Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 155

# 2003 University of South Africa

All rights reserved

Printed and published by the


University of South Africa
Muckleneuk, Pretoria

PST210-G/1/2004±2006
CCA101-A/1/2004±2006

97388165

3B2

PRS Style
(iii) PST210-G/1/2004±2006
CCA101±A/1/2004±2006

Contents
HOW TO USE THIS STUDY GUIDE (v)

Study unit 1
THEORETICAL ORIENTATION, CURRICULUM DESIGN AND GENERAL
APPROACH TO ART EDUCATION
Section 1: An introduction to Art Education 2
Section 2: Basic principles of curriculum and curriculum design 19
Section 3: Planning a programme for art activity 23
Section 4: The stages of artistic development and behaviour in children's art
production 31
Section 5: The elements of art and the principles of design (composition) 48

Study unit 2
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES IN ART EDUCATION
Section 6: The perceptual development of learners 62
Section 7: Development of learners' creative abilities 75
Section 8: Development of learners' aesthetic awareness 84
Section 9: Affective development 94
Section 10: Skills development 97

Study unit 3
ORGANISATION AND ADMINISTRATION
Section 11: Art in the primary school 100
Section 12: Classroom organisation 102
Section 13: The Art teacher and how to teach Art 105
Section 14: Different media and techniques 108
Section 15: Excursions, or reaching out in the community 111

Study unit 4
TEACHING AIDS
Section 16: The role of motivation 118
Section 17: Teaching and learning aids 130
(iv)

Study unit 5
LESSON PLANNING AND ASSESSMENT
Section 18: Lesson planning 134
Section 19: Learner assessment 141

BIBLIOGRAPHY 148
(v)

How to use this Study Guide


This Study Guide can be used by anyone who wishes to teach Art and creative crafts. It is no
exaggeration to say that teaching Art and creative crafts is one of the most satisfying and
fulfilling careers you can embark upon. Art and crafts can literally change people's lives Ð
including the lives of those who teach it.
Of course, like all creative aspects of teaching, the amount of satisfaction that you gain from
teaching Art will depend on how much effort, time and thought you put into your teaching.
Art teachers must always remain students themselves; they must be willing to continue to
learn, and be eager to find out and experiment with new materials and ideas. They must also
be prepared to attend courses and workshops to enhance and develop their knowledge and
skills.
No one can pretend teaching Art is easy. But the teacher should strive to do everything in his
or her power to ensure that the teaching given is successful.
There is no single correct method or way of teaching Art (including crafts). The aim of this
Guide is therefore simply to put forward suggestions and to stimulate your curiosity so that
you and your learners will be able to venture into the learning experience together.

Icons
Icons are symbols used to draw your attention to a specific concept that will be used
throughout the Study Guide. Note the examples used below.

This icon indicates that you need to reflect on and consider what has
been stated in the specific learning unit.

This icon indicates the activities included in a specific learning unit.


We suggest that you start a portfolio of your practical work to keep as
reference material.
(vi)

This icon indicates checklists. Checklists are provided as an instant


guide to the ground you are covering. You can also use them to check
whether or not you are still on track.

This icon is used for indicating some incidental or extra facts which may
seem necessary in a specific learning unit.

Suggested readings:

World Wide Web resources:


Learn more about learner's ...

This icon indicates that you have to think and reflect on those aspects
that are emphasised, and that you have to form your own opinion or
point of view on this matter.
Study unit 1

Theoretical orientation,
curriculum design and general
approach to Art Education
2

Section 1
An introduction to Art
Education
Learning outcomes
After studying this section and doing the activities, you should be able
to

. define and explain, in broad terms, what is meant by the concept arts
and, more particularly, the ``visual arts''
. state the important role that education in the arts will play in the
school curriculum of the future
. describe the role that further Art Education will play in South Africa
. define and explain what is meant by the term ``Art Education'' in
both general and personal terms

1.1 Introduction
The arts constitute one of the major areas of human endeavour and achievement and have
done so throughout time. Firmly rooted in the aesthetic, the arts represent a form of knowing
which pre-eminentlly involves sensory awareness. A worthwhile arts education is therefore
rigorous and demanding as well as satisfying and enjoyable. Throughout time, the arts have
represented one of humankind's most potent means of giving expression to, and
communicating, ideas and concepts about profound issues. These profound ideas
concerning sprirtual, political and social issues are made manifest through the arts in forms
which cannot be expressed and made apparent by any other means. Nevertheless, our
current materialistic society does not afford the arts the attention they warrant, a neglect also
inevitably reflected by society.

Arts and culture are an integral part of life, embracing the spritual, material, intellectual and
emotional aspects of human endeavour within society. Art products are all around us Ð in
fact, we take them so much for granted that we never stop to consider that art products are
so much part of our daily lives that we really cannot imagine life without them.

Look around you. Note the textile pattern and the cut and weave of the fabric of your
clothing, your shoes, the books or magazines on your desk, your reading glasses, the chair
you are sitting on, the design on a sweet packet. Somewhere somebody designed and made
all these different products.

All products made by human beings start out as an idea, a need or even a dream. Creating,
organising or restructuring one's surroundings is part of being human, and it is these
characteristics that separate human beings from the rest of the living creatures on this planet.
3 PST210-G/1

Human beings create multifunctional objects, recreational toys and machines, environments
and buildings; they plan, design and construct artefacts to satisfy their functional and
aesthetic needs. Not all products created are ``art'', perhaps, but all of us can develop our
creative abilities to answer our needs.

The value of arts in education is emphasised in the White Paper on Education and Training
(South Africa 1995:22):

Education in the arts, and the opportunity to learn, participate and excel in
dance, music, theatre, art and craft must become increasingly available to all
communities on an equitable basis, drawing on and sharing the rich
traditions of our varied cultural heritage and contemporary practice.

The RDP document (1994:9) clearly states that ``An arts and culture programmme is
set out as a crucial component of developing human resources. This will assisst
us in unlocking the creativity of our people, allowing for cultural diversity within
the process of developing a unifying national culture''. This document goes on to
emphasise the need for Arts Education as an integral part of national school curricula at
primary, secondary, and tertiary level, as well as of nonformal education.

Activities

. List some functional and nonfunctional human artefacts.


. How do you give expression to your own creativity? When, where,
why and what do you personally create in the course of your daily
life? Make a list of creative endeavours that you would like to embark
on this year.
. Write an essay of about three A4 pages on the question, ``Could the
act of creating be considered a human need?'' Use any source to
support your own point of view.

1.2 Inroducing the Arts and Culture Learning


Area Ð the concept ``arts''
The Revised National Curriculum Policy Statement (2002:4) states that the Arts and Culture
Learning Area covers a broad spectrum of South African art and cultural practices. Culture
expresses itself through the arts and through lifestyles, behavioural patterns, heritage,
knowledge and belief systems. Cultures are not static as they have histories and contexts and
they are constantly changing, especially when in contact with other cultures.

Usually ``the arts'' are linked to aesthetics. Aesthetics encompasses a wide spectrum of
human experience, such as a sensual enjoyment of form, and the human need to respond to,
and create, ``beauty''.

As stated in the White Paper on Education and Training (South Africa 1995), dance,
music, theatre, arts and crafts, including those that employ technology (eg film,
video, computer graphics), may all be considered to fall under the umbrella term ``arts''.

The ``arts'' can be broadly classified as the performing arts and the visual arts.
4

The performing arts include dance, drama and musical performances. One could therefore
argue that the performing arts are those art forms which involve any form of movement and
performance.

In contrast, the visual arts (eg sculpture, painting, and graphic art) are static art forms, being
confined to a certain place at a certain time.

1.2.1 Dictionary definitions of the arts and creativity


Definitions of terms such as arts and culture, art, visual art, aesthetics and creativity
help us to understand the concepts they represent.

. Arts and culture embrace custom, tradition, belief, religion, language, crafts, and all the
art forms, like music, dance, the visual arts, film, theatre, and written and oral literature.
Arts and culture permeate all aspects of society and are integral parts of social and
economic life, as well as business and industry based upon the arts (RDP 1994:69).
. Funk and Wagnall's Standard Dictionary describes art as the application, or the
principles of application, of skills, knowledge, etcetera in a creative effort to produce
works that have form or beauty, or aesthetic expression of feeling as in music, painting,
sculpture, literature, architecture and dance.
. Longman's Concise English Dictionary defines the visual arts as the conscious use
of skill and creative imagination especially in the production of aesthetic objects
(1987:75).
. Gardner's description of the visual arts reads as follows: ``We identify the visual arts
as the selective communication of human experience in tangible forms existing as matters
in space'' (Crosby 1959:3).
. Aesthetics is defined by Lowenfeld and Brittain (1975:67) as the means of
organising thinking, feeling and perceiving into an expression that communicates these
thoughts and feelings to someone else. The organisation of

Ð words is known as ``poetry''


Ð tones is known as ``music''
Ð movement is known as ``dance''
Ð lines, shapes and colours is known as ``visual art''

. Creativity means flexibility of thinking or fluency of ideas, or it may be the ability to


come up with new and novel ideas, or to see things in new relationships, or to think in
ways that are different from other people. Usually though, creativity is thought of as
being constructive, productive behaviour that characterises a person's actions or
accomplishments; it does have to be a contribution by the individual (Lowenfeld &
Brittain 1975:74).
. Creative thinkers are flexible thinkers. They readily desert old ways of thinking and
strike out in new directions. In the area of creatvity one would certainly expect to find
originality to be present (JP Guilford in Linderman & Herberholz 1975:2).
. Carl Rogers's definition, then, of the creative process is that it is the emergence in
action of a novel relational product, growing out of the uniqueness of the individual on
the one hand, and the materials, events, people, or circumstances of his or her life on the
other (Carl R Rogers in Linderman & Herberholz 1974:2).

From these definitions we can see that art is a human endeavour.


5 PST210-G/1

Artworks could also be defined as creative works or forms which convey occurrences,
observations, feelings and ideas in such a way that the viewer of these works or forms can
experience these occurrences for him- or herself. In other words, the artist or creator is
sharing or communicating that particular experience, feeling, etcetera to us, the viewers, in a
visual form. These works or forms are aesthetically pleasing and also convey a certain
emotion or experience to us.

The development of creative thinking has tremendous importance for both individuals and
society. It offers a change from what is and has been to what might be or what is yet to be
discovered. Giving learners the opportunies to create constantly with current knowledge is
the best preparation for future creative action and thinking. Creativity also needs to be
nurtured in a particular kind of environment, although it would seem that it is not so much
the classroom structure as the nature of the learner-teacher interaction that plays an
important role in learners' expression of their creative instincts.

Art and creativity have always been closely assosiated. Creativity, and how best to promote
it, is important in any arts programme and should play a central role in its development.
Society values curiosity, inventiveness, and intellectual athletisism and it is pre-eminantly the
task of education to induct learners into culture so that their personal freedom and creativity
are preserved and, more importantly, enhanced.

In its broadest sense, art can also be seen as something that expresses human response to
certain experiences.

Works of art reveal man's (sic) desire to create. They also reveal certain personal
preferences (those of an individual artist, a people, a nation or a time period) for specific
arrangements or compositions of the elements of art Ð line, shape/form, colour,
texture, tone, and space.
(Durand & Nel 1993:9)

The arts play a valued role in creating cultures and building civilizations. Although each
arts dicipline makes its unique contributions to culture, society and the lives of
individuals, their connections to each other enable the arts disciplines to produce more
than any of them produce alone.
(Hurwitz & Day 2002:20)

Activities

. You have the task of convincing your learners that art is not just
necessary, but in fact an essential part of who they are. How do you
respond when a learner asks you about the use of ``art'' in today's
society?
. A parent asks you to explain in written form what is meant by the
phrase ``the arts'' and why it is necessary for his or her child to take
any of the arts. Write a letter to this parent, answering the question
and advocating inclusion of the arts in the elementary school
curriculum.
. In an address to the PTA you have to explain that the arts are indeed
good for the holistic development of all learners, and thus have to
emphasise the importance of the arts in learners' lives. Concentrate
on
6

Ð explaining what role literature, dance, drama, music and art play
in human behaviour
Ð how these art forms contribute to fulfilling human needs and
developing the learner as a whole person
Ð explaining why you think it worthwhile to study the arts
Ð convincing parents to enrol their children in an Arts Programme
at the school to encourage their aesthetic/artistic development

1.2.2 The arts in the primary school: an aesthetic foundation


The arts are natural forms of expression and communication. Developing these natural
capacities into practical capabilities forms part of teaching the arts (Taylor & Andrews
1993:10). This would imply that there should be continuity in the aesthetic process
throughout the elementary phases of the primary school to the intermediate and senior
phases, after which learners might choose to specialise in one or more aesthetic directions.

The problem that most educators face is to create an aesthetic attitude within learners. To
begin with, how would we define an aesthetic attitude? We could say that the aesthetic
attitude is an attitude, a state of mind, or state of perceiving that which is, voluntarily and
consciously, by an agent that serves to either make the spectator receptive to the having of
an aesthetic experience or transform the object of the spectator's perception from ordinary
object-in-the-world into an aesthetic object'' (Fenner 1996:3).

In order for learners to make a response characteristic of aesthetic awareness, they have to be
presented with a range of possiblities from which careful selections have to be made; they
have to have their attention drawn to various interesting and appropriate ways in which
something has been achieved; and they have to be required to stand back from time to time
to reflect on what they or others are producing or have produced.

Thus the conclusion can be drawn that an aesthetic attitude facilitates aesthetic experience,
which is very important to teachers and trainers of the arts. Therefore aesthetic education
rests essentially on cultivating an individual's capacity to regard things Ð including things
which he or she has made or performed himself or herself, or will be making or performing Ð
with a particular kind of imaginative attention, thereby becoming increasingly discriminating
and critically reflective in his or her responses to them.

This aspect will be addressed in more detail in study unit 2.

Activities

. Write an essay explaining the distinctions between art, creativity,


and an aesthetic attitude. Explain clearly the link between aesthtic
awareness and creative response.
. Name a few ways in which you could enhance learners' aesthetic
appreciation skills.
. How would you utilise and enhance aesthetetism in an Arts and
Culture Programme? Draw up a schedule and link creating aesthetic
awareness to at least three different activities of an Arts and Culture
Programme.
7 PST210-G/1

1.2.3 The concept ``visual arts''


The concept ``visual arts'' is very broad and could even be defined as a nonverbal language
that needs to be learnt just as any spoken language needs to be learnt.

Usually the visual arts are broadly classified as falling into two categories, namely fine arts
and applied arts.

More recent concepts such as ``environmental art'', ``performance art'', and ``conceptual art''
all contribute to the diversity of the visual arts.

The traditional fine arts, including drawing, painting, sculpture, and printmaking, have
existed for many centuries. Today, however, this field has branched out to include as art
forms photography and video- and computer-generated imagery.

The applied arts surround us every day in the form of architecture, interior design, weaving,
ceramics, fashion design, and a host of other applications.

Other art forms such as folk art, including work by naive or untutored artists, and the arts
of indigenous peoples have been emerging in many forms and display the vital creative
impulses that only expression through art can satisfy. These forms fall within the boundaries
of both visual and applied art. Popular art forms such as posters, comic books, body
decoration, and graffiti add to the vital an dynamic definition of the visual arts.

1.2.3.1 Fine art


Fine art can be broadly categorised into two-dimensional and three-dimensional art
forms.

Two-dimensional art forms include

. painting
. drawing
. printmaking
. photography
. film and video
. mixed media

Three-dimensional art forms include

. sculpture
. ceramics

1.2.3.2 Applied art


Applied art can be broadly categorised into

. graphic design
. industrial design
. interior decorating
. architecture
. creative crafts
8

. ceramics
. textile design
. fashion design

And this is to name but a few! All these areas are extremely broad in scope and may include
many art forms.

Activity
Please look up the following descriptions and definitions in any art
book. Remember to refer to it correctly by using the Harvard method.
. drawing
. painting
. collage
. printing
. sculpture
. ceramics

Harvard method
Drawing: definition. (Author's surname, (comma) published date:
(semi-colon) page).
State the full title of the publication in your list of sources at the end
of the activity.

1.2.4 The four disciplines of art


Four disciplines provide the basic expertise which, in various combinations, endows most art
professionals with the knowledge and skills necessary for their specific functions. Artists, art
critics, art historians, and aestheticians follow their professions within these respective
disciplines:

. artists have, for many centuries, been creating a wide range of art objects that vary in
purpose, quality and influence
. art critics respond to art works as they perceive, describe, interpret, and judge them for
the professional art world and the general public
. art historians preserve, study, classify, interpret and write about important art objects
from the past
. aestheticians employ philosophical methods of inquiry and discourse to examine
fundamental issues concerning the nature of art, such as definition, quality and value,
and creation of and response to art
9 PST210-G/1

The following diagram illustrates various disciplines which are related to art:
Psychology Theology Politics Anthropology Economics

Philosophy Technology Sociology

on Art
cti cr
du i

tic
Pr

ism
Art

Ar
th
ist
or ics
y thet
Aes

Historian Artist Critic Aesthetician

Museum Director Curator Dealer Registrar Conservator

Educator Curriculum Writer Publisher

(Hurwitz & Day 2002:8)

Activity

. Draw up an organigram to show and explain to your learners how


and what the different disciplines of art are and how they are
incorporated into the field of the arts.
. Include as many examples as you can to clarify these concepts to
you learners.
. You may use the above diagramme as a starting point.
. Name as many careers in the field of art as you can establish.
. Try to invite representatives of the various diciplines to discuss what
they do with your Art class.

Organigram:
A diagram that you use to organise data in a visual way.
10

1.2.5 The concept ``History of Art''


Kleinbauer (1989:2) defines History of Art ``as ... an intellectual or scholarly investigation of
specific works of art; it is a branch of knowledge or learning''. He also makes a distinction
between intrinsic and extrinsic historical inquiry.

Studying the history of art in the primary school classroom will enable children to become
aesthetically aware of the great ideas that are recorded in visual forms. Throughout the ages
human beings have left traces of their culture, a legacy that bears witness to how they
enriched and gave meaning to their lives through expression in art forms. A critical study of
these art forms, both past and present, should enable the learner to read or interpret
works of art so that he or she may gain insight into the beauty of our surroundings,
whether in nature or in our personal lives.

The teacher can help to unwrap the mystery of the masterpieces and show the learners how
to look at them as a special kind of heritage left by people of that specific time. This can be
done at any level if it is structured for understanding of the specific age group.

The subject of Art History is so expansive that the teacher must decide what information is
important to a specific class and can be explained in simple and concise terms.

An increasing number of books about Art History are being written for learners. A wide range
of art magazines are also available, many of which would be suitable and appropriate for the
primary school classroom.

Pointon (1986:2) considers History of Art to be of value because it enables us to

. convey factual knowledge concerning the history of art


. determine how works of art have been created
. determine the context within which works of art have been created
. determine their significance
. at least attempt to explain why we react to certain works in a certain way

Children are fascinated by the content of Art History and art images when teachers succeed
in engaging them at levels appropriate for their abilities and interests. In primary school, the
teacher attempts to develop the learners' art appreciation, which sometimes requires some
knowledge of History of Art Conveying such knowledge in an interesting way seems to
present the teacher with a challenge, especially in the senior and intermediary phase.
Children tend to learn more and perceive more carefully when actively engaged in tasks that
relate to the art being studied.

Activities

. History of Art can and should be taught in primary school, although


perhaps not in the early grades. From grade 5 onwards it should
definitely be taught. Write a speech which you would give to a grade
5 class, explaining to them what Art History is all about and why it is
necessary for them to know something about Art History.
. Make a list of innovative and inventive ideas about how you would
go about presenting Art History to your learners. Include in this list a
range of activities that you would use to follow up and reinforce
what you have taught.
11 PST210-G/1

. Do some independent research and draw up an art history timeline


depicting the major influences and styles. Display this in your
classroom or when practice teaching.

1.2.6 The concept ``Art Education''


1.2.6.1 The role of the Art Educator
The Oxford Companion to Art defines the Art Educator as follows:
This term embraces a number of activities. Those considered here are: The education of
professional painters and sculptors, the education of amateurs, the education of
industrial designers and craftsmen, and the instruction of children as part of their
general education.

a Contrasting views of Art Education: Lowenfeld and Eisner


Viktor Lowenfeld has been considered by many to be the father of Art Education in the
United States. He believed that teachers should develop the latent potential inherent in each
child. The teacher's role was to nurture the young child through the developmental stages of
growth, at the same time being careful not to interfere with the child's personal self-
expression.

Lowenfeld made a clear distinction between art and Art Education. He was of the opinion
that in Art Education the main concern was with the process, how a child works, while art is
more concerned with the end product, that which is made, the result of the process. He also
believed that a well-balanced Art Programme would contribute to the development of the
child as a whole: ``... his thinking, feeling, and perceiving must be equally developed in order
that the potential creative abilities of each child can unfold ... our task is to help individuals in
the identification of their own selves and to stimulate creativeness with whatever methods it
can most effectively be done'' (Fisher 1978:23).
Five basic ideas from Lowenfeld's philosophy that are important to us are:

. The naive characteristics of the child should be respected, and the spontaneity in his or
her work should not be interfered with in any way.
. Novel or new media (technology) should be used as vehicles to enhance latent potential.
. Process is more important than product.
. General goals shared with other disciplines (intercurricular teaching) are more important
than the goals of only an Art Programme.
. The adult's mind differs from that of the child; therefore the teacher should not expect the
child's drawings to look like adult art and should not impose his or her adult views on the
child.

Elliot Eisner sees child development as happening essentially from the outside in, rather than
from the child to the world. Environment takes priority over heredity, concepts are more
important than media, and historical and critical areas, as well as production, are stressed.
What the product looks like, as well as the process involved in making it, are important. Thus
his philosophy can be summarised as follows:

. The enivironment is most important in determining aptitude for both the production and
appreciation of art.
12

. Concept is more important than media.


. Considerable importance is attached to the product as this is most likely to indicate what
the child has learned.
. Children should be taught ways to view and understand art as well as produce their own.
. Art Education stands alone, and has a special contribution that only it can make to the
growth of children. Art Education also shares common goals with other disciplines,
although these are of less importance than the goals that are unique to art.

Both Lowenfeld and Eisner's views have something to offer Art Education today and in the
future. The only difference between these two views is whether the emphasis is on the
product or the process. As far as the Art teacher or trainer is concerned, however, both are
equally important.

b The aim of Art Education


We want to see not only a programme for the arts, but also a body of Art teachers who
actively feel they form a unified community with a common purpose and a common
aesthetic ... we believe that the indvidual arts Ð literature, drama, dance, music, film
and art Ð must be conceived as forming a single community in the curriculum. This
does not necessarily mean that they should be understood as serving a similar aesthetic
process and purpose. They belong together under the category aesthetic.
(Peter Abbs 1987:2±3)

Note that in your studies your main concern will be with the latter part of the above, that is,
the instruction of children as part of their general education.

What then is the purpose of teaching Art at school?

The aim of teaching children Art is not to train artists; instead, the emphasis should fall on
education through art.

c Henry and Luckenbach-Sawyers (1984:154) describe teaching as follows:


Teaching can be exhilarating; the task is always essential, humane and extremely
important. The Art teacher is engaged with the human spirit, with great moments in
human history, and with the promise of the future Ð one is in the tradition that lifts the
commonplace to a position of excellence.

Although what Henry and Luckenbach-Sawyers say applies to teaching generally, it


particularly holds true for Art teaching, since ``In creative teaching and learning there is a
continuous exchange, a giving and receiving. One of the most profound ways to assist a
fellow human being in his growth process is to recognise, to acknowledge him as an
uniquely endowed individual'' (Henry & Luckenbach-Sawyers 1984:156).

Activities

. Evaluate our Arts and Culture Learning Area curriculum and answer
the following questions:

Ð How can issues such as art history, art criticism, aesthetics, and
art making be addressed?
13 PST210-G/1

Ð What evidence is there that the curriculum includes multicultural


resources?
Ð Are women artists represented? How and where?
Ð Does the curriculum recognise the diversity of art forms, so as to
include folk art, public art, etcetera?

. Have a look at the forewords/introductions of some Art Education


books. Draw up a list of art books, noting their titles as well as their
main focal points. Choose one book from this list and write an essay
explaining why this book will answer most of your needs in the Art
classroom.
. Look at these books again. Do they actually do what they set out to
do in their introduction? Do a critical analysis of at least one of the
books.
. Which one of Lowenfeld's and Eisner's philosophies would you
support? Bring it into context with the kind of Art training that you
are receiving or have received. What theoretical framework would
you use as a basis for you own curriculum?
. What, specifically, would you do to reach your goals?

1.2.6.2 The value of Art Education in a school


For the first time, Art educators, along with their colleagues in music, theatre, and dance
education, have access to the guidance of national standards. The Curriculum 2005
Guidelines for Assessment as well as the Revised National Curriculum Policy Statement
2002, provide general directions that can be adopted by schools and adapted to their
individual needs, where necessary. These documents insist that Art Education is not a hit-or-
miss effort but a sequenced and comprehensive enterprise of learning. Art instruction entails
hands-on orientation in that learners are continually involved in the work, practice, and study
required for effective and creative engagement.

The rationale for Art in the school is based on the essential contributions that come from
studying Art. Art is taught because like science, language, and mathematics the study of
art is essential for an educated understanding of the world.
(Hurwitz & Day 2001:28)

The value of Art Education can never be overestimated. Art as well as science provide a
fundamental lens of understanding through which we can view and interpret the world in
which we live. Children who do not receive a sound Art Education are denied a balanced,
well-rounded general education and are excluded from educated discourse. The approach of
the arts in this Learning Area moves from a broad experience involving several art forms
within diverse cultural contexts, towards increasing depth of knowledge of and skills in these
diverse art forms.

Art Education was once a matter of teaching skills only, but the emphasis has now changed.
Contemporary educational methods, research, clinical psychology, and various other
disciplines are closely related to the exploration of the creative process. We now know that
people learn in different ways. There is the verbal linear thinker, who can be described as a
person who thinks in a logical, reasoning way. There is the imagistic thinker, who learns
primarily by using his or her imagination and, finally, there is what is known as the
kinesthetic learner, someone who learns through movement. And, of course, in any
14

discussion of learning and teaching, we have to bear in mind the various theories concerning
the right and left hemispheres of the brain, and the way we perceive and process information.
The purpose of Art Education has been extended to take a leading position in the education
of the whole human being. There are interrelationships between how we create, how we
learn, and the very nature of learning itself; between us and our environment (both inner and
outer); and between ourselves and Planet Earth. Far from the peripheral position of the past
(when the arts were associated with frills or skills), Art Education and Art educators are
challenged to influence a new paradigm, namely the paradigm of becoming more fully
human (Henry & Luckenbach-Sawyers 1984:22).

Linderman explains what creating art can mean to you personally:


Art can increase your perception through the senses which in turn helps us to relate to
all artistic forms. Art is expressive of your ideas and feelings to yourself and others. Art is
one way to focus on an idea and to represent an idea symbolically. Art skills aid us in
creating aesthetically pleasing and functional art forms. Art gives us a record of man's
achievement as well as our own achievement. Art informs us about other people, both
past and present Ð their ideas, feelings, values, social concerns, and their personal
expressions. Art knowledge helps increase our aesthetic sensitivity in art choices,
whether in manufactured or natural form. Art is one way to respond to our environment.
(1975:4)

The ACTAG document of 1995 which speaks about the value of Art Education, states:
Arts education is central to the development of the ``whole'' person Ð experiences of
the arts encompass and involve spiritual, emotional, intellectual and physical aspects of
our being.

It further states:
Arts education empowers and equips learners with creative, psychological, intellectual
and problem-solving skills which encourage independence, confidence and informed
participation in a fully democratic society.

In the contemporary Art classroom one should see children learning ways to discuss and
respond to works of art (originals where possible), reading and writing about art (sometimes
correlated with language instruction), investigating questions about art (through class dis-
cussion, library research, and the Internet), as well as making their own art. Learners should
be encouraged to be interested in and enthusiastic about all related art and learning
activities.

Activities

. Give a few suggestions on how you would create an Art classroom


conducive to Art Education
. Make a chart to indicate how art equips learners with several creative
and intellectual problem-solving skills.

1.2.6.3 The need for Art Education


Of the 35 subject choices for the grade 10 to 12 syllabus, five are related to the field of the
arts, namely dance studies, music, visual arts, dramatic arts (speech and drama), and design
15 PST210-G/1

and graphic art. This is no small feat for any subject field and proves the supreme importance
of the Arts and Culture Learning Area to the South African school-going population at large.
Modern society has become technological, complex and mass-oriented. The aim of
education is to guide the child to adulthood, and to help that person to become a well-
adjusted member of society who has a contribution to make. In the present educational
system, emphasis is placed on factual learning. Passing or failing is based on how well you
can remember information. However, this is not the only way to help someone become a
well-adjusted member of society.
Art and education in art can fill so many roles, yet if its role has been negated, the question
arises, why is education in art essential to the learner?
If one starts with the premise that schools should concern themselves with the development
of the whole child and that art is a cognitive activity as well as one based on feeling, then a
strong case can be made out for the teaching of art as a cognitive as well as a creative
subject. Therefore the prime value of arts in education lies in the unique contributions it
makes to the individual's experience and understanding of the world.
Artists through the ages have used art to express the values they cherished and to
provide pungent statements about the condition of man, the nation and the world.
(Eisner 1972:15)

Learning is much more complex, and includes not only the intellectual aspects of our being,
but also our social, emotional, physical and psychological aspects. Being able to remember
information does not necessarily make the child a thinking being with the ability to question,
seek answers, find out, rethink and restructure. Indeed, the ability to find new relationships or
qualities are skills that are not generally taught in schools.

