famous. Great care should be taken to use the translation which comparison, when quam is omitted.
is correct English and makes the best sense, when taken in con- •.• larger than the Romans. • •• maiores quam Romani or ... Romanis.
nection with the meaning of the rest of the sentence.
Compare the following: brevis, fortis, altus, potens. DRILL
(a) Translate:
129. The declension of the comparative is like that of third
declension nouns in -or. The neuter ends in -ius. Compara- 1. via longior 2. iter longius 3. pueri diligentissim.i 4. poeta
tives are not declined like i-stems. tristissimus 5. dextrum cornii 6. leges iustissimae 7. Erat
fortior quam Marcus. 8. Erat non fortior Lucio. 9. mons
SINGULAR PLURAL >altissimus 10. Potentior est principibus.
Nam. lon'gior lon'gius longio'r es longio'r a
Gen. longio'r is longio'r is longio'r um longio'r um 1. A very brave girl . . . 2. The shortest river . . . 3. He was
Dat. longio'r i longio'r i longio'r ibus longio'r ibus than the soldier. 4. I saw the very powerful consul.
Acc. longio'r em lon'gius longio'r es longio'r a
Ab!. longio'r e longio'r e longio'r ibus longio'r ibus gave to the bold general . . . 6. With the very famous
7. On the highest hill. . . 8. Next to the river .. .
The superlative is declined like magnus, -a, -um. A very happy woman... 10. The left wing of the army .. .

182 183

(a) Read the Latin and translate: L. IONIUS BRUTUS

I . Homines fortissimi in campis Germanorum ad regem po- Quod Tarquinius Superbus malus criidelisque rex erat, omnes
temem missi sunt. 2. Filii diligentiores q uam patres erant. cives Romani eum oderunt (hated) et ex urbe expulerunt (drove
3. Poster6 ann6 copiae amplissimae ad fines Gallorum bar- out). Is erat ultimus septem regum qui regnum Romanum ab
barorum iter longissimum fecerunt. 4. Milites a dextr6 cornii 1 urbe condita obtinuerant. Brutus erat dux notissimus coniii-
in proelio fortiores quam hostes erant. 5. Iudices notissimi rationis in (against) malum regem et statim cum Colliitino consul s
cum tiliis et filiabus ad .nostram urbem venient. 6. Leges nostrae creatus est. Ab eo (this) tempore Romani nullum regem habe-
it1sti6res legibus Germanorum sunt. 7. In summo monte nostri bant, sed duo consules.
amici castra hostium spectabant. 8. Gladii iitiliores quam libri Tarquinius a finitimo oppido niintios, quibus magnam pecu-
in proelio sunt. 9. Iter longissimum a mea villa ad urbem reginae niam dederat, ad urbem clam misit. Pecfmia et praemiis regnum
est. 10. Haec via brevior erit q uod sunt montes pauci. recuperare studebat (he desired). Pauci homines in urbe pecu- 10
niam magis (more) quam libertatem amaverunt et pecuniam
tb ) Translate: Tarquini acceperunt et consilia in (against) civitatem inierunt
1. The foreign boys were stronger than the boys in this city. (began). Inter eos malos erant duo filii Brfiti ipsius.
2. Caesar was the most diligent general in the Roman army. Servus amicus ea consilia audivit et duos filios Bruti inter
3. The camp was pitched on top of the mountain, which was coniuratos vidit. Statim ad Brutum consulem properavit et ei 1s
very high. 4. On the following day, we decided to walk to a consilia coniuratorum narravit. Brutus pater bonus erat qui
very well known place. 5. We were not able to find the place, suos filios amabat, sed Romam magis amabat.
because the journey was very long. 6. Our swords were heavier Brutus tristis milites convocavit et eis dixit: "Mei filii in
than the swords of the Roman soldiers. 7. The river is very civitatem coniurant. Comprehendite (seize) eos et ad consules
wide near the bridge but it is not very deep. 8. The right wing diicite." Milites in vias urbis contenderunt. Mox filios et alios 20
of our army was coming towards the large plain. 9. Girls are (other) coniuratos invenerunt quos ad consules duxerunt.
rnor~ careful than boys but boys are faster. 10. They were liidicium brevissimum erat sed iustissimum. Breviter pater sic
th rowing very heavy stones down from the top of the mountain. suis filiis dixit: "Si innocentes estis, vos (yourselves) defendite
(defend)." Filii autem nihil negare poterant. Tum culpa coniura-
1 o n the right wing . torum omnibus clara erat. Mors erat poena trist.issima. 25
Briitus ipse (himself), quod negotium consulis erat, iussit suos
filios interfici (to be killed). Tantum (so much) Romani antiqui
civitatem amaverunt, magis etiam quam liberos ! Itaque Roma
tantum amorem patriae et propter facta fortissima suo-
rum civium maxima urbs facta est (became). 30

184 185
Salus populi suprema lex esto. magis, more, and maxime, most; ido'neus, magis ido'neus, maxime
XlL Vllll Let the safety of the people be the highest law.

I Irregular
au'reus, -a, -um, golden
cu'pidus, -a, -um, eager, desirous of,
followed by genitive (cupidity)
diffi'cilis, -e, difficult
dissi'milis, -e, unlike
me' dius, -a, -um, middle of (medi-
no'bilis, -e, famous, noble, of high
birth (nobility)
par, paris, equal (par)
dii'rus, -a, -um, hard, harsh (durable) propin'quus, -a, -um, near (propin-
extre'mus, -a, -um,farthest; last, end quity)
of (extreme) pii'blicus, -a, -um, public
132. All adjectives ending in -er and a few ending in -lis fo~m fide'Jis, -e, loyal, faithful (fidelity) va'lidus, -a, -um, strong (valid)
the superlative peculiarly. Those in -er form the superlat~ve ido'neus, -a, -um, suitable
by adding -rimus, -a, -um, to the nominative singular masculine infe'rior, lower (inferior) oi'si, conj., unless, if . .. not, except
infimus (or imus), lowest, bottom of post'quam, conj., after
of the positive.
mi'ser, mi'sera, mi'serum mise'r ior, -ius miser'rimus, -a, -um 134. Word Work. Study the following expressions and give
a'cer, a'cris, a'cre a'cr ior, -ius acer'rimus, -a, -um
the meanings of the words in italics:
The following in -lis form the superlative by adding -limus, -a, a durable material; to invalidate a law; the fidelity of the
-um to the base of the positive. boy was questioned; they are on a par; her cupidity was
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE apparent; to publicize the results; an inferior grade; because
faci'lior, -ius facil'limus, -a, -um
fa' cilis, -e, easy of its propinquity to the city
diffi'cilis, -e, difficult diffici'lior, -ius difficil'limus, -a, -um
simi'lior, -ius simil'limus, -a, -um
si'milis, -e, like
dissimil'limus, -a, -um
135. Dative with Adjectives. As has been noted in other vo-
dissi'milis, -e, unlike dissimi'lior, -ius
1::abularies,·the dative is used to complete the meaning of adjectives
Compare the following: meaning like (to), unlike (to), equal (to), unequal (to), suitable (for),
celer, pulcher, liber loyal (to), and near (to).
133. Irregular Comparison. The following adjectives are ir- The Romans were unlike the RomanidmimilesHelvetiis
Helvetians. erant.
regularly compared:
me'lior, better (ameliorate) op'timus, best (optimist)
bo'nus, good
pe'ior, worse pes'simus, worst (pessimist)
ma'lus, bad
ma'ior, greater (major) max'imus, greatest (maximum)
mag'nus, great
mi'oor (mi'ous), smaller mi'oimus, smallest (minimum)
par'vus, small
(minor, minus)
mul'tus, much -, pliis (n.), more (plus) plii'rimus, most
mul'ti, many plii'res, more (plural) plii'rimi, most

Adjectives which have the vowel i or e before the ending -us

form the comparative and superlative by the use of the adverbs

EXERCISES (b) Translate:

(a) Read the Latin and translate: l. Marcus was larger than Lucius, but Lucius was braver.
2.. After they captured the enemy's camp, they marched five
1. Castra maxima ab eorum exercitii trans flumen posita ,
~1les to the town. 3. The noble chief was very similar to the
sunt. 2. Erat fidclis amicis qui in ponte nocte capti erant. kmg of that country. 4. Very many citizens were not able to
3. Postquam oppidum propinquum vidi, litteras ad meas amicos : flee when the town was captured. 5. At midnight a clamor was
scripsi. 4. Regina pulcherrima dona idonea civibus urbis dabat-: beard in the middle of the town. 6. This sword is harder than
5. Naves Romanorum dissimillimae navibus hostium ,erant. : that; it also is longer and wider. 7. The battle was very fierce;
6. Milites qui in proeli6 superati erant fidelissimi imperatori ;
many ~ery_~rave men were killed. 8. From the top of the
erant. 7. Hi libri meliores quam illi sunt; ab optimo viroj
mountam, 1t 1s easy to look at the sea across the plains. 9. The
scripti sunt. 8. Noster exercitus cupidissimus pacis erat; tamen i
very bad boys were throwing stones toward the consul's house.
fortiter pugnavit. 9. Non pugnabit nisi ei gladium longioreml
10. A small white dog is sleeping in the middle of the golden
dederis. 10. Nautae patriae nostrae hodie dissimillimi sunt eis I chair in the garden.
qui in mari inter Britanniam et Galliain navigabant. I
II HELP~ A~ HIN~. ~ sur~ to remember that the superlative

of adJe.ctive~endmg m -er 1s formed by adding -rimus to the
masculine smgular nominative of the positive and not to the
base as in the other adjectives you have studied thus far.
Re°1:e~ber your parts of speech when using after; post is the
prepost~1on, ~ostea the adverb, posterus the adjective, postquam
the conJunct1on.



Erat in Britannia r~x qui quattuor pessimos filios habebat.

D~lor m~mus saepe in animo patris erat, quod frater cum
f~~tre P1:g~a~at. Robertus, qui maximus niitu (the eldest) erat,
f1lius :fideliss1muserat, sed saepe ii fratribus pacem petere coactus
est. 5
_Forte Ro1>c:rtusante aedes stabat. Fratres, qui eum viderunt,
.:vas aquae plenum (full) in caput Roberti per fenestram effiide-
~unt. Ro™:.rtus ira permotus (roused) tel6 pueros pressit, et
.un~ vuln:r~~u~ est. Tum rex, qui iuniores (his younger) filios
habebat canores quam filium maximum niitii Robertum ex 10
..urbe in exsilium pepulit.1 '
1 Present tense form is pello.

188 189
Possunt quia posse videntur. EXERCISES
XJL VK[ll They can because they think they can.
(a) Read the Latin and translate:

I. Servus aquam facilius atque celerius quam femina portare

poterat. 2. Nastri in Gallia difl atque acriter cum hostibus
Comparison pugnabant. 3. Legati quam diligentissime laborare debent.
4. Milites Caesaris fortius quam Germani m.ilites in Gallia
of Adverbs contendebant. 5. Potestis facillime ignes in summo monte vi-
dere. 6. Clamoribus in silva magnopere territa est. 7. Ea
nocte cives in oppidum omnia animalia undique diicere con-
stituerunt. 8. Ad urbem quam celerrime cucurri et ignem prin-
136. The comparison of adverbs is like that of the adjecti ves
cipi nflntiavi. 9. Rei publicae peciiniam dare tandem coactus
from which they are derived , except that the comparative ends
est. IO. Numquam aves pulchriores quam eas vidi.
in -ius and the superlative in -e. There is only one form of the
adv erb in the positive, in the comp arative, and in the superlative.
(b) Translate:
ADJ. Jatus, wide liitior, wider latissimus, widest
ADY. late, widely liitius, more widely liitissime, most widely 1. Our commander ought to wage war as fiercely as possible.
ADJ. acer, sharp iicrior , sha,p er iicerrimus, sharpest 2. The right wing of our army easily forced the enemy to leave
ADY. iicriter, sharply iicrius, more sha,p ly iicerrime, most sharply
the camp . 3. The Germans were larger than the Gauls, but the
Diii is compared as follows: diii, for a long time; diiitius, f or a Gauls fought more bravely. 4. On the next night we remained
longer time; diiitissime, for the longest (or a very long) rime. in the city and watched the games . 5. They broke camp at
daybreak 1 and marched many miles through the territory of
the Romans. 6. Caesar led the troops very quickly from Italy
VOCABULARY into Gaul when there was danger of war. 7. The animals on
coti' die, adv., daily, every day pae'ne, adv., almost the top of the mountain immediately ran toward the river when
de'inde, adv ., then, next pau'lo, adv., (by) a little; pau'lum, i_ they saw the fires. 8. After you finished your work, what did
e'o, adv ., there, to that place a littl e
·-you do next? 9. She had never seen a more friendly woman
fa'cile, adv. , easily pri'mo, adv., at first; pri'mum, for
hue, adv., here, to this place the first time,first r thanthe mother of Julia. IO. You will never be able to see my
ma'gis, adv. , more pro'pe, adv. , nearly , almost; as prep . friends if you do not run as quickly as possible.
magno'pere, adv., greatly with acc., near
mul'to, adv ., (by) much; mul'tum, sta'tim , ad v., at once, immediately :\: (c) Commit'to memory with the translations the following phrases
much tan'dem, adv., at last,finall y froni . Caesar:
un'dique, adv ., from all sides : on
.{·rl. Minus
uon'oum, adv ., not yet
num' quam, adv., never all sides facile. 2. Diu atque acriter . 3. Quam fortissime.
'J;·"4.Prima aestate. 5. Quam celerrime. 6. Solis occasu. 7. A
HELPS AND HINTS. - When quam is used with the superlative , dextro cornii. 8. A sinistro cornfl.
the best English translation is : as ... as possible.
EXAMPLE: quam celerrime, as quickly as possible 1 primi liice.

190 191
READING LESSON Sic semper tyraonis.
XlL[X Thus ever to tyrants.
Antiquis temporibus civitatis Roma.nae fmus vir ex utroque
exercitu (each army) pro omnibus saepe pugnabat. Olim T.
Manlius dux Roma.nus in tali (such) certamine decertavit et
Gallicum ducem quocum pugnabat superavit. Tum de collo of Irregular
mortui Galli monile auri torti detraxit. Ab eo tempore Manlius
..Torquatus" appellatus est. Adjectives
Postea Manlius consul a Romanis creatus est atque dux co-
piarum Romana.rum erat . Milites Romani tam celeriter quam
volebat non semper parebant. Quam celerrime milites parere VOCABULARY
, debent. Militibus igitur Manlius dixit: "Mors supplicium erit, a'lius, a'lia, a'liud, other (alias) uter'que, utra'que, utrum'que, each
si quis (anyone) iniussus (without orders) proelium commiserit." al'ter, al'tera, al'terum, the other (of (of two); plural, both
Brevi tempore Romani cum hostibus pugnabant. In exercitu two) (alternate)
her'ba, •ae, f., grass
Renna.no erat filius Torquati qui fortissimus erat et.semper acer- neu'ter, neu'tra, neu'trum, neither
subsi'dium, -1, n., aid (subsidy)
rime pugnare studebat. In ea pugna imperata sui patris consulis (neutral)
to'ga, -ae, f., toga (a Roman outer
non exspectavit sed proelium commisit iniussus. Post proelium niil'lus, -a, -um, no, not any (nullify)
so'lus, -a, •UBI, only, alone (sole)
consul filium ad se (into his presence) vocavit et statim eum to'tus, -a, •UBI, whole, entire (total)
vic'tor, -or'is, m., victor
interfici iussit, quod sibi (him) non paruerat. iil'lus, -a, •UBI, any i'dem, e'adem, i'dem, the same
Hoc exemplum omnes reliquos milites terruit et semper postea u'ter, u'tra, u'trUB1,which (of two) ip'se, ip'sa, ip'sum, -self (intensive)
cderrime et diligentissime imperatis consulis paruerunt. si'mul, adv., at the same time
137. The declension of the nine adjectives in the vocabulary,
plus iinus, is irregular in the genitive and dative singular. The
plurals are regular. The singular is declineq as follows:
Norn• . nous iina nnum
Gen. iinius iinius iinius
Dat. Doi iini iiDi
Acc. nnum iinam Down
Ab/. iino ilna nno

HELPS AND HINTS. The pronouns idem and ipse also are ir-
regular in the genitive and dative singular . . See § 241.for com-
plete declensions. Learn the declension of d~ and tres, § 234.

138. Word Work. The adjectives in this yocabulary provide

' some interesting derivatives. Do you know the italicized words?
to. alienate one's affections; complet~ neutrality; the sole

survivor; to nullify an act; things happened simultaneously; Barbari qui civem Romanum inimico modo appellare audebant
a Totalitarian state; alternating current; identical twins poenas non tarde dabant. In barbaros iiidicia saepe iniqua
fuerunt. Salus civium suprema lex erat. Exempla iniquorum
EXERCISES iudiciorum multa et nota in libris scripta sunt.
Roma maxima urbs orbis terrarum erat. In media urbe Roma 10
(a) Read the Latin and translate: inter Capitolium et Palatium erat Forum Romanum. Primo
I. Duo pueri eiusdem nominis prope viam sedebant. 2. Uter- parvae tabernae utrimque erant. Post multos annos consules
que equos in agro spectabat, sed neuter eos capere cupiebat. et imperatores templa in Foro aedificaverunt.
3. Soli militi qui non interfectus est in pugna rex villam dedit. In templum Concordiae senatores conveniebant. In rostris
4. Agricola duos filios habebat; alter Marcus appellatus est, Cicero et alii oratores ad populum orationes habebant (delivered). 1s
alter Lucius. 5. Eodem tempore uterque exercitus castra reliquit. Ubique erant altae columnae et simulacra deorum atque statuae
6. Poeta multos optimos libros de re piiblica scripsit. 7. Nullam virorum.
pecfmiam habebant, et erant sine cibo. 8. Caesar ipse copias in Romani toga.ti in Forum saepe conveniebant. Hine Via
proelium contra hostes diicebat. 9. Toga consulis pulcherrima Sacra legiones Roma.nae ad bellum ediicebantur. Via Sacra
erat. 10. In toto mari naves maximae ad Europam navigabant. eaedem legiones victores magnis cum clamoribus in Forum 20
veniebant. Nunc in Foro ruinae undique videntur. Nihil manet
(b) Translate: nisi pauca vestigia antiquae gloriae Roma.nae.
I. Caesar himself saw the enemy, and at the same time the
soldiers ran from camp. 2. The same poet wrote a book about For the meaning of poenis dare, see the Vocabulary.
the nature of things. 3. He finally was able to find the boys who
had thrown the stones. 4. I am the only man in the farmhouse;
there is no other man. 5. Which of the two girls is more beauti-
ful? 6. The king ruled the whole kingdom fairly for many years.
7. After the shouts of the soldiers were heard, many citizens ran
om of the gates of the city. 8. The general of the army sat on a
horse in the middle of the field. 9. Neither daughter wanted to
walk with the mother to the town. 10. Both animals are sleep-
ing in the grass behind the farmhouse.



