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Ariel Bryan

Mrs. Stanford

ENG 231- Annotated Bibliography

20 December 2017

Annotated Bibliography

Ali, N., & Nagar, R. (2013). To study the effectiveness of occupational therapy intervention in

the management of fear of public speaking in school going children aged between

12-17 years. ​Indian Journal Of Occupational Therapy​, ​45​(3), 21-25.

Throughout the article titled “To study the effectiveness of occupational therapy intervention in

the management of fear of public speaking in school going children aged between 12-17 years”

by Nazia Ali and Ruchi Nagar, a test was created to show the difference between people of all

ages that had anxiety about the idea of public speaking. A study was shown that, surprisingly, as

high school students graduate and become adults, their fear of public speaking becomes worse.

In this study, people of all ages were used to see if they could get over, or at least somewhat help

their public speaking anxiety. Each person was given ten one hour sessions of relaxation in the

office, along with exercises at home. After this, they were given five forty five minute sessions

of Desensitization. 15 minutes were used for relation training, 10 minutes focused on creating an

anxiety hierarchy, and the last 20 minutes were used for visualized scenes to create a relaxing

environment for the patient.

Ayres, J., Hopf, T., & Peterson, E. (2000). A Test of Communication-Orientation Motivation

(COM) Therapy. ​Communication Reports​, ​13​(1), 35.


In the article titled “A Test of Communication-Orientation Motivation (COM) Therapy” by John

Ayers, TIm Hopf, and Elizabeth Peterson, readers are shown that the way people think about

public speaking affects how they speak publicly. If they are in a negative mindset, it generates

public speaking apprehension. This article focused on two main types of oriented mindsets- a

performance oriented perspective, and a communicative oriented perspective. If someone were to

have a performance based perspective over a communicative oriented perspective, they would

focus on how someone likes the presentation aspect of their performance, while if someone were

to have a communicatie oriented mindset, they would keep going and focus on their facts and

their information rather than looking to the audience for an evaluation of their performance.

Behnke, R. R., & Sawyer, C. R. (2004). Public speaking anxiety as a function of sensitization

and habituation processes. ​Communication Education​, ​53​(2), 164-173.

doi:10.10/03634520410001682429

Throughout the article titled “Public speaking anxiety as a function of sensitization and

habituation processes” by R. R.Behnke and C. R. Sawyer, people are shown factors of when

college students are worried in their speech, for example, beginning of a speech, during the

first minute of the speech presentation, and during the last minute of the speech presentation. A

recent study shows that if certain things are kept in mind, such as habituation(to do something

so much that the harsh emotional reaction goes away), and sensitization(doing something so

many times until someone gains more experience, therefore becoming better at it.)
Bryan, Ariel N, and Skylar Dent. “Interview with Speech and Debate Competitor Skylar Dent.”

2017.

Throughout the interview titled “Interview with Speech and Debate Competitor Skylar Dent.” ,

the interviewee asks Dent about how Speech and Debate has changed her and how it can change

others as well. Dent brings up important factors, such as how speech and debate cretes better

public speakers, better work ethic, and becoming more confident in yourself as well as your

public speaking. It persuades people to join Speech and Debate because of the important and

vital benefits it has for everyday life.

Kahl, D. H. (2014). High School Public Speaking Curriculum: Assessment Through Student

Voice. ​Qualitative Research Reports In Communication​, ​15​(1), 51-58.

doi:10.1080/17459435.2014.955592

In the article titled “High School Public Speaking Curriculum: Assessment Through Student

Voice” by H. D. Kahl, readers are shown what students have a hard time doing when they have

social anxiety and public speaking anxiety. The main things that are stated throughout the article

that students deal with when having public speaking issues such as this are a lack of effective

instruction in speech development, a lack of effective instruction in speech delivery, and a lack

of effective assessment of speech delivery.

Liao, H. (2014). Examining the Role of Collaborative Learning in a Public Speaking Course.

College Teaching​, ​62​(2), 47-54. doi:10.1080/87567555.2013.855891


In the article titled “Examining the Role of Collaborative Learning in a Public Speaking Course”

by H. Liao, readers are given lists to show the differentiation between an experienced public

speaker and a less experienced speaker. Through the article, the experienced public speaker

mainly shows that they are confident in their work and in their performance of their speech,

while the other is not good with their flow, transitions, and how they stand and give their speech

to a crowd. Through this, readers are able to put themselves into the shoes of the person giving a

speech and use this list to show if they feel confident in their speech and how they present it.