Activities

. Compile a portfolio of different functional art forms. Collect


examples of these in a file. Make a small organigram next to each
picture about how you could use this for a possible lesson in Art or
Crafts. Also indicate how you could combine it with learning-area
technology or entrepreneurship.

Portfolio
A portfolio is a purposeful collection of work which demonstrates a
certain individual's growth and achievements in relation to the
specific outcomes.
A portfolio can take the form of a file, but storage can also take
place in boxes or any other means of collating work that has been
assembled.

Functional art
This is art that can be used, such as spoons made from pewter and
covered with wire, wire baskets, beaded curtains, etcetera.

. Talk to a colleague or fellow student and defend the necessity of art as


contributing to whole-person development in a science-oriented
society.
16

1.2.6.4 The role of Art Education and outcomes of a Quality Art Programme
The question arises: What then is the role of Art Education in any given school? The answer
is not quite that simple. Guidelines to understanding the importance of Art in school can be
set out as follows:

The critical outcomes which form the basis of our education system, are broad, generic
cross-curricular outcomes which adhere to the Constitution and have been adopted by
SAQA. These outcomes will ensure that learners gain the skills, knowledge and values that
will allow them to contribute to their own success as well as the success of their families,
communities, and the nation as a whole. The key ideas that illustrate the importance of these
outcomes include mastery of actions such as

. identifying and solving problems


. working effectively with others
. organising and managing oneself
. collecting, analysing, and critically evaluating information
. communicating effectively
. reflecting, exploring and participating
. being culturally and aesthetically sensitive
. developing entrepreneural skills

These outcomes refer to the specifications of what learners should be able to do at the end of
a learning experience. They include skills, knowledge and values and form the link between
intention and the results of learning. Outcomes displayed by the learner at the end of an
educational experience are based on the premise that all learners are able to learn and should
be given the opportunity to realise their potential, through various teaching strategies Ð so
too in the field of arts and culture.

Also of great importance is that learners should, during the senior and intermediary phases,
be provided with opportunities to acquire, develop, and apply a range of more advanced
skills to facilitate greater understanding. It is especially important that learners should obtain
the breadth, depth, access and entitlement which are particularly important to ensure that
they are given a sound basis from which to take advantage of and make sound choices
during the FET phase. Learners should know enough about future choices to be able to make
informed ones. Here again Art Education in school has a role to play as it equips learners with
the skills required to discover not only their interests but also their potential and talents thus
enabling them to make well-considered choices with a bearing on their future performance
and development. It is important during this phase to get learners focused on critical and
creative thinking skills, attitude development and understanding of their role in society.

As stated in the RDP document:

Arts and culture embrace custom, tradition, belief, religion, language, crafts and all the
art forms like dance, music, the visual arts, film, theatre, written and oral literature. Arts
and culture permeate all aspects of society and are integral parts of social and economic
life, as well as business and industry based upon the arts.
(RDP 1994:69)

By being exposed to art, the child learns to develop the following skills:

. The ability to discover and to search for answers instead of waiting for instructions. This
is a central factor in Art Education.
17 PST210-G/1

. Mental growth depends upon a rich relationship between the child and his or her
environment. As the child is busy with art activities, a vast amount of information is
absorbed through his or her senses. This information becomes part of the child and is
then expressed in a new form that satisfies the child's aesthetic needs. The interaction
between the child and the environment is basic to creative art experience.
. The child learns through his or her senses. Art experiences give the learner opportunities
to develop sensitivity and awareness through all the senses, thus increasing the
opportunity for learning. Developing sensitivity is central to Art Education.
. The young child comes to a better understanding of him- or herself and the external
world as a result of his or her involvement in art-related activities.
. By developing the child's aesthetic abilities you allow him or her to become an adult,
someone who is able to make personal choices and take responsibility for such choices.
Enabling the learner to make creative choices and take responsibilities is a positive
introduction to the responsibilities an adult has towards the community and the
environment.

Being able to make art is very important to many children, and many of them may attend
school more regularly if their school presented a good Art Programme. It is often during the
Art Programme that learners are able to freely express their own ideas, opinions, and
judgements, through either their own art or discussion of other works. It is in the Art class
that learners are praised for their individuality and the uniqueness of their work rather than its
conformity to a predetermined standard or response. For example, each learner might
successfully complete an Art assignment based on the concept of ``landscape'', but each
learner's completed ``landscape'' work of art will be different and thus unique.

Possible outcomes for a learner subjected to a quality Art Programme should include the
following:

Outcomes of a Quality Art Programme

. Artworks should be created from observation, memory and


imagination.
. The learner will progress through stages of symbol formation and
elaboration and will develop relatively sophisticated levels of art-
making skills.
. The learner will develop an understanding of art as a means of
expressing ideas, feelings and ideals.
. The learner will gain a basic understanding of the range of visual arts
throughout history and accross many cultures.
. The learner will be conversant with art terms and concepts from
teaching and learning History of Art, as well as many particular
landmark works and the artists and cultures who produced them.
. The learner will learn about a range of world cultures through the
study of artworks, and their contexts, purposes and cultural values.
The learner will learn to appreciate his or her own cultural heritage
and that of many distinctive groups of South Africa and other
countries.
. The learner will develop preferences for some types or styles of art.
. The learner will learn how art expresses cultural values and in turn
influences society as he or she will investigate ways in which the
visual arts are influenced by the contexts of their creation, such as
18

phsychological factors, political events, social values, or changes in


technology.
. The learner will also be able to use sources of discovery and
research such as the library and the Internet to seek specific
information about art and artists.
. The learner will also get involved in the very nature of art including
issues surrounding the making, display, buying and selling, and
interpretation of works of art.

Those learners who had the good fortune to experience a well-structured Art Programme will
have exercised their creative abilities, thought deeply about art, and responded to and
learned about art and artists in context. They will have developed aesthetically through the
holistic appreciation of several aspects of art, a skill which will empower them to view their
world with added meaning and significance.

They will have taken one of the essential steps toward achieving a well rounded,
balanced general education that is the right of every child in society, especially the
South African society, and a requirement for an enlightened citizenry, towards which all
education should be striving.
(Hurwitz & Day 2001:30)

Activities

. As an Art educator of the future, what would you like to see as


outcomes in learners after they have gone through a period of training
with you?
. Compile your own reference guide by drawing on books and
magazines on Art Education and compile an anthology by copying,
reading and keeping opinions expressed on ``the value and role of
teaching Art in modern society''.
. ``Arts and culture permeate all aspects of society.'' Draw an
organigram to prove this statement.

An anthology includes
Passages from literature, other books, and magazines, put together in an
own collection which is meaningful for the individual who collected
them.
19 PST210-G/1

Section 2
Basic principles of curriculum
and curriculum design
Learning outcomes

After studying this section, you should be able to


. describe what is meant by the concept ``curriculum development''
. describe the role that you as a teacher play in curriculum development
. explain what is meant by the concept ``outcomes-based curriculum
development'' and the influence this will have on teaching, learning
and assessment
. describe what is meant by the integrated approach to education and
training in South Africa and how this will influence curriculum design
. describe the role that you, as a teacher, play in curriculum
development
. describe how Art can be integrated into the curriculum

2.1 Introduction
A curriculum can be described as a prescribed course of study. Curriculum design or
development is therefore the process of planning a prescribed course of study.

Stenhouse (1987:4) defines a curriculum as ``an attempt to communicate the essential


principles and features of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to critical
scrutiny and capable of effective translation into practice''. According to Stenhouse the
curriculum involves both content and method.

The aim of curriculum development is to improve both teaching and learning. The concept of
designing the curriculum according to a specific model or paradigm is based on a certain
philosophical approach to education.
The value of Art Education for the whole curriculum is described as follows by Henry (Henry
& Luckenbach-Sawyers 1984:22):
It is possible that Art Education may become not only a paradigm for the general
curriculum, but also that it may be a focal area from which alternatives for learning in
other disciplines are confronted and generated. The arts in education could become
centres of awareness, for learning of one's self, of one's multi-varied needs in a total
environment.

Generally, education in the arts has been neglected, since so many people regard it as just a
20

pastime during which no serious learning takes place, yet it is one of the few areas where life
skills are taught rather than mere academic ``facts''.

Curriculum development usually takes place at macro level (national), meso level (could be
provincial or school level) and micro level (classroom). At the classroom level the teacher,
through the design of the work scheme, implements the work programme in order to achieve
the desired outcome.

Once this has been achieved, teachers, instructors, trainers and any other providers will have
to develop learning programmes that are outcomes-based in order to implement the new
curriculum.

2.2 An outcomes-based learning programme


Outcomes-based education forms the foundation of the curriculum in South Africa. It strives
to enable all learners to achieve to their maximum ability. This it does by setting the
outcomes to be achieved at the end of the process. The outcomes encourage a learner-
centered and activity-based approach to education. The critical and developmental
outcomes for the training band Grades R-9 (for schools) were inspired by the Constitution
and developed in a democratic process. There are critical outcomes (see point 1.2.6.4) as
well as developmental outcomes.

Without going into too much detail, an outcomes-based approach focuses on the
knowledge, skills and values imparted to people after teaching and learning has taken place.

The developmental outcomes envisage learners who are able to

. reflect on and explore a variety of strategies to learn more effectively


. participate as responsible citizens in their local, national, and global community lives
. be culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts
. explore education and career opportunities
. develop entrepreneural opportunities

2.3 Integration: cross-curriculur teaching


Integrating Art with other subjects is not a new idea. Art can be the core from which all the
different learning content radiates and integrates the learner's life-world with all the other
learning that takes place at school. The arts curriculum is one of the easiest and most direct
means of engaging learners in more challenging thinking. Art criticism, for instance, involves
forming one's own ideas and opinions when interpreting visual works and discussing,
debating, and defending different interpretations based on the visual evidence in the work
itself.

Current planning in Art Education (and, please note, this means all the arts: dance,
music, drama, movement, and the visual arts) favours an integrated approach to
learning.

There are a number of correlations between Art and other subjects, but one must beware of
pronouncing any activity (eg map drawing) to be art. Always consider the aims of Art
Education when using Art as a way of integrating learning areas. Art must never become
21 PST210-G/1

secondary to other learning areas or subjects. Art Education is just as important as all the
other subject areas and brings a balance to a school system that tends to favour cognitive-
oriented subjects. It is always easier for the junior primary teacher or the class teacher to
teach across the curriculum and integrate other learning areas with art experiences.

2.3.1 Correlation with language


Stories, songs, poems, and other forms of literature can be used as the basis for all kinds of
art activities. There is a strong interrelationship between puppetry and the other theatre arts
on the one hand and spoken and written language on the other. Stories, poems, and plays
can also easily be interrelated with the social sciences, music, etcetera.

2.3.2 Correlation with environmental studies and social sciences


(history, geography)
Studies for learners should begin by using their immediate environment as a central theme
(eg the area in which they live or the people they meet). These early studies can then become
a central theme that can be used across the curriculum and integrated with all the learning
fields. (Later on, they can learn about people from other times and other countries.)

However, History of Art relates naturally to historical topics and most history texts are
illustrated by works of art. This provides an easy means of integration. Social issues are often
expressed by powerful images of art. Artists of many cultures and eras have dealt with every
universal social issue and human value, and teachers have access to the images they have
produced.

2.3.3 Correlation with natural science


Studies in the science of natural objects, such as plant forms, cells, fossils, shells, etcetera
can also be used to provide the basis and motivation for creative artworks.

2.3.4 Correlation with music, dance, drama


These subjects are supposed to be integrated with the new concept of arts and culture and
together they should form a unity. Many combined skills, tasks and creative inputs can be
derived by integrating these art forms.

2.3.5 Correlation with numeracy skills


Activities such as building model houses, making puppet clothing, etcetera encourage the
use of both numeracy and measuring skills.

2.3.6 Language instruction


This can be enhanced by the Art curriculum. Several art terms that can broaden the learner's
vocabulary spring to mind immediately, such as collage, colour, hue, shade, texture and
many more. Visual art could also provide some fascinating issues and topics that stimulate
learners to speak and write about them.
22

Activities

. Consider the above statement by Henry and Luckenbach-Sawyers


that the Arts are a centre of awareness, for learning of one's self, one's
needs and total environment. Do you believe this is a true statement?
Make a list of what one learns through the arts.
. Draw an organigram to illustrate the integration of Art with other
learning areas that could be part of cross-curricular planning with Art
Education. How would you implement such planning?
23 PST210-G/1

Section 3
Planning a programme for art
activity
Learning outcomes
After studying this section and doing the activities, you should be able
to
. describe the various factors that need to be taken into consideration
in planning a scheme of work
. plan for a semester or a year, taking into consideration the
outcomes-based approach to education
. describe, in broad, terms, the enormous learning possibilities
inherent in the various art and craft activities

3.1 Introduction
Art Education includes a wide variety of activities, including creative crafts, through which
learners can develop and learn. Creative crafts therefore have the same demands in terms of
learning content and skills development as the more traditional ``art'' activities.

3.2 Considerations when planning a scheme of work for


art activity
When planning a scheme of work for a specific group or groups of learners, certain factors
must be taken into consideration, namely the Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards
of the Arts and Culture Policy 2002.

The value of any art activity does not only lie in the art and craft activities as such, but in what
the learner experiences from exploring the different aspects of art. These aspects could be the
art elements, the use of a new medium as a possibility for expression, or inventing a personal
creative answer to a problem.

In art and craft activities, learning occurs when learners learn to creatively use different
materials and implement different skills. This way learners gain perceptual knowledge,
aesthetic values and problem-solving life skills that will be of value to them for the rest of
their lives.

Art activities are also about making decisions and taking responsibility for the decisions
24

made. Assessment should not be based on the end-product, but on how the learner has
developed, learnt and experienced through the activity.

3.2.1 The development of skills


This is necessary, since a greater mastery of the various skills gives the learner the self-
confidence to be expressive and communicate his or her experiences.

Skills development should be incidental, giving learners opportunities to

. explore a wide variety of media and techniques


. develop an understanding of the properties and possibilities of various procedures,
materials and tools

The variety of skills that can be developed in art activities enables learners to develop
personal expression in a creative situation. Art teachers rightfully deem themselves
successful if they are able to present a wide variety of activities, using a wide variety of
techniques, procedures, tools and materials.

3.2.2 Awareness through the senses


Initial motivation is essential for learning through art and craft experiences. Motivation must
come from a wide variety of stimulus material provided by nature as well as from human-
made objects. The stronger the impact of the motivation, the greater the learner's
involvement will be. The learner explores these objects, experiences them with the senses
(mainly visual in art), and develops the concepts and experiences he or she encounters in the
environment.

Through exploring human-made and natural objects by means of the senses, the learner
gains knowledge (indirectly and with the guidance of the teacher) of the different elements
of art, such as colour, form (shape), texture, etcetera. The learner also becomes indirectly
aware of how to use these art elements to express him- or herself. When learners become
more aware of the world around them, they learn about their environment, about themselves,
and about their place in the world; they also come to realise the relationship between
everyday life and art. They develop an aesthetic awareness which will enrich their lives. As
the learner grows towards adulthood, he or she will learn to make aesthetic choices, and be
able to take responsibility for those choices. In time to come, this may bring about a greater
sensitivity to living, thus further enriching the learner's life.

This aspect is discussed in depth in section 17 of this guide.

3.2.3 Development of divergent and creative thinking skills


There is no correct or incorrect way to produce art, as art is an individual answer to an
individual experience. Art Education is one of the many areas in the curriculum where
creative thinking should be encouraged.

The approach in teaching creative thinking skills should differ from that applied for other
thinking skills since there can be numerous possible solutions to a problem.

To begin with, the learner must be confronted with a problem, then the problem must be
identified Ð whether it concerns the mixing of tonal values or realising how line can be seen
in nature. The teacher must be flexible enough to encourage learners to seek individual
25 PST210-G/1

approaches and solutions. The learner should be encouraged to explore different ways of
solving the problem. There must be acceptance on the part of the teacher of numerous points
of view and a variety of solutions. The learner is then able to develop a personal solution
which becomes manifest and materialises in his or her art production.

Teachers are often concerned that this approach might lead to total chaos Ð to an
undisciplined, unruly class with no role for the teacher to play. Disciplinary problems could,
however, also be experienced in a mathematics class. It is the teacher who is in control, who
sets the stage, gives the motivation, plans the lesson, and guides the learner through the
creative act.

It is your motivation, your enthusiasm, your involvement which in turn will motivate the
learners and build up their enthusiasm and involvement. It is bored learners who become
unruly learners.

3.2.4 Cultivating aesthetic awareness in the learner


It is difficult to teach learners aesthetic awareness. It is even more difficult to measure the
outcome. Aesthetic awareness cannot be formally taught by means of History of Art, by
learning art terms, or by forcing your own concepts of good taste and your subjective likes
and dislikes on the learners.
The aesthetic experience must be part of the learner's natural interaction with the
environment. Looking at and learning about different ``art''-works from one's own culture
and many other, different cultures, should be a joyful experience, suggesting new avenues to
explore.
Aesthetic awareness is part of a growth pattern and its importance lies in developing the
ability to discriminate, to make choices and to take responsibility for these choices. Aesthetic
awareness enriches learners' lives as they become more aware of the environment and their
fellow human beings. It is in this way that the learner will become aware of the beauty of the
natural order and will come to respect other people's art production and his or her own art
production.

Visits to artists and art galleries, examining new design products, looking at architecture, for
example, should be a common occurrence.
The aspects of Art Education referred to above must always be seen as the ultimate aim in Art
Education and must form an integral part of each lesson and find expression in the personal
art production of the learner.

We shall be returning to the development of aesthetic consciousness and how to stimulate it


in section 17 and sections 8 and 9, which deal with motivation, creativity, and aesthetic
awareness.

3.2.5 What should the content of a good Art Programme be?


Art in the school context is both knowledge driven and skills driven. The teacher organises
and provides a series of activities as experiences related to specific goals. The sequence and
depth of these experiences are determined by numerous factors such as the nature of the Art
Programme, the outcomes desired, and the interests, abilities and needs of learners at
different levels of growth.

The revised National Curriculum Policy document states that the uniqueness of this learning
area lies in the opportunities that it provides to nurture and develop the creativity of learners.
26

Through artistic and cultural activities, a safe, supportive environment can be created where
learners are able to explore, experience, and express their thoughts, ideas, and concepts in an
atmosphere of openness and acceptance.

It aslo stands to reason that a good Art Programme will incorporate the four main Learning
Outcomes, which bear repeating:

. learning outcome one: creating, interpreting and presenting artworks (process- and
product-oriented)
. learning outcome two: reflecting on cultural practices and art activities
. learning outcome three: participating and collaborating in artistic and cultural
activities
. learning outcome four: self-expression and communication through various art forms

A good Art Programme should also take cognizance of the main Assessment Standards,
which are the minimum requirements to be achieved by learners in each grade.

For the sake of clarity these Assessment Standards are classified according to the various art
forms, namely dance, drama, music and visual arts (which includes crafts and design).

The overall units intended for Artstudies should include an aspect of each of the following:

Components of an art programme

Classification A: Visual arts


. painting
. sculpture
. drawing
. printmaking

Classification B: Crafts

. weaving
. ceramics
. jewellery
. miscellaneous

Classification C: Design

. elements of design
. fashion design
. advertising design
. industrial design

Classification D: Architecture

. homes
. commercial structures
. landscapes and parks
(Linderman & Herberholz 1974:136)
27 PST210-G/1

This is just a broad classification and should not be followed strictly, but may be effectively
used as a guideline for planning and a base to build on. The following is just an example of
what such a programme could look like:

Year programme for a Grade 6 class:

Grade 6 (10 years)


Number of weeks: 4
Fun with media and colour (colour wheel in front of class)
Free play with paint media
Experiments with colour mixing and colour combination led by the
teacher:
(i) the complementary colour scheme, for example red hut in green
forest, or yellow lanterns against evening sky
(ii) tones and shades of two colours, for example mottled stones with
flowers, or a veld fire with silhouettes in the foreground;
experiments with part covering of shapes

Number of weeks: 8

Picture-making: Narrative (planning, experience)


Free planning and painting of experiences (for topics, see p 39)
Guided planning and painting of experiences by scribbling shapes with
charcoal and colouring them in (p 74) (use action figures that are
dressed (p 82))
Depicting fantasy: paint masks, witches, harlequins, martians and such
(p 86)
Topics relating to other school subjects

Number of weeks: 4

Picture-making: Descriptive (planning, observation)


Studio lessons to facilitate creative expression; simple objects and toys
in line drawing and colour (i) separately and (ii) in groups with
contrasting colours to investigate partial covering; the demarcation
method to facilitate drawing
Action figures, dressed
Working from memory of what children observed in their environment
Plant and flower studies

Number of weeks: 8

Design: (development of artistic sense and ingenuity)


Repetitive designs (border, covering and unifying patterns) with lines
and colour shapes, as well as simple motifs from nature, with the
28

application of findings arising from ``fun with media and colour''


(flowers, insects, figures, trees, buildings, boats, etc)
Design pictures, posters, greeting cards, flags, logo's, book covers
Decor design (stage sets) for miniature stage
Principle of repetition, contrast and radiation by means of paper-
cutting, die-stamping, and stencilling
Development of paint-blotting and luck patterns

Number of weeks: 6

Modelling (three-dimensional depiction)


Narrative modelling on hardboard (diorama): (i) own choice and
(ii) prompted by teacher, for example the roadworkers' story, dipping
cattle, the pyramids of Egypt, etcetera
Descriptive modelling of buildings, boats, figures, animals and such for
model stage
Ornamental statuettes, bookends and tiles
Decorative masks and puppet heads
Pots and ornamental ceramics

Number of weeks: 6

Crafts (construction work)


Paper and cardboard work: folding, cutting, pasting, and decorating
model houses and furniture, files, baskets, etcetera
Application of decorative processes on economy articles: cardboard
boxes, bags, paper plates, cans, and other manufactured containers
Model building (diorama): stage sets and fittings for a miniature stage
(animals, figures, trees, etcetera that are able to stand)
Furniture and utility articles made of paper and cardboard for doll's
house
Free-choice, original pieces of work made of the above materials
(homework)
Weaving and plaiting with wool or raffia on cardboard frames

(Leuschner 1975:234)

3.3 Considerations with regard to the planning of a


scheme of work for a specific age group
The teacher must determine the entire content of the syllabus, obtain an overall impression,
and then decide on the detail and the division of the work for each year group. There must be
continuity, so that certain foundations are laid in the early years to be built upon as the
learner progresses.
When planning a scheme of work, you may want to use the following checklist:
29 PST210-G/1

Strategy for planning an Art Programme

. Will learners be given the opportunity to develop their potential


through their art production?
. What is the expected learning (in other words the learning outcome)
over a period of time?
. What is the developmental stage of the learners? The age group? The
cultural milieu of the group? What is the environment of the group?
Have I taken the learners' lifeworld (interests and hobbies) into
consideration in the choice of my activity and in my presentation? All
of the above will have a direct bearing on the selection of the
activity.
. What type of activities should be selected in order to realise the
learning outcome?
. How much time is allocated to Art Education over a period of a
week, a term, a year, taking into consideration school and public
holidays and other school activities?
. In planning individual lessons, has the time factor been taken into
consideration for a certain type of activity?
. Does my planning provide for sequential and progressive
development so that, over time, the work will form a foundation on
which to build?
. Are there opportunities for group work?
. What type of aids, visual and otherwise, will be necessary?
. What physical facilities could be available for certain types of
activities?
. Does my planning take account of practicalities such as cleaning-up
facilities?
. What type of materials, techniques and procedures will be suitable
for the type of activities and the learner?
. Are the materials required for the different types of activities readily
available? What alternatives are there, and how can I improvise?
. Is subject integration possible, given the type of activities I am
planning?

3.4 The scheme of work or lesson plans


The following should be taken into account when designing a
scheme of work for arts and crafts:
1 A variety of both human-made and natural objects should be used.
2 The learner should be able to express his or her personal feelings
using different art materials and processes.
3 By selecting the right tools, appropriate to their abilities, learners will
gain the manipulative skills needed to create and be expressive.
4 During the lesson, the learner can be given an understanding of the
formal qualities of line, form, colour, texture and space.
30

5 When discussing and examining art- and craftworks, a variety of


educational and communal resources should be used, such as
painting, sculpture, constructions, architecture, and industrial and
hand-crafted products.
6 Continuous assessment must take place, whether it is of the work of
the learner (self-assessment), a mature artist, or industrial and
domestic designs (qualitative assessment).
7 Learners should apply their knowledge of art and aesthetic judgment
to everyday life and be given the opportunity to see artists at work.

Activities
1 Because this is an area which can really only be addressed within the
school settting and a particular grade setting, it is difficult to form
and idea of an actual teaching programme. However, the following
can be done at this stage:
Ð When practice teaching, ask the teacher for his/her year-work
schedule or programme.
Ð Evaluate the programme to discover where you agree and/or
disagree with it.
Ð What would you add to the programme?
Ð What would you do differently? Why?
2 What is your idea of a good Art Programme?
31 PST210-G/1

Section 4
The stages of artistic
development and behaviour in
children's art production
Learning outcomes
After studying this section and doing the activities, you should be able
to

. recognise the different characteristics in the art production of children


. describe the typical characteristics of art produced by children from
the ages of about nine to fourteen years
. give guidance to parents and other adults regarding the
characteristics of art produced by children in this age range

4.1 Introduction to artistic expression


Art production is a creative process for the child and is an avenue through which all kinds of
experiences are expressed in a nonverbal way. Involvement in art production provides a
marvelous experience for young children that cannot be derived in any other way. If the
environment is warm, supportive, and receptive, the learner will enjoy and freely incorporate
moods and original concepts in different kinds of subject matter by using a variety of art
materials.

As children grow and develop, certain typical characteristics can be recognised in their art
production. These characteristics are universal and have to be identified and understood by
the teacher so that each child in the Art class can be helped to develop his or her creative
abilities in art and in learning. The teacher must be able to select relevant activities so that the
learners will realise their full potential for developing their cognitive, creative, perceptual,
aesthetic, and affective qualities and skills.
Although the intermediary and senior primary teacher is mainly concerned with older
learners, it is important that all Art teachers gain an overview of the different
developmental stages in the production of children's art, so that they can better
understand the way in which children's art develops.
32

4.2 Characteristics of the art production of the


preschool child
4.2.1 From two to four years old: the scribbling stage
4.2.1.1 Random scribbles
This usually takes place from the age of about eighteen months. The child derives kinesthetic
and visual enjoyment when he or she notices the mark that he or she makes. Indeed, every
mark the child makes is an exciting experience. There is no attempt to portray anything.

Fine muscle control has not yet been developed, and marks will not be repeated. The
movement is made with the whole body rather than just the hand and the grip on the
drawing tool may change between movements and between activities.

4.2.1.2 Controlled scribbling


The child discovers that there is a connection between his or her drawing motions and the
marks on the paper. The activity is pleasurable and after a while the child can repeat certain
marks and gains more control over the marks he or she makes. As the scribbles become more
organised and better controlled, the child will start making circular motions.

4.2.1.3 Giving the scribbles names


The child starts naming his or her scribbles either after or during the process, and may even
tell a story about the scribbles without actually portraying the visual event or the subject
matter. This usually occurs at about the age of three years and is a very important event as the
child has moved from kinesthetic enjoyment to imaginative thinking. A basis for visual
retention has been established.

Activities
Remember that this stage of development is not really necessary to us in
the intermediary and senior phase. However, Art training and education
cannot take place without foreknowledge of other stages, and therefore
activities are important even at this level. It is also important for your
generic training as a teacher.

. Collect examples of artworks from a local nursery school or preschool


group of children in your vicinity. Look at the variety of expression.
Try to classify these scribbles into one of the three stages mentioned,
namely:

Ð disordered
Ð controlled
Ð naming the scribbles

. Gauge your ability to motivate learners by comparing one scribble


done by a child who was left to his or her own devices to a scribble
done by the same child when you guided his or her thinking.
33 PST210-G/1

4.2.2 From about four to seven years old: the preschematic phase of
the symbol-making stage
This stage grows directly out of the last stages of scribbling. The child will discover that he or
she has the motor coordination to repeat a shape at will. The child starts to visualise how the
shape (eg a circle) can portray a number of objects that have a meaning for him or her. This is
the beginning of representational attempts in art.

At this stage, the child might start verbalising while drawing, either to him- or herself or to an
interested adult. This may be part of fantasising or remembering some experience or event.
The end product, however, might be something completely different from the concept the
child originally started with. The flow of conversation between child and adult while the
child is drawing may activate the child's memory, causing him or her to remember
experiences.

The child is very confident at this age, drawing anything and seldom asking for help. When
the child does ask for help when drawing, it is a call to help remember the visual image the
child wants to draw, rather than a call to aid in the drawing process itself. With the adult's
encouragement (ie directing the child's attention to visual, tactile and kinesthetic
experiences), the child will gain greater insight into, and enthusiasm for, his or her drawing
and painting activities.

At this stage, the child may often exaggerate, or depict in more detail, certain parts of a
drawing or painting that have particular emotional significance for the child.

4.2.2.1 Portrayal of the human figure


In the outline of the circle the child may place two lines and the circle becomes a person with
legs Ð with eyes (dots), nose (perhaps) and a big smile. These are called hairpin figures.
These rudimentary figures will be repeated to suit the needs of the child to communicate,
with him- or herself and with others, those experiences that have meaning for the child.
Whatever the medium, the child will create these figures in this style. Sometimes hands (with
or without fingers) may be placed at the ends of the arms.