Populus Roma.nus olim potens erat. Multas enim gentes

orbis terrarum 1 pacaverat. In omnibus terris verba "Civis
Roma.nus sum!" hominem ex iniiiria servare poterant. Itaque
civitas Romana praesidium in periculis dabat et magnum prae-
mium virtiitis erat.
orbis terrirum, world: "the circle of the lands" (around the Mediterranean).

inferior nobilis proximus tristis
L iniquus notus piiblicus iillus
iiistus niillus sinister uter
laetus par solus uterque

I Review

C. Give the meanings of the following:


cotidie ipse numquam prope

deinde magnopere paene quam
139. Vocabulary. eo multo paul6 simul
facile multum paulum statim
ive the genitive, gender' and meaning of the following nouns:
A. G hiic nisi primo tandem
herba subsidium toga victor idem nondum primum undique / ;
(-~ ~

B. Give the meanings of the following adjectives:

barbarus ditlicilis extremus 140. Drill.
certus diligens felix
alius fidelis A. Give the comparative of the following adjectives:
cupidus dissimilis
aller idoneus
amplus dexter durus diligens iitilis parvus miser malus
nobilis ma gnus bonus pulcher multus

B. Give the superlative of the following adjectives:

facilis malus magnus similis bonus
acer iiistus longus nobilis multus

C. Form adverbs from the following adjectives:

latus magnus pulcher fidelis bonus
acer facilis piiblicus certus amplus

D. Give the comparative and superlative of the following adverbs:

bene late celeriter facile
acriter magnopere male . fideliter
misere longe


E. Decline the comparative of latus. 141. Exercises.

F. Decline the superlative of bonus. A. Translate:

1. Niintii ad hoc fliimen quam celerrime cucurrerunt.
G. Give the following forms: 2. Tertia hora milites e castris maioribus celerius quam e cas-
1. the genitive masculine singular of: solus, iillus, alius, ipse, tris minoribus missi sunt.
neuter, the comparative of diirus and of bonus. 3. Germani equis celerrimis ad urbem friimentum portare
2. the dative feminine singular of: niillus, alter, tot us, iinus. coacti sunt.
3. the accusative masculine singular of: par, felix, compara- 4. Proxima nocte legatus fortissimus milites ad pontem diixit.
tive of malus. 5. lmperator optimus potentes cives liberavit.
4. the ablative feminine singular of: tidelis, ipse, comparative 6. Num habuisti libros idoneos huic puero?
of iitilis. 7. Equites Germanorum fortiores erant quam equites Helve-
5. the nominative neuter plural of: diligens, par, comparative tiorum.
of parvus. 8. Aqua pliirima ad urbem propinquam portata est.
6. the genitive neuter plural of: felix, iiistus, comparative of 9. Cives Romani periculum alterius belli semper timebant.
facilis. 10. Castra in hoc loco quinque horis ponentur.
7. the dative feminine plural of: barbarus, difficilis, superlative
B. Translate:
of acer.
8. the accusative masculine plural of: totus, idem, comparative 1. The soldiers were compelled to send the best horses to the
of dissimilis. forces across the river.
2. Very many good weapons were given to the infantry by the
H. Translate:
6. eodem tempore In winter the grain was carried into the towns from all
I. cum servo fidelissimo
7. minus facile sides.
2. melior agricola 4. My sister is very similar to your daughter.
3. in medio monte 8. quam acerrime
9. a sinistro cornii 5. Which of the two armies will arrive at the camp first?
4. proximus fliimini
10. fortior illo homine 6. On the enemy's right wing the cavalry was fighting very
5. maior quam ego
7. The Germans waged many long wars with the neighboring
I. Translate:
8. I have never seen a man more friendly or more loyal to
I. on a very high ship 7. as quickly as possible
2. friendly to us 8. they fought long and
9. Our city is very beautiful because the citizens are very
3. more heavily fiercely
4. on the right wing 9. in the middle of the river
Come as quickly as possible; there is a fire in the farm-
5. most bravely 10. braver than the Germans
6. next to my house (two ways)

198 199
Laborare est orare. VOCABULARY
]L[ To labor is to pray. cognos'co, -ere, -no'vi, cog'nitus, pu'to, -i're, -i'vi, -i'tus, think (dis-
Morro OF THE BENEDICTINE MONKS learn,ftnd out; in the perfect tenses, pute)
know (recognize) remit'to, -ere, -mi'si, -mis'sus, send

cre'do,-ere, cre'didi, -itii'rus, believe, back (remit)
trust (credible) remo'veo, -e're, -mo'vi, -mo'tus, re-
cres'co, -ere, cre'vi, cretii'rus, grow, move, move back (remove)
Infinitives increase (crescent)
exis'timo, -i're, -i'vi, i'tus, think,
sci'o, -i're, -i'vi, -i'tus, know (science)
sen'tio, -i're, sen'si, sen'sus, feel,
suppose, reckon realize (sense)
fran'go, -ere, fre'gi, fric'tus, break spe'ro, -i're, -i'vi, -i'tus, hope (des-
(fracture) perate)
142. The infinitives for all conjugations are formed as shown I intel'lego, -ere, intellex'i, intellec'tus, tra'ho, -ere, trix'i, tric'tus, draw,
understand (intellect) drag (tractor)
below: iun'go, -ere, iiin'xi, iiin'ctus, join va1eo, -e're, -ui, -itii'r,us, be well,
PRESENT ACTIVE INFINITIVE = present stem+ -re: portire. I (junction) be strong (valid)
PERFECT ACTIVE INFINITIVE = perfect stem+ -isse: portavisse. I obti'neo, -e're, -ui, -ten'ius, hold,
obtain, hold against (obtain)
Vale, Valete (imperatives of valeo),
FUTURE ACTIVE INFINITIVE = participial stem + -iir + endings oJl
The compound nescio is generally used instead of non ... scio.
magnus + esse: portatiirus esse. i
PREsENT PASSIVE INFINITIVE=present stem + -ri (except in the! TROIA HODIE
third conjugation, whose present infinitive is the present stem ,
withe changed to i): portari, moneri, audiri, but diici, capi. 1
PERFECT PASSIVE INFINITIVE participial stem + endings
magnus + esse: portatus esse.

PRESENT portiire portari

monere moneri
diicere diici
capere capi
audire audiri

PERFECT portii visse portii tus esse

monuisse monitus esse
diixisse ductus csse
cepisse captus esse
audivisse auditus csse

FUTURE portiitiirus csse

monitiirus esse
ductiirus esse
captiirus esse
auditiirus esse

143. Word Work. Explain the meaning of the italicized words
in the following expressions: (a) Read the Latin and translate:
a tickling sensation; the consensus of opinion; a desperate
1. Ferninae optimae diligentiam filiarum laudare debent.
bandit; unusual i111cllect; scientific investigation; to recognize
2. Equi frumentum multa milia passuum trans campos trahere
an old friend; a frangible bullet; a fractured leg; the junction of
potuerunt. 3. Imperator equites ad castra remitti iussit. 4. Pater
the roads; a conjunction; an incredible story; the vale<iictorr
1 statim pueros gladios frangere coegit. 5. Fabulas quae in bonis
libris sunt cognoscere debemus. 6. "Vale," inquit, "ad longin-
144. The Complementary and Objective Infinitives. The coni- quam insulam eras discedam." 7. Omnes feminae puerique
plementary and objective infinitives, as explained in Lesso~ longe a proelio remoti erant. 8. Quis milites a sinistro cornii a
XLIV, are used to complete the meaning of other verbs. Thp pugna excedere coegit? 9. Pueros et puellas fideles imperatori
tense of a complementary infinitive or an objective infinitive ,s esse iussi. 10. Aestate ad mare vos movere debetis.
always present, but the infinitive may be active or passive. · (b) Translate:
They were able 10 see. Poterant videre.
1. We were not able to drag the body of the horse from the
Thev were able to be seen. Poterant videri.
Th;y will be able to see. Poterunt videre. road. 2. You ought to defend your country from all enemies
They will be able 10 be seen. Poterunt videri. with grea.t courage. 3. The bravest soldiers are not able to be
defeated by any enemies. 4. Who ordered those citizens to
throw the books into the fire? 5. If you are not able to come to
me, I shall come to you. 6. When he left the house, he said
(a) Translate: I "Farewell" to (his) brothers and sisters. 7. The barbarian king
1. Non poterant trahere . . . 2. Debes credere . . . 3. Cupistje compelled the people to give money to the state. 8. Many
cognoscere ... ? 4. Constituerunt ?btin~re . . . ~·. ~oterant ~f- Romans did not desire to be sent from the city. 9. The poet,
moveri . . . 6. Pueros non sperare mbeb1t. 7. M1htes ambulafe who was writing another book, could not be found. 10. "I have
coacti sunt. 8. Poterasne remittere ... ? 9. lungere para.vr- come as quickly as possible," he said, "because I desire to see
rant • • • lo• Ml-11·te·s
iter C'.acere
!, iubentur. l my friends."
(b) Translate into Latin:
1. You ought to learn . . . 2. They will be able to flee. 3. lje ,,:;;, READING LESSON
has decided not to finish . . . 4. Caesar ordered the men .to le }:'[
led. . . 5. Do you desire to see ... ? 6. They forced the line · f ,t
battle to stand.. . 7. Are you able to come ... ? 8. It ought o ,,; In Asia f uit urbs antiqua, nomine Troia. In ea urbe multi et
be placed. . . 9. We shall begin to build. . . 10. He was p fortes cives habitabant, quorum rex Priamus appellatus est.
paring to sail ... Inter Troianos erat Aeneas cuius nomen saepe audivistis.
Contra Troiam trans mare erat terra, nornine Graecia. Graeci
Troianos oderant quod princeps (prince) Troianus, Paris nomine, s
Helenam uxorem regis Graeci abstulerat (had carried off).
Mox omnes duces Graeciae convenerunt et multi navibus ad

Vox populi vox dei.
LI1l The voice of the people is the voice of God.

I Indirect Discourse

145. Indirect Discourse (St~tement). Indirect statements in

Latin, used as objects of verbs of saying, thinking, knowing,
PARIS, PRINCEPS TROIANUS hearing, perceiving, or the like (expressed or implied), have their
main verb in the infinitive with the subject in the accusative
He says that Caesar is brave. Dicit Caesarem esse fortem.
Latin has no word for the introductory that.
I think that the girls have come. Puto puellas venisse.
He saw that the ships had come. Vidit naves venisse.
The time of the infinitive is relative to the main verb; i.e., the
present infinitive is used to show the same time as the main verb;
the perfect infinitive is used to show time before the main verb; the
future infinitive is used to show time after the main verb.
I know that he is coming. Scio eum venire.
I know that he has come (came). Scio eum venisse.
1 ro1am vecti sunt. Decem ann6s Graeci Troianique circum I know that he will come. Scio eum ventiirum (esse).
Troiam pugnaverunt. Neque Graeci urbem Troiam expugnare I knew that he was coming. Scivi eum venire.
o poterant neque Troiani Graecos ex agris suis expellere poterant. I knew that he had come. Scivi eum venisse.
I knew that he would come. Scivi eum ventiirum(esse).
Tandem equus ligneus summae magnitudinis, in quo Graeci
milites celati erant, in urbem a Troianis tractus est. Ea nocte
Graeci ex equo venerunt et portas urbis aperuerunt. Reliqui HELPS AND HINTS. The infinitive esse is often omitted in in-
Graeci statim in urbem inruunt et Troia.nos occidunt. direct discourse, especially in the future.
5 Et in toto bello et in eo ultimo proelio Aeneas fortiter pug-
navit. Tandem deus iussit eum effugere itaque Aeneas cum
patre et filio montes petivit. Romani existimiiverunt ...,,............
fuisse (that Aeneas was) conditorem suae (rheir} gentis.

VOCABULARY 146. Word Work. How does the Latin vocabulary help you to
acce'do, -ere, -ces'si, -cessii'rus, ap- la'vo, -are, lii'vi, lau'tus, wash . understand the following expressions? Can you list other English
proach, go to (access) le'go, -ere, le'gi, lec'tus, read; choose; words related to words in this vocabulary?
ce'do, -ere, ces'si, cessii'rus, yield gather (legible) i
(cede) Iii' do, -ere, lii'si, lii'sus, play (prelude) the house was inaccessible; he was on probation; he was the
clau'do, -ere, clau'si, clau'sus, shut, perti'neo, -e're, -ti'nui, -, pertain; recipient of a reward; indubitably; desist; during the prelude,
desis'to, -ere, des'titi, destitii'rus,
pre'mo, -ere, pres'si, pres'sus, overr
I interlude, postlude; his handwriting was not legible; it was illegi-
ble; judicial approval; the instructor in math; the enemy were
stop, cease (desist) power, crash; press I oppressed
du'bito, (I) doubt, hesitme (indubita- pro'bo, (I), prove; approve of (apt
ble) probation) i
in'struo, -stru'ere, -striix'i, -striic'tus, reci'pio, -ere, -ce'pi, -cep'tus, accep4 147. Expressions of Cause. Cause may be expressed by the
draw up, equip (instruct) receive (recipient) i ablative, usually without a preposition, or by ob or propter with
iii'dico, (1) judge, consider ; the accusative.
In the vocabularies of this and all following lessons, regular Because of fear they left the camp. Timore castra reliquerunt.
verbs of the first conjugation are indicated by (1), instead of -iirel.r
·. He pitched camp here because of Propter niitiiram loci castra
-avi, -atus. . the nature of the place. hie posuit.

HELPS AND HINTS. When dubito is used with a complementary

infinitive, it means hesitate.
When cedo has a prefix, it generally has the meaning of go;
discedo, go away; excedo, go out; accedo, go roward; procedo,
(a) Translate:
go forward. 1. Scio vos probiire . . . 2. Putat milites pugniivisse . . . 3. Di-
cit pueros mitti .. . . 4. Cognovit me ventiirum esse . . . 5. Hostes
;;,. accedere scivit. 6. Nos receptiiros esse sperat. 7. Existimii-
"{ barn exercitum posse superiire . . . 8. Intellegunt nos liisisse .. .
J\} 9. Credisne eum destitiirum esse ... ? 10. Dico te portam clau-
~\qere debere.

(b) Translate into Ltitin the italicized words:

, 1. Caesar says that the army is approaching . . . 2. Do you
·./ think that the men have stopped? 3. I know that he will send . . .
:f 4'. He knows that we can play . . . 5. I think that he is judging .. .
{{(i, He wants to know that we will yield. 7. They believed that
f Qurarmy would defeat.. . 8. He says that Marcus is being sent . ..
/::9. I hear that the ships have sailed. . . 10. We know that he was


EXERCISES reum incendit. Clamores miserrimi fuerunt, at princeps risit et
exclamavit, "Stridor miirium est!" Tum in auribus principis
(a) Read the Latin and translaie: magna vox audita est: "Corpus tuum, miser, miires devoriibunt." 10
I. Milites urbem altissimam oppugnare non posse credit ; Erat in medio Rheno turris sacra. Ad turrim princeps fugit.
2. Caesarem hostes victilrum esse scio. 3. Milites esse pauco~ Putavit se futiirum esse salvum in hac turre. Putiivit miires
cognovit, sed victoriam futuram esse difficilem non existimavitf ad turrim non traniire posse. Mox autem portentum videt.
4. Exercitum nostrum in fines Gallorum diici putamus. 5. Omnef Ripae fliiminis incredibili multitiidine miirium complentur.
Romani Caesarem maximum imperatorem fuisse intelleguntr lam miires in aqua sunt et turrim petunt. Princeps deos orat, 15
6. Caesari agros Helvetiorum milia passuum duo a fliimine abess, sed dei non sunt amici; amicitiam deorum ob criidelitatem
nfmtiant. 7.. lmperator cum exercitii brevissimo tempore mul~ iimiserat. Hostes idoneam poenam siimunt, principi enim misero
milia passuum venire potuit. 8. italiam patriam ducum magn~t longiorem vitam non permittunt. Miires, ut dictum est, corpus
rum esse sciunt. 9. Milices in summo monte manere iussi suntl' devorant.
10. Civibus victoriam vos debere m1ntiare puto.
(b) Translate: I

I. The lieutenant thought that Caesar had led five legions int9
Gaul. 2. The leaders know that the enemy is near and thal
death is feared by many soldiers. 3. We understand that th~
messenger has announced the victory of the tenth legion. 4. W~
all know that Rome has been and still is a very great city
5. I feel that the gods loved all the good Romans. 6. He say
that the ambassadors have been sent to the Gauls. 7. We believ~
that many good books have been written by that poet. 8. Th ·
general announced that the soldiers would not come
place. 9. We said to him that we were not able to sail on accoun
of the large waves. 10. The people hoped that the consuls woul
draw up the line of battle that day.



Erat olim in Germania fames. Omnes qui cibum male provi

derant desperiibant. Labores militares intermittebant. Aut mor
bum aut mortem exspectabant. Multi ii principe cibum petebant
qui copiam friimenti in horreis habebat. Sed animum principi
s criidelis ad misericordiam indiicere non poterant.
Quod criidelissimus erat, magnam multitfldinem in horre
perdiixit ubi friimentum erat, et paulo _post (a little later) hor

Suum cuique. But-
L][][][ To every one his own. lied his horse into the field. Eius equum in agrwn diixi.
CICERO We took their sons to the town. Eorum filios ad oppidum diiximus.

I Reflexives col'lis, -is, m., hill

ar'bor, -oris, f., tree (arbor)

cupi'ditiis, -tii'tis, f., greed, desire

stel'la, -ae, f., star (stellar)
tur'ris, -is, f., tower (turret)
ven'tus, -i, m., wind (ventilator)
(for), used with genitive (cupidity)
g)o'ria, -ae, f., fame, glory a'pud, prep. with acc. among; at
li'berl, -o'rum, m., children the house of
148. Reflexive Pronouns. The reflexive pronoun is declined as lii'na, -ae, f., moon (lunar) cir'cum, prep. with acc., around (cir-
mo'ra, -ae, f., delay (moratorium) cumference)
follows: nego'tium, -i, n., task, business: prae'ter, prep. with acc., except, be-
trouble (negotiate) yond
seni'tor, -o'ris, m., senator pro, prep. with abl., for, before, in
Gen. su'i su'i
si'bi si'bi se'nex, se'nis, m., old man (senile) front of
Acc. seor se'se seor se'se sol, so'lis, m., sun (solar)
Ab/. seor se'se seor se'se
150. Word Work. Explain the meanings of the following
The reflexive pronouns refer to the subject of the sentence or italicized words, consulting your dictionary only as a last resort:
of the clause in which they stand. The reflexives of the first
and second persons are supplied from the declension of ego and they went to an arboretum,· a turreted castle in Spain; a lunar
tii; mei, of myself. tui, of yourself. and so on. or solar eclipse; in the solarium; they were given a moratorium;
The reflexive of the third person serve.s for all genders and they negotiated with the enemy; the cupidity of that person; of
numbers. senatorial rank; pro-labor policies
He wounded himself. Se vulncravit.
Caesar said that he had seen. Caesar dixit sevidisse.
/ wounded him. Eum vulneriivi.
J think that he has seen. Puto eum ,·idisse. (a) Translate:

1. Suum amicum vidit. 2. Cum suis sociis venit. 3. Dixit se

149. The reflexive adjective is sous, sua, suum. It is declined.\
non posse . . . 4. Putamus eum factiirum esse . . . 5. Eius soror
like magnus. It is used to refer back to the subject of the claust dixit . . . 6. Suae matri dedit . . . 7. Eius matri dedi . . . 8. Suas
in which it stands, or to the subject of the main verb of th~;-·: . copias duxit. . . 9. Putat se debere. . . 10. Eorum libri relicti
s.:!ntence. It is rarely used in the nominative case. When the t
English his (or her) is not reflexive, the genitive of the pronoun :t ,
is, ea, id is used.
He led his horse into the field. Suum equum in agrum diixit. 1. He thinks that he can . . . 2. We know that she . . . 3. They
They sent their sons to the town. Suos filios ad oppidum miserunt. their letters . . . 4. I believe that they have found ...

5. They said that he had been sent . . . 6. Have you seen
his horse? 7. We came with them. 8. The boys praised
themselves. 9. Their father was killed. 10. The senator said
that he ...
151. Dative of Purpose A dative expressing purpose is often
used in connection with another dative called a dative of reference.
This is sometimes called the "double dative."
The legion served as aid to Caesar. Legio auxilio Caesari fuit.
It is a matter of safety for the women. Est saliiti feminis.


(a) Read the Latin and translate:

1. Viri optimi se non laudant. 2. Senator suis amicis de suis
rebus narrabat. 3. Poeta de stellis et lii.na et sole et ventis
scripsit. 4. Post victoriam nuntius sine mora ad suam villam
cucurrit. 5. Suae matri se peciiniam invenire non potuisse dixit.
6. Pro castris acies prima a legatis instructa erat. 7. Vos et eos READING LESSON
circum oppidum iter facere iussos esse scio. 8. Lucius auxilio
senatori in urbe esse cupivit. 9. Puella se litteras a poeta ac-
cepisse dix.it. 10. Milites non videre poterant quod nox Galli urbem Romam expugnaverant, et totam urbem praeter
stellis aut luna erat. montem Capitolinum deleverunt. Eum (it) expugnare non po-
terant quod mons altus erat et moenia magna et valida erant. In
(b) Translate:
. eo monte erant milites et cives Romani qui supererant. Circum
I. The brave lieutenant led his troops around the hill behind s Capitolium Galli stationes disposuerant et mortem Romanorum
the enemy's camp. 2. The senator said that he desired to read e~pectabant. Sed Romanis neque cibus neque aqua deerat, ita-
rhe poet's books. 3. There was no wind, and the sea was with- que Gallos deriserunt. Panem etiam ad Gallos deiecerunt.
out waves. 4. We hope that the men in the ship will sail to our Qua.dam (a certain) autem nocte unus ex custodibus Gallicis
land tomorrow. 5. He hesitated to tell his father about the vidit nuntium Romanum m1dis pedibus discedere de Capitolio.
delay. 6. Eagerness for money has compelled many men to do ,. Statim custos ad ducem Gallicum properavit et id nuntiavit.
unfair things. 7. The winds are very strong and I do not think : Proxima nocte, dum luna obscura est (was), Galli montem
that we shall reach the island. 8. My business today is very . <;ap.itolin~m.magno !ile~ti~ ascendere coeperunt, sequentes (fol-
difficult, but I hope that I shall see you after noon. 9. "Fight . lowzng) sein1tam qua nuntrns Roma.nus descenderat. Anseres
as bravely and fiercely as possible," said the general to his troops; , autem sacri . excitati (aroused), ubi (when) Galli ad summum
"we shall defeat our enemy today." 10. The bravest foot soldier ,, is montem appropinquaverunt, magnum strepitum (cackling) emit-
had been sent from the town as an aid to the messengers. . , tunt. Miles Roman us, Manlius norpine, e somno excitatus

212 213
(aroused), primum Gallum in summum murum ascendentem
Ave, Imperator! Morituri te salutant.
(climbing) petit (attacks) et de miiro deicit. ]L]IV Hail, Emperor! Those about to die salute you.
Hie Gallus reddens (falling backward) in Gallos seq uentes CALL OF GLADIATORS ENTERING THE ARENA
(following) incidit et ei omnes reliquos Gallos ad imum (the

burrom of) montem reiecerunt.
Tali modo Capitolium a Manlio, viro forti, et strepitu anserum
sacrorum servatum est. Postea Manlius "Capitolinus" appellatus
est. Participles

152. Latin Participles. There are three participles in Latin,

the present and future in the active voice and the perfect in the
passive voice. (There is also a gerundive, or future passive
participle, which will be taken up in a later lesson.)
They are formed as follows:
PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE= present stem+ -ns or -ens:
portans monens diicens audiens

PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE= participial stem+ endings of

portatus monitus ductus auditus

FUTURE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE = participial stem+ -iir + endings of

portatiirus monitiirus ductiirus auditiirus

153. Time of Participles. The time denoted by the participle

is relative to the time of the principal verb. The present participle
denotes the same time as the principal verb; the perfect partici-
ple, time before; and the future participle, time after the time of
the principal verb.

154. Declension of Participles. All participles are declined like

inagnus, except the present, which is declined like potens, except
thatit has e in the ablative singular (§231).
A participle is a verbal adjective. Like a verb, it may take an
object and be modified by an adverb; like an adjective, it agrees
with its noun or pronoun in gender, number, and case.

155. Translation of Partici plcs. DRILL ON PARTICIPLES
Present active : portiins, carrying , while carrying.
Perfect passive: portiitus, having been carried, carried. (a) Translate:
Future active: portiitii.rus, about to c,my, intending to carry.
I. Pueros ludentes vidi . . . 2. Equites in proelio victi, ...
The participle also may be translated by a relative clause: 3. Erat pugnatiirus . . . 4. Poeta, sub arbore legens, . . . 5. Pe-
1\liilites vulneriiti, the wounded soldiers, or the soldiers who had been wounded.
dites, cum suis sociis iuncti, . . . 6. Receptiiri sumus . . . 7. In
Equites oppugniitii.ri, the cavalry who were aboul to attack. silvam tracti, . . . 8. Imperator, hostes superatos esse putans, ...
9. Negotium, tribus horis confectum, . . . 10. Puella hos libros
VOCABULARY lectiira est.
adu;; 'co, -ere, -dii.x'i, -duc'tus, lead eniin'tio, (I), report, announce (b) Translate:
w . infl11ence expo'no, -ere, -po'sui, -po'situs, set
cir.:wuve'nio, -i're, -ve'ni, -ven'tus, forrh; explain (exposition) I. He was wounded while fighting in Europe. 2. The line of
s110-01111d,come around in'cito, (I), stir up, arouse (incite) battle, drawn up on a hill, . . . 3. The shouting soldiers were
commo'veo, -e're, -mo'vi, -mo'tus, intermit'to, -ere, -mi'si, -mis'sus, stop,
heard . . . 4. He was about to break his sword . . . 5. Believing
move thoroughly, alarm (commo- interr11p1(intermittent)
ti(>n) occi'do, -ere, -ci'di, -ci'sus, kill , cut the boy wounded, I ran . . . 6. We are about to march .. .
cum'pleo, -e're, -ple'vi, -ple'tus, fill down 7. The wounded foot soldier, surrounded by the enemy, .. .
llp, complete (completion) op'primo, -prim'ere, -pres'si, -pres'- 8. Having been incited by their leaders, they fought. . . 9. I
ci'i:ispi 'cio, -ere, -spex 'i, -spec'tus, sus, crush, overpower (oppression) was about to interrupt the game . . . 10. His mother, while ex-
se,·, catch sight of triidii.'co, -ere, -dii.x'i, -duc'tus, lead plaining to him the route, ...
Je n' do, -ere, -fe'ci, -fec'tus, fail; across
rei ·olrfrom (with ii and abl.)(defect)
diruil'to, -ere, -mi'si, -mis'sus, send inte'rior, -ius, adj., inner
,nrny, dismiss pri'or, -ius, adj., former, first
supc'rior, -ius, higher, former

156. Word Work. Using this vocabulary, try to explain the (a) Read the Latin and translate:
mc-aning of the italicized words without a dictionary: 1. Media nocte ad Caesarem litteras portantes venerunt. 2. Vi-
a commotion in the hall; to be deficient in algebra; her enuncia- r~s victos laudabimus qui in pugna audacter pugnabant. 3. Au-
tion was very good; to circumvent the regulations; upon com- d1ens viros clamantes in medio monte stabam. 4. Consul milites
p let ion of the notes; the exposition at Chicago; incited by their timens urbem relinquere cupiebat. 5. Germani fideles suum
captain; intermittent showers; during the intermission; oppressed ducem interf ectum portantes ad oppidum veniunt. 6. Pedes
by masters; a priority; superior intelligence; interior part vulneratus in medio proelio gladium amisit. 7. Caesar suas
copias opprimentes hostium cornu dextrum vidit. 8. His verbis
adducti, territi pueri se recipere 1 ad patres constituerunt. 9. Prin-
cipem in castris duas horas dicentem audivi. 10. Prima acies
castra oppugnabat, sed secunda acies, instructa in colle, hostes

serecipere retreat.

216 217
( b) Translate:
I. At midnight Caesar gave a letter to the messenger standing
in front of the camp. 2. Holding the sword in (with) his wounded
hand, the brave boy was waiting for his brothers . 3. Having
been influenced by the senate, the Roman people praised its faith-
ful generals (who were) about to depart. 4. The right wing was
near the river, but the left wing, fighting in the plain , was being
overpowered by the enemy. 5. He said that that part of the
river had been filled up with large stones. 6. I hope that the
little girls, frightened by those noises, will come to our farmhouse
in a short time. 7. The lieutenant, having been dismissed by the
chief, decided to revolt from the army. 8. We shall be able to
surround those wounded soldiers in a very short time. 9. The
interior part of the house was filled with a large number of well-
known men. 10. He said that he had seen the bodies of four
men, killed in the battle, near the bridge . e!
tollit_ tum Hippomenes prior est. Mox tamen Atalanta propter
celentatem suam eum praeterit (passes). Hippomenes igitur
secundum pomum demittit, sed iterum Atalanta pomum tollit et
READING LESSON eum consequitur (overtakes). Nunc ad metam appropinquant. 20
Orans auxilium a dea, Hippomenes tertium pomum demittit.
ATALANTA Atalanta id quoque tollit sed spatium ad metam brevius (too
short) est. Hippomenes est victor. Pro (instead of) poena mortis
Olim in longinqua terra habitabat potens rex, nomine Schoe- Hippomenes Atalantam in matrimonium diicit.
neus . Eius filia, Atalanta, celerrima omnium mortalium erat.
Quod Atalanta tam pulchra erat, multos procos habebat. Fortfma
autem procorum mala erat. Omni (to each) proco Schoeneus
s di xit, "Si Atalantam certiimine pedum (in a fool race) vinces, tum Translate into Latin :
earn in matrimonium dficere poteris; si Atalanta te vincet, poena
Have you heard that the Germans had a very famous general
mors erit."
named Ariovistus? Caesar knew that this man was braver than
Tandem ad regiam Schoenei venit Hippomenes , qui Atalan- all other leaders of the enemy. Ariovistus did not hesitate to
tam in matrimonium ducere cupiebat. Schoeneus ei condiciones
wage war with the Romans, for he thought that his soldiers were
10 pr6posuit. Inde Hippomenes auxilium a Venere 6ravit , quae ei the bravest in Europe. Caesar thought that the Roman soldiers
tria aurea poma dedit. Tum Hippomenes dixit se ad certamen would easily defeat the Germans. And so they fought in Gaul,
esse para.tum. and in a great battle the Germans were finally defeated. But the
Oum haec geruntur (are being done), omnes am1c1 reg1s ad
victory was very difficult, and many thousands of very brave
certamen convenerant. Signum tuba datur. Magno cursii Ata- Romans were wounded and killed. Caesar afterwards said to his
1s lan ta et Hippomenes emicant. Atalanta autem celerior est itaque
men that they had fought very bravely . He also said that he
Hippomenes fmum ex tribus pomis demittit. Atalanta pomum
would lead them into many other battles in the following year.

158. Drill.
A. Make a copy of the following "box score," and fill in the
blanks with the proper forms of the infinitives of porto, moneo,

I Review
diico, capio, and audio.


157. Vocabulary.
A. Give the genitive, gender, and meaning of the following nouns:

arbor Hina sol

collis mora stella Future
cupiditas negotium turris
gloria senator ventus
liberi senex
B. Make a copy of the following box, and fill in the blanks with
the proper forms of the participles of laudo, habeo, rego, facio,
B. Give the principal parts and meanings of rhese verbs: and miinio,with the meaning of each.

accedo deficio intermitt6 prob6 TENSE ACTIVE PASSIVE

adduco desisto iudico puto

cedo dimitto iungo recipi6 Present
circumveni6 dubit6 lav6 remitt6
claudo enuntio !ego remove6
cogn6sc6 existim6 ludo scio
commove6 expono obtineo senti6 Perfect
comple6 frango occido spero
conspicio incit6 opprim6 traduco
credo instru6 pertine6 trah6
cresco intellego premo vale6

C. Give the meaning of the following: C. Give the following forms:

apud prior praeter superior 1. the genitive singular of negotium, cupiditiis, credens
circum pro interior 2. the dative singular of sui, collis, instriictus

220 221
3. the accusative singular of sol, iungens, prior 1S9. Exercises.
4. che ablative singular of turris, speriins, sui A . Translate:
5. the nominative plural of eniintians, negotium, victor
6. the genitive plural of senator, collis, exponens l. Propter inopiam friimenti Caesar ibi per aestiitem manere
7. the dative plural of ventus, arbor, sui non poterat.
8. the accusative plural of sciens, stella, triictiirus. 2. In regno huius regis inimici multae iniuriae factae sunt.
3. lmperator suis militibus se illo die pugnare cupere eniin-
D. Translate: tiavit.
4. Equos currentes per agrum maxima cum celeritate vidi.
I. He hesitated to receive ... 5. Se multas res de sole et liina et stellis cognovisse dixit.
, They ought to stop. 6. Suum fratrem fortiorem quam meum patrem esse putabat.
3. We know that they are being moved back. 7. Naves peciinia completas esse et nautas navigare parare
4. I think that the children have failed. scivimus.
5. He hoped that I would read ... 8. Puella parva cum maioribus liberis liidere dubitabat.
6. We believed that he had been sent back. 9. Meus amicus a suo patre auxilio legato in Galliam missus
7. They ordered the soldier not to kill. erat.
8. Do you think that they have learned? 10. Caesar hostes aciem instruentes in summo monte vidit.
9. He was not able to drag .. .
10. Did you decide to close . .. '? B. Translate:

E. Translate the italici ze d words : 1. The woman did not believe that her son had revolted from
the army.
I. Hi s children came. 6. We know that they will see .. . 2. He saw that the citizens were alarmed by the letter from
2. i reported to their friends. 7. They say that they desire . . . the consul.
3. He said that he was able . . . 8. He finished his business. 3. I think that they will come to this town within three days.
4-. Caesar led his troops .. . 9. Their ji-iends were coming . 4. We caught sight of a little animal running toward the woods.
). I saw their army . .. 10. I hope that you will mak e . .. 5. After the battle was interrupted, the chief led the infantry
around the hill.
F. Translate the italicized words : 6. The soldiers, aroused by the king's words, decided not to
I . The senator, influenced by the words of the consul, decided ... revolt.
2. Many trees, broken by 1/ie wind , were left ... 7. He heard the poet reading his books to the people of the
3. We were about to surround . . . town.
4. I am about to receive ... 8. I understand that you think that we are not able to come.
5. The children, playing on the hill, were seen ... 9. The horses dragged the trees, which had been cut down,
6. While drawing up the line of baTtle, the general saw ... toward the river.
7. We watched the soldiers marching to battle. 10. We all hope that our brave army will defeat the barbarian
8. She gave help to the wound ed foot soldiers. enemies in Gaul and Germany.
9. I was intending to explain . ..
10. "Farewell," he said to his mOlher.

222 223
Crescat scientia. The perfect passive subjunctive is formed by substituting sim,
JLVll May knowledge increase! sis, sit, simus, sitis, sint, for sum, es, est, sumos, estis, sunt in the
MoTro OF UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO perfect passive indicative.
portitus sim, .. . portiti slmus, . ..

I The Subjunctive
monitus sim, .. . moniti sinUtS, •.•

The pluperfect active subjunctive is formed by adding the per-

sonal endings to the perfect active infinitive:
portivissem, portivisses,.,.
monuusem, monuisses, ...
fuissem, (uuses, ...
160. The subjunctive is commonly used to represent something
as willed, desired, possible, doubtful, or even contrary to fact, The pluperfect passive subjunctive 1s formed by substituting
while the indicative mood is used to indicate facts. No transla- essem, esses, esset, essemus, essetis, essent, for eram, eris, erat,
tion is given for the subjunctive in the paradigms, as the mean- erimus, eritis, erant, in the pluperfect passive indicative.
ing of a subjunctive varies with its use.
portitus essem, ••• portiti essem11S,•••
The present subjunctive is formed as follows: monitus essem, ••• moniti essemus, •• ,
FIRST CONJUGATION= present stem (with a changed toe)+ per-
suncz! endings: porte m. (Passive, porte r) VOCABULARY
SECOND AND FOURTH present stem (with vowel
CONJUGATIONS= au'rum, -i, n., gold perter'reo, -e're, -ui, -itus, terrify
fer'rum, -i, n., iron quae'ro, -ere, quaesl'ri, quaesi'tus,
shortened)+ _a+ personal c:ndings: mont:am, audi am. (Passives,
pi1um, -i, n., javelin (with ab and abl.j seek; inquire
monc a r, audi a r) scii'tum, -i, n., shield (inquisition)
THIRD CONJUGATION=present srem (wi he changed to a)+ per- tribii'nus, -1, m., tribune ro'go, (l), ask (interrogative)
val'les, -is, f., valley (vale)
sonal endings: due a m. (Passive, due a r)
au'tem, conj., howe~·er; moreover
ar'mo, () ), arm, equip e'nim, conj.,/or
The imperfect subjunctive is formed by adding the personal consis'to, -er-e, coo'stiti, -stitii'rus, vel, conj., or
endings to the present active inrinitive: halt; take a stand
er'ro, (l), wander, make a mistake ve'ro, adv., in truth; indeed; but,
(err) however
portire m, portire s, .. . portare r, portare ris, .. . perfi'cio, -ere, -fe'ci, -fec'tus, finish,
monere m, monere s, .. . monere r, monere ris, .. . accomplish (perfect)
esse m, esse s, ...

HELPS AND HINTS. Do not try to translate the forms of the

The perfect active subjunctive is formed by adding -erim, -eris,
subjunctive. They will be explained in the following lessons.
-crit, -erimus, -eritis, -erint, to the perfect stem.
Notice that there are only four tenses of the subjunctive,
portiherim, portaveris, . . . compared with the six in the indicative, and three in infinitives.
monuerim, monueris, .. . Learn the subjunctive of swn and posslDD,§ 250.
fuerim, fueris, ...

224 225
ll :;l. Word Work. It is interesting to see how the following
words have developed their present meanings: THE BEGINNINGS OF ROME

Jiyinitive, from in (not)+ finio (/imir), is the mood of the verb Proca, rex Albiinorum, duos filios N umitorem et Amulium
\,nich merely names the action without limiting it by person habuit . Numitori, qui friitri aetiite antecessit, regnum reliquit;
.:,r number. sed Amulius friitrem expulit et regnavit. Postea Rheam Silviam,
F£urion, from factionem, comes from facio, do. Faction means a Numitoris filiam, Vestae sacerdotem fecit, quae tamen geminos
raki ng sides (a doing), but the French word meant also shape or filios Romulum et Remum edidit (bore). s
;u m1 and from the French spelling we get fa shion. Ubi Amulius rem cognovit, Rheam Silviam in vincula coniecit,
Dilapidated, from dis (apart)+ la pis (swne) , means literally with et pueros in Tiberim (the Tiber) abiecit, qui turn forte (by chance)
th,' stones torn apart, or, freely, in a ruined condition. super ripas erat effusus. Sed brevi tempore aqua pueros in sicco
T.:mpe rance, from temperantia, moderation or self-restraim, h_asac- (dry land) reliquit. Tum lupa, ut fama est, ad vagitum venit,
•1uired in addition a specialized meaning of self-restraint as pueros lingua lambit, matrem se gessit. Ubi Faustulus, pastor 10
::ipplied to indulgence in intoxicating liquors and is used very regis, rem vidit, pueros ad casam portiivit et coniugi Accae
.::l)rnnwnly in this sense. Larentiae dedit .
S orrano, from super (above)+ suffix -anus, comes into English Romulus et Remus a Faustulo et Acea Larentia educati sunt.
from the Italian and means the highesr vo<'alregister, i.e., above Mox omnes pa.stores vi superaverunt, et latrones a rapina pecorum
rh..::others. arcere coeperunt. Latrones igitur malum consilium ceperunt 1s
Gorernor, from gubemator, sreersnwn, guider, ruler, comes into (formed a plan) et pueros aut e terrii expellere aut interficere
English through the French . Originally it was appli ed to the cupiverunt.
:-,tecrsman of a ship, but then took on a more general idea of Remus captus est, sed Romulus e periculo praesenti se eripuit.
guiding. Tum Faustulus necessaria re coiictus 1 Romulo dixit Numitorem
Pil~rim , from peregrinus (per+ agros), a for eigner, a stranger, has eius avum esse. Romulus statim cum pastoribus armiitis ad 20
~ome to us through the French after several curious twistings avum properiivit.
c,!' letters and means a traveler, especially in strange lands.
necessirii recoictus compelled by necessity.
\ V hen you have learned the forms of the subjunctive , so that
yoL: do not have to refer to the book , write the following :
A sy nopsis, in the subjunctive only, of-
1. rogo in the first person singular, active and passive
, cerreo in the second person singular, active and passive
.). quaero in the third person singular, active and passive
4. perficio in the first person plural, active and passive
5. sentio in the second person plural, active and passive
b. iungo in the third person plural, active and passive
7. sum in the third person singular
8. possum in the third person plural

Caveat emptor.
lLV][][ Let the buyer beware! ORI LL ON HORTATORY SUBJUNCTIVE
(a) Translate:
1. Omnes conveniant . . . 2. Ne pugnemus . . . 3. Mihi pecii.-
niam det. 4. Consulem audiamus. 5. Ne frangat . . . 6. Ne
The Hortatory venire dubitent. 7. Librum tuum legam. 8. Ne equos incitemus.
9. Ne terreatur... 10. Ne nos videant.
(b) Translate:
1. Let him ask us . . . 2. May they not find . . . 3. Let us
162. The Hortatory Subjuncthe. A wish or command in the hasten... 4. Let him not hear. 5. Let me join... 6. May
first or third person is expressed in Latin by the present subjunc- she be strong... 7. May they not play... 8. Let us prove ...
tive, usually translated in English by let or may. The negative 9. Let us sit... 10. Let him not fear.
in Latin is expressed by ne.
Let the boys come. Pueri veniant.
Let us all send aid. Omnes auxilium mittamus. (a) Read the Latin and translate:
Let them not think . . . Ne putent ..•
1. Pro patria nostra maxima cum virtute pugnemus. 2. Ne
May he not arrive . . . Ne perveniat •••
umquam audiam vos a periculo cucurrisse. 3. Friimentum ab
VOCABULARY agris illius agricolae omnes portemus. 4. Pueri in via Hidentes
discedant. 5. Ne verbis eius senatoris noti moveamur. 6. Ne ad
cala'mitlis, -ta'tis, f., disaster, mis- iiidi' cium, -i, n., judgment; trial hanc vallem sine aqua et cibo veniant. 7. Nostras condiciones
fortune (calamity) or'bis, -is, m., circle; world (orbit)
c..:ntu'riii, -o'nis, m., centurion, cap- potes'tlis, -tli'tis, f., power, co11tro/
pacis accipiant, et nostri amici maneant. 8. Labor hodie con-
tain (of JOOmen) re'gio, -o'nis, f., district, region ficiatur; eras laborare non cupiemus. 9. Nastri milites in Ger-
co11di'ciii, -o'nis, f., terms, condition senten'tia, -ae, f., opinion maniam longa pila portantes iter faciant. 10. Ne finem huius
djusuetii'do, -dinis, f., habit, custom va'dum, -i, n.,ford, shallows diei pulchri umquam videamus!
oifficul'tas, -tli'tis, f., difficulty
fos'sa, -ae, f., ditch su'bito, adv., suddenly (b) Translate:
uiocr'na, -ii'rum, n. pl., winter cump, um'quam, adv., ever 1. Let them not think that I have been defeated by him.
winter quarters (hibernate)
2. May she always think that her sons were not killed in the
ir.si'diae, -ii'rum, f., trap, ambush, ca'lidus, -a, -um, hot
plot (insidious) fri'gidus, -a, -um, cold
war. 3. Let us all look at the army marching to the camp.
4. Let me not hear that you fled from the winter quarters.
163. Word Work. Explain the meaning of the italicized words 5. May that centurion not lead his forces into the territory of .1
in the following expressions: " the enemy. 6. May the judgments of our famous judge be ac-
regional schools in that county; an insidious habit; the bears cepted by allthe citizens. 7. I hope that your children will learn
were hibernating in the forest; a difficult situation, but not a .many things about the moon and the stars. 8. Let him not
calamity; the judge gave a sentence that was considered judicious,· ·.-hesitate to speak his opinion about the plot. 9. Let us halt in
in the Russian orbit · this little valley, far from the enemy's camp. 10. Let the brave
foot soldiers throw their javelins from ,'the top of the hill.
Similia similibus curantur.
LV][][[ Like cures like.