4.2.2.2 Portrayal of space


The objects and figures that the child puts in his or her pictures float in space and are usually
isolated. There is no top or bottom in the drawings and the paper may even be turned
sideways or upside down in order to place figures in the available space.

Depiction of proportion and relative size is of no importance, but the logic is honest and
obvious. For example, a lost tooth is very important, so the mouth will be drawn much larger
than the rest of the features. There is no concern for correct proportions or representational
detail.

4.2.2.3 Subject matter


At the age of about three, four years the child is egocentric and the subject matter of his or
her artistic expression centres around the self and the child's family and pets.

4.2.2.4 Art activities


The following activities are important for the child's development:
34

. drawing enables and allows the child to gain motor control


. painting is important in that it gives a sensually pleasurable outlet for the child's emotions
and develops his or her skills in using paint
. modelling activities give opportunities to experience three-dimensionality

A question that is often asked, is, ``How can a teacher be certain, after providing learners with
a number of art experiences, that some tangible growth has taken place?''

Listed below are some specific characteristics which indicate art growth. These
characteristics can be used as a progress guide in evaluating the learner's artistic
development at this age.
Bear in mind that these checkpoints apply to one learner's work over a given period.

Grade: kindergarten/preschool
Stage: symbol
Checkpoints indicating signs of art growth
AGE: 4±8
1 Does the child draw simple, geometric figures?
2 Does the child exaggerate important parts?
3 Do the child's drawings contain many details (nostrils, eyelashes,
fingers, toes, etc)?
4 Is there evidence of improvement in the child's images of figures,
trees, houses, flowers and animals?
5 Is the drawing spread over the whole paper?
6 Does the child employ decoration in his work?
7 Is there evidence of balance?
8 Does the child use many colours?
9 Does the child use more than one value of the same colour?
10 Are distant objects drawn smaller?
11 Does the child work carefully?
12 Does the child finish his work?
13 Does the work reflect original ideas?
14 Is the child imaginative?
15 Does the child indicate textures by employing contrasting surface
treatments?

Danger signals:
1 Does the child say, ``I can't''?
2 Is the drawing full of patterns and rigid stereotypes (stick figures, v-
shaped birds, etc)?
3 Does the child draw only one subject, such as aeroplanes, horses or
houses?
4 Does the child make ``warmed-over'' pictures?
5 Is the work lacking in detail and freshness?
6 Does the child like to copy?

(Linderman & Herberholz 1974:61, 66)


35 PST210-G/1

Activities

. Look at learners' drawings and see if you can recognise these typical
characteristics. Are there also other differences? Why do you think
these differences exist?
. Collect drawings that include symbols for the mouth. Motivate
learners by giving them something to chew, like nuts or sweets, and
ask them to observe each other whilst doing so. Now ask them to
draw mouths again. Compare the drawings done before and after the
motivation to see what changes, if any, have taken place in
representing the symbol for the mouth.

4.2.3 From about seven to nine years old: the schematic phase of the
symbol-making stage
By the time the child has reached the age of seven, he or she will have formed definite
concepts of the environment, as a result of experience. These concepts will be represented in
the form of a schema, which will be used repeatedly, to be deviated from only when there is
an urge to express something different. This schema will differ in richness, according to
differences in children's personalities and differences in their emotional and environmental
experiences.

At this stage children may become very critical of their own work and they may tend to be
less spontaneous in their art production. The same theme or subject matter may be repeated.
Now is the time to direct attention to similarities and differences in shapes, colours, lines,
etcetera and to stimulate and encourage the child to explore the environment. At this stage,
the teacher must use more different types of motivation as stimulation.

The objects drawn may often be as the child knows them to be, rather than how he or she
visually sees them (eg a house is drawn with three sides when only one side is visible).
Sometimes both the inside and the outside of a place, person or object is drawn, almost as if
the child is using an x-ray machine with which to draw (eg a picture of a submarine showing
both the outside and the inside of the vessel). At this stage, children may also use a fold-over
technique as if they have drawn on each side of the piece of paper when it has been folded to
depict both sides of a street or people around a table. Often they will turn their picture
completely around as they draw.

4.2.3.1 Portrayal of the human being


The representation of the human figure will change from a totally geometrical symbolic
representation to a figure with more specific characterisation. There are attempts to
distinguish between the sexes by means of clothing and hairstyles. There will be more detail
in the representation of hair, buttons, clothing and jewellery.

As in the portrayal of all the other objects, at this stage children will develop a schema to
portray action. They will pose the human figures in a way that shows an attempt to portray
action; however, they are not yet able to master foreshortened views.

4.2.3.2 Portrayal of space


During the fifth and sixth year, the child becomes more aware of his or her environment and
36

can order space in that the sky is placed above (usually in the form of a blue band) and the
ground below, with air in between. The child then lines up figures and other objects on this
ground base.

As the child grows older and becomes more consciously aware of the environment, there
may be some deviation from the baseline (eg it may become a mountain line). Plane and
elevation may be mixed in one picture, showing (for example) the top and sides of a table
simultaneously.

Distant objects are sometimes placed higher up on the page, but are still the same size.

By the age of eight, nine years, the child strives to plan and compose a picture.

There is an attempt to create the illusion of depth by means of overlapping forms. The
baseline may become the horizon line, with distant objects drawn smaller.

4.2.3.3 Use of colour


Colour is used more naturalistically as there is now a relationship between the painted colour
and the colour of the object. Children of this age group do not distinguish between different
shades or tones of one colour (eg trees are all drawn in a uniform green hue).

4.2.3.4 Art activities


Children now enjoy exploring and experiencing new art materials, and are eager to develop
skills.

Activities
This is an important phase for us as it leads on to the intermediary
phase.

. Observe the behaviour of learners of this age outside the classroom.


Can you detect any social schemata? Are there fixed rules for games?
Are there set patterns for certain activities? Are there set songs or
chants for games such as rope skipping? Is there any evidence of
pressure from adults in these patterns, or do they come from the
learners themselves?
. Examine learners' drawings and paintings. Show how the use of
colour parallels the established schema in drawing. Where and how
do the paintings differ from the drawings?

4.2.4 From about nine to twelve years old: the realistic stage (the
pre-adolescent)

Note: From this stage onward it is important to have some detailed knowl-
edge of learner development as it falls within the range of the intermediary
and senior stage.
37 PST210-G/1

One of the outstanding characteristics of this age is that learners discover that they are
members of society, a society of peers. It is during this stage that the foundations are laid for
the ability to work in groups and cooperate in adult life. This then is the age for group
friendships and peer groups or gangs. Though the word ``gang'' has taken on a very negative
connotation in today's society, it is used here in a very positive way. We should see this stage
as one where children become more sociable and, as part of this new-found sociability,
associate or want to associate with others of their own age. There is evidence of learning
about social structures in a personal way. This is an essential part of the developmental
process and an important step in social interaction. Also, the child's increase in size, skill and
strenghth provides opportunities for him or her to become more independent.

With this new social independence, children tend to move away from complete adult
domination. This can be seen in the emergence of so-called ``gangs'', and in the importance
of friendship within a peer group. These groups are usually of the same sex. The child is less
egocentric, thinks more socially, and considers the opinions of others.

As the world around them becomes more important and interests change, the child's actual
environment becomes a great source of inspiration for art experiences. There is a clash
between the child's fantasy world and the real world. This can be seen clearly in the art
produced by children from this age group: their fantasy worlds are replaced by ``realism'' in
the sense that their art production is not a photographic representation but rather an urge to
portray reality. The child seeks a way of portraying his or her concepts of the world by using
more than just symbols, with the result that the schematic representation is discarded.

More emphasis is placed on detail. There is a greater awareness of the world around him or
her, which means that the child will not easily omit or exaggerate certain parts of a drawing.
In contrast with the younger child, children of this age group tend to emphasise those parts
that have a strong emotional connotation by detailing them. The younger child, especially a
child who is stimulated visually, will draw detail on clothing, jewellery, hair styles, etcetera.

4.2.4.1 Portrayal of the human being


The schema is no longer adequate. The concept of the human figure during the earlier
schematic stage was a generalised person. Now, during the realistic stage, children make a
very definite effort to distinguish between the sexes in the way they portray clothing and the
physical characteristics of the human figures they draw and paint. Learners acquire a feeling
for detail, and one where the result is not one of visual observation, but rather a portrayal of
what is seen even if it is not an exact portrayal of reality. Children gain a sense of detail, but
often lose their sense of action, and therefore a greater stiffness can be seen in representaions
of the human figure.

Although at this stage children still exaggerate the size of the human figure, studies have
shown that this exaggeration tends to disappear at some time during this stage of
development.

4.2.4.2 Portrayal of space


Children try to render a more realistic representation of space and the use of a baseline to
portray ``above'' and ``below'' becomes unrealistic as the sky now stretches to the horizon.
Light and shadow (shading techniques) are used to make forms look more solid, cylindrical
and realistic, and different shades and tints of a colour are used.

Partial overlapping is also investigated to create an illusion of depth. Rudimentary principles


of perspective are applied in landscapes and cityscapes by making objects and people
38

become smaller the further away they are (ie perspective is applied). A child may select a
particular way to portray space and the different ways of creating space (differing widely
among individual children) may include the following:

. an expansive aerial view of the plane to give a sense of great space and depth
. vertical use of space (up-down)
. closer objects are placed lower down on the page, while those further away are placed
higher up
. use of overlapping
. making use of simple perspective devices (ie converging parallels leading to a vanishing
point on the horizon); sometimes the lines converge on the viewer

4.2.4.3 Use of materials and tools


The child has a tremendous interest in how an object or person is drawn. A strong curiosity
and the need to experiment with a variety of tools and materials develops and the child
enjoys becoming involved in more complex processes. As a result, he or she experiments
with light and dark colours and with different textural qualities and tonal values.

4.2.4.4 Different approaches to art


We can now distinguish between three different approaches to art production, with the
majority of children of this age group roughly falling into one of these three groups
(although most children are a combination of all three):

. Visual type. These children respond strongly to visual stimulation. The appearance of
things interests them and they want to draw things as they see them. The visual type of
child will tend to choose colours based on actual visual appearance.
. Haptic type (or emotional type). These children want to interpret their emotional
experiences, and want to express themselves through art. Only that which touches and
moves the emotions are of importance to this type of child. The emotional type of child
will choose colours according to his or her emotional response to them.
. Constructive type. These children approach their art with logical thought and are
interested in doing design work. The use of colour forms an inherent part of their
development and they enjoy working with colour, being more sensitive to either
similarities or differences in colour (eg ``bright'' as opposed to ``sombre''), as determined
by their personal experiences. These children are more interested in the decorative aspect
of art, and they therefore enjoy doing design work using a wide variety of materials and
processes.

4.2.4.5 Subject matter


Both boys and girls at this stage can develop an interest in particular, individualistic subject
matter. Drawings may be very stereotyped as boys will be drawn to draw objects typically
male and girls typically female. It seems that sex differences exist in drawings at this stage.
There is a tendency in this age group for their interests in life to be reflected in the subject
matter of their art.

As the child's interests change, so does his or her art. This group will give expression in their
drawings to matters of human interest (eg activities such as community and world events),
and projects in ecology, science, space travel, etcetera. It should be stressed that all subject
matter should be meaningful and relate to the child's own experiences.
39 PST210-G/1

Because groups are important to this age group, activities should also form a major part of
their art and the subject of their art. Subjects such as ``gathering wood for a campfire'', ``the
shopping mall'', ``decorating for a party'', ``picking berries'', and ``sitting down to supper''
can be portrayed as either group or individual activies.

4.2.4.6 Different approaches when composing a picture


Children at the pre-adolescent stage may occasionally sketch the major directional lines
before starting to draw the main figures or shapes, but tend to use the additive method. They
start drawing the main figure, complete it in full detail, then move on to the next figure or
shape, and so on, and then fill in the background as the last step. As a result, the composition
generally looks stiff and contrived and lacks unity. The figures are usually displayed frontally
and each child has developed a specific scheme for movement. When children follow this
method in composing a picture, they do not use the full format of the picture. The child is
afraid that if he or she does anything in the open spaces between the small figures, this will
obliterate the finer details of his or her drawing. As a result, when forced to fill in the
background, the child will often resort to stereotype shapes (eg birds or clouds). These
shapes distract aesthetically from the main picture and do not add meaning to it. It is up to
the teacher to teach learners how to compose a picture and to keep guiding them, based on
the principles of composition, so that they become familiar with and master concepts such as
balance, unity, emphasis, etcetera.

4.2.4.7 The use of symbols in the work of the pre-adolescent


Sometimes children will, to varying degrees, turn away from portraying reality. They might
make use of symbols to reduce or exaggerate reality (eg a heart shape pierced by an arrow).
These shapes have strong symbolic connotations.
Some children may create nonrepresentational shapes (ie rhythmic or colour patterns).

4.2.4.8 Ways of overcoming blocks to creative expression


A positive approach to art activities at this stage depends on many factors. It depends, for
example, on how the child values art, whether in the past the child has had pleasant
experiences of art, and whether he or she has confidence to tackle and struggle with creative
problems. A great deal depends on a child's previous experience and whether teachers and
other adults encouraged the child's independence in creating artworks. Many children feel
insecure, and therefore resort to formulas, stereotypes and copying. They overemphasise the
need for skill and want to do work that is preconceived and minutely planned. Their previous
school experience of art may never have given them opportunities to imagine, fantasise and
experiment. Their training in art creation may have been dominated by a step-by-step, factual
approach. The attitude of parents and society may also have had an influence; often parents
and society lead the child to believe that only representational art is acceptable. This
approach ignores the fact that the child does not always want to create representational art.
Unfortunately, as a result of this approach, the child's interpretive efforts are rejected by
parents and adults, and leads to the child forming a ``block'' against art. To break through
these kinds of blocks requires a lot of time, planning and individual attention.
The teacher should, perhaps, ask him- or herself the following questions, both as a self-
evaluation exercise and in order to improve his or her teaching practice:
. Were my directions concerning procedures clear and correct?
. Do I force my standards and values of art on the children?
40

. Does a rigid educational policy destroy the children's confidence, seldom giving
opportunities to dare, to experiment, to try something new?
. Is the atmosphere in my class conducive to individual growth?

Teachers should give all children the opportunity to be expressive by choosing suitable
themes for the different types of expression, namely the visual, haptic or decorative kind of
art-making. Every child should be encouraged and supported in his or her artistic expression.
Children should be shown that artists have individual styles, thus encouraging them to
accept themselves and other people more readily.

4.2.4.9 The production of stereotypes in the art of children


The pre-adolescent can easily fall into the habit of depending on an automatic formula for
producing art that keeps feelings and new ideas out of his or her work. This is often the
reason why children attempt to draw realistically. Stereotypes often come out of a group
repertoire, using symbols for a tree, a house, a man, etcetera. One child in the group may be
innovative, with the rest of the children in the group copying what he or she does. The use of
an outline, making colours look brighter and the picture more ``finished'' and ``neater'' is
another stereotype. When children fall back on repetition and on producing stereotypes it
may be a sign of resistance or alienation, or it may indicate that they have not been
sufficiently stimulated to see, feel and experience things in a personal way. These problems
can be overcome by encouraging direct observation of real life. Children must be helped to
resist and reject stereotypes.

4.2.4.10 The pre-adolescent's tendency to copy


The pre-adolescent stage is also the period when children turn to copying. There could be
several reasons for this kind of action, for example children may consider their earlier work
childish, they want to draw according to some preconceived adult standard or they may want
to find out and know how things are put together. They want their objects and people to look
``real'' and their work to be accepted as accurate, and they want to depict ``pretty'' concepts
of reality.

If this happens, it may be that the teacher has failed to adequately challenge the learner to
master specific skills with which to express him- or herself or the teacher may have failed to
give the learners enough opportunities to observe from life. There is also the possibility that
the child is copying because of fear of self-revelation, ridicule, or failure, or because he or she
does not want to expose his or her lack of skill.

The need to copy can be turned to an advantage, but this requires individual attention and
analysis. If a learner copies horses, for example, show him or her paintings and drawings
where artists have handled the subject expertly and in different ways and have worked from
life. Create opportunities for sketching trips, drawing from real life. Provide a wide variety of
mixed media which will require differences in approach. In other words, copying should be
dealt with in a creative, rather than a negative, way.

4.2.4.11 Development of skill


Children tend to think that if you have the skill, you can create great art. In a great work of art,
it is impossible to separate the force of the skill from the force of the insight. Often there is
skill, but very little insight. Show children examples of these kinds of artworks.

One can consciously work with the principles of design when working with the pre-
adolescent. The child can learn to analyse his or her work and, with the teacher's guidance,
41 PST210-G/1

can learn to look at his or her work objectively. As children need a lot of support when
struggling with a skill, the teacher must be prepared to discuss, give advice and demonstrate.
Undirected and uninformed, the child will be lost. Teachers should capitalise on the pre-
adolescent's liking of technical experimentation. At the same time, children should be made
aware that skill is not all, but that the medium, the idea, and the skill are all interwoven in
personal expression. What is important, is that which is uniquely the child's own.

Grade: 4±7
Stage: Realistic

Checkpoints indicating signs of art growth (as displayed in


learners' work):

1 Does the child include a horizon line in his or her picture?


2 Does the child include shading?
3 Do the figures look more like real people?
4 Does the child include many details in his or her drawings?
5 Does the child make distinctions between boys and girls in his or
her work?
6 Does the child show decorative elements in his or her pictures?
7 Is there a sense of balance and rhythm?
8 Is there evidence of experimentation with the medium?
9 Is the work inventive?
10 Does the child relate colours to each other?
11 Are there indications of perspective?
12 Does the child overlap objects?
13 Do objects appear in visual proportion?

Danger signals:
1 Do the child's pictures still contain symbolic geometric figures?
2 Does the child imitate others?
3 Does the child desire to copy or trace?
4 Are stick figures or patterns included in the pictures?
5 Does the child show lack of enthusiasm while he or she is drawing?
6 Does the child continually repeat the same object?

(Linderman & Herberholz 1974:66)

Activities
. Observe several group art activities within a school setting at several
grade levels. Which activities were the most productive? Which were
most satisfactory from the child's point of view? Analyze the reasons
why some activites were more successful than others at this spesific
stage.
. Make a list of material used in a fourth grade Art Programme. How
appropriate are these materials for children's artisitic expression at
this age level? Compare this list with what is appropriate at the
kindergarten level.
42

. Make a list of examples of children's growing awareness of design


and textural patterns in their drawings. Pay particular attention to
clothing and objects important to the young artist. Are there any
differences observable between the sexes? How does the extent of
awareness compare with their academic ability?
. Have a look at fifth grade children's art and comment on the
following:

Ð How many children use the baseline concept?


Ð How many children make the sky come down to the baseline?
Ð What is the first realisation beyond this initial step?
Ð Are the learners who have shown the above developments also
socially more developed than their peers?
Ð Have any learners begun to use the space below the baseline as a
plane?

4.2.5 Learners between the ages of 12 and 14 years: the pseudo-


naturalistic stage
The significance of this period may be more easily understood if it is considered a transition
from a period when the adult world was all-powerful to a world in which the young
adolescent is beginning to assume an important role. After the gang age, they enter a period
when they develop intellectually. Traditionally, this was a bridging phase between primary
and secondary school. However, with the new OBE approach, this is the start of the senior
phase, which is where a certain measure of specialisation takes place to prepare learners for
the FTE Band, where they will have to start specialising in their chosen fields. In our rapidly
changing society, there are merging professions and specific job opportunities that were not
dreamed of thirty years ago, and youngsters now may end up in jobs that have not yet been
defined.

There is also an increasing awareness that the study of science alone cannot provide the
means to deal with values and attitudes. The modern-day youngster is finding it difficult to
identify with established values and attitudes. The means of expressing their dilemma are
strictly limited. Art may be the only field within the framework of the school system where
the development of feelings and emotions is given proper recognition. Interestingly enough,
the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching has stressed that the arts are not
a frill, but in fact an essential part of human experience, and has recommended that all
students study arts to discover how humans communicate through music, dance and the
visual arts.

The Art classes currently offered in most schools tend to emphasise the production of art
rather than the development of artistic attitudes, whereas it is the process of art that is
important, and not the products themselves. Therefore undue pressure to produce a certain
or required amount of art products, may be detrimental to the process of feeling, thinking and
perceiving in an artistic manner.

4.2.5.1 General characteristics of this stage


This stage of development also marks the end of art as a spontaneous activity and the
beginning of the period of reasoning. It is a period of great individual differences; this is most
noticeable in physical changes, but is also present in the mental, emotional and social areas.
This age group wants to be more independent and intellectually the child is generally more
43 PST210-G/1

capable of abstract thinking. The attitudes and skills developed during this stage of life will
influence his or her responses and attitudes later in life.

For some learners this stage means the end of unconsciously drawing what is known and
passing on to consciously relying on what is seen. These attempts are a more naturalistic way
to indicate the shift to adult modes of expression.

It is also a time when children become very critical of their own work. They focus
increasingly on the end product. If they do not succeed, they become very despondent about
their artwork.

It is now that the teacher can introduce the child to the History of Art, can encourage the use
of different materials, and can even encourage contact with practising artists Ð in fact, now
is the time to lead the child through every facet of art learning.

4.2.5.2 Portrayal of the human figure


Girls, as they mature, become interested in the human figure, drawing it constantly, on book
covers, in their notebooks, etcetera. The sexual characteristics are often overexaggerated,
showing their concern about the changes occurring in their own bodies.

As there is a striving for greater naturalism, young people of this age group become more
aware of folds in clothing, changes in light and shadow, colour changes, and detail. Specific
attention is given to special clothing (eg jeans) and hairstyles. Boys in particular enjoy doing
cartoons and satirical drawings of authority figures (eg parents, teachers, etc).

4.2.5.3 Portrayal of space


An important discovery by the visual type of person is the apparent reduction in size of
distant objects and the use of geometric perspective to achieve this illusion on a two-
dimensional surface. Space representations need not be formally taught, although some
children find these lessons exciting; others, however, such as the haptic child, find lessons in
perspective frustrating.

4.2.5.4 Portrayal of colour and design


Learners become very much aware of design qualities and have very definite likes and
dislikes as far as clothes, colours, jewellery, etcetera are concerned. Learners often react
emotionally to colour, a reaction which is highly individual and subjective in the case of each
particular child.

Learners of this age group find intricate design work enjoyable and absorbing. Lettering is
often changed and related to design. They have a great understanding of design in nature, as
seen on a tortoise, a fish, etcetera. The elements of art and principles of design can now be
very fruitfully used as subject matter. Learners of this age group enjoy collecting objects,
which are seen in a design setting and are capable of becoming objects of great beauty in the
eye of the beholder.

4.2.5.5 Industrial design


Now is the time for the Art teacher to discuss the design of everyday objects (eg whether the
design is suited to the function of the object, as in the designs of sports cars, racing bikes,
clothing, etc). This is the stage during which learners develop the aesthetic taste that is likely
44

to stay with them for a considerable number of years; this is also the period during which
learners can be taught to accept responsibility for their choice of consumer goods.

4.2.5.6 Development of the two types (visual and nonvisual (haptic))


Like the previous (pre-adolescent) age group, there are opposite types in terms of the way
these learners perceptually organise their world and the concepts resulting from their
interaction with the external world. These two types are the visual and the haptic child.

The teacher must be flexible enough to cater for and accommodate both types, providing a
wide range of stimulation, and having tolerance and acceptance of the approach to art
creation taken by both groups of learners.

4.2.5.7 Motivation
During this period, learners wrestle with problems of identify and have a need to come to
terms with themselves. These learners therefore need opportunities to express intense
feelings in a constructive way. As they construct and create objects, there is increased self-
awareness. Learners now resent tasks that are designed just to keep them busy. The prime
role of the teacher is one of guidance and encouragement so that expression can take a
meaningful form and subject matter can be selected that extends the learner's frame of
reference. Learners also need guidance to help them see the many possible avenues that are
open for self-expression. The teacher should encourage self-motivation and use art as a
pleasurable, meaningful expression, something that can give the learner opportunities for
expressing feelings and interpreting experiences.

4.2.5.8 Use of art materials and tools


Art materials should be selected for the expressive needs of learners: the selection of such
materials should be based on the use of the learners' gross as well as fine motor skills. A
material can be developed in such a way that it is able to embrace a number of subjects;
alternatively, the subject can be developed to incorporate a variety of materials, that is, to
produce a mixed media work (eg pencil and paint, pen and brush, koki and charcoal). The
teacher needs to be inventive and to discover unusual combinations of materials.

4.2.5.9 Computers and Art Education


Learners are exposed to computers in a number of different settings, but in South Africa there
might also be learners who have never come into contact with computers. On the
assumption that your learners have been exposed to computers, you should take account of
the fact that computers can also be used effectively in Art Education. However, always be
aware that there are certain dangers in accepting the computer as part of an Art Programme,
unless a clear purpose in using the computer is determined. The computer should not, for
instance, determine the content of art or how it should be taught. Yet we should use the
computer graphics programme for furthering and understanding the arts.

Adolescents may be especially attracted to computers for producing a variety of art forms.
Although it is self-evident that computer software has limitations and the image produced
has a machine-like quality, devoid of personal drawing idiosyncrasies, it may be that these
very qualities make this medium more appealing to the adolescent.

As technology advances and develops, the process of teaching Art will also change.
However, while the computer has the ability to free one of some mundane tasks, it also has
45 PST210-G/1

the ability to prevent the learner from making optimum use of his or her imagination, the very
skill the Art teacher aims to develop in learners. So, though it is necessary to know that
computers can be of some assistance in Art Education, they should not dominate any Art
Programme.

4.3 Signs of artistic growth in learners' thinking,


attitudes and actions
Not all signs of artisitic growth can be detected through evaluating learners' pictures. Often,
as is required by OBE, growth should also take place in learners' thinking, attitudes and
actions. This does not always show immediately in their works of art or artisitic expression
generally. Here is a checklist for detecting signs of growth:

Checkpoints
(for artistic growth in learners' attitudes, knowledge, skills)
1 Are the learners confident and eager to express their ideas using a
variety of art materials?
2 Do learners notice colour in things around them?
3 Do learners notice the way things feel to their touch?
4 Do learners discuss ideas related to art?
5 Do learners express more of their own ideas about things than
before?
6 Are learners more inventive in their thinking than before?
7 Do learners spend more time on working on their art than before?
8 Are learners more flexible in their work than before?

(Linderman & Herberholz 1974:67±68)

4.4 Points for the teacher to consider


Good Art teaching depends most on the abilities of those who teach it. At the classroom level
this refers to both teachers and parents. Here are some suggestions to help those who are
beginning to teach Art to learners:

Checkpoints for the beginner teacher of art

Suggested do's:
1 Encourage the learner to always do his or her own work.
2 Exhibit all learners' work, and not just the work of the ``talented
ones''.
3 Teach learners to be independent in all that they attempt and do.
4 Encourage learners to be inventive and original.
46

5 Encourage learners to always finish their work.


6 Encourage learners to talk about their work.
7 Provide ample time and opportunity to engage in art.
8 Encourage learners to be observant and aware.
9 Teach learners to care for materials.
10 Teach learners to concentrate on their thinking and feeling.
11 Encourage learners to be imaginative.
12 Encourage learners to experiment with materials.
13 Utilize visual aids to enhance your teaching.
14 Always motivate learners with specific outcomes in mind.
15 Encourage learners to think in new directions.

Suggested don't's:

1 Do not teach in a way that forces all learners to do the exact same
thing.
2 Do not use pattern books or books with pictures from which learners
can copy.
3 Do not express fears about attempting original work.
4 Do not create the notion that art is just an activity to fill time or a
``playtime'' activity.
5 Do not give learners art materials and ask them to make anything
they like.
6 Do not suggest or encourage imitative methods such as copying and
tracing.
7 Do not impose adult standards on the learner.
8 Do not expect learners to always make beautiful pictures.
9 Do not compare learners' artwork.
10 Do not be overly critical of learners' artwork. Mistakes are a
neccessary part of learning.
11 Do not discriminate by favouring certain learners' work repeatedly.
12 Do not use the same materials or themes repeatedly.
13 Do not use only one size of paper.
14 Do not limit Art lessons to the occasional fill-in on the roster; Art
lessons must have a rightful time and place on the timetable.

(Linderman & Herberholz 1974:68)

Activities
. Record examples of behaviour that show the change from
unconscious approach to critical awareness of the child's own
actions. Are there any indications of the child becoming critically
aware of his or her own drawings?
. Observe a class for several sessions. Are there any learners who seem
to be less involved in their art activities? How does their work show
this lack of involvement? Analyse some of the possible reasons for
hesitancy or fear of expression. Plan definite steps for improving the
meaningfulness of the art experience.
47 PST210-G/1

Suggested reading
. Bredenkamp, S & Copple, C (eds). 1997. Developmentally
appropriate practice in early childhood. Washington, DC: National
Association for the Education of Young Children.
. Johnson, A (ed). 1992. Art education: Elementary. Reston, VA:
National Art Education Association.
. Kellogg, R. 1969. Analyzing children's art. Palo Alto, CA: National
Press Books.
. Parsons, M. 1987. How we understand art: a cognitive
developmental account of aesthetic experience. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
World-Wide Web resources
Learn more about learners' artisitic development on the World-Wide
Web, if you have access to it:
. Getty Institute for Education in the Arts. ArtsEd/Net. 1999.
<http://www.artsednet.getty.edu/> (Use ``search'' feature.)
48

Section 5
The elements of art and the
principles of design
(composition)
Learning outcomes
After studying this section and doing the activities, you should be able
to

. recognise and analyse the different art elements found in works of art
. recognise and analyse the principles of composition as found in
works of art
. demonstrate a working knowledge of art terminology and be able to
discuss, in greater depth, the function of design elements and the
principles of composition
. explain how this knowledge may guide and lead the teacher in
teaching and evaluating the learners' creativity

5.1 Introduction
The term ``design'' is used today instead of ``composition'', which is considered to have a
more limited meaning. Design is not a separate and distinct area of art; it is an integral part of
any art form. One function of Art Education is to develop the learner's awareness of design.