Olim dei irati erant quod homines per totum orbem terrarum
mali impiique erant. Nee iam templa deorum adibant nee sacri-
ficia faciebant. Dei igitur eos punire consticuerunt.
Iuppiter, rex deorum, cum reliquis deis magnam poenam parat. Purpose Clauses
5 De toto caelo imbres (rains) continuos in terras demittit. Primum
fl[1mina agros inundant itaque mare crescit. Mox nihil nisi
summi montes videri possunt. Tandem moos Parnasus solus
caput ab undis tollit. Hie Deucalion et Pyrrha parva rate (raft) 164. Adverbial Clauses of Purpose with Subjunctive. In Eng-
adhaerebant, nam hac rate salutem petiverunt cum primum (as lish, purpose is often expressed by the infinitive: We fight to
rn soon as) dei imbres demiserunt. Periculum mortis magnum erat, conquer. But in Latin prose, purpose is expressed not by the
sed mansuetiidine deorum confisi sunt (trusted, with abl.) interriti. infinitive but by the subjunctive. The subjunctive is introduced
Fides autem eorum non vana erat. Nam Iuppiter vidit omnes by ut, to, that, in order that, if the purpose is affirmative; but
alios homines submerses esse, praeter hos quibus propter pieta- by ne, that ... not, (in order) that ... not, if the purpose is
tem eorum pepercerat (spared, w. dat.). negative.
15 Tum maria recedebant et in omnibus terris Deucalion Pyrrha-
que soli supererant (were left). Maesti ad templum venerunt et We fight to [(in order) that we may] Pugnamus ut superemus.
hoc oraculum ii Pythia acceperunt: "Si novum genus hominum
We fight (in order) that we may not Pugnamusne superemur.
cupitis, post tergum ossa magnae parentis iacite." be conquered.
Hoc oriiculum ambiguum erat, ut omnia 6riicula sum. Tandem
20 autem Deucalion excliimavit, "Terra est magna parens omnium These are sometimes called "pure" purpose clauses. They are
rnortiilium. Fortasse saxa sunt ossa magnae parentis." Statim a adverbial because they modify the verb.
tcmpl6 discesserunt et Deucali6n fecit ut ei imperatum est (as Always remember to put the English phrase of purpose into a
he was ordered). Tum miriibile dictu (wonderful to say) saxa clause with (in order) that before beginning to translate into
viri et feminae facta sum (became). Tali mod6 homines ad Latin.
25 terriis auxilio deorum reverterunt.
165. "Substantive Clauses of Purposes" with Subjunctive. The
so-called substantive clauses of purpose are used principally as
objects of certain verbs to denote something willed or desired.
As in the adverbial purpose clauses, the verb is expressed in
Latin not by the infinitive but by the subjunctive. The clause is
introduced by ut, to, if the verb of the "purpose" is affirma-
tive, and by ne, not to, if the verb is negative.
We order him to conquer. Ei imperamus ut superet.
We order him not to be conquered. Ei imperamus ne superetur.

Substantive clauses of purpose are used as objects with most Chopin; she enjoys grand opera; his oratorical skill; the magni-
verbs signifying to request, command, urge, persuade, or induce. tude of the crime
Before beginning to translate imo Latin, remember that here,
There are many other good English derivatives from the words
also, to and not to take the subjunctive with ut and ne respectively
and not the infinitive. in this vocabulary; look them up with the aid of your dictionary.
167. Sequence of Tenses. In purpose clauses, only the present
VOCABULARY and imperfect subjunctive are used. The present tense is used
altitii'do, -dinis, f., height, depth (al- o'pus, o'peris, n., work (opera) if the verb in the main clause is present or future; the imperfect
titude) ora'tio, -o'nis, f., speech (oration) subjunctive is used if the verb in the main clause is imperfect,
do'lor, -o'ris, m., grief, pain, suffer- perfect, or pluperfect.
ing (dolorous) im'pcro, (I), order, command (with
flos, flo'ris, m.,flower dat.) (imperative) He is coming to see us. Ut nos videat venit.
gc'nus, -eris, n., kind, sort; class, man'do, (I), command; emrust (with He will come to see us. Ut nos videat veniet.
race (generic) dat.) (mandate) But-
iiis, iii'ris, n., right, justice o'ro, (I), beg (with ab and abl.) He came to see us. Ut nos videret venit.
liititii'do, -inis, f., width (latitude) (orator)
magnitii' do, -inis, f., size, greamess persua'deo, -e're, -sua'si, -suasii'rus, DRILL ON SEQUENCE
mens, men'tis, f., mind (mental) persuade (with dat.) (persuasion)
merca'tor, -o'ris, m., merchallf, trader pos'tulo, (I), demand (with ab and Translate into Latin the italicized words:
o'nus, o'neris, n., burden (onerous) ab!.) (postulate)
1. I shall send my brother to report . . . 2. I sent my brother
to report . . . 3. He is coming to hear . . . 4. He had asked me
HELPS AND HINTS. lmpcro, numdo, and pcrsuadeo take the
dative of the person, as noted, and in addition the subjunctive not to run. . . 5. We shall persuade them to remain. . . 6. He is
of "purpose" (substantive) as an object, with ut or ne. Remem- being sent to choose.. . 7. I have asked him to sail with me .. .
ber, however, that the word iubeo, order, requires the infinitive 8. They will come to look at . . . 9. He persuaded me to fight .. .
with an accusative subject. 10. Will you come with me to warn them ...
If you will remember that impcro means give a command (10 ),
mando (from manus + do) means give in hand (to), and pcr-
suadeo means make very pleasing (to), you will use the dative
of the person naturally. (a) Read the Latin and translate:
Postulo, oro, and quacro take the ablative with a preposition,
to denote the person, and in addition the subjunctive of purpose 1. Pugnamus fortiter ut a duce laudemur. 2. Ducibus im-
(substantive) as an object, with ut or ne. Peto (Lesson XXXI) perat ut itinere Helvetios prohibeant. 3. Ille vir fratri persuadet
takes the same construction as postulo. ut regnum in civitate occupet. 4. Caesar ab eis postulavit ut
Rogo and moneo take the accusative for the person, in addition
to the purpose clause. .decem ex principibus ad se addiicerentur. 5. Celerrime cucurrit
· ne a suo patre caperetur. 6. Tibi mandabo ut has litteras ad
consulem portes. 7. Niintius ad urbem missus est ut cives de
166. Word Work. Explain what 1s meant by the italicized periculis moneret. 8. lmperator copiis barbaris imperat ut iter
words in the following expressions:
per fines Gallorum maxima cum celeritate faciant. 9. Dux
an onerous task; in a mental decline; dolorous strains from the . mandat ut omnes Belgae sibi tela et arma omnia tradant. 10. Mi-
piano; he is taking up the study of jurisprudence; Opus 9 of litibus imperavimus ut castra ad montem ponerent.

232 233
(b) Translate: READING LESSON

I: We _sent the boys_to the town to see the games. 2. He is THE REIGN OF ROMULUS
askmg his father to give him the money. 3. The leader with
great difficulty persuaded the soldiers to fight in that valley. Olim Romani Sabinos ad Hidos Romanos invitaverunt. Sabini
4. She b~gged her mother not to send her to that school. 5. Th€y cum uxoribus et filiabus et filiis libenter venerunt. Sed Romani
fightmg very fiercely in order to def eat a very powerful army
:.;,r_e malum consilium ceperant et in mediis liidis pulcherrimas filias
,)! the Gauls. 6. I shall send my sister to the city to see the Sabinorum abstulerunt (carried off). Sabini autem pauci numero
krn_gand queen. 7. We command you to complete the work erant. Necessaria re coacti filias Romae (at Rome) religuerunt s
wluch you have . begun . 8. Caesar asked the other messengers sed magna ira permoti sunt.
t0 carry the gram by cans to the camp . 9. The consuls order
Exitus igitur liidorum magnam difficultatem ferebat. Nam
the lieutenant to make peace with the enemy. 10. Caesar fought Sabini, patres et propingui virginum guae in urbe remanere
long and fiercely to conquer the enemies of Rome. coactae erant, Romanis bellum intulerunt. Tum Romulus cum
hostibus in eo loco ubi nunc Forum Romanum est proelium 10
In medio proelio virgines quae raptae erant processerunt; a
patribus suis et coniugibus orabant ut finem pugnae facerent.
Utrigue his precibus (entreaties) commoti sunt. Pugnare desti-
terunt (ceased) et piicem fecerunt. Urbs communis Romanorum ts
et Sabinorum facta est.
Postea Romulus civitatem rexit. Centum senatores legit, eosque
ob aetatem dignitatemque "patres" appellavit. Populum in tri-
ginta curias distribuit. Anno regni tricesimo septimo inter
tempestiitern subito ex oculis hominum ereptus est. Alii eum 20
a senatoribus interfectum, alii ad deos sublatum esse existi-


Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?
lLlX Who will guard rhe guards themselves?
169. Ablative of Description. The quality or description of a
noun is expressed by the ablative with an adjective.
There was in Gaul a river of great Erat in Gallia fliimen magnii
depth. altitiidine.

Subjunctive The genitive is also used to express quality or description, but

as this use is just like the English we need only learn the rule for
of Result the ablative. Definite measurement must be expressed by the
The river was six feet in depth. Fliimen sex pedum altitiidine erat.
168. Result is exprc:-.sedby the subjunctive introduced by ut,
whether the clause is affirmative or negarive. The main clause
often contains tantus, so great, sic, ita, tam, so, or some word EXERCISES
of similar meaning. In the subordinate clause any negative
(non, nemo, numquam, for example) may be used. The rule for (a) Read the Latin and translate:
sequence of tenses, § 167, should be followed. 1. Tela ita coniecerunt ut duodeviginti ex hostibus interfice-
The boy is so good that he is lvved. Puer tam bonus est ut ametur. rentur. 2. Tantus timor mortis omnes captivos occupavit ut ex
Caesar's courage was so great thar Virtus Caesaris tanta erat castris discederent. 3. Legati periculum tam dift timuerant ut
he could nor be conquered. ut vinci non posset.
exercitum relinquerent. 4. Flumen tanta altitftdine est ut totum
VOCABULARY exercitum tradftcere non possimus. 5. Pueri tam celeriter cucur-
i'ta, adv., so, in such a way; thus quattuor'decim, fourteen rerunt ut a nautis capi non possent. 6. Tales sunt condiciones
neces'se, indecl. adj., necessary quin'decim, fijiem pacis ut hostes nobis pecftniam quindecim annos debeant. 7. Vir-
sa'tis, adv., enough; as an indecl. se'd.ecim, sixteen tfts peditum nostrorum tanta erat ut capi non possent. 8. Meus
noun, enough, with gen. septen'dccim, seventeen
frater tam fortis est ut tuum gladium frangere possit. 9. Tantas
sic, adv., so, in this way duodevigin'ti, eigh1ee11
tii'lis, -e, adj., such, of such a kind iindevigin'ti, nineteen
copias equitum habemus ut omnes hostes nos oppugnare dubi-
tam, adv., so tent. 10. Tot milites in castris hostium erant ut satis cibi et
tan'tus, -a, -um, so much, so grear er'go, adv., therefore aquae non esset.
tot, indecl. adj., so many praeter'ei, adv., besides
tre'decim, thirteen pro'cul, adv., far off, ar a distance (b) Translate:
1. Marcus was so strong that he was able to defeat all the
HELPS AND HINTS. To distinguish pw·pose and result clauses other boys. 2. The Romans had such a large army that they
try the following rule : if that means in order that, the clause were able to conquer the Gauls. 3. Our city is so beautiful that
is one of purpose; if that means with the result tha1, it is one of
result. Negative purpose clauses are easily distinguished in
many people come to see it. 4. She was so terrified that she
Latin, as they are always introduced by ne. asked her father to guard her. 5. He reads so well that the other
Ita and sic are usually used with verbs, tam with adjectives boys can understand very easily. 6. The dangers were so great
and adverbs. that they did not want to leave their homes. 7. The consuls
were so diligent that all enemies were driven out of the city.

8. He fled so swiftly that l was not able to catch him. 9. That
river is so wide that we cannot see the enemies' camp. 10. Caesar LX
was a man of so much courage that he fought with the soldiers
in many battles.


170. Vocabulary.
A. Give the genitive, gender, and meaning of the following nouns:
READING LESSON altitiido dolor insidiae mercator potestas
aurum ferrum iudicium onus regio
THE WEATHER-WISE DONKEY calamitas flos ius opus scutum
Ludovicus, rex Gallorum, hominibus qui astrologi vocantur centurio fossa Iatitudo oratio sententia
maxime confidebat. Astrologi per stellarum motum imbres condicio genus magnitudo orbis tribunus
ventosque praedicunt. Olim rex, dum in silvis est, tam celeriter consuetudo hiberna mens pilum vadum
cucurrit ut ante omnes socios praeterveheretur (was carried). difficultas
5 interim caelum nubibus completur, graviterque imber in terram B. Give the principal parts and meaning of:
cadit. Rex igitur, qui parvam casam inter arbores vidit, tempes-
armo impero perficio postulo
tatis (from the storm) perfugiurn petivit.
consisto man do persuadeo quaero
Tum ubi rex graviter astrologos incusavit, agricola cuius casa
erro oro perterreo rogo
erat dixit: "Nulla tempestas me incautum excipit, semper enim
10 meus asinus voce rauca imbrem praedicit." Rex risit et re- C. Give the meanings of the following:
spondit: "Si tuus asinus tam bonus astrologus est, meos as- autem frigid us procul talis umquam
trologos semper in numero asinorum habebo." calidus ita satis tam vel
enim necesse sic tantus vero
ergo praeterea subito tot
Nasica Enni poetae amicus erat. Nasica ad Ennium venit et
171. Drill
ab ianua eum quaesivit. Servus dixit, "Ennius domi non est."
Ennius domi erat et id Nasica noverat; non tamen respondit, A. Give a synopsis in the subjunctive only, active and passive, of:
sed domum revertit. 1. laudo in the first person singular.
5 Postea ad Nasicam venit Ennius. Huie ipse Nasica dixit, 2. moveoin the second person singular.
"Non sum domi." Tum Ennius dixit, "Nonne cognovi vocem 3. iacio in the third person singular.
tuam ?" Nasica respondit, "Homo es impudens; ego servo tuo 4. diico in the first person plural.
credidi: tii non credis mihi." 5. audio in the third person plural.

238 239
B. Write in Latin the nwnbers fr orn 1 to 20. 172. Exercises.
C. Give and name the five infinitives of pono.
D . Give, name, and trans/are the three paniciple s of incito and A. Translate:
perficio. 1. Legatus suis imperavit ut in castris eo die manerent.
2. Ne putemus nostras mentes superiores mentibus Gallorum
E. Copy and fill in the blanks in the following sentences: esse.
1. Affirmative purpose clauses are introduced by --. 3. Viri tam cupidi gloriae erant ut maxima cum virtute pugna-
2. Affirmative result clauses are introduced by --. rent.
3. Negative purpose clauses are introduced by-- . 4. Omnes nostris senatoribus ut cibus et frflmentum ad Eur6-
4. Negative result clauses are introduced by --. pam mitti debeant persuadeamus.
5. Both purpose and result clauses normally use only the -- . 5. Oratio tam longa erat ut manere non possem ut finem
or the -- tenses of the subjunctive. audirem.
6. If the verb in the main clause is present or future tense, the 6. Nostri cives postulant ut leges nostrae patriae aequae sint.
- - tense must be used in the subjunctive in both purpose and 7. Magna cum celeritate currit ut ignem in illo colle videat.
result clauses. 8. Onera erant tam gravia ut equi ea ad nostram villam por-
7. If the verb in the main clause is in any past tense, the -- tare non possent.
tense must be used in the subjunctive in both purpose and result 9. Ne audiam te id opus optimum intermisisse.
clauses. 10. Legatus opus tam celeriter confecit ut castra relinquere
8. The hortatory subjun ctive uses only the -- tense. meridie posset.
9. A negative hortatory subjuncti ve in Latin is introduced
by--. i
B. Translate:
IO. The hortatory subjun ctive is translated in English by-- · I. Let us all be friendly to the men; they have come to see
or--. our city.
2. The centurion ran so fast that he arrived at the camp before
F. Translate: all the others.
1. mons magna altitudine 6. Ne pugnemus 3. The general ordered the troops to stay in the winter quarters.
2. postulavit a suo amico 7. perterriti his rebus 4. Let the men put their shields and javelins in the ditch across
3. persuasit patri suo 8. milites pugnantes in agrq the valley.
4. rogavit suam mauem 9. rogatura erat 5. The power of that king was so great that he could even
5. imperavit servo 10. multa milia passuum kill the citizens .
6. I asked the poet to send me a book about the stars .
G. Translate: 7. The ditch was so wide and deep that we were not able to fill it.
8. He will send a messenger to the enemy's camp to carry
l. as an aid to the general 6. we can persuade him the terms of peace.
2. of the running slaves 7. they hesitated to ask me 9. Her sorrow was so great that she did not wish to see her
3. a city of great size 8. on top of the mountain friends.
4. a river ten feet in depth 9. for fourteen miles 10. The centurion came to our camp to report the ambush of
5. let them come 10. for seventeen days the German horsemen.

240 241
Tempos edax rerum. But - He asked what we were doit\\'. Rogii\'it quid faceremus.
LXI Time, the devourer of (all) things. He oskerf ll'hat we had done. Rogii\'it quid fecissemus.
aedifi'clum, -i. n., h11ildi1\f{(edifice) ,·es'tis. -is. f., clothing (vest)
au'ris, auris, f .. e<,,. ,·igi'lia, -ae, f., watch (one fourth part
cur'sus, -iis, m .. r111111i1i~.
course (cur- o{ the ni.irhr) (vigilant)
Indirect Questions sory)
,·is, vis, f., force, violence; pl., vl 'res,
-ium, strength
ex'itus, -iis, m., departure, 11 ·ay out.
end (exit)
fi'des, -ei, f., faith, loyalty commii'nis, -e, adj., common (com-
fo'rum, -i, n .. forum, market place munity)
immorti'lis. -e, adj., immortal
173. Indirect Questions. An indirect question follows a verb ne'mo (acc. neminem). 110one
o'culus, -i, m .. eve (oculist) prhii'tus, -a, -um, private
of knowing, asking, and the like and is a subordinate clause used quan'tus, -a, -um, how much? how
por'tus, -iis, m .. harbor (rort)
as a~ object.. It is introduced by an interrogative word or ex- great? <quantity)
seni'tus, -iis, m., senate
pression and 1s expressed by the subjunctive. spe'cies; -ei, f.. s~f!ht. appearance
175. Word Work. Explain the meaning of the italicized words
Where were they? He heard where they were.
Ubi erant? Audivit ubi essent. in the following expressions:
Where are you? He knows where you are. a cursory glance; a magnificent ed{fice: a species of plant; a
Ubi es? Seit ubi sis. vigilant guardian; the immortality of the poet Vergil; his nightly
vigil; a co1nmz111ityohjective: I went to an oculist; the nearest
174. Sequence of Tenses. All four tenses of the subjunctive exit; a very busy porr: senatorial approval
are used in indirect questions. The complete rule for the sequence
of tenses is as follows:
Primary Tenses. 1f the :erb in the main clause is in the pres-
ent or future tense, the verb m the subjunctive is in: (a) Translate:
l. the present tense, if the time is the same as that in the I. Seit quis sis. 2. Scivi cur vcmsses. 3. Rogavit quid face-
main clause, or time after that of the main clause· rem. 4. Rogabit ubi fueris. 5. Cognovit cuius equus curreret ...
2. the perfect tense, if the time is before that of th~ main 6. Rogavistine a quo vulneriita esset? 7. Sciveras quid facerent.
verb. 8. Sciam cui id des. 9. Cupivit scirc quem vidissemus. 10. Ro-
Secondary Tenses. If the verb in the main clause is imper- gabat qui mitti deberent.
fect, perfect, _or pluperfect, the verb in the subjunctive is in:
I. the 1mperfeG_ttense, if the time is the same or after that
of the main verb;
2. the pluperfect tense, if the time 1s before that of the
main verb.
He asks what we are doing. Rogat quid faciimus.
He asks what we have done. Rogat quid fecerimus.

(b) Translate: READING LESSON

1. He asked who had been fighting. 2. Do you know to whom A DISASTER REUNITES BROTHERS
she gave it? 3. We shall learn why he did . . . 4. They do not
know who is being sent. 5. They had learned why she was Marcus et Lucius fratres erant. Multos annos hi friitres, qui
coming. 6. He will ask whose friends saw . . . 7. I knew what in eodem oppido finitimas domos habebant, inimicissimi inter se
she was saying . . . 8. He wants to find out why they came. erant. Calamitate tamen gravissima ad amicitiam reducti sunt.
9. Did you see what he was doing? IO. I do not know where he Si scire cupitis quo modo hoc factum sit, omnia quae ego ipse
found ... audivi vobis narrabo. 5
Erat oppidum antiquum, sub monte Vesuvio positum, Hercu-
laneum nomine. cuius aedificia pulcherrima erant. Ut negotium
EXERCISES quoddam gereret, Marcus olim prima Hice domo excessit, et
HercuUfoeum contendit. Negotio cum celeritiite confecto , do-
(a) Translate:
mum redire constituit. 10
1. Rogiivi cui peciinia daretur. 2. Per magnos cliimores cog- Paulum ex oppido progressus (having progressed) , subito terram
novimus ubi liberi essent. 3. Quaeram ii Caesare qui lapides in moveri sensit. Simul nee sol nee caelum ipsum conspici poterat;
fossam iecerint. 4. Nautae nostri sciebant ciir naves in portum ignes autem summae magnitftdinis in monte Vesuvio videbantur.
niivigiirent. 5. Quartii vigiliii legiitus qui ex castris fiigissent His rebus Marcus ita perterritus est ut longius procedere non
cognovit. 6. Nem6 scivit quid factum esset. 7. Rogiivi meum posset. Eum morantem (delaying) quidam ex oppid6 fugiens ita 15
patrem quo in loco vestem posuisset. 8. Cognovitne ubi esset monuit, "Ne moremur (Let us not delay)! Nisi mors tibi gratior
exitus aedifici? 9. Dei immortiiles sciunt quid homines faciant et est quam vita, mecum veni !"
fecerint. IO. Rogiibat suam miitrem quid in silvii faceret. Marcus voce magis quam verbis motus , "Frater," inquit , "te
sequar (/ shall follow) et nunc et semper." Cognoverat enim
(b) Translate: deos Lucium sibi auxilio misisse. 20

I. My friends asked me why the children had remained for N.A.I.S. Beta Exam, 1957 (adapted)

five hours in the forum. 2. The centurion ordered the messen-

gers to find out where the buildings were. 3. Do you know by
whom the ship was made? 4. Will you ask the captive why
he does not answer? 5. The consuls knew that the enemy were
in the city, but they did not know what they ought to do. 6. He
sent his son to find out who had led the animals from the field.
7. I know that you are ~II asking why he did it. 8. She hesitated
to ask the men what was in her eye. 9. He was a man of such
great strength that he was able to break the sword with his hands.
I 0. Let them not ask what we have given to the wounded foot


Deo volente.
LX[l God (being) willing.

I The Ablative

176. The ablative absolute consists of two words in the ablative

case loosely connected grammatically with the rest of the sentence.
It may consist of -
(1) a noun and a participle: signo dato.
(2) two nouns: Caesare imperiitore.
(3) a noun and an adjective: periculo magno.
· The first construction (using the participle) is by far the most
common of the three mentioned here.
The participle and the adjective must agree with the noun m
CONSUL ROMANUS gender, number, and case.
The ablative absolute is usually best translated by a clause. It
(Optional) generally denotes time, cause, condition, or concession. The noun
Translate into Latin: in the ablative absolute never denotes the same person or thing as
the subject or object of the main verb.
T~e R~man consul knew that many men had come together
at mght m order to form a conspiracy (coniiiritio, -onis, J.). 1. Signo dato, oppidum oppugnavcrunt. (The signal having been given)
When the signal had been given, they attacked the town.
He also knew what men had come and what they had decided 2. Caesare imperatore, ad victoriam exercitus diicetur. (Caesar [being]
to do. He learned that the leader of this conspiracy was a man general) If Caesar is general, the army will be led to victory.
named Catiline (Catilina, '-ae, m.). The consul was so brave 3. Periculo magno, Caesar signum dedit. (The danger [being] grea1)
that he was not afraid to go into the senate and say what he Since the danger was great, Caesar gave the signal.
had learned. He said to the senate that Catiline wanted to 4. Multis militibus amissis, oppidum expugnavimus. (Many soldiers having
been lost) Althorir;lrmany soldiers had been lost, we took the town by storm.
burn many buildings in the city and kill the chiefs of the state.
He persuaded the senate to send Catiline from the city. He
also asked the friends of Catiline to leave the city. He asked HELPS AND HINTS. The verb sum has no present participle.
them what they were able to do in the city. Catiline and his Consequently the connecting word being cannot be expressed
in Latin, but must be supplied in the English translation. Study
friends were so alatmed . by the speech of the consul that they sentences 2 and 3.
fled that same night.

246 247
177. Perfect Participles. There is no perfect active participle directions. Study the meaning of the following verbs, using the
in Latin. We cannot put literally into Latin: The leader, having General Vocabulary, if necessary:
given the signal.fought bravely. There is no Latin word meaning differo dimitto discedo dispono dispello
having given, but the same idea may be expressed by changing
the participle to the passive and making it agree with signal in Note the effect of the suffix -ium denoting something connected
the ablative instead of with leader in the nominative. with the action of the verb, either the act itself or the result: aedi-
fico, build; . aedificium, a building. Study the meanings of the fol-
(The signal having been given) When the signal had been given, the
leader fought bravely. Signo dato, dux fortiter pugnivit.
lowing words, using the General Vocabulary, if necessary:
studium consilium maleficium
Such an ablative absolute may be rendered as an independent imperium colloquium subsidium
coordinate clause: The leader gave the signal and fought bravely.
Note the effect of the prefix, re- (red-), back or again, when used
VOCABULARY in compound verbs: refero, bring back. Study the meaning of the
following verbs, using the General Vocabulary, if necessary:
collo'quium, -i, n., conference, con- conser'vo, (1), keep, save (conserve)
versation (colloquial) incen'do, -ere, -cen'di, -cen'sus, burn, recipio revertor repello retineo removeo remitto reddo
impe'rium, -i, n., military power, com- set on fire (incendiary)
mand, control (imperial) pel'lo, -ere, pe'puli, pul'sus, rout, DRILL ON THE ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE
ini'tium, -1, n., beginning (initial) drive, defeat (repel)
sagit'ta, -ae, f., arrow (a) Translate:
permit'to, -ere, -ml'si, -mis'sus, en-
spa'tium, -i, n., distance, interval trust, permit (permission) 1. Hostibus pulsis . . . 2. Pace facta . . . 3. Aedificiis omnib~s
(of time or space) (spatial) permo'veo, -e're, -mo'vl, -mo'tus, incensis . . . 4. Sagittis fractis . . . 5. Foro completo . . . 6. Mih-
stu'dium, -i, n. , eagerness, zeal (stu- move deeply, alarm
dious) tibus defessis. . . 7. Victoria reniintiata. . . 8. Caesare duce ...
prodii'co, -ere, -diix'i, -duc'tus, lead
tempes'tis, -ti'tis, f., storm; weather forward, produce (production) 9. Cursii confecto. . . 10. Caesare Bibuloque consulibus ...
(tempest) propo'no, -ere, -po'sui, -po'situs, set (b) Translate:
forth, put forth, propose (proposi-
defes'sus, -a, -um, tired tion) I. These things having been finished . . . 2. After the terms
impedi'tus, -a, -um, hindered, in diffi- reniin'tio, (1), report, announce of peace were proposed . . . 3. After seeing the storm ...
culty (impeded) vis'to, (]), lay waste, devastate 4. Having announced the calamity . . . 5. The enemy's cavalry
mi'rus, -a, -um, strange, wonderful
having been routed . . . 6. Under the leadership of Lentulus .. .
178. Word Work. Explain the meaning of the italicized words 7. In the consulship of Sulla . . . 8. After reading the book .. .
in the following expressions: 9. Our march having been hindered . . . JO. The javelins having
been thrown ...
the proposition was presented to us; she sailed in tempestuous
weather; the constellation Sagittarius; he uses colloquial Eng- HELPS AND HINTS. Whenever you see a noun and a perfect
lish; an imperial edict; an incendiary origin; unlimited produc- passive participle in the ablative absolute construction in Latin,
tion; a permit to light fires; the idea was repulsive to C1em; translate it first in the following way: After blank had been
spatial relations; his initial attempt; a studious type blank(ed). Examples: hostibus visis, after the enemy had been
seen; mllite vulneriito, after the soldier had been wounded. This
Note the effect of the prefix dis-, apart, in different directions, will give you a rough translation and you can then make a more
when used in compound verbs: distribuo, apportion in different exact one, if you need to.

248 249
250 251

(a) Read the Latin and translate: OCT AVIAN BECOMES RULER OF ROME

I. Cur, pace facta, diutius pugnatis? 2. His rebus gestis. Post Iiili Caesaris mortem illi qui eum occiderant ex urbe
Belgae statim legatos ad Caesarem de pace miserunt. 3. His fiigerunt. Jmperium exercitus Romani Marco Antonio, viro
copiis coactis, Brutus maxima castra in medio monte posuit. summae auctoritiitis qui Caesari amicus fuerat ii seniitii datum est.
4. Caesar, armis omnibus in oppidum coactis, exercitui friimen- . Octavia.nus, autem, qui postea Augustus est appellatus, ad urbem
tum dedit. 5. Omnibus feminis et liberis ab urbe remotis Romam a Graecia quam celerrime venit, atque imperiurn sibi s
adventum hostium exspectabant. 6. Agricola miser, villa in~ petivit. Tandem Octavia.nus pacem et amicitiam cum Antonio
censii, niillam domum habebat. 7. Litteris acceptis, imperiitor sociisque eius confirmavit. Hi duo principes, brevi spatio inter-
dextrum cornii hostium oppugnare constituit. 8. Servis libe- misso, inimicos Caesaris oppresserunt.
ratis, dominus suos filios in agris laboriire iussit. 9. Colle occu- Paulo postea Antonius ad provinciam suarn discessit, et apud
piito, nostri ad fliimen maxima cum celeritate cucurrerunt. Cleopatram, reginam Aegyptiorum, morabatur (delayed). Qui- 10
IO. Equis defessis, equites ambulare constituerunt. dam cives Romani dixerunt Antonium Cleopatram populi Ro-
mani reginam factiirum esse. His rebus incitiitus Octavia.nus
(b) Translate: bellum Antonio intulit et victoriam conseciitus est (gained)
Omnibus inimicis per totum orbem terrarum victis, Octavia.nus
I. After the camp had been pitched, the leader ordered his
ad urbem rediit ut solus civitatem cum pace regeret. 15
men to fill up the ditch. 2. Since the danger was great, the
Id quod Julius Caesar facere temptaverat confecit Octavia.nus
lieutenant gave a signal for battle. 3. When all of these things
Augustus. Timore atque periculo cives Romanos liberavit. Salus
had been done, the men remained in their camp. 4. When the
provinciiirum Augusto magnae ciirae erat. Itaque postquam cog-
signal was given, the sailors sailed towards the river where the
novit quantas iniiirias passae essent (they had suffered), alias
enemy were waiting for them. 5. The infantry having been
provincias regebat ipse, alias senatui commisit. Ille omnia tam 20
routed , the cavalry was ordered to surround the enemy's camp.
bene gessit ut ii sen:ltu pater patriae appellaretur et post mortem
6. After marching eighteen miles that day, all the soldiers were
suam in numero deorum haberetur.
tired. 7. After he had seen a fire in the farmhouse across the
N.A.1.5. Beto Exam, 1956 (adopted)
valley, the small boy ran to the town to report to his father.
8. After pitching their winter camp in Gaul, the soldiers did not
want to work any lon~er. 9. The centurion, after seeing the
enemy's ambush in the neighboring woods, ran to report it to
the general. 10. Since the whole region was filled with water,
the farmers were forced to flee to the hills.



Non omnis moriar.
LXII][ I shall not wholly perish.

I Deponent Verbs

179. Deponent verbs, so named because they lay aside passive

meanings, have passive forms with active meanings. These verbs
are found in each of the four regular conjugations and are dis-
tinguished by the ending of the present infinitive: -iri, -eri, -i, -iri.
A deponent verb has a few active forms: the future infinitive,
the present and future participles. The perfect passive participle
sometimes has a passive meaning.


180. Word Work. Explain the meaning of the italicized words

VOCABULARY in the following lines, using your English dictionary only as a
last resort:
ar'bitror, -ii'rl, -i'tus sum, think proficis'cor, -1, profec'tus sum, set
(arbitration) out, depart our progress; a patient person; a doctor's patient; the se-
co'nor, -ii'ri, -ii'tus sum, try, allempt se'quor, se'qul, secii'tus sum, follow quence of events; on consecutive days; disastrous consequences; a
(with infin.) (conative) (sequence) board of arbitration; an aggressive halfback; a moratorium of war
hor'tor, -ii'ri, -ii'tus suqi, urge, en- conse'quor. -i, -cii'tus sum, gain,
debts; she took lessons in elocution; the interlocutor at the minstrel
courage (with ut or ne and subj.) overtake, pursue (consecutive)
show; to exhort one's sons
ve'reor, -e'rl, -itus sum, fear
lo'quor, lo'qui, locii'tus sum, speak, vi'deor, -e'rl, visus sum, seem Gradiormeans walk or step. See how many English derivatives
talk Ooquacious) you can think of ending in -gress.
collo'quor, -i, -cii'tus sum, confer aggre'dior, -1, -gres'sus sum, ap-
mo'ror, -ii'ri, -ii'tus sum, delay (mor- proach, attack (aggressive)
181. Ablative of Specification. The ablative of specification is
atorium) ' congre'dior, -1, -gres'sus sum, meet,
used without a preposition to define the application of a noun,
pa'tior, pa'ti, pas'sus sum, suffer, come together (congress)
adjective, or verb. It answers the question, "In what respect?"
permit, allow (with infin.) (patient) egre'dior, -1, -gres'sus sum, go out,
polli'ceor, -e'ri, -itus sum, promise disembark (egress) He was king in name. Rex nomine erat.
(with fut. infin.) progre'dior, , -1, -gres'sus sum, ad- The boy was large in body. Puer corpore magnus erat.
vance, go forward (progress) He was not surpassed in courage. Virtiite non superiitusest.

252 253
(a) Translate: ! 1. All had set out at daybreak, and they tried to follow the
!enemy twenty miles. 2. The consul ~ill urge the citizens to
1. Verebimur, hortabatur, sequi. 2. Sequeris. patiebar, cona- !fear the immortal gods. 3. We promised the senator that we
tus eram. 3. Proficiscar, egressi sunt, progredientur. 4. Morata lwould do nothing on that day. 4. We shall delay in the city as
est, profectus erat, loquebatur. 5. Arbitrabuntur, videntur, ag- ;long as possible, and confer with our friends. 5. The general did
grediebatur. 6. Pollicitus sum, patitur, patientur. 7. £gressi !not allow the soldiers to advance across the river. 6. They were
sumus, conati estis, verebar. 8. Sequetur, passus est, morata erit. \approaching the city at night, but they ~ere not afraid. 7. ~he
9. Consequimur, congredientur, verebuntur. 10. Hortabimini, \soldiers thought that our army would disembark from the ships
coniibiimini, passus eris. 'on the next day. 8. He seems to think that we will not try to
,send aid. 9. My mother talked with her friends for many hours,
(b) Translate: but she was not able to persuade them that they ought to set
1. We are delaying, they will follow, he has promised. 2. She out. 10. The boy was stronger than his father, but he was not
has tried, you will fear, they advance. 3. I was suffering, he is equal to him in courage.
trying, you will meet. 4. They delayed, we had approached,
he will have talked. 5. He seems, they were setting out, I shall
urge. 6. You have delayed, you will promise, she will follow.
7. They have advanced, he is disembarking, I shall not promise. ·
8. Will you try? he has followed, I had permitted. 9. We are
conferring, they will confer, I am advancing. 10. Let him suffer,
Jet them not delay, they will have tried.

(a) Read the Latin and translate:
1. Niintium mittere conabimur ut cum civibus colloquatur.
2. Imperator, qui magnopere verebatur, legaturn hortatus est
ne progrederetur. 3. Proficiscentur ex urbe ne inimici con-
sulibus videantur. 4. Pater filio imperavit ut liberos libros
bonos legere pateretur. 5. Ad urbem progredimur ut Galli
potestatem nostri regis vereantur. 6. Equites hostes multa milia
passuum per silvam fugientes seciiti sunt. 7. Imperator pollicitus
est se ante proelium pedites hortatiirum esse. 8. Constituere
coniimur quern niintium ad illum ducem mittere debeamus.
9. Pueri fratresque erant pares et virtiite et viribus. 10. Cras
proficiscar, si me cum mea matre colloqui patieris.
In medio tutissimus ibis.
l..X[V The middle course is the safest.

Fero and Eo

182. Fero has a peculiar conjugation in the present indicative.
A ROMAN PLEDGE Note that all the rest of the forms are formed regularly from
the principal parts, and need cause no difficulty. Learn the
Romani antiqui bella longa cum Carthiiginiensibus gerebant. conjugation of fero, § 252.
Haec gens erat audax et potens, quam Romani maxime timebant.
Nam seniitus Romiinus hostes e Sicilia urbem Romam ipsam 183. Eo also is an irregular verb. Learn the complete conju-
oppugniitiiros esse putabat. Propter hoc periculum, Romani . gation, § 253, noting especially the present indicative, future
5 consilium ceperunt audiicissimum. Consulem Regulum cum ex- indicative, and present subjunctive.
ercitii in Africam miserunt, ut Carthiiginem caperet.
Carth~ginienses paucis proeliis victi celeriter pacem petebant. 184. Place Constructions. Locative Case·. With names of cities,
Colloqu,o autem facto tam iniquiis condiciones accipere coiicti towns, small islands, domus, and riis, the preposition is not used
sunt ut riirsus pugniire constituerent. Posteii non solum Ro- in expressions of place.
10 miinos superiiverunt, sed etiam Regulum ceperunt. Ducem These words express place at which by a case called the locative.
captum ad urbem Romam re~Ureiusseruiit his verbis: "Libertii- Its form is like the genitive in the singular of nouns of the
tem tibi reddemus si nostri captivi a Romanis dimittentur. Si first and second declensions, otherwise like the ablative.
non dimittentur, redi ad nos quam celerrime." RUINAE VILLAE HADRIAN!
Itaque quid fecit Regulus? Se haec factiiru.in esse pollicitus,
15 sine morii ad seniitum Romiinum profectus est. Seniitoribus,
"Captivos," inquit, "reddere non debetis'. Sunt enim fortes, ego
autem non iam validus sum. Vos sine me facile superatiiros
arbitror. Hostes autem sine militibus captis bellum diiitius gerere
non poterunt."
20 Nemo Regulum e senatii egredientem retinere conatus est.
Filiis amicisque spectantibus, Carthiiginem statim rediit hie dux
Roman us fortissimus, neque vitam posteii egit felicem; eum ab
hostibus interfectum esse Romani crediderunt.
N.A.1.S.Beta Exam, 1959 (adapted)

256 257
(b) Translate:
1. We shall go, he was crossing, they have brought back.
PLACE FROM WHICH Ab, de, ex with Ablative Ablative
He comes ... from the city, Ab mbe from Rome, Rom\-.enlt.
2. He is approaching, they will bear, you have collected. 3. He is
"fenit. from home, Dom6 "fenit. going back, I shall go out, we were crossing. 4. They had in-
flicted, we approached, you will cross. 5. He bears, they bear,
PLACE TO WHICH Ad, in with Accusative Accusative I go across. 6. To Rome, at home, in Italy. 7. From Spain,
He runs ... to the city, Ad urbem to Rome, Romamcurrit.
currit. home, Domumcmrit.
from home, at Rome. 8. From Rome, (to) home, to Germany.

PLACE IN WHICH In with Ablative Locative 186. The ablative is often used adverbially with comparatives,
He is ... in the city, In mbe est. at Rome, Romae est. also with ante and post, usually to express the degree of difference.
at home, Doml est.
He came a little while ago Paulo ante venit.
(literally, before by a little).
VOCABULARY He fights much more bravely Multo fortius pugnat.
(literally, more bravely by much).
e'o, l're, i'I (i'vl), itii'rus, go signum lnferre, to advance
a'deo,go toward, approach re'fero, -fer're, ret'tull, relii'tus,
ex'eo,go out bring back, report (relate) EXERCISES
re'deo, go back, return
triins'eo, ·l're, -1'1, -itus, cross qul'dam, quae'dam, quod'dam (or (a) Read the Latin and translate:
fe'ro, fer're, tu'II( lii'tus, bring, bear, quid'dam), a certain ·
carry; relate tii'tus, -a, -um, adj,, Jafe 1. Caesarem Gennanis bellum audacter intulisse scimus.
ad'fero, -fer're, at'tull, aUi'tus, ulte'rior, -ius, adj.,farther 2. Domum trans Rhenum se conferent ne .ab exercitii Romano-
bring up, bring to, report ul'timus, -a, -um, adj.,fartheJt rum vinci possint . 3. Decima legio signa infert et urbem op-
con'fero, -fer're, -tun, colli'tus,
pugnat. 4. Domo omnia tulerunt et Romam se contulerunt.
bring together, collect (collate) Rhe'nus, -1, m., the Rhine
si\con'ferre, to go, to proceed riis, rii'ris, n., country (-.1ide) 5. Si Romae manebimus, erit necesse iniiirias cuiusdam principis
in'fero, -fer're, fn'tuli, illi'tus, ferre. 6. Consul domi mane bit nee Galliae bellum inferet.
bring upon, inflict riir'sus, adv., again 7. Flu.men transibunt ut hostes fugientes in omnes partes se-
helium lnferre, to make war on quantur. 8. Quidam mercator ad Britanniam olim navigavit ut
(with dat.)
servos referret. 9. Me conferam riis paucis diebus; tum domum
185. Word Work. Ferohas given us a number of words ending riirsus redibo. 10. Romani se omnes alias gentes virtiite su-
in -fer, -ference, -late, -lated, and -lation. List some of them. perare arbitrati sunt.

(b) Translate:
1. The lieutenant will go back home to see his children, for
(a) Translate: he cannot remain at Rome. 2. They brought together all their
1. Fers, fertur, latus erit. 2. Intulit, adibit, exibant. 3. Tulis- weapons from home into the towns across the Rhine. 3. We
tis, transibunt, redeunt. 4. Rettulerant, adierunt, intulerint. marched home in order to make war on the evil chiefs. 4. The
5. Rediisti, adeunt, contulerat. 6. Ad urbem, Romam, domum. king said that the town had been captured and the captives
7. Roma, dorno, a castris. 8. Romae, in Asia, domi. had been carried back to Rome. 5. They were not able to bring

258 259
help to their men from Rome. 6. The army will cross the river
much more quickly by means of large boats. 7. A certain mes-
senger reported to the chief that he had seen an ambush behind
the camp. 8. The Roman army then proceeded to the farthest
lands of the Germans, and returned home in the same summer.
9. After help had been brought, the wounded soldier was car-
ried back to the town. 10. We tried to cross the river, but it
was very wide and very deep.