Artists communicate by means of visual symbols, manipulating the medium to convey a


message, experience or idea. They consciously and intentionally create meaningful order,
making use of marks, texture, color and form in the creation of objects such as paintings,
sculptures, designs, drawings and buildings. ``Visual artists use design elements to design
visual form for visual products which will communicate information (content) visually''
(Botha-Ebbers 1993:70). These elements of art are the building blocks of visual art and are
all the artist has to work with.

The design elements, or art elements, are generally considered to be line, shape (form),
space, texture and color, and the way these elements are used in relation to one another
(the design process) determines the visual form.

The design process is also used in the performing arts, musical composition, literary and
poetic works and other arts, because the design process is an intentional act of creating
meaning and order with the use of various elements.
49 PST210-G/1

Activities
. Explain in your own words what the term elements of art means to
you.
. Give separate explanations of each of the elements of art. (You
should keep this answer and compare it with the definitions you
come across as you work through the study material.)

5.2 The elements of art (design elements)


5.2.1 Line
Example
(Hurwitz & Day 2001:194):

Aboriginal bark paintings (Australia) provide exceptionally clear


references to art terms, such as ``symmetry'', ``line'', ``repetition'',
and ``rhythm'' (from The Australian Aboriginal heritage by
Ronald Bernatt and E.S. Phillips).

KaÈthe Kollwitz.
Germany's children are
starving. 1924.
Kollwitz's use of bold,
emphatic lines for the
lithograph reinforce the
tragic content of her
subject. Bildarchiv
(Wachoviak 1985:15, 61) Preussischer Kulturbe-
sitz, Berlin.
50

The line drawing is the basic, structural foundation of all graphic composition and pictorial
design.
Line can be seen all around in the environment, in human-made objects as well as in nature.
Nature especially provides limitless sources of line variety, for example frost, tree branches
and roots, spider webs, water ripples, lightning, veins in leaves, feathers, seashells, grain in
wood, and bark of trees. Human-made examples are TV antennas, shopping trolleys, bird
cages, and many more.
Line has the physical properties of measurement and character, and can give direction.
The quality of line can differ, in that it can be thin, thick, light, dark, geometric or organic in
character. Line can also be implied. Expressive, sensitively drawn lines vary in weight, width,
and emphasis. They may be delicate, bold, static, flowing, rhythmic, ponderous, hesitant,
violent or dynamic. They are achieved through thoughtful and deliberate action. An object or
image is visually more exciting when delineated by a variety of expressive lines.
The artist uses line to create shape, describe textures, and suggest a sense of depth and structure
and a sense of volume and roundness. Line can be used as decoration, and even in an expressive
way to create a mood or feeling. Learners should be provided with as many opportunities as
possible to study and express their ideas in lines and patterns in their many forms.

Activities
. Select black chalk and a sheet of inexpensive paper such as
newsprint. Play some stimulating music and ask the learners to draw
lines, not to depict something, but free-flowing lines. There should be
no attempt to produce a particular effect.
. Repeat the above activity with the learners, but now concentrate on the
variety in lines. Guide them to draw lines that swoop and glide and ripple
and pause. Let them draw lines to depict the soft-flowing movement of
water. Let them vary the pressure to create thin and thick and light and
dark lines. Experiment by telling the learners to change the way they
hold their pencils (eg more horizontally than usually).
51 PST210-G/1

. On the same note, try varying the music and ask your learners to draw
lines that depict the rhythm of music.
. Ask learners to draw lines that depict the following emotional states:
angry, frightened, happy (add more to this list).

5.2.2 Shape and mass


Example
(Wachoviak 1985:86,61) Mass

Shape

(Linderman & Herberholz 1974:139)

``Woman'', sculpture, Georgiane Else


52

(Wachoviak 1985:85)

``Waiting the day'', linoleum print, Don Uhlin.


53 PST210-G/1

The term ``shape'' refers to the general outline of something. Shape has a surface, is flat, and has
length and breadth. Shapes can be organic or inorganic, geometric, descriptive or
nondescriptive. Shapes have no varying contours to suggest volume, only an outline, like a flat
shadow. Therefore shape is two-dimensional and can be categorised as geometric or natural.

Natural shapes are usually found in nature, such as rocks, trees, clouds and so forth. Nature
is by far the richest source of inspiration for studying natural shapes, though natural forms
such as those found in tree branches, leaves, seashells, eggs, nuts, petals, berries and
feathers are usually much more varied and subtle than those based on measured or
mathematical formulas. Geometric shapes include squares, rectangles, circles and triangles.
These are artistically depicted in drawings of doors, windows, facades, roofs and sidewalks.
Geometric shapes can also be found in nature, for instance a honeycomb.

Mass is the three-dimensional equivalent of shape. The cube, pyramid and sphere are the
geometric equivalents of the square, triangle and circle. Mass refers to the volume or bulk of
objects in a work of art, and space to the areas that surround the mass. The aesthetic effect of
mass is more readily appreciated in architecture and sculpture.

The figure is then usually identified as the positive shape and the empty areas surrounding
it as the negative shape, even though this space may include ground, water, and sky. In
most instances where the positive space is varied, the negative spaces are also varied and
very interesting, thereby enhancing and contributing to the composition.

5.2.3 Space
Space is an element in pictorial as well as actual space. Actual space is two-dimensional, as
in drawings, paintings, and prints, and is produced on flat surfaces. Three-dimensional space
is the most important element used by architects in their designs, and can be seen in
buildings, sculptures and compositions.

For the sculptor, the use of space as it interacts with the shape, creating relationships between
positive and negative, enhances his or her experience of the work of sculpture piece.

The illusion of space or depth can be created on a two-dimensional surface by making use of
the following:

. Placement of objects, in that one ``reads'' that objects higher on the plane are further
away than objects placed lower on the plane.
. The impression of nearness and farness can also be created by overlapping.
. Atmospheric or aerial perspective is a method whereby colour is used to simulate
the effect of the atmosphere in that the further away the objects are, the more subdued
their colours and the more hazy their outlines become.
. Linear perspective is a method used to create the illusion of depth by determining the
relative size of objects according to the distance from the viewer, in that shapes appear to
be smaller the further away they are.
Artists may make use of single-, two- or multiple-point perspective in order to create the
illusion of depth.
. A sense of roundness and volume can also be created by making use of chiaroscuro
(``When the artist uses variations of tone and sharp contrasts to indicate a light source in
images'' (Botha-Ebbers 1993:78)) and foreshortening (``Foreshortening occurs when
the subject matter is seen in a foreshortened position, that is, its length points directly
towards the viewer and it therefore appears much shorter than it actually is'' (Botha-
Ebbers 1993:61)).
54

Activity

Build a free-standing structure using any regular forms such as


rectangular boxes. Note that balance must be maintained and open and
closed spaces created.

5.2.4 Texture
Example
(Wachoviak 1985:12)

Texture is the degree of roughness or smoothness of the surface. Every surface has texture,
and we derive sensual pleasure from texture. Textures are exemplified by different surfaces
like fur, tweed, wool, cotton wool, a sheet of glass, and cement. Texture appeals to people
for both aesthetic and sensuous reasons, although it is doubtful that the two can be entirely
separated.
55 PST210-G/1

Textures used by artists can be actual or simulated. Paint applied thickly has a degree of
roughness; applied thinly, it has the quality of silky smoothness. Texture refers to the surface
quality and can be tactile and/or visual. Tactile texture is what one can feel, while visual
texture creates the illusion of texture and can also create feelings or atmosphere.

Learners delight in surface qualities in drawing, painting, sculpture and collage activities.
Teachers can assist learners to explore the possibilities of expression through the use of
textures in their own artwork. Teachers can help learners to develop visual as well as tactile
sensitivity by discussing the textures and surfaces of different objects.

Activity

. Look around you Ð try to identify different textures. Now describe


these textures by handling or touching the respective materials.
. Place sheets of paper over different textures and, using a soft drawing
tool such as a pencil, rub the surface of the paper. Experiment and
note the different markings you have achieved.

5.2.5 Colour
When sunlight passes through a prism (an optical instrument usually made of glass), the
white light is separated into red-orange, yellow, green, blue, blue-violet and violet.

The physical properties of colour are hue, value and intensity:

. Hue refers to the pure colour. Red, yellow and blue are the primary colours because
they can be combined to create a vast variety of different colours such as secondary,
tertiary and intermediate colours.
. Value refers to the lightness (tint) or darkness (shade) of the colour. Colours in their
pure hue are also relatively light or dark Ð yellow is the lightest colour and violet
(purple) the darkest. Value contrasts (light and dark) can be used to create the illusion of
roundness on a two-dimensional surface.
Tonal value will show the surface texture of the object. Tonal values can also be used to
create emotions or feelings.
Monochromatic combination refers to the different values of a single hue.
. Intensity is the purity of the colour.

Complementary colours are colours opposite each other on the colour wheel. The
complementary to the primary colour is always a secondary colour (eg red is the opposite
colour to green). These colour combinations create maximum contrast and tend to clash or
demand our attention.

Colour may also be used to create moods or feelings. We refer to cool colours (eg blue and
green), and warm colours, which are the reds and oranges. Warm colours have the
tendency to appear as if they are moving towards us from the picture plane, while cool
colours appear to be receding from us.

Colour can never be seen in isolation. It is always seen in terms of one, or more, other
colour(s) and is influenced by these other colours.

The light that falls on a colour also influences the way we perceive this colour.
56

Activities
. Select the three primary colours in paint or in crayons. Mix only two
primary colours. Now create different colours. Note how the new
colours were made.
. Use any colour medium such as chalk, paint or crayons to create a
feeling of heat.
. Look around you at nature and at human-made products. See if you
can recognise where complementary colours are present. Note the
effect these colours create.
. The teacher can help learners to expand their horizons and their visual
repertoire by calling their attention to the countless wonders in the
world around them in which the elements of art are so clearly
depicted. The following are but a few examples:

The elements of art in nature


(Wachoviak 1985:23)

The intricate pattern of a spider's web.


The varied shapes created by cracks in mudflats, ice, and cement walks.
The subtle, pale colours of shadows on fallen snow.
The variety of grain pattern in wood.
The space breakup and design of a jungle gym.
The flaming colours of autumn woods and leaves.
The complex design of a honeycomb.
The varieties of green in summer foliage.
The varied textures and patterns of tree bark.
The shadows of tree branches on building walls.
The graceful movements of a cat.
The magnificent lines and patterns of bridges.
The intriguing abstract design of torn billboard ads.
The filigree pattern in leaf veins and insect wings.
The pattern of frost on a windopane.
The ever-changing formations of clouds.
The dew on early morning flowers and leaves.
The reflections in water.
The moody, misty colours of a foggy or rainy day.
The flashing colours of traffic lights, neon signs, and beacons.
The rich luminosity of stained-glass windows.
The subtle patina of peeling, deteriorating paint on aging doors and old metal.
The patterns of fields, labouring farmers, forests, lakes, and rivers seen from the air.
The oil-slick patterns on harbour waters.
The fiery smoke of foundries.
The tracks of animals in the snow.
The linear grace of a jet stream.
The pattern of TV antennas against a metropolitan sky.
The strident colours and flashing light patterns of a rock show.
57 PST210-G/1

Activities
. What colour is water when it reflects the setting sun?
. Make your own portfolio to be used to illustrate the elements of art to
learners.
. Refer to the section dealing with ``Motivation'' (section 16) in this
study guide.

5.3 The principles of composition (design principles)


When artists arrange the art elements in the creation of a visual product, they have to
consider design principles. These are: harmony, movement, emphasis, proportion, variety and
balance.

5.3.1 Harmony
Harmony, or unity, is the way in which an artwork is treated as a single, indivisible whole,
and can be defined as follows:

Harmony is created through rhythm, repetition, proximity (nearness) and


similarity. Rhythm in visual art products is created by the repetition of identical or similar
design elements. A repeated pattern is called a motif and can be a line, a shape, form,
texture or colour. The motif is repeated at regular intervals. This creates harmony and
visual order because the eye moves continuously from motif to motif or from element to
element.
(Botha-Ebbers 1993:90)

If overemphasised, harmony can become monotonous, with the result that the work will
cease to interest the viewer.

5.3.2 Variety
Variety describes the differences in the artwork and can be created through contrast and
emphasis. It is one way of preventing harmony from becoming monotonous.

5.3.3 Movement
Botha-Ebbers defines movement as follows: ``Movement is the visual path the viewer follows
when looking at a visual art product'' (1993:95). Movement is used by the artist to direct the
eye through the artwork.

5.3.4 Accent
Accent, or emphasis, is that area that dominates the work and which the eye notices
immediately. There are various ways to create emphasis, such as making use of contrast,
using more detail, or the placement of an area within the format.
58

5.3.5 Proportion
Proportion, or scale, is the relative size compared with, for example, the human body.

``Proportion is the comparison between scale, size, position and space of motifs or design
elements'' (Botha-Ebbers 1993:98).

Proportion can also refer to the relationships among the various parts and the relationship of
the part with the whole within an individual piece. Greek mathematicians devised an ideal
ratio, namely the golden section, which is still considered pleasing.
The golden section was formulated by the Greeks in the fifth century BC. It is a
mathematical formula by means of which a line or a shape is divided into areas which are
proportionately in perfect relation to one another (Botha-Ebbers 1993:117).

5.3.6 Balance
Balance refers to equilibrium. There are three types of balance, namely: symmetrical,
asymmetrical and radial.

Botha-Ebbers defines balance as ``... the equal distribution of motifs and design elements. It
is the most important principle in creating visual order'' (1993:92).

Activities
. Identify the following types of balance in human-made, natural, or art
objects: symmetrical, asymmetrical and radial. Note the effect.
. Carefully scrutinise any masterpiece. Now analyse the artwork and
see if you can recognise the way in which the artist has used the
above principles in the composition of the artwork. Note how it was
done.

5.4 Crafts
Many materials and ideas can be used for craftwork. These include papier-maÃcheÂ, wood,
wire, cloth, wool, and a wide range of straws, buttons, boxes, coloured cellophane, and
anything else that looks interesting. Learners themselves will collect all kinds of different
things, whatever happens to attract them. Although due care should be taken to insure the
safety of learners should they present broken glass or sharp-pointed objects to make art with,
they should be allowed to explore with a certain amount of freedom. Through working with
different kinds of material learners will also experience the satisfaction of being able to
broaden their creative horizons and extend their creative repertoire.
In modern times, crafts have taken on a new meaning in that they present entrepreneurial
possibilities. Go to any flea market and you will be surprised at the many creative ways of
making money. Crafts provide an excellent opportunity for artisitic experiences as well as
experiences of a utilitarian nature.
59 PST210-G/1

Activities
. Read through any recommended book. Consider all the wonderful
ideas and suggestions for teaching crafts. Collect ideas in an
anthology and make notes as to which grade it is applicable to. Use
for a future craft lesson.
. Go to a flea market and make a list of the many articles that can be
described as crafts. What is your opinion of crafts providing a
lucrative opportunity for generating an extra income?
. Make a list of craft activities you would like to try your hand at.
. How would you get learners to participate in a cross-curricular art
activity involving economic and artistic skills? Focus on
entrepreneurship and crafts in combination.

Suggested reading

. Dyson, A. 1989. Looking, making and learning: thinking about art


and design in the primary school. London: Beekman.
. Klaustermeier, D. 1997. Art projects by design: a guide for the
classroom. Englewood, CO: Teacher Ideas Press.

World-Wide Web resources

Learn more about design on the World-Wide Web, if you have access
to it

. ArtsEdge: J.F. Kennedy center. ``Design Arts. ''Curriculum studio.


<http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/cs/desarts.html>

Classroom resources and lessons on design.


Study unit 2

Aims and objectives in Art


Education
62

Section 6
The perceptual development of
learners
(This section and the section on Motivation (section 16) are closely related and you will
have to cross-refer between the two).

Learning outcomes
After studying this section, you should be able to

. describe what art experiences mean to the learner


. explain the value of perceptual awareness and its importance both in
general education and, more specifically, Art Education
. describe how perceptual development can be used to extend learners'
frame of reference
. explain in what ways learners' perceptual awareness may be
developed

6.1 The meaning of art experiences for the learner Ð


why children make art
The universal participation of children in making any kind of art from a young age suggests
that a basic reason for this behaviour exists. Children must gain satisfaction from such
activities or they would not engage in them spontaneously. However, Art educators have to
rely on speculation on this phenomenon because they are unable to either communicate well
enough with young children or recall their own early art experiences.

For children, art is a means of utilising all their senses for the purposes of learning and
expression. Creating art heightens children's sensitivity to the physical world and enables
them to give expression to both emotional and imaginative states of mind in ways unique to
art. One of the most important things that a teacher or parent can help children retain as they
grow up and mature is their awareness of experiences through the use of their senses and
emotions. The creative person retains the child's openness to experience and, in this respect,
is childlike, because children do not regard new experiences as risks.
Art Education therefore can play a unique role in the education of the learner because it may
provide opportunities for the development of the learner's perceptual, creative, aesthetic and
psychomotor skills, whilst also giving the learner opportunities to visually express his or her
emotions and to develop and express his or her emotions. Thus the effects of art activity on
children's self-concept and general personality development can be very beneficial.
63 PST210-G/1

Children's art is often seen as instrumental in fostering and preserving each individual's
identity, uniqueness and self-esteem, as well as personal accomplishments.

As we watch children paint or draw we are often struck by their concentration and
involvement. Children often talk as they draw and it is by listening to this chatter and through
close observation that an adult can gain understanding of what has been created by each
individual child. One of the fascinating and charming aspects of children's art is that it can
often serve as a window into the minds and emotions of children.

The therapeutic value of these drawings is unfortunately not so easy to determine. Yet it is a
known fact that children deal with many of life's concerns, joys, and trials through their art.
The list of the subjects of child art is as endless as the list of the child's experiences. Here are
but a few:
A child who is fascinated with sports invents team players and draws them in action.
A child hears a fairy tale and draws a picture illustrating the story.
A child visits a grandparent and makes a painting of the experience.

As children create visual representations, they are required to combine the elements of
design into structures with meaning and then to judge the adequacy and quality of their own
work. They proceed on the basis of their own judgements.

This flexibility of Art Education, which is based on individual judgement, differs vastly from
activities that emphasise linear and convergent thinking, where all learners arrive at a single
correct answer. This emphasises again the broad scope of possibilities contained in
children's art experiences.

As learners enter new stages of development the interest moves from using art as a pure form
of emotional expression to the more technical aspects of material and processes.

Lowenfeld states that, in contrast to the adult, who generally considers art as an area of
aesthetics or external beauty, the child regards art activities as primarily a means of
expression, and even a language of thought.
A child expresses his thoughts, feelings and interests in his drawings and paintings and
shows his knowledge of his environment in his creative expression.
(Lowenfeld & Brittain 1975:9)

The process of artistic behaviour can be seen as an interaction between art-making and
responding to art. Therefore the process of engaging with the world of artworks can be as
absorbing and satisfying as the process of creating art for children of any age, and in this
aspect lies the intrinsic value of Art Education for children, as it gives them an independent
podium from which they can air their views and be seen and heard.

Activities
. Ask older adults to draw a human figure in a pose of their choice.
Observe the developmental level of the drawing. Ask the persons
when and where they learnt to draw as they do. At what age did
each of them stop drawing?
. Collect from several learners pictures they have drawn, painted, or
coloured in. See what they depict. Are they more emotional, or more
active? What kind of flexibility is demonstrated by the design? Did
64

they use some elements of art, even if only an elementary expression


thereof?
. In your own words, describe the value of art to learners (as a
collective).

6.2 Demands of the curriculum (Revised Statement


2002 Grades R±9)
The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996) provides the basis for
curriculum transformation and development in South Africa. Thus the curriculum aims to
develop the full potential of each learner as a citizen of a democratic South Africa.

Outcomes-based education forms the basis of the curriculum in South Africa. It strives to
enable all learners to achieve to their maximum ability. This is done by clearly stating the
outcomes that should be achieved by the learners at the end of the process. The outcomes
encourage a learner-centred and activity-based approach to education.

The kind of teacher envisaged by this programme is one who is qualified, competent,
dedicated and caring. They should also be mediators of learning, interpreters and designers
of learning programmes and materials, leaders, administrators, scholars, researchers and
lifelong learners, community members, and good citizens.

The kind of learner envisaged is one who will be inspired by the taught values and who will
act in the interest of society, based on respect for democracy, equality, human dignity, life
and social justice. The curriculum seeks to create a lifelong learner who is confident and
independent, literate, numerate, multiskilled, and compassionate, with respect for the
environment and the ability to participate in society as a critical and active citizen.

6.2.1 Introducing the Arts and Culture Learning Area


The Arts and Culture Learning Area covers a broad spectrum of South African art and cultural
practices. The areas of Arts and Culture are an integral part of life, embracing the spiritual,
material, intellectual and emotional aspects of human endeavour. Culture is not static Ð it
has a history and a context and changes when it comes into contact with other cultures.

The approach to Arts in this Learning Area moves from a broad experience involving several
art forms within diverse cultural contexts, towards increasing depth of knowledge and skill.

6.2.2 The main purpose of this Learning Area


Summarised, the main purpose of this Learning Area is to

. provide exposure and experience for learners in Dance, Music, Visual Arts, Craft, Design,
Media and Communication, Arts Management, Arts Technology, and Art Heritage
. develop creative and innovative individuals in line with the values of democracy
. provide access to Arts and Culture Education for all learners
. provide opportunities to develop usable skills, knowledge and attitudes and values with
regard to Arts and Culture that can prepare learners for life, lifelong learning and living
65 PST210-G/1

. develop an understanding of the arts as a symbolic language


. enhance the individual's aesthetic judgement Ð it provides a structure, or a map, with
which to appraise artworks
. in the area of Art History, strive to develop our understanding of our cultural heritage,
both past and present

6.2.3 The Arts and Culture Learning Area statement aims to cover
equally:
. a variety of African and other classical art and cultural practices, to expose learners to the
integrity of both ancient and existing traditions and conversion
. innovative, emergent art and cultural practices, to open up avenues for learners to
develop inclusive, original, contemporary, South African cultural expression, and to
engage with trends from the rest of the world

6.2.4 The Learning Outcomes for the Arts and Culture Learning Area are
as follows:
. Learning Outcome One. Creating, interpreting and presenting: To attain this learning
outcome, the learner needs extensive exposure to and practical experience of art and
culture.
. Learning Outcome Two. Reflecting: The learner needs to acquire knowledge and
understanding of the history of the arts, concepts, aesthetics, culture and heritage.
. Learning Outcome Three. Participating and collaborating: The importance of
interpersonal skills and social development, as well as the ability to work individually and
collaboratively at arts activities, are emphasised.
. Learning Outcome Four. Expressing and communicating: This requires learners to
develop the ability to read and use nuances of cultural expression to convey meaning
through the arts. It also deals with different forms of communication media (television,
radio, film, advertising) and their influence on people and societies.

Each of these Learning Outcomes has its own Assessment Standards which are clearly set
out in the relevant document, namely The Revised National Curriculum Statement for Grades
R±9 (schools) POLICY ARTS AND CULTURE/2002, which should be readily available from
your nearest Department of Education Office.

6.3 The perceptual development of learners


Helen Keller (who was blind, deaf and could at first not speak) tells of a friend of hers
who walked through the woods. When she asked her friend what she saw, the friend
replied, ``Nothing in particular''. Miss Keller could not imagine how anyone could
possibly walk through the woods and see `'nothing in particular''. Helen Keller must see
through her fingers because she had lost her eyesight through severe illness when she
was a very small child. Yet Miss Keller can appreciate the symmetry, texture, and variety
of the leaves. She thrills at the touch of the smooth bark of the birch tree and the tough
bark of the elm tree. She delights at the feel of the first buds on the branches and the
special fragrance that announces that it is springtime.
(Linderman & Herberholz 1974:23)
66

6.3.1 Using sense perception in order to extend the frame of reference


Small children explore their environment through their senses. They are open to their
environment and do not feel threatened by it, they do not approach it with preconceived
judgment, and they do not experience any barriers between themselves and their
environment.

It is this openness of approach that the teacher should encourage. By refining and
developing his or her perceptual awareness, the learner's frame of reference can be extended.
By experiencing the environment, the learner develops and internalises concepts, making
these concepts part of his or her frame of reference. These experiences can then be expressed
in a visual form through the art activity.
Perceptual awareness can be developed mainly through:

. experiencing detail
. experiences
. empathy

Activity

Test your perceptual awareness (your ability to remember detail)


against the following sample chart. I have used a flower and all the
different aspects that one should pay attention to when studying and
becoming aware of a flower, but this list can be adapted to almost
anything. It is especially helpful in a class situation if you want the
learners to become more aware of whatever they are using as a subject
of portrayal.

Checklist for detail awareness


Subject: a flower
DETAIL CHECK CHART
YES NO
Does a flower feel heavy? 8 8
Are the petals soft? 8 8
Is the shape of the petals round? 8 8
Do the petals easily break or fall off? 8 8
Do the petals bend easily? 8 8
Is there a lot of moisture in the flower? 8 8
Is the stem fragile and hollow? 8 8
Is the stamen any colour? 8 8
Can you see the nectar? 8 8
Are there hair follicles growing on the petals? 8 8
Do the petals have veins? 8 8
67 PST210-G/1

Does the stem break easily? 8 8


Does it feel soft when you rub the petals on your cheek? 8 8
Does it have a fragrance? 8 8
Does the colour of the petals change or blend? 8 8
(Adapted from Linderman & Herberholz 1974:23)

6.3.2 Interferences with perceptual awareness


The learner's ability to perceive relationships develops as he or she learns from and is
influenced by the type of experience the learner is exposed to. The following may influence
the quality of the learner's perceptions:

6.3.2.1 Visual constancy


The visual world is extremely complex, and therefore we have learnt to reduce it to certain
general visual symbols in order to cope with the tremendous amount of visual inputs we are
subjected to every day. Indeed, the essence of perception is selectivity. The frame of
reference we use affects our perception and determines what we understand of what we see.
We tend to generalise and this tendency interferes with our qualitative and analytical types of
perception. This interference is known as visual constancy. Visual constancy replaces what
we see with what we know by substituting perceptual stereotypes that have developed
through learning and experience. We need to be able to recognise and manage our visual
constancy cognitively, since it interferes with our visual perception which, in turn, will
influence our creative and aesthetic development.

6.3.2.2 Frames of reference


A frame of reference is that which we bring to a situation in the form of our immediate needs
and is based on our history, culture and tradition. This frame of reference will affect our
perceptions. Small children develop expectations of visual forms from the kind of book
illustrations and the type of art they come into contact with in their homes and communities;
these expectations then become their frames of reference. By giving learners the opportunity
to experience the environment more fully, one can extend their frame of reference.

6.3.3 Reasons for developing perceptual awareness


As far as education generally is concerned, developing perceptual awareness is extremely
worthwhile. Art Education, by its very nature, can give the learner the opportunity to become
more perceptually aware. The young child is a natural explorer, but the quality and quantity
of exploration cannot be left to chance. A high degree of awareness will be achieved by
exposing the learner to a wide variety of experiences. To achieve this, one has to discipline
oneself and the learners and purposely cultivate the ability to perceive in detail. To become
aware, one needs the discipline or habit of being constantly and intensely aware of
everything in one's environment.

Awareness of one's experience means first of all the ability to perceive, and secondly the
ability to recall in vivid detail the thoughts, perceptions and feelings derived from an
experience.
68

6.3.4 Developing awareness through experiences


Perceptual awareness means the ability to perceive, and also the ability to remember in detail,
the thoughts, perceptions, and feelings associated with an experience.

These experiences must be internalised and related to something that the learner already
knows to enable him or her to extend his or her frame of reference. Evoked feelings or
emotions can be seen in terms of physical, as well as emotional, experiences.

Developing an awareness of the object through empathy with the object refers to the
learner's ability to identify with the object; empathy can sometimes be such that the learner
feels he or she ``is'' the object.

The expressive content of a work is the feeling or emotion that an image generates in those
who come into contact with it. Before a visual form is formally analysed, the viewer
experiences the expressive quality of the work. These nonverbal cues communicate certain
feelings before one attempts to understand the formal visual language of an artwork.

The way in which we respond to the expressive content of a work is conditioned by our
frame of reference, namely our previous experience and our expectations. We respond
emotionally to certain forms or colours because we associate these forms or colours with
other experiences that have had a particular meaning for us. This response is governed by our
culture, our traditions, or our frame of reference. Visual qualities, because of their inherent
relationships, create certain states of feeling if viewed within the right frame of reference.
Given the right type of guidance, learners may learn to perceive and experience the qualities
found in artworks of the past and present and thus enrich the quality of their lives.

Developing perceptual awareness in the learner means that the teacher must be able to plan
and to lead and guide the learner to a perceptual awareness the learner would not have
achieved by him- or herself. With this guidance, learners will become progressively more
aware and more able to interpret their own awareness by developing an openness and
sensitivity to the world around them.
In conclusion, the experience will enrich the learner's life as he or she realises the harmony,
beauty and order of the natural world. This process should also help to develop the learner's
aesthetic awareness.