Inter fabulas quae no bis sunt traditae de Croeso rege est haec: Before studying the review lesson, go over the following points of
Croesus qui maximum regnum et magnam copiam auri habebat,
syntax, covered in the earlier lessons:
non tamen erat laetus, quod eius filius loqui numquam potuerat.
Medic~s ad se undique vocabat, sed nemo eorum vocem puero I. The Complementary lnfinWve. The following verbs in vo-
s rnisero dare poterat. Tandem Croesus Delphos 1 ire constituit cabularies 1-64 may be used with another verb in the infinitive
ut ab oraculo notissimo quaereret quid deinde facere necesse to complete their meaning:
esset. Ad illud oppidum itinere longo pervenit. Postquam se paro, prepare constituo, decide possum, be able (can)
sacro in flu.mine lavit et ad oraculum accessit, tum haec verba a tempto, try contendo, hasten dubito, hesitate
rege audita sunt: "Ubi puer lociitus erit, homo mortem patietur." timeo, be afraid (to) cupio, desire conor, try
10 Oraculum intellegere semper difficillimum erat, sed quidam debeo, ought incipio, begin videor, seem
existimaverunt filium regis, voce data, e vita excessiirum esse. 2. The Objective Infinitive. The following verbs take an ob-
Croesus tam tristis factus est ut filio auxilio esse non iam 2 cona- jective infinitive, with the subject in the accusative case:
cogo, compel, force prohibeo, prevent
Multos post annos regnum Croesi hostes maxima vi aggredie- iubeo, order, command patior, allow
15 bantur. Onus ex his, qui cognoverat quo rex eiusque filius se
contulissent, ad illum locum contendit ut Croesum interficeret. 3. Substantive Purpose Clauses. The following verbs are regu-
Hoste armato conspecto filius perterritus exclamavit, "Num larly followed by a substantive clause of purpose, introduced by
regem interficies?" Croesus tamen gladio occisus est. Hoc ut or ne:
modo verum probatum est oraculum, nam puero lociito e vita WITH i OR ab AND
20 exiit homo. THE ABLATIVE

N.A.1.5.Beta Exam, 1965 impero, command hortor, urge oro, beg

mando, command moneo, warn, advise peto, seek, ask
persuiideo, persuade rogo, ask postulo, demand
1 Delphi, Delphorum,m.: Delphi, a town in Greece.
i non iam: no longer. quaero, ask

260 261
LXV 188. Drill.
A. Give synopses, in the indicative and subjunctive, of the follow-
ing verbs:
1. conor in the first person singular
Review 2. eo
in the second person singular
3. fero in the third person singular
4. patior in the first person plural
5. sequor in the second person plural
6. vereorin the third person plural
187. Vocabulary.
B. Give and name the five infinitives of pello.
A. Give the genitive, gender, and meanings of the following C. Give, name, and translate the three participles of incendo
nouns: and refero.
aedificium tides portus studium D. Translate:
auris forum rus tempestiis
colloquium imperium sagitta 1. proficiscetur 6. arbitrati erant
cursus initium seniitus vigilia 2. pati 7. exibunt
exit us nemo spa ti um 3. moratus 8. infers
. . . oculus species 4. colloquebantur 9. rettulistis
B. Give the prmczpal parts and meaning of · 5. conans 10. transiens
adeo conservo moror propono E. Translate:
adfero egredior patior redeo
aggredior eo pello refero 1. she promised 6. to seem
arbitror exeo permitto reniintio 2. having tried 7. to speak
colloquor fero permoveo sequor 3. having been produced 8. we shall suffer
confero hortor polliceor triinseo 4. they follow 9. you (sing.) bear
congredior incendo prodiico vasto 5. while attacking 10. he had crossed
conor infero proficiscor vereor
consequor loquor F. Translate:
progredior videor
1. domo 6. Transeant !
C. Give the meaning of the following: 2. urbe captii 7. quarta vigilia
c<>mmiinis impeditus quantus tutus 3. miles magnis viribus 8. Ne progrediantur.
defessus mirus quidam ulterior 4. Romae 9. paulo ante
immortiilis privatus riirsus ultinius 5. rnultos dies 10. Roma
G. Translate: l 4. So great a number of sh~ps was seen in the river that we
!thought that the enemy had arnved.
1. having burned the town 6. for six.teenmiles · 5. In the farthest lands of the Germans there were no towns
2. queen in name 7. within eight hours or cities· the barbarians lived in the forests and fields.
3. at home 8. much more quickly . 6. After reporting the calamity to the people, the king urged
4. after seizing the bridge 9. Let him not delay. !everyone to flee from the city. .
5. from Rome 10. having followed the road : 7. He said that he would follow us for five miles, and then go
;back home.
189. Exercises. 8. I urge you not to ask the men what they have seen.
A. Translate: 9. They will be able to overtake the :fleeingslaves, unless the
' river is very wide. .
I. Imperator legatum hortatus est ne cum reliquis militibus ' 10. After finishing the work, bring 1 me the books which you
proficisceretur. .
2. Navibus remotis, exercitus fliimen altum transire non potuit. are reading.
3. Decima legio, fliimen multa milia passuum seciita, castra 1 The imperatives offero are : fer, ferte.
sub montem posuit.
4. Puellae potlicitae sunt se cum suis matribus quam celerrime
ventiiras esse.
5. Multi Romani arbitrabantur Caesarem et virtiite et auctori-
tate maximum imperatorem esse.
6. Captivi ex castris egredi et fugere conabantur, sed interfecti
7. Romae tredecim dies morati sumus ut totam urbem pul-
cherrimam videremus.
8. Tria milia passum circum montem progressus, domum ante
noctem redire conatus est.
9. Tertia vigilia quidam miles qui in insidiis exspectaverat
consulem interfecit.
10. Rogatiirus eram ciir omnia animalia in nostrum agrum

B. Translate:
I. After delaying at home for a few days, I decided to go
back to Rome.
2. We attacked the enemy's winter camp with fire and javelins
and arrows.
3. The tired messenger was sent by the chief to carry back a
letter to the consul.

Fere libenter bomines id quod volunt credunt.
LXV][ Men gladly believe what they wish to. ae'tis, -tii'tis, f., age appropin'quo, (1), approach (with
clas' sis, -is, f., fleet dat., or ad and acc.)
fac'ultiis, -tii'tis, f., opportunity, com'paro, (I), prepare, compare
conscri'bo, -ere, -scrip'sl, -scrip'tus,

chance; ability (faculty)
hos'pes, hos'pitis, m., guest, stranger enroll, enlist (conscription)
Volo, Nolo, (hospitable)
men'sis, -is, m., month
dis'co, -ere, di'dici, learn
exer'ceo, -e're, -ul, -itus, train, prac-
tice; exercise
and MAio or'do, -inis, m., order, rank
lnsti'tuo, -ere, -ul, -iitus, build, es-
inte'rei, adv., meanwhile tablish, set up (institution)
qui'dem, adv., certainly, indeed osten'do, -ere, -ten'di, -ten'tus, show,
ne... quidem, not even display (ostensible)
190. Volo, nolo, and malo are irregular in the present indicative quo, adv., where? whither? ve'ho, -ere, ve'xi, vec'tus, carry;
and the present subjunctive. Learn the following: quo'que, adv., also passive, sail, ride (vehicle)

vo1o, vel1e, vo1ui, wish, be willing 192. Word Work. Give the meaning of the italicized words in
no1o, nol1e, no1ui, be unwilling, not wish the following expressions:
mi1o, mil1e, mi1ui, prefer
' conservation of energy; conscription of soldiers; an institution
of higher learning; a faculty of always saying the right thing;
'fOIO 'fOlumUS n6Iii nolumus milii mlhnnus
'fls 'fUltis n6n vis niln 'fUltis mivis mivultfs horse-drawn vehicles; an ostentatious woman
'fUlt volunt n6n 'fUlt nolunt ml'fUlt milunt


veUm 'feDmus niillm niilimus milim millmus
veBs ffDtis n6lls niilitis mills miDtls (a) Translate :
velit fflint niillt niilint milit millnt
1. Volunt, vis, non vult. 2. Males, non vis, volumus. 3. Ma-
191. Syntax of ,olo,nolo,malo.The
infinitive with subject lunt, vultis, volueras. 4. Non vultis, noluisti, malebas. 5. Volent,
accusative is used with volo, nolo, milo when the subject of the malui, noluerunt. 6. Noli appropinquare.
dependent verb is not the same as that of the governing verb.
When the subject of both verbs is the same, the complementary · (b) Translate:
infinitive is used. · 1. We shall prefer, you (sing.) wish. 2. They were unwilling,
I wish you to go. Volo te Ire. he had wished. 3. He was unwilling, they will prefer. 4. You
I wish to go. Volo Ire. (p/.) will wish, we do not wish. 5. To prefer, let them wish.
There is no imperative form of volo or ~ilo. Nolo, however, 6. Do not speak.
has present imperative forms: sing., noli; pl., nolite. These are
193. Dative of Possessor. The dative is used with sum to
re~ul~rly use~ with the infinitive of other verbs to form the neg-
ative 1mperat1ve. denote the possessor, the thing possessed being the subject.
The boy has a book. Puero liber est.
Do not run. Noll cm-rere.
The soldier had a sword. Militi gladius erat.
Do not speak. Nollte loqul.

266 267
EXERCISES Inter liberos Romanos qui ad Porsenam missi sunt erat puella 5
;pulcherrima, nomine Cloelia. Cloelia in terra aliena diii mansit.
(a) Read the Latin and translate: lPer multas noctes matrem et patrem et patriam videre voluerat,
1. Roma exire vult ut colles transeat. 2. Multi milites, qui :sed friistra.
subsidio legioni missi erant, paucis mensibus domum redire male- Tandem ad patriam suam redire constituit. Equum igitur
bant. 3. Niintio vulnerato imperabit ut Romam eat et domi clam conscendit et in flumen Tiberim desiluit. Fortiter trans 10
maneat. 4. Eum hortantur ut ex oppido proficiscatur et captivos flumen velocissimum equus tranavit. Cloelia tandem in sua
consequatur. 5. Civibus persuasit ne de finibus suis cum omnibus patria salva erat.
copiis exirent. 6. Volet esse auxilio consulibus sed Romae manere Romae erat magna laetitia in familia Cloeliae et eius comitum,
nolet. 7. Visne ad urbem mecum ire aut domi manere ma.vis? nam paucae puellae earn secutae erant. Sed laetitia non diuturna
8. Milites qui in ultimis finibus Germaniae conscripti sunt erat. Non oportuit Cloeliam et comites effugere, nam ad Porse- 15
Romam adire nolebant. 9. Est nobis classis maxima ut friimen- nam a civitate obsides missae erant. Quamquam Romani suos
tum et arma ad Europam feramus. 10. Ne Caesar quidem liberos magnopere amaverunt, honorem patriae etiam magis
classem totam ad Britanniam vehi volebat. amaverunt. Romani igitur Cloeliam et comites ad Porsenam
(b) Translate: Porsena obsides vidit et stupuit. Virtutem Cloeliae et honorem 20
populi Romani sic miratus est ut eas liberaret et domum re-
1. He wishes to go to Rome with the lieutenant in order to see
the seven hills. 2. They did not want the cavalry to cross the hills, mitteret.
Inter Romanos antiquos fl.dessacra erat.
for they were approaching the lands of the enemy. 3. Not even
Caesar was willing to send the tenth legion as a garrison for the
city. 4. The Romans preferred to train their sailors in the fleet,
not in school. 5. We went to the town to speak with the mes-
senger who had been caught in ambush. 6. The general asked
why we had not enrolled more troops in Gaul this month. 7. The
defeated general was carried through the streets of Rome on a
wagon. 8. After the men were trained for eight months in Rome,
they were sent to Gaul. 9. I do not want you to think that I
have ever sailed on that ship. 10. Do they know why our army
approached that camp without heavy baggage?



Postquam Romani cum Porsenii, rege Cliisi, multos annos

bellum gesserunt, Porsena dixit se pacem factiirum esse. Primum
autem necesse erat Romanos ei obsides dare. Romani id libenter
fecerunt quod bellum longum fuerat et multi viri interfecti erant.

Imperiumin imperio.
An empire within an empire.
1LXV1lll MolTO OF Omo

I Indirect Discourse-
Subordinate Clauses

194. A subordinate clause in indirect discourse in Latin has its

:verb in the subjunctive mood. The tense of the subjunctive usually
; depends upon the tense of the introductory verb (i.e., the verb of
•saying) and follows the rule for the sequence of tenses.
Direct discourse. He says, "The soldiers are fighting because they
are brave."
Indirect discourse.
(Optional) because they are brave.
He says (that) the soldiers are fighting
Translate into Latin: milites pugnare quod fortes sint.
(that) the soldiers were fighting because they were brave.
Many Roman men and women did not want to stay in Rome He said
miJites pugnare quod fortes essent.
in the summe~. They preferred to set out from Rome and go Dixit
to the mountams or to the sea. Many tried to 9ross into Gaul,
or to progress through the mountains into Switzerland.
A Roman senator was talking with his sons about a journey VOCABULARY
to the sea. ae'des, -is, f., temple; pl., house le'vis, -e, light (levity)
"Where do you want tq go, boys?" he said t~ them. cae'des, -is, f., slaughter, murder mari'timus, -a, -um, of the $ea
miini'tio, -io'nis, f., fortification milita'ris, -e, military
The smallest replied, "I prefer to stay at home, here at Rome." necessa'rius, -a, -um, necessary
ob'ses, ob'sidis, m., hostage
Another spoke in this way, "I want to go from Rome and prii' dens, -den'tls, wise, prudent
ra'tio, -io'nis, f., reason; manner;
follow the shortest route through Campania to Brindisi." plan (rational) re'cens, -cen'tis,fresh, new; recent
"Why don't we go to Ostia ?" said a third. "That's a very ri'pa, -ae, f., bank (of a river) ve'tus, -teris, old (ab!. vetere; gen.
beautiful city near the sea, and also near Rome." pl., veterum)
"I realize that I cannot please (placeo, with dative) you all," ae'ger, -gra, -grum, sick
aper'tus, -a, -um, open, exposed fi'o, fi'eri, fac'tus sum, become, be
the father said, "but your mother and I wish to set out tomorrow made, happen
egre'gius, -a, -um, outstanding
for Greece. Go, boys, and prepare your things." in'teger, -gra, -grum, whole, entire ven'do, -ere, ven'didi, ven'ditus, sell

270 271
. ~ ,·· .

4. Romines qui secum essent egregios esse scivit. 5. Eum con-

19_5. The principles of word formation which follow should be ,scribi non posse quod anteii vulneratus esset audivi. 6. Milites
studied carefully. 'qui in altera ripa essent inimicos esse sciverunt. 7. Interea
Prefix~s. N?te the effect of the following prefixes upon the ,obsides per apertam portam post munitionem fugiebant. 8. Ex
words with which they are combined: urbe proficiscentur ne iniiiria a militibus fiat. 9. Caedes om-
. nium animalium aegrorum eodem die facta est. 10. Multos
circum (around) - circumnivigo, sail around; circumdiico cir-
·- . - .
cumvemo, c1rcumsto, circumscribo. ' profectos esse ut cum rege colloquerentur dixit.
in _(not)- ~imicu~, not friendly, unfriendly; iniquus, impriidens, (b) Translate:
mcertus, mcogmtus.
1. He said that the old sailor who was going out of the town
inter (between, among)- intervenio, come between; intermitto.
, was a hostage. 2. The lieutenant thought that the hills, which
per (throug~ or thoroughly)- pervenio, come through, arrive, and
were three in number, had been surrounded with a fortification.
permoveo, move thoroughly, alarm; perterreo, permaneo.
3. The hostages were Jed to the other bank of the river. 4. They
pr~e (before)-: praecedo, go before; praesto, praeficio, praemitto.
said that they preferred to set out for the city which was ten
pro (for:ar~ l~ .[.ront of) - procedo, go forward; propono, pro-
miles away. 5. The infantry were unwilling to carry light swords;
moveo, produco.
they preferred heavier weapons. 6. The general, influenced by
196. Fio. The verb fio is used as the passive of facio which the recent victory of the fleet, wanted to set out for Spain. 7. The
has no passive forms in the tenses formed from the prese~t stem. wise father did not ask his son what was being done in camp.
The perfect system tenses in the passive of both verbs are identical 8. Do you think that the hostages who are being brought from
~nd have the same meaning. Fio takes a predicate nominative, Britain will come to Rome? 9. He knew that the old general
hke sum. Learn the complete conjugation of fio, § 254. who had been wounded in battle would not come home. 10. l
hope that all the boys who are going to Europe will delay for a
DRILL ON FIO few days at Rome.
(a) Translate:
1. fiam, fiet, factum est. 2. fit, fiebat, factum erat. 3. Consul
factus est. 4. lmperiitor fiet. 5. Milites fiebant. A BREACH OF DISCIPLINE

(b) Translate: Fredericus, Germanorurn rex, quod ab hostibus prernebatur,

saevissirna disciplina milites semper continebat. Saepe nocte
1. It happened. 2. He was made a lieutenant. 3. They will
solus per castra ambu1abat. Tandem, dum castra, ut con-
become citizens. 4. Caesar was made a dictator. 5. It cannot
suetiido erat, perliistrat, Jiicem in tabernaculo finitimo vidit.
happen here. Rex igitur, qui ira commovebatur, quod ignem in castris milites 5
EXERCISES habere vetuerat, silenter tabernacu1um intravit.
Miles litteras longas uxori scribebat. Dum multa verba de
(a) Read the Latin and translate:
periculis belli, sua salute, amore magno uxoris scribit, subito
~. :er clii~ores intelleximus bostes se recepisse ad montem regem videt. Tum rex dixit, "Litteras ad finem perscribere
q~1 non l~n~e abes~et. 2. Vos coniitiiros esse sententiam eius cog- licet. In fine tamen baec verba pones: 'Vale, 0 carissima, eras 10
~oscere _s1ei P:rsuadere velitis scio. 3. Caesar centurionem qui enim, quod irnperatoris praecepta male servavi, vivus non ero.' "
a dextro cornu semper esset virum magnii virtiite esse dixerat.
Abeunt studia in mores.
Translate into Latin: LXVJIJI][ Pursuits pass over into habits.
It was reported to Caesar that the enemy's army was about
to march through the Roman province. Caesar knew that if
they did this, they would take grain and animals from the farmers
in the province, who were friendly to the Romans. And so he
sent a messenger to the leader of the enemy to say that the Romans
could not allow (use patior) the enemy to go across the province.
I Subjunctive
with Cum
The messenger also reported to the chief that the Romans would
fight, if the enemy tried to cross the river which was at the end
of the province. 197. Clauses introduced by cum may denote cause, concession,
The leader of the enemy replied that he did not think that
circumstance, or time.
his men wanted to set out at that time. He ordered the mes- 198. Cum Causal. Cum, meaning since, regularly takes the
senger, however, to go back to Caesar and to say that he was
subjunctive, following the rule for sequence of tenses (Lesson
unwilling to receive threats (minae, -arum, f) of war from a
Roman general. The messenger returned with very great speed
to Caesar. He reported to him that the leader of the enemy Since we are fighting bravely, we Cum fortiter pugnemus, non
shall not be conquered. vincemur.
had been very unfriendly and had ordered him to leave the Cum se reciperent, oppidum
Since they were retreating, we
country immediately. attacked the town. oppugniivimus.


199. Cum Concessive. Cum, meaning although, takes the sub-
junctive, following the rule for sequence of tenses.
Although we had set fire to the town, Cum oppidum incendissemus,
they did not surrender. non se dediderunt.

200. Cum Circumstantial. Cum, meaning when, takes the sub-

junctive to denote the circumstances under which an action took
place. This use is found regularly in the imperfect and pluperfect
When this had been announced to Caesar, Caesar, cum hoc ei niintiatum
he set out from the city. esset, ab urbe profectus est.

When the cum clause merely fixes the time of the action or state
described by the principal clause, the verb is put in the indicative,
perfect tense. A present or future tense verb in a cum, when,
clause is regularly in the indicative.
When Caesar came into Gaul, the Cum Caesar in Galliam venit,
Aedui were the leaders. principes erant Aedui.

276 277
au'deo, -e're, au'sus sum, dare tol'Io, -ere, sus'tuli, sublii'tus, raise, (a) Translate:
ca'do, -ere, ce'cldi, cisii'rus, fall remove
cae'do, -ere, ceci'di, cae'sus, kill, ii'tor, ii'ti, ii'sus sum, use (with abl.) 1. Cum Caesar esset in Gallia, multae litterae ad eum ad-
cut (incision) ferebantur. 2. Cum tela sua amisisset , pugnare non potuit.
e'mo, e'mere, e'ml, emp'tus, buy bis, adv., twice (bisect) 3. Cum timor calamitatis magnus sit, Galli tamen maxima cum
hi'emo, (I), spend the winter cir'citer, adv., about (with numbers)
o'rior, -i'ri, or'tus sum, rise, arise fe're, adv., almost
audacia signa inferunt. 4. Cum primum 1 Caesar proelium com-
(orient) friis'tri, adv., in vain (frustration) misit, milites hostium in iinum locum coactos fortiter pugnare
po'tior, -l'ri, potl'tus sum, gain pos- i'tem, adv., also, likewise intellexit. 5. Cum ab his quaereret quae civitates in armis
session of (with abl.) omni'no, adv., altogether, at all essent, causam belli cognovit. 6. Cum multum friimentum non
tan'go, -ere, te'tigi, tic'tus, touch repen'te, adv., wddenly habeamus, eis tamen magnam partem dabimus. 7. Cum solus
(tangent) su'prii, adv., above
scias quis peciiniam sustulerit , tuo patri niintiare debes. 8. Cum
vix, adv., scarcely, with difficulty
ad illam insulam pulcherrim am pervenissent, ibi hiemare con-
Audeo is a semideponent; that is, it is active in the present, stituerunt. 9. Cum animal caedere non auderet , vulneratum in
imperfect, and future, but passive in the perfect, pluperfect, and silva tamen relinquere nolebat. 10. Cum castris hostium potiti
future perfect. The meaning in English is active in all tenses. essent, gladiis iisi sunt ut portas caederent.

HELPS AND HINTS. To distinguish cum circumstantial and (b) Translate:

cum temporal, ask yourself this: Would the statement of the 1. Although they have received many serious wounds , never-
main clause have been true irrespective of the cum subordinate
theless they are fighting very bra vely. 2. Since he did not dare
clause? If so, the construction is cum temporal with the in-
dicative; if not, cum circumstantial with the subjunctive. to touch his sick friend, he did not want to go to see him. 3. When
Referring to the illustrative sentences on the preceding page, we arrived at the town, we went immediately to find our friends.
the Aeduans were leaders whether Caesar came or not (indica- 4. When the legions had been left in camp , the general led the rest
tive), but he would not have set out from the city if the message of the soldiers through the territory of the enemy. 5. Although
had not been given to him (subjunctive). ·' reports of a disaster had been brought to us, yet we did not
Remember this and you'll not be puzzled by this construc-
tion. Also remember that cum circumstantial regularly uses
give up hope. 6. Since he thinks that the enemy are scarcely
only the imperfect and pluperfect tenses of the subjunctive. able to withstand our attacks, he will draw up a line of battle.
7. The sun was scarcely rising over the sea when we set out
from the port. 8. If you will use this sword, no enemy will dare
201. Word Work. Both cado and caedo are used frequently in .I
to fight with you. 9. Although we ha ve found out many things
compounds. Both are used with the prefix in- and oc-; the long 1
about the stars, there is still much (many things) which we do not
mark on the letter i in words formed from caedo helps you to know. 10. When almost all the infantry had assembled, Caesar
distinguish them - occido, occidere, occidi, occisus, to kill, but suddenly gave the signal for battle.
incido, incidere, incidi, --, to fall down.
You must also be careful not to confuse compounds of cildo, 1 In Latin "as soon as (cum primum) he had done something" is expressed by

cedere, cessi, cessiirus, meaning go or move, with cado or caedo. the perfect indicati ve and not the pluperfect.
Translate into Latin:
Since the soldiers were tired and wounded, on account of the
many difficult battles in which they had fought, Caesar decided
: to put the army into winter quarters. Through the long months
of winter, he enlisted new troops and trained them. In early
. summer, when the men were again strong and ready for battle,
· he led them out of winter quarters, to join battle with the enemy.
One year, he decided to cross the channel (fretum Gallicum)
between Gaul and Britain, and try to subdue the Britons. When
the men had all been prepared on the shore, he commanded one
of his lieutenants. named Volusenus, to sail across the channel,
approach the shore of Britain, and find out who lived on this
barbarous island. He had heard from merchants that these men
were very fierce. Volusenus sailed toward Britain, but he did not
dare to approach the shore. Caesar afterwards said that this
READING LESSON man was a very timid soldier, since he had not dared to sail near
the island.
HERCULES AND THE SERPENTS Caesar himself sailed towards Britain, and he was able to
Hercules, Alcmenae (Alcmena) filius, olim in Graecia habitabat. disembark after a very fierce battle. He pitched camp on the
Hie omnium hominum validissimus fuisse dicitur. At Jiino shore of Britain. But a very severe storm arose, and many
regina deorum, Alcmenam oderat et Herculem adhiic infante~ Roman ships were destroyed. The soldiers, who were men of
necare voluit. Misit igitur duas serpentes saevissimas · hae great courage and strength, used parts of the damaged (frictus,
5 media nocte in cubiculum (bedroom) Alcmenae ·'veneru;t ubi -a, -um) ships to rebuild the fleet.
Her~ules ~u~ fratre_suo doi:121iebat. Nee tamen in ciinis (cradles),
sed m scut~ magno ~orm1e~ant. Serpentes iam appropinqua-
veran~ et scutum movebant; 1taque pueri e somrio excitati sunt.
Iph1cles, frater Herculis, magna voce exclamavit · sed Hercules
IO ipse, fortissimus puer, baud (not at all) territ;s est. Parvis
manibus _serpen_t~sstatim prehendit et colla ea.rum magna vi
compress1t. Tab modo serpentes a puero interfectae sunt.
Alcmena autem, mater puerorum, clamorem audiverat et mari-
tum (husband) suum e somno excitaverat. Ille lumen accendit
15 et gladium suum rapuit; tum ad pueros properabat sed cum ad
locum venisset, rem miram vidit. Nam Hercules ridebat et
serpentes mortuas monstrabat.

Facilis descensus Avemo. 203. Word Work. Explain the meaning of the italicized words
JLX[X The descent to Avernus is easy. in the lines:
accidental drowning; a lateral pass; her license to drive;
an exploratory mission; the bids were increased at the auction;

I Relative Clause
of Purpose
the supply was augmented; etc. (abbreviation of et cetera)


(a) Translate:
1. Accidit ut sciamus . . . 2. Mihi non licuit videre . . . 3. Mi-
202_. ~elative Clause of Purpose. The relative clause of pur- liti ex acie progredi non licet. 4. Oportet liberos ambulare ...
pose IS mtroduced by the relative pronoun instead of by ut. It 5. Nos explorare paludem oportuit.
IS used when the main clause contains an antecedent.

He sent a soldier to find out . . . Misit militem qui cognosceret... (b) Translate:
1. The author was not permitted to write a book . . . 2. It
VOCABULARY happens that he does not have. . . 3. It was necessary for the
ag'men, ag'minis, n., line of march, explo'ro, (1 ), search out, explore line of march to approach . . . 4. We were not permitted to
army on the march iu'vo, (1) , iii'vl, iii'tus, help. aid increase . . . 5. It happens that several children are alarmed ...
an'cora, -ae, f., anchor Ii'cet, -e're, li'cuit, it is permitted
auc'tor, -o'ris, m., author (with dat. and intin.) (license)
ci'sus, -iis, m., chance,fall, accident opor'tet, -e're, opor'tuit, it is neces- EXERCISES
la'tus, la'teris, n., side,Jlank (lateral) sary (with acc. and infin.)
os,o'ris, n., mouth,face (oral) pertur'oo, (1), alarm, upset, confuse
(a) Read the Latin and translate:
pa'Iiis, palii'dis, f., swamp, marsh susci'pio, -ere, -ce'pi, -cep'tus, under-
prae'da, -ae, f., booty (predatory) take 1. Legatus duos pedites trans fliimen misit qui paliidem ex-
te'go, -ere, te'xi, tec'tus, cover plorarent. 2. Meus pater meos fratres misit qui vulneratum
ac'cicio, -ci'dere, ac'cidl, happen
equitem iuvarent . 3. Mihi ad lHdos cum meis amicis ire non
au'geo, -e're, aux'I, auc'tus, increase ce'terl, -ae, -a (p_l.), the rest of; as
consi'do, -ere, -~'di, -sessii'rus, sit a noun, the others licuit. 4. Oportuitne Caesarem miinire omnia oppida prima
down, encamp, settle complii'res, -a (pl.), several aestate? 5. Amicis tuis domum consulis videre non licebit.
do1eo, -e're, -ui, -itii'rus, mourn, 6. Totus exercitus perturbatus est cum se circumdatum esse
grieve at (dolorous) videret. 7. Nfmtium cum peditibus ire qui silvas post castra
hostium explorarent iussit. 8. Accidit ut sciat quis auctor huius
HELPS AND ~INTS. Licet and oportet are called impersonal libri sit. 9. Primum 1 agmen castris appropinquabat sed novis-
v~rbs. An impersonal verb is used only in the third person simum 2 agmen cum hostibus contendebat. 10. Omnes feminas
singular. Examples: Viro venire licet. It is permitted (to) the
dolere quod homines in bello vulnerati aut interfecti essent dixit.
man to. come, or. that the man come; or, The man may come.
Venlre 1s the sub.JC(=tof licet. Accidit is also used impersonally
(it happens), followed by a result clause.
1 primum agmen tire van.
2 novissimumagmen tire rear..

280 281
1. Marcus was not permitted to lead his men into the ter- Translate into Latin :
ritory of the Germans. 2. I sent several messengers to report
to the people about the victory. 3. It is necessary for us to The hostages in the Roman camp were not permitted to see
remain in this town since we cannot return home. 4. The rest their friends. It was necessary for them to stay for several
of the citizens were taken to a swamp so that the enemy would months alone with the other hostages. They hoped that they
not find them. 5. So much booty was taken from the captured · would go back home after a few years, to see again their native
town that the soldiers were not able to carry it home. 6. On land and their children. But the Romans preferred to hold
the. exposed flank our men were forced to fight with very great them in camp, since they did not want their enemies to wage
danng. 7. As soon as the anchors were thrown from the ship, another war.
the sailors disembarked with great speed. 8. It happens that One night it happened that four of the hostages were able to
we are scarcely able to help those wretched hostages. 9. When flee from the camp and run through the woods out of the Roman
they had gained possession of the other bank of the Rhine, they province. The general of the Roman forces sent all of his horse-
progressed ten miles into Germany. 10. The author of that men out of the camp the following day to try to find them, -
book is an outstanding man and by chance a friend of my father's. but in vain. The hostages had already arrived at a town in
their own country when the pursuing horsemen left their camp.
READING LESSON And so it happened that they were not captured, and they were
able to remain at home for many years.
Simonides erat vir clarus, qui versus pulcherrimos scribebat.
Multos annos per urbes nobiles Asiae errabat, et undique con-
veniebant homines ut versus eius audirent. Dona praemiaque
Sirnonides saepe recepit, sed gloriam magis quam pecuniam
5 semper obtinere conatus est.
Diu in Asia moratus, tandem ad patriam suam, , parvam in-
sulam inter Asiam Graeciamque positam, redire constituit. Sed
navis, in qua cum sociis navigabat, in medio mari tanta tempestate
oppressa est ut frangeretur. Omni spe saliitis dirnissa, socii
10 mortem exspectaverunt.
Subito tamen navibus barbaris visis, socii quam celerrime
omnes res suas contulerunt. Speraverunt enim barbaros sibi CIVIS ROMANUS
auxilio ventiiros esse. Simonides solus ea quae habebat reliquit.
Rogatus a socio quodam cur nihil caperet, "Omnia mea," inquit,
t 5 "mecum porto."
Tum omnes in fluctiis se coniecerunt. Socii a barbaris capti
non solum pecuniam sed etiam libertatem amiserunt. Simonides
autem multis cum donis ad patriam suam relatus est.
N.A.I.S. Beta Exam, 1958

282 283
LXX 3. the accusative singular of agmen, miinitio, integer
4. the ablative singular of recens, casus, mensis
5. the nominative plural of latus, priidens, auctor

I Review
6. the
7. the
8. the
genitive plural of classis, levis, caedes
dative plural of compliires, vetus, ordo
accusative plural of ripa, agmen, militaris
B. Give the following synopses, active only, indicative and sub-
1. volo in the second person singular
204. Vocabulary. 2. fero in the third person singular
A. Give the genitive, gender, and meaning of the following nouns: 3. milo in the first person plural
4. nolo in the second person plural
aedes auctor facultas mfmitio paliis 5. eo in the third person plural
aetas caedes hospes obses praeda
agmen casus latus ordo ratio C. Give the following synopses of deponents, indicative and sub-
ancora classis mensis os ripa junctive:
B. Give the principal parts and meanings of: 1. orior in the first person singular
2. iitor in the second person singular
accido conscribo fio oportet tego 3. potior in the third person plural
appropinquo consido hiemo orior tollo
audeo disco instituo ostendo iitor D. Give and name the five infinitives of caedo and tollo.
augeo doleo iuvo perturbo veho
cado emo licet potior vendo E. Give, name, and translate the three participles of augeo
caedo exerceo malo suscipio volo and veho.
comparo exploro nolo tango F. Translate:
C. Give the meaning of the following: 1. maletis 6. referri
aeger comp lures item priidens recens 2. non vultis 7. hortatus
apertus egregius levis quidem repente 3. iitimini 8. conscribent
bis integer maritimus quo supra 4. oriens 9. fiet
ceteri interea militaris quoque vetus 5. ausus est IO. ticebit
circiter necessarius vix G. Translate:
205. Drill. 1. they will wish 6. to get possession of
A. Give the following forms: 2. she has used 7. you bear (sing.)
3. it was being made 8. they prefer
I . the genitive singular of latus, cisus, paliis 4. he had touched 9. he will be unwilling
2. the dative singular of vetus, obses, ratio 5. having delayed 10. it happened

284 285
206. Exercises.
A. Translate:
1. Postquam ad insulam pervenerunt, ut oppidum explorarent
profecti sunt.
2. Cum equus cecidisset, eques multa milia passuum ambulare
coactus est.
3. Nobis pecfmiam, si militem vulneratum iuvaremus, se
j daturum esse dixit.
4. Eos non longius progredi audere putavimus, quod pugnare
time rent.
5. Cum multas horas in ripa essemus, classem tamen non
6. Prudentissimum legatum misimus qui equites exerceret.
7. Cum castris potiti essent, praedam ad carros vexerunt.
8. Miinitionibus perfectis, milites domum redire conati sunt.
9. Auctorem illius libri poetam notissimum esse scivimus.
10. Primum agmen ad vallem appropinquabat cum novissi-
mum agmen flumen transibat.
B. Translate:
1. A new moon was rising, when the sun was falling into the sea.
2. A certain author has written that all Gaul is divided 1 into
three parts.
TABERNAVESTIMENTORUM 3. A star falling into the forest pointed out the way to the
doubting men.
H. Translate:
4. He said that he did not want to winter on the island because
1. mihi ire licuit 6. te venire oportebat there was not much water.
2. gladio utitur 7. munitione politi sunt 5. Caesar asked why the men had not increased the size of
3. multos menses 8. nolet augere the fortification.
4. obsidibus caesis 9. in paludem progressus 6. About fifteen men were killed when the camp was captured.
5. consul fiet 10. sunt eis animalia 7. He seems to think that we do not dare to explore this place.
8. I know that if he comes he will not stay for many months.
I. Translate:
9. The army was led into a trap when it was approaching the
1. he wants to help 6. they will gain possession of the camp valley.
2. I used my shield 7. he does not dare to enlist 10. Although a great slaughter was made, many soldiers were
3. within four months 8. it happens that we have able to save themselves and return to camp.
4. by a famous author 9. from the other bank 1 divido, -ere, divisi, divisus.
5. a very sick hostage 10. will he be allowed to use ... ?

Nemo liber est qui corpori servit. ~e'sum, dees'sc, de'fui, defutii'rus, provi'deo, -e're, -vi'di, -vl'sus, fore-
LXX][ No one is free who is a slave to his body. \ Jail, be lacking (with dat .) see, provide (with dat.) (provide)
SENECA ·'no'ceo, -e're, -ui, -itii'rus, harm, in- resis'to, -ere, re'stiti, -, resist (with
t jure (with dat.) (innocent) dat.) (resistance)
:par'co, -ere, peper'ci, parsii'rus, spare sol'vo, -ere, sol'vi, solii'tus, loose, set
: (with dat.) (parsimonious) free; pay (solution)
Dative with 'pa'reo, -e're, -ui, paritii'rus, obey
(with dat.)
stu'deo, -e're, -ui, -, desire, be eager
for (with dat.) (student)
Intransitive Verbs J
'pla'ceo, -e're, -ui, -itii'rus, please
(with dat.) (complacent) tur'pis, -e, adj., base, disgraceful (tur-
;praefi'cio, -ere, -fc'ci, -fec'tus, place pitude)
, over, place in command of (with ve'hemens, -men'tis, adj., violent,
acc. and dat.) (prefect) forceful (vehement)
207. Dative with Intransitives. Many verbs meaning to favor, iprae'sum, praees'se, -ful, be at the
help, please, trust, believe, persuade, command, obey, serve, re- head of, be in command of (with
sist, envy, threaten, pardon, and spare take the dative. Because dat.}
of the many exceptions, however, a vocabulary is a much better
guide than the rule. Confido is regularly used with the dative of persons and the
:dative or ablative of things. In the perfect system the passive
He trusts me. Confidit mihi.
He harmed the boy. Puero nocuit. of this verb has an active meaning.
Verbs compounded with the prepositions ad, ante, con, in, inter, ,208. Word Work. Study the following:
ob, post, prae, pro, sub, super, and sometimes circum, usually take
the dative when the force of the preposition is felt in the meaning A student is one who is eager to learn.
of the compound. A parsimonious person is sparing with money.
Noxious gases are harmful; an innocuous remark is harmless.
Brutus was in command of the ships. Briitus navibus praeerat.
A provident man looks ahead to the future.
(a) If the verb which forms the part of the compound is transi- A vehement protest is strong and violent.
tive and active, it may take a direct object in the accusative. This
may be either in addition to the dative taken by the compound as ORI LL ON DATIVE CASE
a whole, or without it.
He placed Brutus in command of the ships. Briitum navibus praefecit. (a) Translate:
Brutus sent the ships ahead. Briitus naves praemisit.
1. Suo patri paruit. 2. Equo nocebat. 3. Paci studebant.
(b) In the passive the construction is as follows: :4. Exercitui praeest. 5. Equitibus Marcum praefecimus. 6. Cap-
Brutus was placed in charge of Briitus navibus (dative) praefectus . tivis pepercit. 7. Civibus placebat. 8. Nostris copiis acriter
the ships. est. . resistebant. 9. Feminae consuluit. 10. Servis non confisus est.
(b) Translate:
confl'do, -ere, confi'sus sum, trust con'sulo, -su'lere, -su'lul, -sul'tus, con-
1. I do not trust him. 2. We resisted the enemy. 3. She will
(semideponent, with dat.) (confide) sult (with acc.); take f!Vunsel for please my mother. 4. He did not obey the teacher. 5. He pro-
(with dat.) (consultation) vided for the children. 6. Brutus was in charge of the fleet.

288 289
7. He will not harm his friend. 8. Caesar placed Marcus in (b) Translate:
command of the harbor. 9. They spared the slave. 10. Who 1. I shall show you that I am in charge of the troops against
is in command of this camp?
the enemy. 2. The general approached the town and placed
Brutus in command of his forces. 3. It was necessary to send
EXERCISES troops to help our cavalry, who had been wounded in battle.
4. An outstanding lieutenant had been placed in charge of the
(a) Read the Latin and translate:
fortifications around the camp. 5. They wished to drive the
1. Centurio qui peditibus praefuit se obsidibus pepercisse ambassadors from the town, for the conditions of peace were
dixit. 2. lmperator suis castris quae ad ripam fliiminis posita most unjust. 6. We ought to trust that citizen who returned
erant Briitum praefecit. 3. Hostes magna cum audacia resiste- the money; we cannot harm him. 7. The Belgians chose their
bant, sed nostri collibus potiti sunt. 4. Mercator nautae cui wisest leader, but he could not resist the Roman cavalry. 8. On
peciiniam dederat non confisus est. 5. Caesar decimae legioni account of the arrival of Caesar himself, the Germans did not
in Gallia Labienum praefecerat. 6. Agricola priidens hiemi harm even the slaves of our allies. 9. The cavalry, about to
providerat cum magnam copiam friimenti et cibi do mum adf erret. join battle, did not trust the infantry; this did not please the
7. lmperator appropinquans castris quis nostris copiis praeesset general. 10. I cannot trust you longer, for you have greatly
rogavit. 8. Feminae pueros rogaverunt ne animalibus in agris harmed my friends.
nocerent. 9. Legato non licebat consulere senatori cum cives ei
non confiderent. 10. Navibus longis 1 circum insulam Brutum
praefecit et ei omnia sua consilia ostendit. READING LESSON
nives Iongae warships.

Vesta dea erat Romanorum quae igni focoque praeerat. Ro-

mae fuit Vestae templum, quo in temple sex Virgines Vestales
sacrum ignem semper custodiebant.
Sex annos natae (when six years old) virgines hoc ministerio
fungi incipiebant, a Pontifice Maximo delectae. Triginta annos 5
ofliciis in temple fungebantur; tum aut templum relinquere
aut ibi manere eis licebat. Virgines Vestales maximo in honore
a populo Romano habebantur.
Vestales sacrum ignem custodiebant, et ubi erat periculum,
· eum ad locum tiitum portabant. Nonnumquam Roma ignem 10
extulerunt, ne hostes eum occupare possent.
Romani putaverunt Vestam in Italia esse ab Aenea cultam,
et eum primum Virgines Vesta.Jes delegisse.