Activity

The following is a list that you can use with your learners to help them
identify awareness of their own experiences:
69 PST210-G/1

Checklist for experience and empathy awareness

EXPERIENCE CHECK CHART


YES NO
Have you ever:

planted flower seeds and watched them grow? 8 8


bought a bouquet of flowers for someone or yourself? 8 8
picked or cut flowers from the garden? 8 8
given someone a present of flowers on some special
occasion? 8 8
smelled flowers at funerals, weddings, etcetera? 8 8
held or carried flowers on May Day, for a wedding, or
for your mother as she cut them? 8 8
worn a flower in your hair for a special occasion such
as a dance/or a braai? 8 8
arranged flowers for the table? 8 8
visited a florist shop, flower garden or nursery? 8 8
destroyed a flower to see how it is put together? 8 8
EMPATHY CHECK CHART

Imagine you are a flower. Have you ever tried:

to lie in the sun and have it warm you? 8 8


to feel the dew collect on you at night? 8 8
to have a bee take nectar from you? 8 8
to wave in the wind and bump into other flowers? 8 8
to get cold at night? 8 8
to turn and face the sun? 8 8
to be pulled, picked, or cut off? 8 8
to have someone put his or her nose in your face and sniff? 8 8
to have bugs crawl over you, maybe even eat you? 8 8
to feel the rain beat on you during a thunderstorm? 8 8
70

to be a flower of many colours? 8 8


to open from a tiny bud to a full blossom? 8 8
to change from the flower to the seed? 8 8
(Linderman & Herberholz 1974:25)

6.3.5 Developing awareness through visual stimulus


Developing perceptual awareness is a way of increasing one's ability to handle visual
information through the senses. As a result of this information the learner should have more
aesthetic options to select from and more ways of relating to the world. Equipped with this
visual information, the learner can be confident that his or her sense of perception will help
him or her to solve art tasks with more flexibility.
The teacher needs to guide, lead and direct the learner to develop this kind of awareness. A
great variety of stimulus material, including objects in nature, human-made products, as well
as the arts, need to be part of the learner's experience if he or she is to become perceptually
more aware. By viewing, touching, smelling, discussing, etcetera the teacher can direct the
attention of the learner to the elements of art, as seen in nature and human-made products.
This will also indirectly enable the learner to acquire the vocabulary of art (eg line, colour,
pattern, shape, unity, proportion, variety, etc).

A number of researchers are of the opinion that perception is learned or at least improved
through training in visual discrimination.

Activity
The following is a list that you can use with your learners to check how
many sights they have observed:

Checklist for sight awareness

YES NO
Have you ever observed:

bright rays of sunshine through the clouds? 8 8


frosty windows in winter? 8 8
spider-web that's just rained on? 8 8
a round full moon? 8 8
a new-born baby sleeping peacefully? 8 8
tadpole eggs with little black specks inside them? 8 8
71 PST210-G/1

ants walking on an anthill? 8 8


changing of the colour of the sea during a whole day? 8 8
someone's dark brown eyes? 8 8
the endlessness of looking across the ocean? 8 8
chewing-gum stuck to the bottom of one's shoe? 8 8
catching someone's eye in a shared experience? 8 8
the rough surface of your tongue? 8 8
the hairy inside of a dog's ear? 8 8
pools of sunlight under the trees? 8 8
a thick fog starting to roll in over the sea? 8 8
depressions in the sand made by raindrops in the
Karoo add some unusual experiences here? 8 8
(Linderman & Herberholz 1974:26)

6.3.6 Developing awareness through other senses


Awareness can also be heightened and developed through sounds and smells. Throughout
the day we are continually aware of these sensations, although we may be so used to them
that we take them for granted. Test your own sensory awareness against these checklists.
You may also adapt and use them to test your learners' sensory awareness levels.

Checklist for sound discovery

YES NO
Have you ever listened to:

cars hooting? 8 8
dripping tap? 8 8
dental drill at the dentist? 8 8
only water rushing over rocks? 8 8
birds singing early in the morning? 8 8
wood crackling in the fireplace at night? 8 8
72

wind rushing through the trees? 8 8


squeaking hinge? 8 8
rolling thunder? 8 8
the ``pop'' of jacaranda blossoms beneath our feet? 8 8
walking in wet tennis shoes? 8 8
lonely sound of sea gull in a breeze? 8 8
sound of the waves, hitting against rocks? 8 8
smack of a kiss? 8 8
sound of a sickle in the grass? 8 8
lambs nursing on bottle teats? 8 8
thump on a ripe watermelon? 8 8
click of a light switch? 8 8
scratching our skin when it itches? 8 8
tea kettle boiling? 8 8
a telephone ringing in the night? 8 8
squealing brakes? 8 8
the loud boom of a jet? 8 8
rumbling of the stomach when you're hungry? 8 8
bell of an ice-cream cart? 8 8
Add more sounds to this list.

(Adapted from Linderman & Herberholz 1974:26)

Checklist for smell discovery


YES NO
Have you ever smelled:

after-shave lotion? 8 8
coffee perking? 8 8
new shoes? 8 8
freshly cut grass? 8 8
73 PST210-G/1

hot tar? 8 8
sour milk? 8 8
hayfield in summer? 8 8
baby right after bathing? 8 8
the air after a summer rain? 8 8
bread fresh from the oven? 8 8
Add more smells to this list.

(Linderman & Herberholz 1974:34)

Activities

. This is how someone describes the effect smells had on her as a


child:

Many everyday smells that were once a part of my daily life have
been replaced by secondary smells that express my total existence
this summer.
The missing smells are those of my husband: after-shave lotions, spray
deodorants, pipe tobacco, leather polish, car grease and oil, grass, and
many others. These have been replaced by cigarette smokes, ashes,
hair spray, perfumes of assorted smells, body lotion, cream deodorant,
suntan oil and so forth, from my female roommate.
There are a few familiar smells from my past that I still sense. Our
dog, Charlie, has many smells. He smells dirty after rolling in the
soil. He smells like pine sol after his bath, and carries what we
laughingly call `'the essence of weds'' when he comes in from
playing in the nearby field.
My car has many smells like warm air, suntan oil, sand, dog, and
many others I could imagine. Our apartment has the smell of
coolness from the absence of heat and closed curtains all day. The
rug has a definite smell of dog and dirt, even after cleaning it!
I have tried many new recipes this summer so we always have a
new smell in the kitchen.
I am aware of many smells in my life but wish this summer would go
by real fast so I may encounter the smells of husband and home
once more. Familiar smells bring back many wonderful memories
and help make the heart grow fonder.
Ps: I think I will send my husband a perfumed letter today!
KAY EMMETT
74

Using the above passage as an example, try to describe your own


sensory awareness by describing an event of some significance to you.
Try this with the learners and let them describe something first before
attempting to draw it.

. Compile your own personal list of art books to which you can refer
when you are developing a perceptual awareness programme.
. Sit quietly and reflect: Do you use your senses to their fullest? What
do you hear? What do you see? Let your fingers glide over different
surfaces. How intense is the experience?
. Make a source list of the different aspects of perception that you
would like to develop in your learners and describe how you would
go about it, for instance:

perception artistic method assessment


develop- (how will I
ment do it
differently?)

sense percep- let children: smelling, lis- Personal opi-


tion tening, touch- nion of how
smell:
ing the session
coffee went
freshly baked
bread
fresh cut flowers
vinegar
chocolate

feel/touch:
fur of different
animals
fake fur
glass surface
gravel

listen to:
music
the sea
an aeroplane
cars racing

. Keep a sensory diary of some object in your environment that you


can experience daily. Record in it something new that you
experience daily, weekly, and monthly. Try to look at it from a new
point of view, from the side, from the top. Touch it and record your
feelings. How would it look in different surroundings?
. Develop your own ``awareness charts''. Relate them to the
geographical location in which you live or plan to teach and for
which you have deep feelings.
75 PST210-G/1

Section 7
Development of learners'
creative abilities
Learning outcomes

After studying this section and doing the activities, you should be able
to

. explain what is meant by the concepts ``creative thinking'', ``types of


creativity'', ``how the creative act happens'', and ``the obstacles to
creative thinking''
. explain how creative development takes place, and state its
importance in both general education and, more specifically, Art
Education
. explain the importance of the development of the learner's problem-
solving skills (since problem-solving and discriminating skills are
central to the creative act)

7.1 Introduction
Research has shown that the ability to be creative is latent in almost everyone and that the
emotional and nonrational aspects of our humanity are as important as our rational and
intellectual aspects. Indeed, with the right training and some practice, creativity can become
just as much of a problem-solving resource as rational and cognitive thinking. Creative
sensibility can be taught through perceptual training and will help the learner to make
qualitative choices.

7.2 Defining the concept ``creativity''


Linderman (Linderman & Herberholz 1975:9) defines creativeness as ``a special way of
learning, thinking and perceiving Ð your own life style''. Creative thinking could also be
seen as the process of perceiving a problem (real or imaginary) and solving it by initiating a
new or unconventional idea, concept, or realisation, or by portraying the problem to be
solved in a visual form. The creative solution to a problem is always a unique and personal
solution. The creative act of solving a problem could well lead to the discovery of a
combination of processes or attributes that the creator never realised he or she possessed.

Henry and Luckenbach-Sawyers (1984:94) define the creative experience as follows:


76

The creative encounter is a state of being wholly caught-up, wholly involved and
absorbed. It is characterised by an intensity of awareness, a heightened consciousness.
It is usually accompanied by feelings of joy or elation, a mood that goes with the
experience of actualizing one's unique personality and potentialities. One's vision
becomes vivid and clarified. There is a breakthrough of unconscious experience into
consciousness. The experience can seem overwhelming and frightening.

Howard Conant (Linderman & Herberholz 1974:4) describes creativity as ``a quality of
uniqueness, originality, newness or freshness which an individual voluntarily contributes to
the conception and development of an idea. Creativity must be affected by aesthetics.
Probably because the two main ingredients of the arts are uniqueness (or creativity) and
high quality (aesthetics)''.

7.3 Types of creative thinking


Eisner (1972:220) identifies the following as different types of creative thinking:

. Boundary pushing: the ability to attain the possible by extending the given (eg the
refinement of the motorcar engine).
. Inventing: employing the known to create an essentially new object or class of objects.
This is achieved by creating a new object through restructuring the known (eg Bell and
Edison's inventions).
. Boundary breaking: research today may prove the ``facts'' of yesterday to be incorrect.
Assumptions that have always been accepted are rejected. As a result, the individual
proceeds to develop new premises which contain their own limits (eg Copernicus's
theory of the earth moving around the sun). Two kinds of behaviour are typical here, viz
insight and imagination.
. Aesthetic organising: this type of creativity is characterised by the presence and
organisation of objects into a framework noted for its high degree of coherence and
harmony. The individual creates order and unity and derives pleasure from this action.

There is very little connection between the different types of creative thinking; the most
common type is boundary pushing.

7.4 The creative act


How does the creative act happen? Creativity is not just inspiration. Each time we create, we
take a step forward and we do this by changing an attribute or quality, or by applying the same
quality or attribute to another, or by combining two or more attributes or qualities. A great
number of variations are always possible. When we select an attribute or quality of an
inanimate object or artwork on which to focus, our selection always relates to something else.

The child interacts with his or her environment and thus assimilates certain experiences,
gains knowledge and enjoys problem-solving situations. Creative thinking is divergent
because it starts from the premise that that there are a great number of possible solutions to
problems. Any number of artworks can be ``correct''. It is important to teach in a way that
encourages divergent thinking, since this type of thinking requires that, in order to solve a
problem, one should start by looking at it from a variety of viewpoints.
77 PST210-G/1

7.5 Stages of creative thinking


The following can be considered as the stages or processes of creative thinking:

. Orientation: examining the problem, defining the limit, stating your objective.
. Preparation: gathering, defining, organising your raw material and any knowledge that
has a bearing on the problem.
. Analysis: selecting different ideas, seeking all possible solutions, classifying information.
At this stage, you should have a number of ideas and be able to combine some of them.
This stage in the process is generally known as ``brainstorming''.
. Incubation: time lag needed for the mind to synthesise possible solutions.
. Evaluation: putting pieces together, verifying solutions through further testing or
evaluation.

It must, however, be remembered that creativity is part of a continual learning process. Apart
from being a skill, creativity is related to a thinking process that requires a certain kind of
attitude. All children are born creative Ð the problem is that we adults place obstacles in
their way that hinder this natural inclination and ability.

7.6 What creative or artistic people are like


Art is a way of becoming a sensitive, aesthetically oriented person. The creative person has
specific attributes, abilities, or skills that he or she uses during the creative process or art
experience. This type of person applies and combines perceptual knowledge and sensory
experience to form a visual statement.

Creative people tend to share many characteristics. These include the following:

7.6.1 They are perceptually extremely aware, which is why they


. are observant of the world around them
. are aware of the way things feel to the touch
. listen to the sounds of life around them
. are sensitive to the smells of things
. are aware of the tastes of things

7.6.2 Creative people are builders of their ideas, which is why they
. like to construct and make things with different materials
. rearrange old ideas into new relationships
. like to experiment with various approaches and media
. like to try out new methods and techniques
. prefer to manipulate their ideas in various ways
. like to solve problems which they set for themselves as challenges
. seek to push the boundaries of their thinking
78

7.6.3 Creative people like to explore new ideas, which is why they
. are very original in their thoughts about things
. like to invent new ways of saying and telling things
. like to dream about new possibilities
. like to imagine and pretend

7.6.4 Creative people have confidence in their inner resources, which is


why they
. are flexible in their approaches to situations
. like to be independent and on their own
. are outwardly expressive about what they have to say
. are not afraid to have feelings and show them

7.6.5 Creative people like to investigate the nature of things, which is


why they
. like to search for the meaning of things
. question available data and information
. like to enquire into unknown quantities
. discover new relationships
. desire to uncover new meanings

7.6.6 Creative people are sensitive to aesthetic stimuli, which is why


they
. are sensitive to the beauty in human beings and nature
. appreciate beauty made by humans
. have a feeling for harmony and rhythm
. like to sing and dance and write

The question presented to the Art teacher, is: How does one use the above knowledge in the
classroom in order to encourage creativity? One suggestion is to set artistic learning tasks
that challenge the learners to discover or uncover their abilities. The teacher also needs to
encourage the learners to value their tasks and to push and/or extend their personal
boundaries in order to discover latent talents. This applies to working out new ideas as well.
The learner should be discouraged to use the same materials and tools over and over again in
the production of his or her art. An important lesson the teacher of an Art Programme should
teach the learner, is that one should allow oneself to be guided by one's intuition during the
creative process.

7.7 Obstacles to creative thinking


The following could be possible obstacles within the classroom:
79 PST210-G/1

. Pressure from peers and adults to conform.


. Fear of ridicule from peers and adults.
. A rigid personality Ð the child is insecure and will not try anything new.
. An overemphasis on rewards. The child always wants to know if the work is for marks.
. An excessive striving to acquire certain skills and the child demanding a predetermined
solution.
. Success is overemphasized, making the child fear failure and therefore afraid to take
chances.
. The fact that creative people are often individualistic and nonconformist sometimes
makes them the targets of hostility.
. The teacher discourages questioning and the emphasis in the classroom is on listening to
the teacher and following the teacher's direction instead of getting actively involved in
the process of learning to create.
. Emphasis is placed on sex role differences. Society associates the two sexes with certain
types of creativity, for example girls should not work with wood and boys should not
work with fabric.
. There is little room for, and even an intolerance of, a playful attitude.
. An overemphasis on cognitive learning, thus disturbing the fine balance between
cognitive and affective development.

7.8 Positive attitudes and approaches for more creative


teaching
7.8.1 The role of the Art teacher
The teacher should encourage the development of creative thinking by

. providing opportunity for self-initiating learning experiences through exploration and


experimentation
. creating a nonauthoritarian learning environment
. encouraging learners to ``over-learn'', in other words, to saturate themselves with
information, imagery and meanings (this type of learning involves stringent self-
discipline and hard work Ð it also leads to a great deal of personal discovery)
. stimulating learners' creative thought processes, encouraging them to seek for new
connections, to associate, to imagine, to think up tentative solutions to problems, to
make wild guesses and to try new directions
. deferring his or her judgments and not blocking learners' creative efforts (teachers
sometimes make the mistake of announcing outcomes and providing ready solutions,
thus minimizing the importance of ``errors'' in the creative process)
. promoting intellectual flexibility, encouraging learners to consider problems from
different viewpoints and to move away from preconceived ideas and avoid a single-track
attitude
. encouraging learners to look for new meanings in familiar materials and to use old
meanings in new contexts
. encouraging learners to do their self-evaluation of their individual progress and
achievement
80

. giving learners self-confidence, building up their feelings of self-worth, and helping them
to become more sensitive to the moods and feelings of others, to external stimuli and to
social and personal problems
. asking meaningful questions that are operational and open-ended; such questions
should foster self-learning, exploration and curiosity
. providing learners with opportunities to manipulate materials, ideas, concepts, tools, and
structures
. helping learners to cope with frustration and failure; creativity arises out of instability and
change

It must be understood that the skills of creative thinking are not developed overnight.
Creative thinking needs time, exposure to problem-solving situations and an openness to
accept different solutions.

The creative model of the teacher of Art has three sides: artist, critic, art historian. However,
he or she is above all someone who has a supreme interest in children and the courage to
learn about art him- or herself so that he or she can, confidently and knowledgeably, teach it
to learners. The Art teacher places emphasis on encouraging learners to find options for self-
discovery through media exploration, subject search, learning to evaluate, and knowing what
to look for in art.

7.8.2 Art activities promote creative thinking


Art activities are an appropriate way of promoting and developing the learner's creative
thinking abilities, because they

. force the learner to consider various solutions to the problem, make choices, and
afterwards be able to evaluate his or her solution to the problem
. provide a means of self-expression, a means of expressing what the learner thinks, sees,
and feels
. provide opportunities to explore, experiment with and express ideas and feelings about
the world
. create opportunities for developing the learner's imagination and powers of
observation, and increasing his or her sensitivity to the world and to other people

7.8.3 Art activities and personal development


Art activities promote personal development in the following areas:

7.8.3.1 Developing a sense of responsibility


In using art materials, the learner has the responsibility of mastering, caring for, and using,
specialist tools.

7.8.3.2 Emotional development


Art activities can have therapeutic value in that learners can use them to express certain
feelings that they may find difficult to express in any other way. It is a means of helping
people, especially children, to feel that they are accepted as individuals giving them a feeling
of security, and enabling them to explore and come to personal solutions.
81 PST210-G/1

7.8.3.3 Social development


Learners grow socially, since small groups of people tend to form around common interests.
People engaged in creative art activities learn to share materials, tools and ideas and
experience group living. In this way, they experience, and learn to respect, other people's
rights, opinions and feelings. The learner will gain the confidence to express his or her
personal opinions, which may differ from those of his or her peers.

7.8.3.4 Intellectual development


Contrary to what was once thought, art activities help learners develop intellectually, in that
the learner invents new ways of using materials and techniques, and refines methods. As the
learner grows in creative ability, he or she also develops his or her ability to define problems
and seek solutions. The learner also acquires a new vocabulary Ð the vocabulary of the art
world.

7.8.3.5 Physical development


Art activities lead to improved eye-hand coordination and improved motor coordination
generally.

7.9 Creating an environment for creative growth


7.9.1 Individual attention
Learners must be accepted as individuals so that they will develop their ideas, their
spontaneity and their clarity of expression. The teacher's guidance and support will help the
learner to feel secure, to accept the fact that he or she makes mistakes, and to take
responsibility for his or her choices. All this enables the learner to feel free to think, to
imagine, to select, and make decisions.

7.9.2 Provision of adequate space, time and materials


Learners must be able to move about freely and to select and care for equipment and
materials. There should be adequate time to work at art activities in an unhurried fashion. A
variety of art materials and various activities must be available to learners, giving them the
opportunities to develop creatively.

7.9.3 Quality experiences to stimulate creative expression


These experiences can start with everyday life and play. Here the teacher should encourage
the recall of events and let learners talk about their feelings. These feelings could be
dramatised. Learners are able to portray their feelings through the actions of their bodies.
Planned trips and excursions also offer wide possibilities for stimulating the learner's creative
expression. Afterwards, the experiences can be recalled by means of questions and
discussion. The teacher must, through questioning, give guidance and so deepen the
learner's awareness of a particular experience.
82

7.10 Influence of parental attitude towards the


learner's creative expression
The characteristics of the different developmental stages must be explained to parents and it
should be emphasised that these characteristics are both natural and universal.
Unfortunately, parental values and ignorance often stifle the creative growth of the learner;
parents can, for example, make the mistake of using adult standards to judge children's work.
By explaining and interpreting the qualities of children's art to parents, the teacher may be
helping them to change their attitudes and become more positive in their appraisal of their
children's work.

7.11 Consideration of developmental level


The teacher should be aware of the different developmental stages of the learner and know
how these manifest themselves in the learner's art. Learners' different personality types also
need to be taken into consideration and the learner's individuality must be taken into account
at all times.

7.12 Aspects to consider when assessing or measuring


creativity
. Fluency factor: the ability of the learner to produce a large number of ideas.
. Flexibility: the ability of the learner to be flexible in thinking patterns, shifting from one
thinking pattern to another.
. Originality factor: the ability of the learner to come up with unusual, new and strange
ideas.
. Openness to the unknown: the learner's perceptual to, awareness of, and sensitivity to,
change.

Activity
Assume that a charitable organisation has approached you to raise
funds. Solve the problem of generating funds by making use of the
creative process:
. define the problem
. gather information
. brainstorm
. synthesise, seek possible solutions
. test for the best solution
83 PST210-G/1

Tips to make learners more creative

. Teach children to be originators: The child's thoughts should reflect a very


personal and individual manner of arriving at problem solutions.
. Teach children to be idea-trackers: Always encourage children to consider many
other ideas in exploring solutions to a given problem or situation.
. Teach children to be imagination-stormers: Teach the child to be inquisitive and
imaginative, and to search for answers.

Suggested reading
. Johnson, A (ed). 1992. Art education: Elementary. Reston, VA:
National Arts Education Association.
. Lowenfeld, V & Brittain, L. 1987. Creative and mental growth. 8th
edition. New York: Macmillan.

World-Wide Web resources

Learn more about learners' creative development on the World-Wide


Web, if you have access to it:

. Getty Institute for Education in the Arts. ArtsEd/Net. 1999.


<http://www.artsednet.getty.edu/> (Use ``search'' feature.)
84

Section 8
Development of learners'
aesthetic awareness
Learning outcomes
After studying this section and doing the activities, you should be able
to

. explain certain aesthetic concepts


. explain and discuss the value and importance of aesthetic awareness
in general and, more specifically, for Art Education
. use various ways of enriching learners' art appreciation

8.1 Introduction
The word ``aesthetics'' comes from the Greek word for ``sense perception''. Traditionally,
aesthetics was concerned with the concept of beauty as manifested in both the arts and
nature. Today, aesthetics is regarded as being the phenomena of art and the place occupied
by art in human life.

According to Collier,

The aesthetic factor can be seen as the ability that an ``art'' object has to inspire in us,
the viewer, new thoughts and feelings, because of its particular character, and that
these new levels of awareness involve a cognitive realisation of perfection or beauty, or
may even induce deeper sentiments that are revealed and shaped in the object.
(1978:219)

This quotation indicates the difference between an ``art'' object and an ``ordinary'' object.

The study of aesthetics can be divided into two main areas:

. the work of ``art'' itself in various media Ð to be analysed, compared, described, etcetera
. human behaviour and experience as directed towards ``art'' Ð this covers a wide
spectrum and includes the study of psychology and the social sciences

The aim of aesthetics is not to define beauty, but to analyse various phenomena. We are
people of our time, and so are our artists. Art production is influenced by humanity's
interaction with social, political, economic, technological, intellectual and religious factors.
This has led to the theory that art is the mirror of our times. ``Art'' and ``taste'' are two of the
85 PST210-G/1

most variable, complex and intangible phenomena that exist, and definite evaluation criteria
cannot be applied to either concept.

8.2 Requirements of the syllabus


Learning Outcome number two clearly states that the aim of teaching Arts and Culture should
be the acquisition by the learner of knowledge and an understanding of the history of the arts,
arts concepts, aesthetics, culture and heritage. The ways in which different social and cultural
groups engage in and convey meaning through the arts will be explored and analysed. The
learner must then be able to reflect on artistic and cultural processes, products and styles in
past as well as present contexts. This implies the critical and aesthetic assessment of artworks.
Aesthetic learning should take place continuously to encourage aestheic growth in learners as
most of them will grow up not to produce art but to appreciate it.

8.3 Developing aesthetic awareness and judgement,


and art appreciation
Becoming visually literate, that is knowledgeable about art and its value as a human activity,
forms an important part of the child's development. A child should be able to express his or
her attitudes, feelings and perceptions regarding a particular work of art in acceptable art
terms.

It is important to develop aesthetic awareness in learners, because such awareness is part of


education and assists in developing learners' sensitivity to perceptual, intellectual and
emotional experiences, thus enabling them to derive a harmonious totality from these
experiences. Learning about and appreciating our cultural heritage is part of education.
Aesthetic development cannot be separated from creative development. It is tied to growth
and influenced by our environment and individual personalities. Aesthetic awareness cannot
be taught. It is the awakening of our sensitivities and sensibilities and the consequent
enrichment of our human experience.

Judging museum art, gallery art and one's own art is only one small aspect of aesthetic
judgement. Teaching the child to be a ``functional aesthetician'' is important so that he or she
can judge beauty in daily experiences. This is important as art is central to daily living and not
something separate from it. Making aesthetic judgements is a task we all perform daily. For
example, we are making an aesthetic decision when we decide what to wear for the day. We
use this same aesthetic judgement when we look at a work of art Ð we only perform it at a
different level. Aesthetic judgement can be developed by dealing with everyday objects
rather than just dealing with paintings in museums.
Teaching learners to judge a work of art encourages them to delay their judgement until they
have considred a few basic issues.

Questions that can help learners to judge art:

. What is this work of art? (drawing, painting, print, stone, sculpture,


etc)
. Describe what you see when looking at this work of art.
86

. How does this work of art compare with or differ from other pieces of
art you have seen?
. Why do you think the artist made it?
. What is the artist trying to say?
. What is the most interesting thing about this piece of art?
. How does this work of art make you feel?
. What in this work of art makes you feel this way?
. Do you like this work of art? Why, or why not?

(Herberholz 1974:18)

Using elementary art terms should start early in the learner's life. These terms should be
added to their vocabulary every time they handle art materials or look closely at natural and
hand-made objects. They can and should talk about which works of art they like best and
how the colours and images evoke certain feelings, such as happiness or anger, in them.

8.4 The various ways of making learners aesthetically


more aware
8.4.1 The acquisition and use of art terminology
By listing art terms that are to be learned by lesson, by unit, and by year, one can start
teaching an art vocbulary to learners from a very young age. However, it must have relevance
to and be illustrated by the work that they are doing. Once they have learnt a word, learners
should be expected to use it.
Learning an art vocabulary plays an important role in a child's visual learning. As the learner
responds to each aesthetic encounter with judgement, attitudes and nonverbal feelings, he
or she needs to be able to draw on an art vocabulary. The advantage of having such a
vocabulary, is that it sharpens and directs learners' perceptions of their own work as well as
that of others. Lack of knowledge of art and its value to human endeavour will handicap
learners culturally, mentally and spiritually.
Teachers can construct their own lists of terms.
Here are some words that learners should know how to use when expressing their evaluation
of artworks:

Useful art terms for learners


(Revised National Curriculum Statement, 2002:108; Wachoviak,
1985:300±303)

Visual arts
applique decorative design made by cutting pieces of one
fabric and applying them by glueing or stitching
to the surface of another fabric
art elements line, texture, colour, form, shape, tone
87 PST210-G/1

balance a principle in art may be formal or informal,


symmetrical or asymmetrical
charcoal a drawing stick or pencil made from charred wood
chipboard sturdy cardboard, usually gray, available in
varying thicknesses, used for collage,
collograph, sketching, and construction projects
clay a natural, moist earth substance used in making
bricks, tiles, pottery, and ceramic sculpture
collage a composition or design made by arranging and
glueing materials to a background surface Ð can
be combined with drawing and painting
collograph a print made from a collage, or a relief plate
created with an assortment of pasted or glued
items such as pieces of paper, cardboard, cord,
string, and other found objects
colour an element of art Ð also referred to as ``hue''
colour, monochro- all of the tints and shades of a single colour plus
matic its neutralised possibilities
colours, comple- colours found opposite one another on the
mentary colour wheel (eg red and green, blue and
orange, yellow and purple)
colours, primary red, yellow, blue (the three basic hues from
which all secondary and tertiary colours are
derived)
colours, secondary green, orange, violet (derived by mixing equal
quantities of two primary colours, eg red + blue
= violet, blue + yellow = green, red + violet =
orange)
colours, tertiary red-violet, blue-violet, blue-green, yellow-
green, red-orange, yellow-orange (derived by
mixing unequal quantities of the three primary
colours)
complementary see colours, complementary
colours
composition the art of combining the elements in a picture or
other work of art into a satisfactory visual whole
contour drawing a line drawing delineating the outer and inner
contours of a posed model, still life, landscape,
or other selected subject matter
cool colours blues, greens, purples
design an ordered, aesthetic arrangement of one or
more elements of art
easel a wooden or metal frame to support an artist's
canvas during painting; found in many kinder-
gartens for use in tempera painting, but in a
simpler version
embossing creating a raised or relief design on metal or
leather by tooling or indenting the surface
88

emphasis a principle in art whereby important elements in


a composition are emphasised
ethno-technologi- when ethnic art forms are combined with
cal art technological methods
format the size and shape of the material, paper, or card
on which artwork is created
inorganic coming from the built or manufactured
environment, usually geometric in shape or form
and easily copied (eg circle, square, rectangle,
pyramid, sphere)
line an element in art Ð the basic skeletal foundation
of a design or composition
medium any material used for art expression (eg clay,
paint, charcoal, wood, pencils, pastels)
mobile a free-moving art construction in space
(Alexander Calder's gift to the art world)
monoprint one-of-a-kind print Ð usually made by incising
or marking on an inked glass plate and taking an
impression
mosaic a design or composition made by arranging and
glueing tesserae or geometric pieces of material
next to one another, but not touching, on a
background surface
mural a monumental artwork on the inside or outside
walls of a building, executed in paint, mosaic,
metal repousseÂ, or a combination of materials
newsprint newspaper stock used for sketches, preliminary
drawings, and prints
oil pastel a popular colouring medium made of a
combination of chalk and oil and available in a
host of exciting colours
organic usually derived from the natural environment and
possessing unique features (eg puddle of water,
sun, clouds, animal shapes, plant forms)
papier-maÃche name given to paper crafts that use newspaper
moistened with wallpaper paste or laundry
starch Ð also paper pulp constructions
pattern design made by repeating a motif or symbol
(allover pattern)
perspective the creation of a three-dimensional space
illusion on a two-dimensional surface by means
of vanishing points, converging lines, and
diminishing sizes of objects
plaster a white, powdery substance that, when mixed
with water, forms a quick-setting moulding or
casting material (sometimes referred to as
``plaster of Paris'')
89 PST210-G/1

positive-negative positive shapes in a composition are the solid


objects (people, trees, animals, buildings);
negative shapes are the unoccupied empty
spaces between positive shapes (atmosphere,
sky, and earth which are considered negative
space are sometimes designated as ``fore-
ground'' and ``background'' space)
primary colours see colours, primary
secondary col- see colours, secondary
ours
sketch usually a preliminary drawing made with
pencil, pen, crayon, charcoal, brush, pastel, or
similar tools
still life an arrangement of objects, usually on a table,
as a subject for drawing, painting, collage,
and so on
tertiary colours see colours, tertiary
texture the actual and/or visual feel of a surface; the
representation of the tactile character of a
given material
three-dimension- has a rounded form (ie height, breadth and
al volume) Ð free-standing or relief sculptures
and pottery are examples of three-
dimensional (3-D) media
tone the lightness or darkness of a colour
two-dimensional on a flat surface (such as paper) that has
length and breadth Ð drawing, painting and
printmaking are examples of two-dimensional
(2-D) media
value in colour terminology, the lightness or
darkness of a hue
vegetable print- printing blocks are made by cutting
ing vegetables in half, dipping them into paint or
dye, and pressing them onto paper or fabric
(vegetables used include potatoes, carrots,
brussels sprouts)
warm colours red, pinks, yellows, oranges

8.4.2 Stressing the role of art as a visual language and a universal


human experience
Art is the communicator of humankind's visions and aspirations. Frequent and regular
encounters with a variety of art forms of different cultures through the ages will develop
learners' awareness of the expressive visual qualities of different cultures. This will help them
to accept and respect the range of interests and abilities of their peers. They will realise that,
through the ages, art has been the vehicle of communicating the aspirations, needs and
dreams of people to both enrich and organise their surroundings, state their fears, or
remember events.
90

8.4.3 Active participation in evaluating and discussing aesthetics


This will assist learners in becoming progressively critically aware of their environment, and
becoming more discriminatory in their use of consumer products. This will, in time, result in
the learner demanding good design qualities in the functional and nonfunctional
commodities of everyday life. Finally, it is worth pointing out that helping learners become
responsible consumers with qualitative aesthetic judgement should be an integral part of Art
Education.

8.5 Art appreciation and History of Art


The concept of ``good taste'' is difficult to define and is tied up with cultural and social
norms.

Learning art terms, or studying History of Art, is not a means of gaining aesthetic awareness
since it merely traces the development of styles and does not necessarily teach appreciation
of these styles. History of Art as a subject is only an indicator of the values and attitudes of
certain societies over certain periods of time. Aesthetic taste changes, so none of us can
teach what is ``right'' and ``wrong'' in aesthetics as seen from our own particular background.
Instead, we have to develop self-awareness in our learners, so that they can evaluate change,
be curious about the unfamiliar and be prepared to accept and respect the cultural
viewpoints of others.

8.6 Aesthetic awareness, culture, and society's values


Concepts of ``good taste'' are often seen as pretentious and are questioned by young people.
That is yet another reason why aesthetic awareness cannot be an imposition of ideas or
presented in terms of teaching what is ``right'' and ``wrong''. We cannot teach aesthetics
unless we are aware of the individual and his or her environment. As standards of beauty
change, so does style.

8.7 Developing a programme for aesthetic growth


Children take joy in exploring, investigating and expressing their feelings about their
environment. The best means of developing aesthetic awareness in people is by
strengthening their powers of self-expression, whether in painting, dancing, playing a
musical instrument, or writing poetry. Aesthetic awareness should be aimed at developing
learners so that they interact with their environment and appreciate the beauty of the world
around them.

Viewing, listening to, or reading ``art'' should always be a joyful experience rather than a way
of forcing people to learn ``facts''. Learners should be encouraged to visit art galleries (if
there is one in their area) and get as much exposure as they can to works of art.
Understanding humanity's artistic and cultural heritage will help learners to appreciate all the
varied cultures of the world; indeed, understanding our heritage is as important as art activity
itself. Although one cannot teach art in its historical time to young children, even they should
be given the opportunity to see original works as well as reproductions. As they grow older,
they will come to realise that the history of art is a long and varied history, and that one single
91 PST210-G/1

art form is not necessarily ``correct'' for all human beings. They will come to know that in
different periods of time, art has taken different forms and served different purposes.
The learner's attitude and concepts are formed by early contact with the arts and artists.
This contact can be made by means of trips to museums and galleries (which offer exciting
viewing possibilities), and making contact with artists. A visit to the studio of a working artist
can be valuable, since it brings the young child into contact with the adult artist working in
the studio. Young learners are likely to find this nothing short of fascinating Ð it gives them
an opportunity to see how artwork is produced as well as the medium and tools the artist
uses. It also enables them to see, at first hand, the artist's finished objects, as well as works
that are still in the making. All of this is a natural exploring ground for learners. Artists can
also be invited to come to the school and explain their craft to the children.

8.8 Resources available for the development of art


appreciation
Present-day learners have many opportunities to see and appreciate art. In all major cities
and even in small towns there are art galleries, art centres and visiting exhibitions.

There are a great number and variety of beautifully illustrated art books available. Specialist
magazines are devoted to art, while popular and general magazines often feature art articles,
giving learners the opportunity to view the wide variety of art productions. Reproductions of
artworks are available at reasonable prices.

Audiovisual aids such as slide series, videos, films, filmstrips, etcetera are all available from the
audiovisual section of Educational Training. Embassies also lend out a wide range of films.

The State, provincial councils, municipalities, as well as a great number of societies and
clubs, make a tremendous contribution to promoting art by developing the relevant
resources.

8.9 Introducing a knowledge of art in the practical


lesson
In the Art lesson, a knowledge of artworks can be used as an introduction or as a back-up
system to reinforce certain concepts. A lesson on colour could be introduced by making use
of the work of the Impressionists or the Expressionists to show how artists have used
colour Ð or as reinforcement at the end of the lesson. Audiovisual aids such as reproduc-
tions, slides, videos, filmstrips or films can be used for this purpose. By adopting this
approach, learners will naturally and informally acquire knowledge of art and learn to
appreciate art.

8.10 Teaching learners the critical process of


evaluation
The process of looking at and describing works of art can be learned by primary school
children. This process should consist of the following:
92

. Step one: Describe the subject matter. This will help the learner to identify the form the
of artwork, for instance painting, sculpture, print, etcetera.
. Step two: Describe the art elements. This includes identifying the qualities of line,
shape, form, texture and colour.
. Step three: Analyse the elements of art or principles of composition. Discuss how these
are integrated and put together by the artist, that is, how the artist assembled the artwork.
. Step four: Interpret the work of art. This refers to the expressive qualities of an art
object, such as moods, feelings, and emotions.
. Step five: Make the aesthetic judgement. Verbalise the previous four steps and give
your interpretation of the work of art.

A checklist for developing aesthetic skills follows. See if you can add a few of your own
questions to this list.

Checklist for investigation of artworks


Ð Describe what this painting is about?
Ð What medium was used in making this work of art?
Ð What does this painting tell of a particular culture and time in
history? Why
Ð What country was it made in? How do you know?
Ð How did the artist use the brush?
Ð What kind of mood is projected through the painting?
Ð How did the artist use the space of the surface?
Ð What would you change if you had to make this painting?
Ð What kind of colours did the painter use? Name these.
Ð Do the colours enhance the theme of the painting?
Ð How does the artist achieve feeling in this picture?
Ð What kinds of emotions do you experience when looking at the
picture?
(Linderman & Herberholz, 1974:135)

If art is to be an integrated part of learners' lives, it must start early in childhood. In this way
learners can start to appreciate original and fine works of art. They also learn to repect good
craftsmanship, good design, and expressive qualities, become familiar with a wide range of
art materials that are used by artists, and become acqauinted with the many different ways
individual artists communicate. Preferences, tastes, vocabulary, and judgemental attitudes
relating to the value of art as part of life find a place in the learner's experiences of and
training in art appreciation.

Activities
. Encourage learners to practice their aesthetic judgement each day.
Let them become aware by giving them some examples of how they
make aesthetic judgements throughout their day, for instance when
arranging flowers in a vase
selecting clothing for the day
93 PST210-G/1

arranging food on a plate


decorating a cake

Ask learners to make you a list of their own consisting of activities


that require them to make aesthetic judgements in their day.
. Let learners keep a ``walking list'' of how they evaluate buildings in
their own environment. Let them make judgements about the artisitic
elements of these buildings. Art can be found in many places in the
environment and it is really up to the learners to discover the unique
qualities of the buildings they come across. Some buildings that can
be investigated for a start, are the station, a restaurant, a squatter
camp, a church, any shop, the school, etcetera.
. Aesthetic activities can incorporate the media, such as magazines,
newspapers, films, television, books, community events, social
events, experiences at home and on holiday, and visitis to shops and
interesting places in town. The Art teacher should help learners to
look for certain things in the community. Let them search for certain
subjects in various categories. Do not generalise. For example, ask
them to find five good examples of artisitic beauty in nature, to give
ten examples of cartoon art on grocery products, etcetera.

Suggested reading

. Moore, R (ed). 1995. Aesthetics for young people. VA: National Art
Education Association.
. Smith, R & Simpson, A (eds). 1993. Aesthetics and arts education.
Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

World-Wide Web resources


Learn more about learners' aesthetic development on the World-Wide
Web, if you have access to it:
ArtsEdNet, The Getty Art Education Web Site: Art education in action:
Aesthetics.
<http//www.artsednet.getty.edu/ArtsEdNet/Resources/Aeia/aesthetics.html>

(Includes lesson plans and video footnotes.)


94

Section 9
Affective development
Learning outcomes
After studying this section, you should be able to

. describe the characteristics and behaviour of creative personalities


and affectively-oriented learners
. explain the importance of developing affective qualities through Art
Education
. explain the role of affective knowledge in the visual arts
. describe the therapeutic importance of art activities for children
. explain the role that art plays in self-identification and self-expression

9.1 Introduction
The affective is defined by Funk and Wagnall's Dictionary as ``pertaining to or arising from
feeling or emotional reaction rather than from thought'' (1963:24). Teaching learners to
create art is a way of making them become sensitive, aesthetically oriented persons.
Restrictive, mainly cognitively oriented educational systems, will not meet the needs of the
21st century. These outdated, inhibiting educational ideas cannot create independent,
perceptually aware people who can push the boundaries of our technological age, are willing
to explore new ideas, invent new ways of expression, use new materials to construct things,
rearrange old ideas, explore new methods and techniques, and investigate the nature of
things, while remaining sensitive to aesthetic stimuli, harmony and the beauty in human
beings and nature. In short: a restrictive, cognitive-bound education system cannot produce
the dreamers and visionaries humanity so urgently requires.

Problems such as global pollution, overpopulation, and overexploited natural resources


require inventive solutions. An integrated and holistic educational system which encourages
the development of mental, spiritual and perceptual skills from an early age can produce
people with those qualities necessary for the survival of the human race.

The stereotypical view of Art Education is that it is solely aimed at training artists. In fact, Art
Education has long since passed beyond this position. Education through art provides
everyone with opportunities to develop their unique abilities for creativity, divergent thinking
and coming up with solutions. These are valid skills to assess within the broad framework of
education.
95 PST210-G/1

9.2 Loss of identity


Life in the 21st century increasingly encroaches on our individual identity. The educational
system has done very little to change the increasing loss of identity experienced by learners
since, on the whole, it is aimed at one kind of growth, namely the growth of certain linear
cognitive skills.

No art expression is possible without self-identification with the experience expressed, as


well as with the art material by which it is expressed Ð it is a true expression of the self.
Experience changes with growth; self-identification embraces the social, intellectual,
emotional and psychological changes within the child (Lowenfeld 1975:15).

9.3 Developing the self through art activities


In art production, the child identifies with an experience and expresses it in another kind of
language Ð a visual language Ð through the art material. This is a true expression of the
self.

There is great satisfaction in expressing one's emotions and feelings in an artwork. Indeed, it
is through self-expression that the self develops. Emotional and mental disturbances are
often connected with a lack of self-confidence resulting from a poor self-image. Developing
the child's creative abilities can prevent this because it can provide him or her with a strong
and positive self-image.

9.4 Enhancing the individuality of the learner through


art activities
We live in a very complex society, a society that includes many kinds of pressures. The result
is that we have to become increasingly able to adapt to different kinds of situations. Art
Education is one of the areas which teaches the learner to be creative, to look at a problem
from different viewpoints, and to be able to reach diverse solutions.

An Art Programme should provide art learning tasks that challenge the learner to discover his
or her own affective abilities. The mass-orientation of the modern world may alienate
children. Art activities give the learner the opportunity to be an individual; in art activities, it is
the individual who invents creative solutions to problems. In art, the solutions reached are as
acceptable as the unique individual who produces these solutions.

Following stereotypes and the monotonous repetition of ``recipes'' should be strongly


discouraged. Instead, learners should be encouraged to respond to their own intuition during
the creative process. This is an important part of learning creative behaviour.

9.5 The therapeutic value of art activities


There is inner satisfaction to be gained from engaging in a creative act. The process of
creation involves incorporating the self into the activity. Self-expression involves the
96

individual giving vent, in a constructive form, to his or her feelings, emotions and thoughts at
his or her own level of development.

9.6 Requirements for affective development


Learners will only be able to be truly creative if they feel that their acceptance as an individual
is unconditional. For this to happen, a relationship of trust must exist between the teacher as
guide and mentor and the learner. It is through the teacher's positive and appreciative actions
that this relationship of trust is established. The ability to imagine, to observe, and to be
expressive and truly creative, requires a sense of security on the part of the learner.

Activities
. Write an essay reflecting on the following topic: ``The craftsman
knows what he wants to make before he makes it''. Reflect on the
therapeutic value of art as well as the development of individuality
through the creation of arts and crafts.
. Prepare a bulletin board for an ongoing display entitled ``The Big
Question about Art''. Make this a point of discussion with all grades.
Record the answers you get. What does this tell you about the
perception of art in your community?
97 PST210-G/1

Section 10
Skills development
Learning outcomes
After studying this section and doing the activities, you should be able
to
. explain the concepts encountered in the development of skills and
the role these play in Art Education
. describe the importance of skills development in the older learner
. describe the different ways of developing skills through art activities

10.1 Introduction
Children tend to think that if one has the skill, one can create great artworks. Children,
specially preadolescents, believe that a good artist is one who is skillful.

In a great work of art, it is impossible to separate the force of the skill from the depth of the
insight. An artwork may indeed demonstrate considerable skill, but may be shallow and
indicate very little insight on the part of the person who produced it.

10.2 Acquisition of skills


The acquisition of skills depends on experience. The more opportunity the learner has to
experience a number of procedures, materials, etcetera the greater will be his or her
confidence and spontaneity in experimenting with new ideas.

There is no particular type of skill on which one should concentrate in teaching Art at school.
It is, however, important that the learner develops the habits of exploration and experi-
mentation and gains a sensitivity for materials. It is also important that learners develop skills
to enable them to express their ideas. There is no formula available that can be used to guide
this development. One must try to understand a learner's particular needs at a particular time,
respecting the learner's individuality and giving him or her the opportunity to explore and
become involved.

10.3 The role of the teacher


Since learners require a great deal of support when struggling with a skill, the teacher must
be ready to enter into discussion, to give advice, and to demonstrate the use of materials. As
was stressed earlier on, an undirected, uninformed learner will be lost. The learner is intrigued
98

by technical aspects and technical experimentation and teachers should capitalise on this.
Learners should become aware that skill is not all, but the medium, the idea, and the skill are
all interwoven in a personal expression that is uniquely their own.

It is the responsibility of the teacher to demonstrate the possibilities of the use of the different
media as well as the procedures to be followed.

How to create different effects should also be demonstrated so that learners do not become
frustrated and bored.

As the learner becomes older, he or she will feel the need to become more skillful. The young
adolescent admires the skills that are used in drawing, painting and other activities in other
fields. Learners in this age group prefer realistic portrayals and they want to gain certain
technical skills in order to portray reality. It is therefore important that the Art teacher
concentrate more on skill development as the learner becomes older and give more guidance
and help in that aspect of the learner's artistic expression.
Study unit 3

Organisation and
administration
100

Section 11
Art in the primary school
Learning outcomes
After studying this section and doing the activities, you should be able
to
. describe the place of art and creative crafts in the primary school
curriculum
. describe the planning and organising needed in teachers' working
conditions to facilitate successful teaching and learning

11.1 Introduction
In the past, art and creative craft activities were considered to be of less educational value
than the more academic subjects such as languages, mathematics and science. Art Education
was considered to be simply a relaxing time period, something with which to keep children's
hands busy (in fact, it was classed among the so-called handiwork subjects). The
contribution that Art Education makes to the development of the child was seldom
considered, and Art Education was centainly not regarded as being of any worth as far as the
development of problem-solving skills was concerned. This resulted in Art Education being
slotted into a time period at the end of the day or week.
Given this situation, the training of Art teachers also was considered as being of little, if any,
importance and the planning and organisation required of teachers giving Art Education was
often simply disregarded. This resulted in chaotic learning situations presided over by
demoralised teachers.
It is important to understand that Art Education differs from other subjects, since the learner
comes into contact with the learning content through the activity. The organisation and
planning of the total learning experience is therefore crucial to successful teaching.

11.2 Classroom procedures


The number of periods assigned to art and craft activities and the time allotted during the
school day may vary from school to school. Usually double periods are allocated at the end
of the school day. Some primary schools have special Art classrooms, while others use
ordinary classrooms for art.
101 PST210-G/1

11.3 Classroom atmosphere


Art is different from other subjects in that the teacher does not know, nor is he or she looking
for, a specific answer to a specific problem. Learners must be encouraged to respond in their
own personal way and it is the teacher's responsibility to develop each child's self-discovery
and to stimulate expression. In an Art Education class, the classroom atmosphere and
procedures will vary considerably. Sometimes an Art class will be quiet and other times quite
noisy as learners share materials and ideas. There is, however, a difference between an
unruly, noisy class where art is a game and a noisy class where there is total involvement.

Activity
. Read the Revised National Curriculum Statement: Grades R-9
(Schools) Policy, focusing on what the text says about the planning
and organisation of your working conditions.
102

Section 12
Classroom organisation
Learning outcomes
After studying this section and doing the activities, you should be able
to
. explain the importance of planning regarding

Ð the Art room


Ð classroom organisation
Ð buying materials and tools

12.1 Introduction
The ability to plan and organise the different activities and select the materials and tools
needed, as well as the general organisation of the whole art experience, is essential to
successful Art teaching.

12.2 The Art room


An Art classroom should, ideally, have lots of space so that there are working areas, and
enough space to cope with the flow of learner traffic, as well as sufficient storage and display
and cleaning-up space.

There should be adequate storage space within the classroom, as well as a lockable
storeroom or cupboards, in which to store art supplies, tools, visual aids, materials and works
in progress. The cleaning-up facilities should be adequate. Water is essential Ð preferably
running water, but a bucket-system is also effective.

It is preferable for an Art class to be on the ground floor, with doors opening to the outside
and onto veranda areas. This will make it possible to work outside, thereby providing extra
space, and will facilitate the use of materials that are more difficult to clean up. There should
also be display areas that should be changed often, giving all learners the opportunity to
have their work displayed. A pinboard, for the display of notices on current events in the art
world is very handy. Display areas should be neutral in colour and must be easy to pin or
staple notices to.

Large tables are better than slanting desks. These should be waterproof and stain and scratch
resistant. Ideally, worktops should be flexible, as well as being adjustable both as regards
height and angle of working. Free-standing easels are also suitable. Also ideally, the Art
room should have adequate electrical outlets and must be able to be darkened in order to
103 PST210-G/1

show slides and use other audio-visual aids. Floors and other surfaces must be easy to clean.
Map cabinets are ideal for storing learners' work. Adjustable shelves provide extra storage in
the classroom and storeroom. A trolley makes the distribution of materials easier.

12.3 Classroom organisation


Learners should be involved in the classroom organisation and be encouraged to help in the
distribution of materials, so that they learn to take responsibility. The teacher must be careful
not to become a housekeeper by doing the cleaning up. A wise teacher should work towards
classroom organisational procedures that will involve the learners and let them take
responsibility for their actions while, at the same time, encouraging creativity.

The method of distribution will be influenced by the age group, the physical facilities, the
type of materials and the tools used.

Here are two suggestions that may help the teacher cope with the distribution of materials to
the Art class:

. Appoint monitors
Learners enjoy being given the responsibilities of handing out materials and tools and seeing
to it that these are returned and the classroom is tidied at the end of the period. It must be
remembered that all learners should be given the opportunity to be responsible for these
tasks so that there is no favouritism.

. Hand out materials and tools just before the lesson commences
The advantage of this system is that learners do not waste time getting all the necessary
equipment but can start working straight away. The teacher also has much better control of
the equipment. The burden of handing out materials and tools, however, falls squarely on the
teacher, which means that learners do not learn to take any responsibility for the use and care
of materials and tools.

12.4 Organisational policy


Organisational policy refers to how the teacher intends to organise all aspects of teaching in
order to achieve the objectives of Art Education. Drawing up an organisational policy
requires knowledge of local conditions, physical facilities and the school's organisational
structure. Classroom practice, division of periods, evaluation practices and the use of aids
must all be taken into consideration here.

12.5 Subject policy


Subject policy could be considered to be the teacher's personal interpretation of the
objectives, approach and organisation of Art Education.

The following factors may play an important role in the planning and setting of objectives:
the possibilities and limitations of the school's Art room, the facilities and materials available,
104

the pupils, the community, and the teacher's capabilities. All these have to be considered so
that the teacher can state his or her personal aim in the process of achieving the aims of the
syllabus.

12.6 Displaying learners' work


Learners' artworks need to be exhibited on a regular basis.

In addition to displaying learners' artworks in the Art room and in their own classroom as a
semipermanent exhibition, or at the end of a project, artworks could be displayed in the staff
room or the foyer of the school and other public areas.
Regular exhibitions on parents' visiting days or open days where at least one work of each
learner is displayed will also promote the cause of Art Education.

Activities
. Describe how you see a functional Art classroom.
. Draw up a programme of things to do when organising an art
exhibition

Do the following:

Ð organise a yearly art exhibition of all learners' work


Ð invite parents to the exhibition
Ð write a critique on the exhibition yourself and concentrate on the
strong as well as the weak points of the exhibition
Ð refer to this review when planning the next exhibition
105 PST210-G/1

Section 13
The Art teacher and how to
teach Art
Learning outcomes
After studying this section and doing the activities, you should be able
to
. describe the importance and role of the Art teacher in Art Education

13.1 Introduction
In essence the function of the Art teacher is to select, organise and present certain learning
content so that learners will come to grips with the content through practical art activity. The
Art teacher should motivate learners to become involved in art activities and be able to assess
the success of the experience.

13.2 The role of the teacher


13.2.1 Practical activities
To succeed in encouraging individual expression, initiative and spontaneity, and motivating
learners in their art production, the teacher needs to accept and reward creative behaviour.
Learners must feel confident enough to question things, to be original, and to get involved in
the activity. Selected procedures should encourage creativity.

The teacher must provide an atmosphere conducive to inventiveness, exploration and


production. The teacher's role should be one of guidance and suggestions, and he or she
should actively seek the learners' opinions and judgements.

Learners should be given the security to venture out, to be expressive, to communicate. The
Art teacher must be flexible and able to change plans and capitalise on the enthusiasm of
learners.

The teacher should display a warm, friendly and relaxed personality and provide
opportunities for learners to express themselves freely, whether orally or by communicating
visually through their art productions. What is needed, is someone who wants to help
learners develop their own concepts, is genuinely interested in what the learner creates, and
has no preconceived notions of what the end-product should look like.
106

There should be an understanding of the aims of Art Education and the development of the
learner as seen in his or her art. The focus should be on developing a sensitively aware
person.

13.2.2 Relating to the learner


The learner must consider art activities as important and the teacher must be able to identify
with the learners and their problems at all levels so that he or she can provide the right
motivation and environmental conditions for the production of meaningful art. The attitude
of the teacher is crucial to the success of the art experience. If the teacher does not consider
the learner's artwork as important, this implies that the learner is not important.

The learner needs an understanding of his or her own experience in the creation of the
artwork. Often the questions asked should be answered by the learner, so the teacher should
redirect questions when necessary. This self-identification of the learner is necessary so that
the teacher can provide the proper motivation and environmental conditions for meaningful
expression.

13.2.3 Choice of motivation according to developmental stage


As stated in section 4, each age group and stage of development has certain typical
characteristics and certain interests. The teacher needs to identify with the needs of the class,
as well as the needs of the individual learner, if he or she is to provide the right kind of
motivation. Occasionally a learner is insecure and fears that he or she cannot draw; the
learner may always want approval and may tend to rely on the adult for clear guidance and
direction. Sometimes learners have difficulty in identifying with the artwork that they are
creating and are continuously dissatisfied with their achievements. It is important, through
questioning, to make the motivation meaningful to the learner and thus stimulate his or her
recall of memories or experiences. Since the Art class is a definite part of the learner's
experience, it is vital that special attention be given to the learner who is bound up in him- or
herself and who has difficulty interacting in a meaningful way with the environment in the
Art class. Motivation plays a vital part here Ð it should be such that it provides opportunities
for growth. The more intense the quality of the experience that the learner is trying to portray,
the higher the quality of the final product will be.

(Section 18 of this guide, ``The role of motivation'', is also important in this respect.)

13.2.4 Selecting certain stereotype exercises


These kinds of activities force learners to imitate, and never give them an opportunity to
express themselves creatively. The great disadvantage of these kinds of activities is that any
variation on the part of the learner is considered a mistake, which conditions the learner to
accept adult concepts of art and frustrates his or her own attempts at creativity.

Wachowiak (1977:29) sees the role of the teacher in Art Education as follows:

The teacher must be dedicated. As an art teacher he or she must be creative and
adaptable and be able to understand the basic concepts of art, and how one evaluates
the creative act. An art teacher must be able to organise materials, tools, space and time;
chaotic working conditions may hinder the creative act. The art program must be
structured and implemented to children's present and future needs. Pupil's lives must be
enriched by an experience of discovery; new ideas and art processes are essential if the
child is to stay interested. The art teacher must constantly stimulate the child to visually
107 PST210-G/1

experience the richness of design, color, form, rhythm, texture, balance and pattern in
the natural and human-made world around them. The art teacher must be genuinely
concerned with the child's problems in his or her art endeavor. Art lessons must be
meticulously planned and not left to last minute inspirations. The art teacher must keep
up to date with art resources such as reproductions, books, film, slides, photographs,
articles, illustrations, etcetera. Art teaching is a constant search for new materials and
new processes that, as well as being fresh sources of motivation, teachers themselves
must learn to use and master. An art teacher must be flexible and adaptable, able to see
similarities and differences in children's work. The art teacher must be patient, calm and
adaptable and should not impose a rigid standard on his or her pupils. Children need the
security of the teacher's confidence in the subject they teach. The art teacher must be
able to listen to the child's description of his or her experiences. A sense of humor can
save many a disastrous situation. The teacher must have the knowledge and the
experience to be able to help the child to develop from the preliminary sketch to the final
work. The art teacher is the prime catalyst, setting high standards and challenges for the
children.

Reflect
. Do you think that you have the temperament to take on the highly
challenging and exciting task of being an Art teacher? Can you
substantiate your answer?
. Describe how you would constructively handle the situation should
your school principal favour an Art programme based on a rigid
approach made up of outdated concepts, at the expense of a more
modern, creative approach.
. Because of a negative association with previous Art programmmes
your fifth grade learners are not so enthusiastic and do not seem
interested in helping you develop an Art programme. Describe what
measures you will take to try and improve their attitude to art.
. How would you go about developing an Art programme to change
learners' practical art application once you have realised that they
were allowed in the past to copy and colour in as part of their Art
training?
108

Section 14
Different media and techniques
(This section should be closely studied with section 16, ``Motivation''.)