Crescit eundo.
Translate into Latin: lLXXH[ It grows by going.
Labienus was in command of the tenth legion in Gaul. Caesar

had placed him in command of this legion, and he had trained
the soldiers so well that they were the best in the whole army.
In battle, Caesar ordered Labienus to place the tenth legion on Gerund and
the right wing, in order to resist the enemy's cavalry, who were
attempting to surround the Roman line of battle. The soldiers Gerundive
always obeyed their general quickly , and this pleased Caesar.
In one battle, when the tenth legion had captured many prison-
ers in the enemy's camp, Labienus ordered them not to harm
209. The gerund is a verbal noun. It consists of the present
the captives. He hoped that if he spared the captives, the enemy's 'stem 1 + nd ( or end) + neuter endings of the second declension.
general would not harm the Roman prisoners. Labienus always It is found in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative, singu-
trusted the soldiers of the tenth legion, and the soldiers always lar only: portandi, portando, portandum, portando.
trusted and obeyed their general.
210. The gerundive (Future Passive Participle) is a verbal
adjective. It consists of the present stem 1 + nd (or end) + end-
. ings of magnus: portandus, -a, -um.
211. Gerund and Gerundive Uses. The gerund may take a
direct object. But usually when it would naturally have an
·object, the gerundive is used instead, t~e object ta~g ~he c~se
of the gerund and the gerundive agreeing as an adJectlve with
the object.
Desirous of seeking peace ... Cupidus piicem petendi (gerund: unu-
Cupidus piicis petendae (gerundive con-
struction: the usual form)
The hope of conquering the en- Magna est spes vincendl hostes. (gerund:
emy is great . unusual)
Magna est spes vincendorum hostium.
(gerundive construction : the usual

HELPS AND HINTS. An easy way to distinguish gerund and

gerundive is to think that "the gerundive is an adjective."

1 The stem vowel is always short before nd or end and is preceded by i in -io verbs
of the third conjugation. See model verbs in Appendix.

VOCABULARY (b) Translate:

benefi'cium, -i, n., kindness,favor li'tus, -oris, n., shore 1. for the sake of announcing the victory 2. by burning the
cau'sa, abl., for the sake of (with magistri'tus, -iis, m., magistrate; town 3. for carrying grain 4. for the sake of defending the
genitive, which it follows) public office tamp 5. for wintering in Gaul 6. by providing carefully
co'hors, cohor'tis, f., cohort (a tenth mu'Iier, -eris, f., woman 7. they made an end of fighting 8. for slaying the enemy
part of a legion) opi'nio, -io'nis, f., opinion; reputa-
cus'tos, -to'dis, m., guard (custody) tion
9. by listening to me 10. for the sake of training the soldiers
equiti'tus, -iis, m., cavalry plebs, ple'bis, f., common people
explori'tor, -o'ris, m., scout re'mus, -i, m., oar (bireme) EXERCISES
in'fiins, infan'tis, m. or f., baby sax'um, -i, n., rock, stone
Ia'crima, -ae, f., tear ii'sus, -iis, m., use; experience (a) Read the Latin and translate:
Jaus, lau'dis, f., praise ux'or, -o'ris, f., wife (uxorious)
viil'Ium, -i, n., rampart, wall ; I. Principes ad pacem petendam Romam venire contende-
bant. 2. Nautae in portum saliitis petendae causa navigant.
212. Word Work. Explain the meaning of the italicized words f. Milites, postquam hostes pulsos viderunt, fin em pugnandi
in the following expressions: fecerunt. 4. Caesar belli gerendi causa multas legiones parabat.
their plebeian tastes; laudatory remarks; biremes and triremes 5. Tres naves ad Britanniam ad obsides referendos miserunt.
and quinqueremes; the lacrimal glands; the custodian at the gym 6. lmpetibus acerrimis hostium pugnando audacter resistere po-
terant. 7. Exploratores in urbem nocte venerunt ad domum
213. The Expression of Purpose. The most common ways of consulis incendendam. 8. Propter tempestates difficultas navi-
expressing purpose are: gandi maxima est. 9. Imperatores se venisse cum nostris du-
1. Subjunctive with ut or ne. Missi sunt ut urbem viderent. cibus colloquendi causa dixerunt. 10. Uxor unius consulis et
They were sent to see the city. compliires aliae mulieres ad senatum ad rogandos senatores ne
2. Subjunctive with relative pronoun. Misit virosqui urbem diutius bellum gererent ierunt.
3. Gerundive or gerund construction with ad. Missi sunt ad (b) Translate:
urbem videndam. Missi sunt ad pugnandum. . 1. The army advanced several miles for the sake of crossing
4. Gerundive or gerund construction with causi. Missi sunt the river. 2. The messenger reported that the warships had
urbis videndae causi. Missi sunt pugnandi causi. assembled very quickly, and we went into winter quarters to
In Latin prose, purpose must not be expressed by the-infinitive. seek safety. 3. They closed the gates; and, a garrison being left
:near the harbor, they sent men to seek grain. 4. The sailors
DRILL ON GERUNDS AND GERUNDIVES disembarked at noon for the sake of exploring the shores. 5. The
general, after encouraging his men, set out to attack the garrison.
(a) Tell whether the following are gerunds or gerundives, and 6. One Roman commander conquered by delaying, another by
translate: fighting in battle. 7. The common people were unwilling to
1. ad pugnandum 2. ad bellum gerendum 3. pugnando for- allow the magistrates to leave the city. 8. A scout was sent by
titer 4. urbis videndae causa 5. ad portas claudendas 6. fu- the magistrates to carry a letter to Caesar. 9. The poet returned
giendo (abl.) 7. resistendi causa 8. ad insulam explorandam home to Rome to write a book about the wars. 10. He said
9. exercendo 10. fliiminis transeundi causa that he had led the cohort around the wall to find an open gate.

294 295
READING LESSON .Alexander, cui regnum post mortem patris traditum est, in
BRAVE HORSE OF A FAMOUS GENERAL equo in multa proelia vehebatur. Quodam proelio, equo incitato,
Philippus, pater Alexandri, equum nomine Bucephalum habe- in hostium agmen impetum fecit. Telis in Alexandrum undique
bat. Hie equus tam acer erat ut a nullo exerceri posset. Cum conieotis, in capite latereque vulneratus est Biicephalus. Cum 15

Philippus, quod equo uti non poterat, eum dimittere in animo moreretur, tamen celeri cursii e mediis hostibus regem rettulit.
haberet, Alexander dixit turpissimum esse propter inopiam auda- Equus, postquam hoc modo vitam regis servavit, statim cecidit
5 ciae optimum equum amittere. Nemo credidit adulescentem et exspiriivit.
eum exercere posse atque amici ei persuadere conati sunt ne hoc Alexander summae audaciae equum semper memoria tenebat.
temptafet. Alexander tamen constituit aut equum regere aut Ad gratiam referendam eodem loco ubi Bucephalus cecidit op- 20

ab eo interfici. Qua in re tantam virtiitem et diligentiam ostende- pidum constituit quod "Bucephalon .. iussit nominiiri.
N.A.I.S. Gamma Exam, 1957
bat ut paucis diebus eum superaret. Postea Biicephalus, ad
10 proelium armatus, se numquam ascendi nisi ab Alexandro patie- THE ROMAN CAMP SAVED!
batur. ;Marcus servusque eius Rufus eiidem nocte in villa patris Marci
nati sunt. Statim pater "Hunc infantem Rufum," inquit, "filio
meo do ut semper ei servus sit." Atque ita accidit ut nemo
Marcum sine Rufo videret .
.Marcus adulescens cum Caesare imperatore in Galliam iit atque s
Rufus saepe domino auxilio in castris erat. Aestate peracta, 1
oportebat Caesarem in Italiam ad indicia exercenda 2 abire.
Marcus tribus legionibus praefectus in castris apud Belgiis hiemii-
bat. Belgae sentiebant Romanos sine insidiiirum suspicione
neglegenter castra tenere. Saepe enim mercatoribus licebat in 10
castra venire ut militibus cibum vinumque venderent. Cum
niercatoribus veniebat puella quam Rufus iam amare coepit,
eh1sque causa linguam Gallicam discebat. Ille, nocte qua.dam,
cum dormire non posset, in vallo ambulabat; ibi quosdam ex
Belgis audivit dicere se ea ipsa nocte in Romanos impetum 15
factiiros esse. Ad Marci tabernaculum 3 cucurrit: "Surge!"
clamat, "Noli dorm ire! Audi cur adsim: scio hostes iam adve-
nire qui copias nostris maiores habeant." Marcus milites arma
capere iussit et imperiis parere. Hostibus facile repulsis, Rufus,
a Marco manu missus,4 iam non servus erat sed amicus. 20
N.A.I.S. Gamma Exam, 1965
1 perago, -agere, -egi, -iictus: finish
2 iiidlcla exercere: to hold court(s)
a tabernlculum, -i. n.: tent
4 manDmittere: to set free


De mortuis nil nisi bonum. HELPS AND HINTS. These combinations of the future active
and passive participles with sum are called the Active and Passive
LXXllllll Of the dead nothing but good should be said.
Periphrastic Conjugations, the Active being the combination
of the future active participle with sum, the Passive the future
passive participle (or gerundive) with sum. They are also called
Future Active ,.. respectively the first and second periphrastic conjugations.

and Passive VOCABULARY

Participles with Sum · adules'cens, -cen'tis, m., young man, in'colo, -co'lere, -co'lui, inhabit, live
youth (adolescent) (in)
214. The future active participle used with forms of sum denotes
gri'tia, -ae, f., favor, influence; gri- me'reor, -e'ri, -itus sum, deserve
tiiis agere, give thanks (merit)
impending action or that which is about to happen. mos', mo'ris, m., custom, habit mi'ror, (J), wonder at, marvel
The present of sum is used for the present tense, the imperfect qui'es, quie'tis, f., rest, sleep mo'rior, mo'ri, mor'tuus sum (fut.
riimor, -o'ris, m., rumor, report part. moritii'rus), die
for the imperfect, etc. The participle agrees with the subject san'guis, san'guinis, m., blood nas'cor, -i, na.'tus sum, be born (natal)
in gender, number, and case. voltin'tiis, -tii'tis, f., wish, consent ra'pio, -ere, ra'pui, rap'tus, seize
Caesar was about to begin the battle. Caesar proelium commissiirus erat. eri'pio, -ere, -ui, erep'tus, rescue
The Romans had intended to (had Romani pugnitiiri fuerant. ape'rio, -i're, ape'rui, aper'tus, open, ri'deo, -e're, ri'si., ri'sus, smile, laugh
expose at (deride)
been about to) fight.
Existimivimus hostes ventiiros (esse). coe'pi, coepis'se (def.), began rum'po, -ere, rii'pi, rup'tus, burst,
We thought the enemy would (were
consues'co, .-ere, consue'vi, -suetii'- break (rupture)
about to) come.
rus, become accustomed sii'mo, -ere, siimp'si, siimp'tus, take,
In the first example above, commissiirus (about to begin) is ia'ceo, -ere, ia'cui, iacitii'rus, lie assume
used with erat (was), exactly as would be expected from the vi'vo, -ere, vix'i, vic'tus, live (revive)
English usage. Use natural English in translating the Latin, as
216. Word Work. Among the interesting English words re-
shown in the last two examples.
Conjugate sum with scriptiirus throughout the indicative and lated to, or derived from Latin words in this vocabulary, are
subjunctive, including present and perfect infinitives, e.g., scrip- the following:
tiirus sum, es, est, scriptiiri sumos, estis, sunt. sanguinary, voluntary, aperture, modus vivendi, mores, ingratiate,
adolescence, nascent and renascence, rupture, corruption
215. The future passive participle (gerundive) used .with forms
of sum denotes necessity or that which ought to be done. The 217. Dative of Agent. With the future passive participle used
gerundive agrees with the subject in gender, number, and case. with sum (Passive Periphrastic) the dative is used to denote the
The soldiers must be (are to be) sent. Milites mittendi sunt. agent, or doer of the action.
The signal must be (is to be) given. Signum dandum est. You must give the signal. Signum tihi dandum est.
Caesar must fight. Caesari pugnandum est.

Note that the intransitive verb pugno becomes impersonal in the



(a) Translate:
·.l. Our soldiers are ab?ut ~o attack the very large forces of
t he enemy. 2. A very wide nver must be crossed by our entire
1. Ereptflri sumus. 2. Apertflrus eram. 3. Sumptflra est. ~rmy .. 3. They had been born at Rome, but they were living
4. Pueri ruptflri erant . . . 5. Aperiendum est. 6. Mihi facien- inSpam. 4. We know that the winter camp of our allies must be
dum erat. 7. Oppidum exercitui nostro occupandum erit. defended with the greatest boldness. 5. You must finish your
8. Signa danda sunt. 9. Gratiae agendae sunt. 10. Nobis in work and give the books to your teacher. 6. The messenger
pace vivendum est. was about to report the outcome of the battle when he was
killed by an arrow. 7. The bodies of the soldiers who have died
(b) Translate: must be carried to the city. 8. We should give great thanks to
the gods who have spared our lives in this disaster. 9. Having
1. The messenger is about to set out. 2. The sailors were
advanced several miles into the territory of the Germans, our
about to sail. 3. Caesar was about to encourage the soldiers.
leader decided that he ought to wait for the rest of the army.
4. I am intending to speak . . . 5. War must not be waged.
6. War had to be waged. 7. The soldiers must be sent by
ro. We do not know what we ought to do.
Caesar. 8. The men will have to carry the water. 9. We must
free the slaves. 10. You must not fight.

HELPS AND HINTS. Notice that the English verb must (ought)
is very irregular. We say, "We must go," for the present time; DESTRUCTION OF CARTHAGE
"We had to go," for past time; and "We shall have to go,"
for future time. The Latin is regular. : Romani propter duo gravissima bella quae populo Romano
Carthaginienses intulerant, ita territi sunt ut Catoni 1 senatori
c,laro parere constituerent. Is omni orationi, quam in senatfl
fecit, haec verba addebat: "Censeo 2 Carthaginem esse delen-
EXERCISES dam." 3 5
j Itaque Carthaginiensibus compliiribus proeliis victis legati Car-
(a) Read the Latin and translate: thaginem missi sunt qui dicerent Romanos pacem facere velle.
1. Caesari flno tempore omnia agenda erant. 2. Statim de Carthaginienses eo tempore certiores non facti quid Romani in
captivis nobis constituendum est. 3. Sibi Rhenum vado esse ~nimo haberent, legatos sine mora receperunt. Primum, cum
transeundum putavit. 4. Acies instruenda in apertis campis et legati postulavissent ut obsides darentur magnusque. numerus 10
milites hortandi erant. 5. His rebus adducti existimavimus tflorum traderetur, Carthaginienses se haec factiiros esse polliciti
hiberna Gallorum nobis capienda esse. 6. Pro re publica hostes s,unt. At cum legati imperarent ut patriam suam relinquerent
audacter aggressflri sumus. 7. Arbitrati sumus auxilia ad hiberna responderunt se ma.Ile interfici quam urbem Romani$ tradere.
statim mittenda esse. 8. Consul <licit gratias <leis immortalibus Itaque summis viribus ea quae ad urbem defendendam necessaria
nobis agendas esse ut in pace viva.mus. 9. Nobis nflntiandum 1 Cato, Catiinis, name of a Roman statesman.
est hostes ab apertis agris statim pellendos esse. 10. Ei colles 2 censeii means the same as putii.
nostris peditibus occupandi sunt ut equites hostes circumveniant. a deleii means the same as vastii.

300 301
s videbantur parare coeperunt. Tum Romanis impetum facientibus
Finis coronat opus.
quam fortissime restiterunt, sed brevi tempore r~pulsi _sunt. LXXIV The end crowns the work.
Tandem de salute desperantes ipsi domos templaque mcenderunt.
Multi in flammas se coniecerunt, ne servi fierent. Romani urbe
potiti neque feminis neque liberis pepercerunt. Scipio, quern
20 exercitui praefecerant, opinionem Catonis seciitus totam urbem
vastari iussit.
N.AJ.S. Gamma Exam, 1959
Review of Cases

i 218. A list of the more common uses of the five cases, with an
example of each, follows:

; 1. Subject of finite verb.

The soldiers are fighting. Mllites pugnant.
2. Predicate nominative.
The boy will be a soldier. Pner miles erit.

1. Possession.
The man's horse... Viri equus .••

2. Of the whole (partitive) .

. The bravest of all the men . . . Fortissimos omnium virorum .•.
3. Description.

i A man of great daring . . . Vir magnae audiiciae •..

4. Definite measurement.
A river six feet in depth . . . Fliimen sex pedum altitiidine .•.
; 1. Indirect object.
: He gave money to the slave. Servi>peciiniam dedit.

2. With adjectives (amicus, inimicus, idoneus, par, proximus,

similis, dissimills).
They were friendly to me. Amici mihi erant.

3. With compound verbs.
3. Mimner (with cum; cum may be omitted if there is an
Brutus was incommand of the fleet. Brutus classl praeerat.
4. With intransitive verbs. He fought with great bravery. Magni cum virtiite ...
The boy obeyed his father. Puer suo patri piiruit.
4. Accompaniment (with cum).
5. Of possessor. i went with my mother. Com mei mitre ...
The poet has a book. Liber est poetae.

6. Of purpose and reference (double dative).

A river of great depth . . . Fliimen magnii altitiidine .••
. . . as an aid to the lieutenant. • •• auxilio legito.
7. Of agent (with the passive periphrastic). 6.Time when or within which (no preposition).
At night; within ten days... Nocte; decem diebus ••.
The river must be crossed by the army. Fliimen exercitul triinseundum est.

7. Cause (no preposition).
fie ran because of.fear... Timore .•.
1. Direct object.
He saw his friends. Amlcos suos ••• 8. Place where (within).
2. Duration of time. on the bridge: in the town. . . in ponte; in 011pido•..
... for many years. • •• multos annos. 9. Separation (with ab, de, or ex for concrete nouns; prepo-
3. Extent of space. . sition omitted with abstract nouns).
'from the city: from fear . . . ab urbe; timore ...
. . . for many miles. • •• multa mUia passoum.
4. Subject of infinitive. 10.With iitor and
I know that the men have come. Scio viros vhllsse. :piey used swords . . . Gladiis iisi sunt .•.

5. Place to which. 11. Ablative absolute.

They came to Italy (to Rome). Ad ltaliam (Romam) ••• Having captured the city . . . Urbe captii •••

6. With prepositions (ad, ante, apud, circum, contra, in, inter, 12.Specification.
ob, per, post, praeter, prope, propter, sub, trios) , .. greater in courage. . •• maior virtiite.
He ran across the fields. Trios agros •••
13. With prepositions (ab, cum, de, ex, in, pro, sine, sub).
Ablative: under water; without fear. . . sub aquii; sine timore •..
1. Means (no preposition). 14. Comparison (when quam is not used).
He was wounded by an a"ow. Sagittii •••
. .. braver than the Romans. • •• Rominis.
2. Agent (with i or ab).
is. Degree (measure) of difference.
They were attacked by the soldiers. A militlbos •••
He fights much more bravely. . •. multo fortins.

ascen'do, -ere, -cen'di, -cen'sus, climb repel'lo, -ere, rep'pull, -pul'sus, drive
up (ascend) back (repel, repulse)
coniun'go, -ere, -iiin'xi, -iiin'ctus,join repe'rio, -l're, rep'perl, reper'tus, Noster imperiitor duobus fortissimis equitibus imperavit ut ad
together, unite (conjunction) find, discover
conscen'do, -ere, -cen'di, -cen'sus, rever'tor, -1, -v~r'sus sum, go back,
se convenirent. Hi viri primo non intellegebant ciir imperator
climb; go on board return (revert) secum colloqui vellet. Imperiitor autern, ubi eos vidit, "Illud
dedii'co, -ere, -diix'i, -duc'tus, lead tri'buo, -bu'ere, tri'bul, -ii'tus, assign,
away; launch (deduce)
de'fero, -fer're, -tuli, -li'tus, carry, ver'to, -ere, ver'ti, ver'sus, turn
report (defer)
descen'do, -ere, -scen'di, -scen'sus, a'liquis, a'liquid, pronoun, someone,
descend something; any
effl'cio, -ere, -fe'ci, -fec'tus, bring in'de, adv.,/rom there; thence
about, accomplish, complete (effect) quis'quam, quic'quam, pron., anyone,
in'eo, -i're, -ii, -itus, enter; adopt (a anything
plan) quis'que, quid'que, eaeh one
refi'cio, -ere, -fe'ci, -fec'tus, repair quot, indecl. adj., how many
rei'cio, -ere, reie'ci, reiec'tus, throw un'de, adv., whence,from what place
back, repulse

See §244 for the declension of aliquis.

Quisque is declined like quis, with the suffix -que.
Quisquam is declined like quis, with the suffix -quam, except .
for the neuter singular of the nominative and accusative.


(a) Translate:
I. Octo mensibus. 2. Amico nocuit. 3. Marcum equitibus
praefecit. 4. Duodecim milia passuum. 5. Mons magna
Uidine. 6. Libri sunt magistro. 7. Fortior Caesare. 8. Earn
ventiiram esse scimus. 9. Viginti annos. 10. Agricolae labo-
randum est.
(b) Translate:
1. They took possession of the hill. 2. They trust us.
an aid to the general. 4. He was wounded by a stone. 5. They
were seized by the sailors. 6. We resisted the attack. 7. She
was queen in name. 8. Within five hours. 9. He ran with very
great speed. 10. Boys are braver than girls.

oppidum hostium," inquit, "nobis occupandum est. Sed oppi- JLXXV
5 dani semper nobis tam acriter resistunt ut multi nostrorum cotidie
interficiantur. Quid ergo meum consilium est? Facere id quod

patres nostri simili hello fecerunt: qui cum hostes ex quadam
urbe expellere non possent, urbem eorum igne vastaverunt eosque
ipsos fuga saliitem petere coegerunt. Vos, fortissimi equites, hoc
10 oppidum incendere iubeo."
Postera nocte duo equites, equis in ripa fliiminis relictis, ad
hostium oppidum profecti sunt. Qui cum tiiti ad hunc locum