Learning outcomes
After studying this section and doing the activities, you should be able
to
. describe the various media, procedures and techniques that can be
used in Art teaching
. practically experience the various possibilities of the different
materials, techniques and procedures

14.1 Introduction
Media are the materials a learner employs in Art activities. Their proper use in class depends
on the teacher's knowledge of how children will use them. Different types of media suit
different types of developmental stages.
Although one should at all times encourage a very creative and open approach to exploring
and experimenting with the various materials, it is very important that learners develop a
sense of orderly procedure, that they learn to care for and look after tools and materials, and
to not be wasteful.
Although one should at all times encourage a very creative and open approach to exploring
and experimenting with the various materials, it is very important that learners develop a
sense of orderly procedure, that they learn to care and look after tools and materials, and not
be wasteful. Learners should also aim at mastering some of the skills in using materials,
especially as they grow older.

The Art teacher does not need to be a practising artist, but should have been involved in real
creative experiences. To encourage creative experiences with various materials means being
personally involved with the creative possibilities of the materials; the Art teacher should
therefore be eager to work with new materials.

Art materials and processes should become an integral part of the teaching process. In
primary school it is not necessary to teach technical knowledge as such, but it is important as
the learner grows older. Both the adult and the child artist strive for the same goals, but each
has his or her own frame of reference or own experiences to draw upon.

It is important to develop skills and techniques and have an understanding of the materials to
enable the learner (artist) to achieve success in his or her attempts at visual communication.
Yet, as important as skills and techniques may be, these must remain a means to an end as a
method of expression. The urge to express experiences that are meaningful must be there
before the skill can develop; the development of skills will merely enhance visual expression.
109 PST210-G/1

Technique. A particular technique develops according to the individual's needs and is highly
individual.

Procedures, on the other hand, are a series of steps needed when using a specific material or
materials (eg the printing process). It is essential to explain and demonstrate these
procedures to learners.

14.2 Choice of art materials and tools to suit the


learner
The choice of material must suit the learner's need for expression. A teacher must always be
alert and take cues from learners regarding the value of a particular procedure at a particular
point in a learner's development. By the same token, the teacher should be alert to the
moment when the learner is more likely to benefit from other ways of using familiar materials.
Often the particular process in itself may serve to motivate children, in that they enjoy
exploring new procedures and experimenting with new materials.

There is an almost unlimited range of art materials. Traditional materials are pencil, paints,
clay, etcetera. Materials often used for art, but which are normally used for other purposes,
include wood and fabric, and materials visually unrelated to art (eg many found objects). The
developmental level must be taken into account when selecting materials. For example,
watercolours will be used differently by a very young learner, a learner of eight, of twelve and
of sixteen years old. Another example is that, at certain stages, learners may have difficulty
using soft chalk and require instead a harder substance such as oil-based crayons. Very
young learners who have not yet learnt to use their smaller muscles well, may require large
surfaces for painting or assembling large objects. As learners mature and gain greater
muscular control, they can work with smaller surfaces and objects. Some, however, may
prefer working on large scale surfaces, no matter what stage of muscular development they
have reached.

The teacher must make an effort to provide a variety of materials and tools so that every
learner can experiment with the medium he or she prefers. Exploration of further choices and
other art materials and the testing of new or different materials must be available and
encouraged in learners. If the budget is limited the teacher will have to expand content rather
than variety of media.

What must be kept in mind is that these procedures, techniques and skills should be a means
for acquiring a sensitivity for the expressive possibilities of the materials and tools.
110

Activities
. It is very important that you try out some different materials and the
different effects that can be achieved with each of them. Make a list
of the different media and activities for learners, for example:

Medium Activity
Wire 1 Wire baskets (Gr 5)
2 Wire statuettes (Gr 7)
3 Wire- and beadwork
Ð teaspoons (Gr 6)

. For reference purposes, make a file or portfolio in which to keep all


the examples of the different ways one can use the various materials.
111 PST210-G/1

Section 15
Excursions, or reaching out in
the community
Learning outcomes
After studying this section and doing the activities, you should be able
to

. state the importance of, and describe how to plan and organise,
excursions

15.1 Introduction
As mentioned before, a valuable method of motivating learners and creating a positive
attitude to and concepts of art and artists, is to bring learners into frequent contact with
artists and artworks from an early age. This is where excursions come in. It is through early
contact with art and artists that the learner's attitudes and concepts are formed. The young
learner is ready to find and enjoy art in his or her community. This discovery can be facilitated
in several ways.

15.2 Contact with art and artists


There are several ways in which this contact can be made:

15.2.1 Excursions to art museums and art galleries


Most of the larger cities and towns in our country have a number of small galleries and/or
larger museums that offer exciting viewing for field trips. Some museums have specially
designed rooms or galleries for younger school children and many have tour leaders who are
specifically trained in helping learners view with sensitivity and awareness and respond
aesthetically and with imagination.
Younger children enjoy exploring and discovering and require only a little instruction from
the teacher. In the case of older learners, it is worthwhile briefly discussing what they are
going to see, the various media of the works, etcetera before going to the museum or gallery.
112

Early introduction to the many forms of art starts very young children on the road
to openness and discovery. Here four-year-olds endeavour to find which
painting they like best in a small gallery.
(Herberholz 1978:12 & 13).

15.2.2 Excursions to artists' studios


A visit to the studio of a working artist has much to offer learners of all ages. On such an
excursion the learners come into contact with an artist at work, producing paintings,
sculptures, prints and/or crafts in his or her own studio. The learner can also take note of the
fascinating equipment the artist uses and can listen to and watch the artist as he or she
explains the sequence of steps it takes to complete a project.

In most artists' studios finished products will be on display, next to products that are still in
the making, so that learners can observe the various stages of finishing an art product.
113 PST210-G/1

A A trip to the studio of a metal sculptor introduces children to the beauty


inherent in steel, copper, and brass when these materials are touched by the
torch of a skilled and sensitive craftsman.

B Visiting youngsters watch to see how jewellery can be made before being
given the opportunity to pound copper in a wooden mould.

Studios worth visiting include a pottery studio, to see a potter constructing three-
dimensional pots and ceramic objects; a sculptor's studio, to see the sculptor chisel out a
sculpture from a lump of stone or wood; a craftsman's studio, to see the craftsman creating a
fine piece of jewellery using metal and heat; and a printmaker's studio to see how silk-screen
prints are made. All these are inspiring experiences and can only contribute to the
development of our young artists.

15.2.3 Inviting artists to visit the school and give talks on art
It is common practice to invite artists to schools. This gives learners an opportunity to talk to
artists and ask them questions. It is also an opportunity to invite other professionals who are
involved in the world of art (eg art historians and art critics and other specialists in artistic
114

fields such as deÂcor designers, fashion designers, film editors, graphic artists, advertising
artists, etc) to the classroom.

15.3 Field trips


Although most researchers are convinced of the value of field trips, many are faced with
limited financial support. Whenever possible, however, learners should have opportunities to
learn about the world away from school. Field trips are a particularly appropriate way of
helping learners to develop perceptual awareness.

Field trips can also be undertaken in the neighbourhood at little or no expense. The Art
teacher may take the class on a walking architecture tour in the neighbourhood, asking the
learners to take note of some basic features of buildings that relate to the study of
architecture, such as how the buildings relate to each other, how they are indicative of a
certain era, how they relate to the environment, what materials they are constructed of, and
for what purposes they were built. This is but one example of a field trip, and many more like
this one can be arranged, depending on what the teacher would like the learners to learn
about.

15.4 Planning and preparation


The type of planning and arrangements to be made will depend on the type of excursion.
When planning and making preparations for excursions, consider the following:

. What does the teacher want to achieve Ð what is the objective of the excursion?
. What preparations do the learners need to make if they are to gain the maximum benefit
from the excursion?
. As far as the logistics of the excursion are concerned, the teacher needs to consider
transport, cost, time and supervision of the learners, especially if they are still very young.
. Remember that any excursion requires that written permission be obtained from
educational authorities and from parents and legal guardians.
. Parents must be informed in writing regarding transport arrangements, cost, and the time
when children have to be fetched.
. The school should have a policy regarding excursions that should be adhered to.
. Information regarding learners with special medical needs must be taken into
consideration and catered for.

Here is an example of how to plan a field trip to an art gallery:

. If possible, visit the museum or gallery beforehand in preparation for


the planned field trip to take note of possible problems, such as
parking, limited space, etcetera. Contact the educational staff and
arrange for a guided tour. Learn about the services offered to school
groups.
. Select several artworks you would like the learners to see.
. If possible, obtain slides of these selected works to show to the
learners before the trip.
115 PST210-G/1

. Seeing the slides beforehand will make the learners look forward to
seeing the actual work of art up close.
. Talk to the class for the duration of the trip and discuss any problems
that they may anticipate, such as becoming separated from the group.
. Follow up the museum visit with a discussion back in the classroom.
Try to consolidate the learning that has taken place. Help learners to
realise what they have learnt.

Activities
. Plan a field trip to a museum with any grade learners you feel
comfortable with.
Do the following:

Ð Describe the procedure you would follow to arrange it.


Ð Give an example of the questionnaire you would hand out to
learners prior to the visit.
Ð Explain the challenges of such a visit.
Ð State what you would do differently regarding future excursions.
Study unit 4

Teaching aids
118

Section 16
The role of motivation
(This section, section 6 (``Perceptual awareness''), and section 14 (``Media and
techniques'') are closely related and must be cross-referred amongst.)

Learning outcomes
After studying this section and doing the activities, you should be able
to
. explain the importance of motivation in Art teaching
. describe the different ways of motivating learners
. describe what methods can be used in Art teaching

16.1 Introduction
How can we as adults stimulate learners' growth? We need to provide abundant creative
opportunities. A child's surroundings ... all provide infinite exploratory possibilities
which will help him develop the sensitivity and the imagination so important in artistic
expression. Learners need to be helped to see, to feel, to listen, to think, for out of these
abilities comes the power to relate and to interpret the world around them.
(Ruth Elsie Halvorsen, in Linderman & Herberholz 1974:79)

Children need to be inspired and become involved, and therefore need some form of
stimulation, visual or otherwise (eg verbal), if they are to express themselves in artworks.

By having their storehouse of imagery visually enriched and being stimulated by a creative
teacher's varied and challenging motivations, learners will be enabled to see and recall more,
be more aware of their expanding and changing environment, and consequently be able to
express themselves visually with more confidence (Wachowiak 1977:37).

Art Education practices have been firmly founded on the philosophy that learners have the
capacity to transform their primary means into their own unique art terms. Education
authorities have emphasised the importance and value of motivation as the basic means of
evoking art responses.

As Art teachers we cannot really expect learners to go into a classroom and start drawing
and/or having a multitude of their own ideas. Should a teacher instruct a class to do a
drawing or a painting without providing any prior stimulation, the learners may fall back on
pictures they made in the past, in other words, it would result in mere repetition of prior work.
Learners need direction and a strong challenge in their art thinking. They need to get excited
about ideas. In order to recreate an experience with art media the learner needs to recall the
experience vividly. The desire to communicate his or her thoughts in visual terms needs to be
stirred sufficiently. The true artist may be brimming with ideas most of the time, but in
learners ideas have to be initiated through motivation. In working with learners it is important
119 PST210-G/1

to stimulate their art thinking and develop their art skills to facilitate expression of their
emotions through art materials. This is where motivation becomes so important.

16.2 Learning an art terminology


As we have already dealt with art terminology (see section 8.4.1) this section will be very
brief, but it is important to note that, through the use of an art vocabulary, learners can be
highly motivated. With guidance, the learner will develop the ability to recognise the art
elements in natural and human-made products and will be able to create a personal art
product that reflects the learner's understanding of and particular experience with these
products.
In this indirect way, the learner will acquire an art terminology which will enable him or her
to evaluate his or her own work and the work of others, and to communicate this opinion.

16.3 When to motivate learners


It is usually in the introduction to the lesson that the teacher uses motivational material. The
kind and type of motivational materials must be designed to suit the learners' levels of
perception and development to ensure the development of aesthetic awareness and visual
discrimination. This requires thorough preparation and thought since each project, technique
and age group calls for its own kind of motivation.
Through questioning, the teacher can enrich the learner's frame of reference by helping him
or her to remember relevant experiences.

16.4 Different ways of motivating learners to become


involved in the art activity
Motivation refers to a teacher's or parent's ability to arouse and stimulate a child's thinking
so that he or she will discover ways to communicate his or her ideas in visual forms. The
teacher should also help learners to think through ideas, to relive their own experiences, or to
create new images from their personal sources or resources.

Visual aid, firsthand material and sensory experiences support the verbal discussion during a
motivation session. Sensory experiences should also be included in motivation sessions as
this helps tremendously to enhance the learners' visual memory and, therefore, production of
a work of art. However, the verbal discussion should always be a basis for challenging the
learners' thinking during and after participation in the artistic act.
Motivation should be provided in small doses, introducing, if possible, a single new and
exciting attention-getter during each Art lesson. The following motivational resources are
suggested:
120

Motivational resources for art inspiration and encouragement


. Reproductions of paintings, sculpture, prints, and crafts that can
supplement, illuminate, and intensify the objectives of the lesson.
. Photographs, in colour or black and white, that can extend the
learners' visual repertoire of experiences.
. Colour slides of paintings, drawings, sculpture, prints, architecture,
and crafts; of design elements in nature and constructed objects; of
creative work by children worldwide; of images illustrating technical
stages in a project; of people actively at work, playing sports, and in
costume; and of animals, birds, fish, insects, and flowers.
. Filmstrips and videos on artists, art history, and art techniques.
. Films, videos and tapes that relate to the art project undertaken.
. Books (stories, plays, poems, and biographies) and periodicals that
can help both teachers and learners toward a richer interpretation of
the art project.
. Recordings (disk or tape) of music, dramatisations, poetry, sounds
of geographic regions (city and country, nature's forces, forest and
jungle), and sounds of machines, planes, ships, trains, rockets,
circuses, and amusement centres.
. Guests invited to the Art class to provide inspiration, such as police
officers, fire fighters and nurses; performers such as clowns, dancers,
pantomimists, and musicians with their instruments; and scuba
divers, pilots, athletes in uniform, and, if possible, models in space
gear.
. Resource and sketching trips to art, science, natural science, and
historical museums, university and college art studios, farms,
factories, wharves, airports, observatories, bus and train stations,
bridge and dam sites, national parks, zoos, shopping malls, boat
marinas, air shows, amusement parks, and historical monuments. Be
sure to plan field trips in advance. Visit the sketching site before-
hand, if possible, to check on hazards and permits. Obtain per-
mission from the school principal so that parental approval can be
obtained and travel and other arrangements can be expedited. If
necessary, arrange for parent chaperones.
. Models for Art class drawing projects may include animals, birds
and fish, flowers and plant life, dried autumn seeds, beehives, birds'
nests, insect and butterfly collections, terrariums, pets, rocks and
pebbles, fossils, coral, seaweed and seashells, skeletons of animals,
and assorted still-life material (fruits and vegetables, including
gourds, lanterns, kettles, teapots, vases, old clocks, bottles, fish net,
old lamps, assorted fabrics for drapery, musical instruments, bicycles
and motorcycles, old hats, shoes, and gloves). Cars can be sketched
in school parking lots.
. Artefacts from other cultures and countries, masks, woodcarvings,
costumes, textiles, ceramics, toys, dolls, puppets, kites, armour, fans,
and paper umbrellas.
. Examples of children's art in varied media from worldwide sources.
. Demonstrations of art techniques by teachers and students.
. Introduction of a new art material or tool or a new use for
commonly employed art materials.
121 PST210-G/1

. Planned exhibitions and bulletin-board displays that relate to


the Art project in progress.
. Assorted devices and equipment to help expand the learners'
awareness and visual horizons: microscopes, prisms, kaleidoscopes,
touch-me kinetics, magnifiers, colour machines, liquid light lamps,
telescopes, microscopic projectors, computers, mirrors, and black
light.
(Wachoviak 1985:45 & 47)

Some of these will now be discussed.

16.4.1 Exposing learners to the real object


No other motivational material or visual aid can replace the experience of the actual object,
whether this object is human-made or natural. As recommended in the Interim Syllabus for
Art Education, the teacher should collect a wide variety of objects (natural and human-
made) and provide learners with art experiences based on things immediately observed,
touched and explored. Learners' attention should be directed to similarities and differences
while exploring these objects.
The sensations and experiences arising from the learner's contact with these objects should
become part of the learner, to be expressed and developed in his or her own creative work.
The learner is a natural explorer, but it is up to the Art teacher to guide and provide the
background for a meaningful art experience. Exploration will be meaningless if it is not
planned. These discoveries should not only stimulate the learner intellectually, but
emotionally too.

The teacher must be flexible, realising that different art activities can result since learners are
individuals and every experience and creative act is unique.
The problem regarding the visual portrayal must be stated so that a problem-solving situation
can develop and individual ideas can crystallise and be explored, thus allowing different
approaches to develop, which will eventually be expressed in different creative situations.

16.4.2 Firsthand experiences


This means providing the learners with actual experiences involving live animals, flowers,
plants, people, or going to various places and events. It also refers to opportunities for
learners to observe, question and investigate on-the-spot characteristics of specific things.
Such experiences include going to the zoo; a farm; walking through a field, forest or nature
reserve; visiting a bakery or a factory; and many more. In such activities the teacher must do
more than lead the learner to the object. The teacher must lead the learner along a path of
inquiry to the point where the learner will make discoveries for him- or herself. A way to
enhance this in learners is by asking very direct questions about a certain object. Questioning
of this nature directs the learners' thinking to a specific detail of the object in question.
Through this guided, investigative questioning the learner will become ready to reflect some
of these images in his or her art expression.
122

Reflect

. Can you think of a few more firsthand experiences you would like to
expose your learners to? Remember, they must have didactical as
well as motivational value.

16.4.3 Material experiences


This refers to experimentation, search and investigation as the learner works directly in the art
materials without previous stimulation. If for instance the learner is working with clay, he or
she would be more apt to discover possibilities and ideas by actually experimenting with it
before starting to make a specific object. In this instance the material would be the major
factor in motivating the learner. Such experimentation would and should also be guided by
questions such as:

. What does the clay feel like?


. What is the biggest structure you can build before it tumbles?
. How flexible is clay?

All questions should of course be geared towards the specific grade level. The teacher's
function is to guide the learners and to let them take the reins as soon as they see new
possibilities in the material.

16.4.4 Sensory experiences


Sensory information refers to the manner in which we perceive or `'take in'' outside
information through the senses. Teachers can help learners to increase their intake of
information by increasing their capacity for using their senses. For our purposes it refers to
visual sensitivity, or learning to observe with our eyes; auditive sensitivity, or learning to
listen; tactile sensitivity, or learning how things feel to our touch; and olfactory sensitivity, or
learning about things through our sense of smell.

What this awareness induction amounts to, is that the teacher directs attention to an object
by asking a series of questions about it. Questions can be organised in such a manner that
learners will have to look for answers. In this way your questions will become a guide for
them to make their own discoveries, that is, they will find the answer rather than you having
to tell them.

To enrich the learner perceptually, the teacher should have at his or her disposal audio-visual
resources such as photographic slides, reproductions of artworks, photographs, films, video
and film strips, musical recordings and so forth, as well as artefacts of all kinds.

Teaching aids will enable the teacher to tactfully discourage learners from making use of
visual stereotypes or symbols. Teaching aids also help the learner to use problem-solving
skills and encourage greater awareness.

If the teacher interferes and draws for the learners, they will become unsure of their own
ability and will lose the confidence to be creative themselves. As insecure learners, they will
develop a tendency to copy the teacher's drawings or pictures. This will undoubtedly inhibit
their creativity.
123 PST210-G/1

Remember to refer to the section that deals with perceptual awareness and to the
questionnaires given there. The following information is additional:

. Visual exposure: Learners learn to look for and see detail in their environment. They
should be made aware to look for individual parts of an object and to look for the
elements of art such as colour, line, shape, texture and form.
. Exposure to sound: While vision seems to be the most common method of achieving
motivation, listening can also be of value. The teacher should expose learners to different
sounds. Sounds can be endless in variety.
. Musical sounds are made by voices or instruments such as violins, guitars, drums, full
orchestras, etcetera.
. Sounds in nature such as the snap of a twig, rain on a windowpane, etcetera.
. Human-made sounds such as a garden sprinkler, the crunch of an apple between
someone's teeth, the sound of footsteps on a pavement or on gravel, etcetera.
. Unusual and imaginative sounds such as those which startle us and cause us to
imagine things that do not exist, for instance a scratching or a tearing sound, a whistling,
muffled, vague, or soft and delicate sound.
. Exposure to texture: The object here is to encourage an awareness of differences and
similarities in the feeling of objects to the touch. Such experiences direct the learners'
attention to awareness of different textures and how to display it through their work.
Objects that work well for this purpose are fur, cotton, sandpaper, steel wool, buttons,
pebbles and rope.
. Exposure to smells: Using different kinds of smells, one can teach learners to associate
different experiences with different kinds of smells which can easily be depicted in their
work. Smells can be pleasant, sweet, sour, sharp, flowery, like a farm, smoky and many
more.
. Exposure to tastes: The object of the tasting experience is to give the learner another
source to enrich his or her creative potential. This can be quite and adventure for learners
and there should be no problems as far as volunteering is concerned.

Sensory and emotional experiences are integral parts of all art motivations, as are the skilled
use of materials and skill in making aesthetic judgements about the work created.

16.4.5 Materials (media), tools and techniques


Materials, tools and techniques can become motivational devices in that they arouse the
learners' enthusiasm, making them want to create (assuming, of course, they are given the
opportunity to work with these new materials, techniques and tools). The teacher should,
however, guard against developing and giving lessons that are based purely on a series of
techniques.

In-depth explorations provide learning opportunities for learners to develop skills necessary
to transform ideas, images, or feelings into personal aesthetic art forms.

This exploration involves the following skills:

. selecting tools to convey ideas, images, or feelings


. selecting materials to transform ideas
. manipulating selected tools and materials into a meaningful art form
124

Once the teacher has provided the awareness experiences and used a variety of motivations
as well as provided learners with and in-depth exploration of tools and materials, he or she
can make use of an Evaluation Form to establish the extent to which the learner has mastered
the use of materials and tools.

Measuring learners' use of tools and materials in art


production

CHECK ONE
Child has improved in: little some much
1 skill in handling and controlling tools and
materials and making them do what he or
she wants them to do 8 8 8
2 skill in experimenting with new combinations
of materials 8 8 8
3 use of his or her imagination and finding new
ways of expressing his or her ideas 8 8 8
4 understanding his or her visual perceptions 8 8 8
5 working for a longer time without getting
tired or losing interest in his or her idea 8 8 8
6 developing a more sensitive use of line, value,
texture and shape 8 8 8
7 understanding pictorial use of space or
perspective 8 8 8
8 empathy with others projected in his or
her art 8 8 8
9 projecting own personal feelings in relation
to his or her own experiences with the use
of individualised forms 8 8 8
10 willingness to try new ideas 8 8 8
11 ``sticking to it'' and finishing all assigned work8 8 8
12 understanding and using shading and value
change when working with colour 8 8 8
13 including more detail 8 8 8
14 mixing colours rather than using them as they
come straight from the jar 8 8 8
125 PST210-G/1

15 his or her eye for composition and sharpening


of his or her sense of design and arrangement 8 8 8
16 mixing and trying out new colours, inventing
new textures, and using a variety of shapes for
the same object
8 8 8
``Little'' usually indicates, on the one hand, a need for more ``open-
ended'' assignments to be set by the teacher and, on the other hand,
that the learner needs to develop more detailed visual perception of his
or her immediate environment.
(Linderman & Herberholz 1974:121)

16.4.6 Discussing the work of peers


The work of peers can be shown to the rest of the class and constructively evaluated to
emphasise specific goals and techniques and also to show possible variations in expression.
Seeing the solutions their friends have found often triggers new ideas in learners. The teacher
must be careful not to let this result in copying or in some learners developing feelings of
inadequacy (they could feel that their efforts were less successful than those of other
learners).

16.4.7 Praise and advice


Learners should be made to feel secure by praising those aspects that are commendable in
their work; having said this, the teacher should guard against overtly lavish or insincere
remarks.
If the teacher is asked for guidance, it is advisable not to bombard the learner with
unnecessary information.

16.4.8 Subject matter or topic


If the subject matter or topic is selected from the learner's personal world, this may also be
highly motivational in that he or she will be able to identify with and relate to the topic.

16.4.9 Teacher's attitude


An enthusiastic and positive attitude on the part of the teacher can lead to a positive
response from learners. The enthusiasm of the teacher regarding the content taught will
encourage learners to become involved.
Art teachers should always remain ``learners'' themselves and stay attuned to the latest
technical and creative developments by attending art seminars, workshops and holiday
courses.

16.4.10 Dramatisation
This does not mean that the teacher has to be an actor. Dramatisation is in fact a method
whereby teachers help learners to act out, or dramatise, situations that are educationally
126

meaningful and can stimulate artistic responses. It could be a novel and highly successful
motivational tool.

16.4.11 Visual displays


The visual nature of art makes artistic motivation so much easier. Many learners learn
visually. Much instruction and learning can take place by means of visual display.
Explanatory material as a component of learners' work can be included in the displayed
works. For instance, when a teacher teaches about colour, composition or an art style such
as cubism, the teacher displays material about the concepts, skills, and instructions that
learners have received along with examples of their work. This can later be discussed and
learners can give their opinion as to whether or not outcomes have been achieved. A visual
display can also be part of an introduction to a lesson, by displaying different works of
different artists to present a certain era in the art history time-line. This can motivate learners
to depict works in the same style during a practical lesson.

16.4.12 Discussion
This may seem too much like ``teaching'' and may be the oldest method of motivation, yet it
can be innovative and unique. As a motivational method it is especially enriching if the
teacher divides the class into groups and holds separate, different discussions with each
group. This is also called cooperative learning. Cooperative learning takes place when three
to five mixed-ability groups work together toward a common goal. Discussions between
teacher and class conducted in this way tend to become more intensive and focused on a
shared problem and effective solution or outcome.

16.4.13 Lectures
Although lectures are often associated with higher education, this method is effective for all
age groups. Teachers should control the duration and content of such lectures and make use
of visual material. The lecture method should be used sparingly, unless it includes learner
participation and discussion of some sort. Lectures can be effective as a means of reviewing
what has been learnt or to emphasise a particular point.

16.4.14 Reports
A fifth- or sixth-grade class can be asked to do a library or Internet research assignment, in
which they select an artist's name from a list provided by the teacher and write a two-
paragraph report about the artist. Ask learners to watch and write a report on an art-related
television programme, describing the programme, or their reactions to it, or both.

16.5 Problems that may arise when motivating learners


to become involved in the art/craft activity
One of the most common problems the teacher of Art faces is lagging learner interest.
Sometimes the learner loses interest once the excitement of the new project has waned. This
is especially true if the learner does not set high standards for him- or herself and is satisfied
with a superficial effort, especially when a high level of commitment is required and the
127 PST210-G/1

learner is not involved in his or her project, OR if the learner does not identify with the
subject matter or topic. Sometimes, learners lose interest simply because they are confused
and do not know what is expected of them and where to start. In almost all Art classes there
are learners who find it difficult to persevere with a project.

A possible solution is to set specific understandable criteria and goals (for achievement,
technique, use of format, composition, art concepts Ð eg the use of cool colours or a repeat
of a pattern, etc) and to write these criteria on the chalk board as a reference. Learners will
now have to check their own work to see if it complies with the set criteria and will therefore
not rush through their work. This can also be of help in providing learners with guidance.

In addition, work in progress can be shown to the class, accompanied by appropriate


constructive criticism, to emphasise the goals of a particular technique. A suggestion made
to one learner in this way may trigger new and fresh ideas in others in the class who may
have thought that they were finished or have reached a dead end in their creative thinking.

16.6 Aspects to consider when motivating the senior


primary learner (Grades 4 to 7, approximately 9
to 13 years old)
Motivation should be aimed at giving the individual the opportunity to develop his or her
own means of expression. One way to capitalise on the interest of the learner is to extend the
individual's frame of reference by widening the choice of activities and kinds of topics.

16.7 Types of art experiences


The art experiences selected must give the learner the opportunity to express his or her
growing awareness of the self and his or her role in the community. The art experiences must
be of such a nature that they stress the newly-discovered social independence of this group
(approximately 9 to 13 years old) and equip the learner with self-esteem and socialising
skills.

The different types of art experiences could be ones

. selected by the teacher


. resulting from personal research
. resulting from excursions and field trips
. resulting from contact with artists

The approach when creating a work of art could be subjective or objective, for example:

The subjective approach may give the learner the opportunity to satisfy a need for
identification. Topics like ``Helping flood victims'' and ``Cleaning up after the storm'' may be
relevant to the learner and evoke a personal and subjective response.

The objective approach may make use of group work on a community project, for
example designing and painting a mural.
128

16.8 Subject matter or topic


The choice of the activity should be based on the particular characteristics of the learner's
developmental stage. Cooperation can be stimulated through the learner's identification with
the forces of social preservation (eg the responsibility of a community leader, heroes, etc).
A subject matter that explores the possibility of creating illusions of space by means of
overlapping could be selected (eg looking out of a window, window shopping, school
assembly, soccer and other games).

``People and their environment'' is a good point of departure when choosing the subject
matter and is suitable for cross-curricular studies.

16.9 Art materials and procedures


Art materials may also be used to motivate learners, since learners are interested in the nature
of materials and different procedures. The learner must understand the purpose of the
project. Craft activities are especially valuable Ð all learners enjoy making tangible objects.

The materials selected must not inhibit the learner's creativity and the teacher must guard
against introducing ``cute'' and ``pretty-pretty'' programmes. Clay work, in which concepts
such as three-dimensionality and texture can develop, is very suitable at this developmental
stage (the 9- to 13-years age group). Three-dimensional concepts can be extended to
construction work.
Teachers should stimulate a greater sensitivity to ordinary materials such as paper, wire and
cardboard and emphasise the possibilities of the material rather than the end product in order
to encourage creative behaviour and exploration. Teachers should avoid noncreative projects
on the commercial market such as colour-in-by-number or mosaic kits, etcetera. The learner
should not be denied the excitement of designing and creating his or her own mosaic (for
example).

Learners in the Senior Primary phase are generally concerned with details and like to use a
fine brush, pen, etcetera in order to create fine detail. Some learners prefer graphic work
because of the fine detail that can be achieved.

Although learners can differentiate between colours, they do not necessarily investigate and
experiment with colour. It is up to the teacher to encourage this age group to mix their own
colours, tints and shades, and so investigate and experience different colour concepts.
Textile design and textile painting are exciting projects for learning more about colour.

16.10 Strategic timing


Strategic timing is of the utmost importance for successful motivation. The teacher must be
able to sense when young learners have reached the point of fatigue and need more, other or
richer incentives to make sure that they carry on with the task at hand and make progress.
The beginning of the period is actually the best time to introduce new motivations, materials,
and techniques because this is when the learners' attention is still fresh and they are most
receptive.

The teacher learns through experience to gauge the listening alertness and interest span of
129 PST210-G/1

the learners and to plan the entire strategic sequence and motivation accordingly. This means
that discussion, demonstration, studio and evaluation must be planned purposefully around
the time best suited to learners' receptiveness.

Activities
. Describe any situation you have experienced where learners did not
like Art. Can you give any explanation of why these learners disliked
Art? Can you suggest any solutions and explain how you would go
about altering the learners' attitudes and making them more
enthusiastic about Art?
. Observe some Art lessons given by inspirational Art teachers. Pay
special attention to
Ð the motivational devices used
Ð the manner in which themes were defined
Ð the way in which goals were established and set out so that all
learners understood them
Ð the problems that arose and the solutions that were found or
presented

. Describe how you would motivate a class for a lesson in increased


sensitivity to colour. Use the theme ``Autumn colours in nature''.

Suggested readings

. Simpson, W, Delaney, JM, and Caroll, KL. 1997. Creating meaning


through art: teacher as choice maker. (Hurwitz & Day 2001:316).
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

World-Wide Web resources:


Learn more about motivational aspects on the World-Wide Web, if
you have access to it.

. Classroom connect.
<http//www.connectedteacher.com/home.asp>

This site gives abundant professional education material for


classroom teachers, with many more Weblinks.
130

Section 17
Teaching and learning aids
Learning outcomes
After studying this section and doing the activities, you should be able
to
. explain the importance of teaching and learning aids in Art teaching
. describe the different teaching aids that can be used to motivate
learners
. think of some ways to use teaching aids in Art teaching and state
which teaching ``aids'' are to be avoided

17.1 Introduction
17.1.1 Teaching aids
These can be described as structured objects used by the teacher to help the learner interpret
reality. The actual object is always far better than an aid which represents the reality (eg
seeing the real landscape or real object is always better than seeing it on slides or film).

17.1.2 Learning aids


These can be described as those objects used by the learner to understand and interpret
reality.

17.2 Criteria for selecting a teaching aid


The following must be considered:
. the learners and their level of development
. objectives to be achieved
. the relevance of the teaching aid Ð does it fit in with the learners' age group and frame of
reference?
. the significance of the aid Ð is it significant for the development of the learner?
. the impact the aid will have on raising the learning level
. the financial cost of making or purchasing the aid
. the time factor involved in making or obtaining the aid
. further uses for, and storage of, the aid
. evaluation of the effectiveness of the aid in a learning situation
131 PST210-G/1

17.3 Choice of teaching aids


The learning outcome (as planned by the teacher) and the type of practical activity will
determine the choice of the teaching aid.

Activity
. Consider the different teaching aids that you are aware of. Then

Ð make a list of these teaching aids and note how you would use
each particular one in a practical class situation
Ð find out where and how these aids can be obtained
Ð state where and how these aids can be stored
Study unit 5

Lesson planning and


assessment
134

Section 18
Lesson planning
Learning outcomes
After studying this section and doing the activities, you should be able
to
. explain how to plan an Art and Crafts lesson
. write down the outcomes of an Art lesson
. use a checklist to help you improve your planning and actual
teaching of Art and Crafts

18.1 Introduction
Careful planning of the practical lesson will ensure success and result in meaningful learning
outcomes.

The following questions need to be considered here:

. What do I want the learners to learn through the art/craft activity?


. What do I want the outcome to be after a learner has participated in the lesson activity?
. How am I going to teach the lesson to the learners to ensure the desired outcome?
. What teaching method, procedure, motivational material, choice of activity, etcetera am I
going to use to ensure that the learning outcomes will be reached?

18.2 Concepts with regard to lesson planning


18.2.1 The Learning Outcomes
This is what one wants the learner to achieve over a period of time (ie the development of
perceptual, aesthetic, creative and skill abilities).

All expected learning outcomes must be seen in these terms and not in the art activity as
such, or in the end-product of learners. This means that they will have to be able to present
the teacher with specfic skills, knowledge, attitudes and values.

18.2.2 The Assessment Standards


Assessment Standards are at the heart of the assessment process in every grade and describe
the level at and ways in which learners should demonstrate their achievement of the Learning
135 PST210-G/1

Outcomes, that is, what they have learned since becoming involved in the Art activity in an
allotted time period. The question to ask is, ``What has changed in the learner's behaviour''?

In Art Education the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains as defined by Bloom's
taxonomy must be taken into consideration.

. The cognitive domain


In the development of perceptual awareness, the learner learns, understands, can apply his or
her knowledge to a new situation when creating a work of art, can analyse the problem
confronting him or her and synthesise it into a personal solution Ð these are all aspects of
the cognitive domain.

. The affective domain


Learners in Art Education are open to new situations, respond to them by means of their
artwork, and are able to evaluate and appreciate works of art, whether their own or that of
others. Creating art involves constant organisation, as well as the expression of a personal
viewpoint. All of these aspects belong to the affective domain.

. The psychomotor domain


Through the art activity the learner develops certain physical abilities while mastering the
relevant skills (eg fine motor control, eye-hand coordination, etc). The learner develops his
or her perceptual abilities in Art Education and communicates nonverbally through artwork.
All these aspects fall into the psychomotor domain.

18.3 Planning the Art lesson


Keep the following in mind when planning an Art activity lesson and use it as a checklist:
. Will the learner develop perceptually?
. Will the learner's creative ability be developed?
. Is there an opportunity for the learner to develop aesthetic awareness?
. Will there be a development of skill?
. Will the time allocated to the project be ample?

In planning and stating your learning outcomes, be realistic and clear in your own mind as to
exactly what you want the learner to experience through the activity. Use simple words. Look
at, study, understand and be guided by the Art Education syllabus.

18.4 Lesson planning


18.4.1 The lesson introduction
The introduction to the lesson is very important, because it is during this period that a
suitable milieu for learning is created, thereby arousing learners' enthusiasm and
encouraging them to participate.
136

The specific aspect of the expected learning must be brought to the attention of the learner.
The milieu for learning can be created by the positive attitude and enthusiasm of the teacher
as well as the classroom atmosphere.

If the motivation used in the introduction of the lesson is of a perceptual nature, the learners
should be confronted with the real object or with high-quality visual aids. The specific
concept or expected learning must be discussed in the introduction. Well-structured
questions, giving the learners a secure feeling of knowledge already gained, and instilling in
them a sense of expectancy, are excellent ways of creating an atmosphere conducive to
learning. Questions on motivational material or on actual confrontation with an object, or a
demonstration of a technique or procedure, are all excellent ways of introducing the lesson.

Learners are bored by introductory phrases such as ``What did we do last week? This week
we are going to do a, b or c''.

Strong motivation and stimulation of the learners' curiosity will result in learners' total
involvement.

18.4.2 Development of the lesson


The lesson should develop logically from the introduction. Create a problem situation and, by
means of a practical activity, confront the learners with the visual problem to be solved. To
become creative, to develop creative thinking skills, learners must be confronted with a
problem concerning the actual learning content.
Here teaching becomes a two-way process Ð a discussion situation where the teacher
guides with well-directed questions, and a dialogue involving the learner. This is an
exploration, demanding involvement on the part of the learner so that there will be
development of the learner's imagination, initiative, resourcefulness, spontaneity and self-
confidence. The teacher should be flexible in his or her approach and be willing to accept
different solutions to one problem.

The lesson content must now be actualised, in other words, the learner now has to do the
practical activity. The practical activity in itself must give evidence of the learning outcome,
that is, what the learner has learned in the particular lesson.

18.4.3 Lesson conclusion and consolidation


In the consolidation one needs to reconfirm the concepts taught and developed in the
practical activity. This is usually done by means of a display of the results and a class
discussion, where learners are given the opportunity to discuss and evaluate each other's
practical work in a positive manner, guided by skilful questioning by the teacher.

18.5 Different factors that may have an influence on


the success of the lesson
In the case of each of the factors listed below, the answers you give to the questions under
the respective headings may influence the success of the lesson.
137 PST210-G/1

18.5.1 Lesson planning


. Do I know exactly what I want the learners to achieve in this lesson?
. Have I chosen the right aids for this specific lesson? Have I integrated them successfully
in my lesson?
. What teaching skills and methods have I implemented? Will they be successful?

18.5.2 The lesson itself


In the presentation of my lesson content:
. Have I taken the ability of the learners into consideration?
. Do they understand the language I use? For example, the words I use in my motivation or
explanation should differ depending on whether I am talking to younger or older learners.
. Have I taken the learners' previous knowledge into consideration?
. Do I need to reinforce certain concepts? Do I need to demonstrate the process again?
. Does the new lesson content follow on previous lesson content? Is there continuity? Is
there development and growth? Is there a logical sequence of steps in my lesson? Am I
able to improvise if circumstances disrupt this sequence?
. Do I know the lesson content? Am I familiar with the techniques and procedures? Are my
facts correct? Do I reinforce concepts, making sure that the learners know what to do?
. Do I have all the required materials and tools?

18.5.3 My teaching style


. How did I improve the learners' perceptual awareness?
. Is the atmosphere in my classroom conducive to learning?
. Did my lesson presentation guide the learners in creative problem solving?
. Did I guide the learners through exploration and experimentation to their own personal
solutions?
. Was the activity well planned?
. Were the questions structured in such a way that they clarified the problem to the
learners or did they result in even more confusion?
. Did I involve all the learners in my presentation Ð or do I teach only to a select few?
. Did I take the concept of differentiation into consideration when I asked questions?
. How well did I handle the organisation of the classroom (ie the handing out and
collecting of materials and apparatus) Ð was this successful? Can I improve on this?
. How did I handle my aids? Were the aids integrated into my lesson? Did I control the
activity of the learners?
. How and where do I display or store the completed works?
. How do I handle the uncompleted work?

18.5.4 Myself as a teacher


. What is my attitude towards the class? Am I enthusiastic, considerate, supportive? Am I
fair in my evaluation and handling of the learners? Am I firm?
138

. Looking at communication, how proficient am I in language usage and pronunciation?


How is my voice projection (can all learners hear me)? Is there irritation in the tone of my
voice?
. My personality Ð am I patient, friendly, reasonable? Do I respect my pupils? Do I have
self-control? Do I have a sense of humour?
. Do I enforce the correct type of discipline?

18.5.5 Assessment
. Did the learners reach the planned outcome and show the desired development and
growth?
. What criteria did I use in assessing the above?

18.5.6 Classroom organisation


. How efficiently did I plan and handle the cleaning up of the classroom and the control of
materials, books, apparatus, etcetera?
. Time control Ð did I plan the activity to fit the time allocated? Did I plan time for cleaning
up and final control? Was there time to greet the learners and let them leave in an orderly
fashion for the next class?
. Did learners take responsibility for the cleaning and storing of art materials, apparatus,
tools and artworks?

18.6 Safety measures in the Art classroom


The safety of learners is the teacher's responsibility. In an Art-and-Craft class, learners work
with materials and tools that may be hazardous. Make sure that your learners work in safe
conditions (eg good ventilation when working with volatile substances such as lacquer
thinners). It is the responsibility of the teacher to explain what procedures to follow and
what safety rules must be obeyed when working with hazardous tools and materials.
Here is a safety checklist for the Art classroom:

. Do you have access to a fire extinguisher and do you know how to use it?
. Do you have access to a first-aid kit and do you know how to use it?
. Are you storing inflammable substances properly?
. Do you supervise and give guidance in the handling of sharp tools (eg linocutters) to
prevent accidents?
139 PST210-G/1

Activity
. A suggested outline for a lesson follows. Use it in planning
and teaching an Art lesson. After you have taught a lesson
answer the following questions:
Ð Did this lesson planner help you keep track of your own goals
with the lesson?
Ð Were you able to assess the learning outcomes that you set out to
achieve?
Ð Were there things that you would approach differently in future
and did you make a note of these in the space provided under
``Comments for future use''?
SUGGESTED LESSON SUMMARY FOR PREPARATION PURPOSES

Phase organiser Programme organiser Lesson planning


........................................................... ...........................................................

Learning outcomes Assessment standards: Cross-curricular integration (where


applicable):

Knowledge: ................................................... Asssessment methods, tools, materials, Lesson chronology:


techniques
Skills: ............................................................. Introduction:

Attitude: ........................................................ Development:

Values: ........................................................... Conclusion:


140

Time allocated: Class organisation: Teaching aids to be used:

Resources used: Comments about learners: General comments for future reference:
141 PST210-G/1

Section 19
Learner assessment
Learning outcomes
After studying this section and doing the activities, you should be able
to
. state the technical terms used in assessment
. explain the value of assessment in terms of its ability to improve both
learning and teaching
. describe the different methods that can be used in assessing
children's artworks

19.1 Introduction
The assessment framework for the Revised National Curriculum is based on outcomes-
based education and therefore assessment should provide evidence of learner achievement.
To ensure that learners effectively apply the knowledge and skills acquired, assessment
should help them to make judgements about their own work/performance and to set goals
for further progress and learning.

Assessment must be seen as an integral part of teaching and learning. Without assessment,
learners and teachers will be unable to discover their abilities and will fail to appreciate that
they have succeeded in mastering certain skills and knowledge. Assessment is aimed at
providing information about the learners' capabilities and determining the level that they
have reached. It is also worth pointing out that McCarthy (1978:83) states that assessment
can encourage learning. Nor is assessment simply a focus on the learner; assessment also
examines the effectiveness of the teaching process. Finally, assessment measures what the
learner has achieved in terms of perceptual awareness, aesthetic growth and creative daring.

There are various methods of assessment, the appropriate one in each instance depending on
what needs to be assessed.

Given that there is no right or wrong in the production of art, assessing artwork is a very
difficult procedure. In Art Education, various methods of assessment are necessary, and a
well-planned assessment programme will reflect this.

19.2 How are Assessment Standards applied?


The principle on which outcomes-based teaching operates is that the teacher sets out very
clearly at the beginning of the lesson what the learners are expected to achieve. The teacher's
task is to teach in order to help learners satisfy the requirements of the Assessment
142

Standards. The learners' task is to learn what the Assessment Standards expect. It must thus
be possible to assess when a learner has achieved what is required in each grade.

19.3 Purpose of assessment


The main purpose of assessment is to help learners reach their full potential. Assessment
should be
. transparent and clearly focused
. integrated with teaching and learning
. based on predetermined criteria or standards
. varied in terms of methods and contexts
. valid, reliable, fair, learner paced, and flexible enough for expanded opportunities

Therefore the main purpose of assessing learners should be to enhance individual growth
and development, to monitor the progress of learners and to facilitate their learning.

19.4 Other appilications of assessment


19.4.1 Baseline assessment of prior learning
This kind of assessment usually takes place at the beginning of a grade or phase to establish
what learners already know. Such assessment assists teachers in the planning of learning
programmes and learning activities.

19.4.2 Evaluation
Eisner (1972:20) defines evaluation as follows: ``Evaluation can be conceived as a process
through which value judgements are made about educationally relevant phenomena''.

19.4.3 Testing
This is a process used to obtain information for forming judgements about one or more types
of human behaviour and may be seen as a device that focuses on one aspect of the learners'
abilities. Testing is but one way of obtaining data for evaluation and assessment.

19.4.4 Grading
Grading is the process of assigning a symbol representing some judgement of quality relative
to some criteria, thereby indicating the quality of a learner's work.

19.4.5 Teacher observation


This is another way of obtaining information, and is usually a value judgement.
Value judgements are inherent in the evaluation process, as they are appraisals of worth,
importance or significance.
143 PST210-G/1

19.4.6 Formative assessment


This type of assessment monitors and supports the process of learning and teaching and is
used to inform learners and teachers about learners' progress so as to improve learning.
Constructive feedback is given to enable learners to grow.

19.4.7 Summative evaluation


Summative evaluation usually takes place at the end of a learning period, the aim being to
assess what has been achieved. This gives an overall picture of the learners' progress at a
given time.

19.5 Context of assessment


Some suggestions for assessment criteria are given below.

19.5.1 Self-assessment
Here the aim is to judge the extent of growth compared with previous work. Individual
learners assess their work by comparing it with their previous achievements.

19.5.2 Assessment by comparing learner performances with those of


classmates
Learners are evaluated by comparing their performance with that of their classmates.

19.5.3 Norm-referenced assessment


This entails measuring the learner's performance against what is considered to be the norm
for his or her age group (Eisner 1972:209±211).

Qualitative questions and discussions by and with learners should be encouraged, for
example: How was this colour achieved? How did you create that texture?

19.5.4 Criterion-referenced assessment


This can be described as a method of assessment where the learner's performance is
measured against specific criteria previously stipulated.

19.6 The role of assessment or evaluation as part of the


Art-learning Programme
Assessment must take place on a continuous basis, informally and formally, by the learner
and the teacher. The aim of assessment in Art Education should be to determine the creative
development of the learner and the effectiveness of the teaching programme.
144

Any method of assessment should allow for evaluation of mental awareness as well as
cognitive and affective skills.

No formal examinations or tests are recommended.

Activity

. Consult the Curriculum 2005 Assessment Guidelines: Arts and


Culture: Intermediary and Senior Phase to find out
Ð what its recommendations are regarding the evaluation of
learners' artwork
Ð what continuous assessment is according to this document

19.6.1 Evaluating creative growth


The problem here is: How should we evaluate learners' creative development? Lowenfeld
states that it is a mistake to evaluate a learner's work on the basis of what the end product
looks like. The learner's artworks ``cannot be measured by taste or standards of beauty that
are important to the adult'' (Lowenfeld 1975:90). In Art Education, the final product is
subordinated to the creative process, and it is the elements of thought, feeling and
perceiving, and reaction to the environment that are important. Art Education is primarily
concerned with the effects that the process has on the individual.

``Fine arts'', in contrast, does focus on the art product itself. Creative work must be
understood as the work of the individual learner. Only then can one appreciate the
significance of creative work by understanding the learners themselves and seeing their
creations as an intrinsic part of their lives. An emotional event may have great significance for
the learner, bringing an important resolution to his or her life, while not necessarily being
beautiful in the eyes of the adult. The learner must be regarded as an individual and the
learner's interests may bear little relationship to ``beauty''. That does not imply that learners'
art products are not beautiful. Young learners, especially, are very direct, and never hide their
feelings when they communicate through their art. The value of the art experience lies in the
creative process. To evaluate the work without understanding what the intention of the
learner is, to analyse it psychologically without comparing it with other works done by the
learner, or to assess it only on the basis of competence, is a worthless exercise. Artwork must
be seen as part of the learner's creative and intellectual growth.

One should rather assess yourself as a teacher because it is the teacher that has to
motivate the learner or it is the teacher who has failed in involving learners in the art
activities.
(Lowenfeld 1975:24)

The problem with giving marks is that it focuses attention on the end product, especially as
far as the learner is concerned, and may result in the learner feeling a failure. The teacher
could give marks based entirely on what the teacher likes or dislikes Ð or even on the
neatness of work. The learner who is bold tends to be penalised.

Over time, each child should be observed and assessed by the teacher as to evidence of
individual progress and growth in the respective areas. Use this checklist as an aid to
measure the individual progress of learners:
145 PST210-G/1

Checklist for assessing process as well as product


Does the child

1 show evidence of being visually aware of and sensitive to


differences and similarities in colour, texture, shape, line and form?
2 use art terminology to describe works of art and natural objects?
3 enjoy experimenting and trying different approaches with each art
material?
4 create with ease and fluency?
5 change symbols and images to suit the demands of the problem,
material or situation?
6 persevere with increasing duration?
7 have unique and imaginative ideas?
8 show resourcefulness in working with a combination of materials?
9 display emotional qualities and feelings in his or her work?
10 work independently without showing the need to imitate the work
of other children?
11 show self-confidence and eagerness in his or her art production?
12 have the ability to handle a number of tools and materials with
increasing competence?
13 use a variety of subject matter?
14 produce works that show a unity of compositional elements and
incorporate a variety of forms?
15 have the ability to cooperate in a group art task?
16 work without bothering other children?
17 enjoy performing art tasks and place value on them?
18 frequently choose to work with art materials in a free-choice
situation or outside the school?
19 show signs of being significantly retarded or advanced in his or her
art?
20 show respect for art materials and cooperate at cleanup time?

(Herberholz 1974:33)

19.6.2 Assessing your own Art Programme


The following are suggestions for assessing your own Art Programme, and should not be
regarded as prescriptive.
. Always regard art production in terms of the learner's individuality and his or her
developmental stage.
. Consider the learner's art production in terms of something that develops over a period of
time. In other words, ask yourself: To what extent has the learner grown, developed, and
become sensitive intellectually and creatively, and in his or her aesthetic awareness and
perceptual ability?
. Other questions that you can ask yourself are:
Ð To what extent did the learner use his or her imagination after being stimulated
perceptually, intellectually, emotionally?
146

Ð How creatively (see concepts on creativity) does the learner react when faced with a
problem-solving situation? Or does the learner constantly depend on the production
of stereotypes or a mechanised way of doing art?
Ð Is the learner's artwork becoming more expressive, better revealing certain emotional
experiences? In other words, has there been an improvement in the learner's
expressive qualities over a period of time?
Ð Has there been, over a period of time, a development of skill? Does the learner need to
master a skill? Does the learner handle his or her art material with confidence?
Ð Does the learner experiment with new skills and with new media? How imaginatively
does the learner use media?
Ð Is the picture created by the learner filled with information about the creator and his
or her world?

Learners have an inherent ability to arrange the different elements of art into a pleasing totality.
It is only as the learner grows older that the formal qualities of an artwork, namely composition,
use of colour, line, texture, shape, space and so forth can be used as evaluation criteria.
Always keep the outcome of a specific lesson in mind when evaluating the art products of
the learner. It is also a very useful self-assessment exercise to see whether you have
succeeded in your objectives. Always be honest and true to yourself and be willing to admit
that a lesson was not successful. Note where you can improve.
Learners' evaluation of their own and others' work encourages them to discriminate. In
assessing the work of their peers, the following criteria may be used:
. What medium has been used?
. What effect does this have on the work?
. What do you see or feel?
. How is this artwork different from others you have seen?

19.7 Art criticism as a type of evaluation of artworks


It must be remembered that there is a difference between aesthetic preference and
aesthetic judgement. One of the aims of Art Education is to help learners develop their
sensibilities and understanding in order to experience visual form on an aesthetic plane.
Visual analysis has to be done because it helps learners to understand the type of verbal
statements that can be made about art. These statements about visual form should go
beyond the descriptive and should be interpretive statements. In your discussions with
learners, use words that carry associative or poetic meaning.

Examples of relevant questions in this regard are: Does the work tell you when the artist
lived? How does it convey this information? Does the artist suggest new ways of seeing
something in the environment?

19.8 Various types of statement within the interpretive


realm
. a statement arising from a personal experience that affects the emotions aroused by the
work
147 PST210-G/1

. formal statements describing the relationship among the visual forms of the total work
. statements about material especially as it interacts with form and subject matter

Thematic statements deal with an idea (or ideas) in a particular work, for example Picasso's
``Guernica'' makes statements about the inhumanity of war.

Contextual aspects of critical evaluation impart knowledge based on an understanding of the


context in which the work has developed and may include historical information. This
includes the ability to place a work in its context with regard to place and time, to place it in
relation to other works, and to take into account the character and the intent of the artist who
created it.

Art is more than a mirror Ð it also provides visions for humanity to aspire to.

19.9 Assessing learners' artworks


During the first school years, as the learner becomes more critical, assessment can take place
in the form of discussions, either in groups or individually, where the learner will be able to
communicate verbally about his or her work. This is also the ideal situation for bringing the
art elements and art terminology, such as line, contrast, colour and shape, to the learner's
attention. There should be no comparison in the sense that one learner's work is put forward
as being ``better'' than another's. Instead, the approach should be one of direct questioning
about actual artworks. This will discourage copying.

Methods of assessment

Assessment may be done by taking into consideration the following:


. ingenuity and imaginativeness
. imaginative use of material
. sensitive observation of things and events
. enriching of drawings and paintings by means of textural qualities and details
. selection and expressive use of colour
. the manner in which the learner communicates feeling through his or her work

These are but a few approaches to positive critique and evaluation of the learner's work that
will aid and guide the learner towards a better understanding of his or her own development
and the areas he or she needs to focus on.
148

Bibliography
Abbs, P. 1987. Living powers. London: Falmer Press.

Botha-Ebbers, E. 1993. Visual art and technology. Faerie Glen: Edukit.


Clement, R. 1986. The art teacher's handbook. London: Hutchinson.

Collier, G. 1972. Form, space and vision. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Crosby, S. 1959. Helen Gardner's art through the ages. 4th edition. London: Bell.

De la Croix, H & Tansey, R (eds). 1970. Gardner's art through the ages. San Diego, CA:
Harcourt, Brace & World.

Durand, JC & Nel, JM. 1990. Subject didactics: art (HED): Only study guide for MART00±G.
Pretoria: University of South Africa.
Durand, JC & Nel, JM. 1990. Subject didactics: art practical (HED): Only study guide for
MPRART±9. Pretoria: University of South Africa.
Durand, JC & Nel, JM. 1993. Subject didactics: art (practical) HED.

Edwards, B. 1982. Drawing on the right side of the brain. London: Souvenir Press.
Eisner, EM. 1972. Educating artistic vision. New York: Macmillan.

Feldman, EB. 1970. Becoming human through art. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Fisher, EF. 1978. Aesthetic Awareness & the Child. Illinois: FE Peacock Publishers.
Funda Centre. 1989. Khula Udweba: a handbook about teaching art to children. Soweto:
African Institute of Art.
Funk and Wagnall's Standard Dictionary of the English language. 1963. New York: Funk &
Wagnalls Company.
Gaitskell, CD & Hurwitz, A. 1970. Children and their arts: methods for the elementary school.
2nd edition. New York: Harcourt Brace & World.
Gill, LA. 1990. The arts Ð do we need them? London: Franklin Watts.

Harmsen, F. 1990. Looking at South African Art. Pretoria: Van Schaik.

Henry, FL & Luckenbach-Sawyers, P. 1984. Revisioning: Secondary art education. Boston,


MA: American Press.

Herberholz, B. 1974. Early childhood art. Duboque, LA: Brown.


Hobbs, JA. 1991. Art in context. London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Hurwitz, AI & Day, M. 2001. Children and their art: methods for the elementary school.
Belmont CA: Thomson.

Hurwitz, A & Madeja, SS. 1977. The joyous vision. New York: Prentice-Hall.
149 PST210-G/1

Kleinbauer, WE. 1989. Modern perspectives in Western art history. Canada: Medieval
Academy of America.

Leuschner, FW. 1975. Die Beeldende Kunste in die opvoeding. Pretoria: JL v Schaik. Bpk.

Linderman, EL & Herberholz, DW. 1974. Developing artistic and perceptual awareness. 3rd
edition. Duboque, LA: Brown.

Linderman, E & Linderman, MM. 1977. Arts and crafts for the classroom. New York:
Macmillan.

Linderman, MM. 1974. Art in the elementary school. Duboque, LA: Brown.
Lowenfeld, V & Brittain, ML. 1987. Creative and mental growth. 6th edition. New York:
Macmillan.
MacGregor, RN. 1977. Art plus. Toronto: McGraw-Hill.

McCarthy, MJ. 1978. Introducing art history: a guide for Art teachers. Ontonio: Institute for
Studies in Education.
National Department of Education. 1996. Lifelong learning through a National Qualification
Framework: report by the Ministerial Committee for the development work on the NQF.
Pretoria.

Osborne, H (ed). 1986. Oxford companion to art. Oxford: University Printing House.
Pointon, M. 1986. History of art: a student's handbook. London: Allen & Univers.

Read, H. 1955. The meaning of art. 3rd edition. London: Faber.


RDP. 1994. The Reconstruction and Development Programme. Johannesburg: ANC.

Revised National Curriculum Statement Grades R±9 (Schools) POLICY: Arts and Culture
2002.
Rowland, K. 1976. Visual education and beyond. London: Ginn.

Rowswell, G. 1987 Teaching Art in primary schools. London: Bell & Hyman.
South Africa (Republic of). Department of Education and Training. 1995. White paper on
Education and Training. Cape Town.
Stake, R (ed). 1975. Evaluating the arts in education: a responsive approach. Columbus,
Ohio: Merrill.
Stenhouse, L. 1987. An introduction to curriculum research and development. London:
Heineman.
Tritten, G. 1971. Teaching color and form. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Wachowiak, F. 1977. Emphasis art: a qualitative program for the elementary school. 4th
edition. New York: Harper & Row.
Wachowiak, F. 1985. Emphasis art: a qualitative program for the elementary school. 4th
edition. New York: Harper & Row.
Wooff, T. 1976. Developments in art teaching. Londen: Open Book.