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R.k.kalaiselvan1* V.Jayaraj2*
CK College of Engineering & Technology Cuddalore-607003.
Kalai.boom@gmail.com , jayarajgreentech@gmail.com

ABSTRACT observed for the blend. researchers to explore liquid, gaseous and even
In the Project also consisted of possible alternative energy solid fuels. Designed on
present work we have the study of Indian sources. In the context the type of fuel to be used
tried to make an insight to scenario (fuel research on energy from the engine has to be
the potential use of consumption) and the nuclear , wind, tidal designed accordingly.
Jatropha oil as an alternate availability waste lands in and biological origins Nevertheless the major
fuel in CI engines. The India. From the date of gained great momentum classification from our
project investigated the available waste land but it needs special project perspective is as
performance of Jatropha maximum quantity f bio infrastructure facilities. (i) renewable fuels and
oil blend when compared diesel that could produced Whereas bio fuels can be (ii) non-renewable fuels.
to diesel as a working fuel were estimated and produced from a diverse set
in stationary CRDI and possible savings in import of crops. Each country is 3 BIO-DIESEL
PERKINS engines. A two bill was calculated adopting a strategy that Bio-diesel is a
stage trans-esterification (approx) under different exploits the comparative renewable, non-
process was carried out to scenarios. advantages it holds in conventional fuel which
produces biodiesel from 1. INTRODUCTION certain crops. gives many promises.
crude oil (FFA). The Bio-diesel is
important properties of “ The world wide biodegradable and non-
methyl ester of Jatropha recognitions of limits in the toxic, and produces
oil were compared with availability of major fossil significantly fewer
engines may be IC
diesel. energy sources and the emissions than petroleum-
engines or EC engines.
The blend of related rapidly rising based diesel when burned.
Most of the automobile
5% Jatropha oil with energy prices has 3.1 What is bio-diesel?
engines used today are of
diesel was tested in CRDI introduced a massive According to the
the former type.
engine. Also variable search for new energy National Biodiesel Board
speed test was conducted source for new energy (NBB), the technical
combustion engines are
in PERKINS engine using source for world economic definition of biodiesel is
those in which
various blends of oil. development .Abundance as follows: A fuel
combustion takes place
Performance parameters and availability of energy comprised of mono-alkyl
outside the engine
like fuel consumption. resource largely determine esters of long chain fatty
whereas in internal
Efficiency were the economic wellbeing of acids derived from
combustion engines
determined. Emission a country . Energy vegetable oils or animal
combustion takes place
analysis was conducted dependence has to be our fats, designated B100, and
inside the engine.
and optimum condition first and foremost priority . meeting the requirements
while using biodiesel as Volatile price and import of ASTM D6751.
fuel blend was dependency of petroleum
determined. In CRDI product urged the 3.2 How bio-diesel is
IC engines can
engine a significant researchers to explore made?
be operated on different
improvement in engine possible alternative energy Bio-diesel can be
types of fuels such as
performance was source . In this context obtained from vegetable
oil or animal fats (bio- is also the can be used direct sunlight and low
lipids, using transesterification reaction directly in any temperatures. Avoid long
transesterification). we like and do so much, existing, term storage in partially
Chemically, most bio- when reactants and Unmodified filled containers,
ITEM VALUE diesel engine . particularly in damp
 Bio Diesel
locations like dock boxes.
Acid value 33.2
and can be
Condensation in the
Saponification value 195.0 produced
container can contribute
Iodine value 101.7 from oilseed
to the long term
Viscosity (31°C) “fatty acid” 40.4 plants such as
deterioration of the bio-
Palmitic acid % 4.2 rape seeds,
diesel. Low temperatures
Stearic acid % 6.9 sunflower,
can cause the Biodiesel to
Oleic acid % 43.1 canola and or
gel, but the Biodiesel will
Lincleic acid % 34.3 JATROPHA
quickly liquefy again as it
Other acid % 1.4 CURCAS.
warms up. In cold weather
 Bio diesel is
diesel consists of alkyl products reach (near or below freezing),
(usually methyl) esters equilibrium, the reaction additives can be used to
friendly and
instead of the alkanes and stops. We don't like that, prevent gelation.
ideal for
aromatic hydrocarbons of because it means that the 4.4.1The chemical
petroleum derived diesel. WVO isn't converting analysis of JATROPHA
polluted cities.
However, bio-diesel has anymore. Now our bio-  Bio Diesel is a oil given in table .
combustion properties diesel is a mixture of biodegradable
very similar to WVO and FAME (fatty as salt. The comparison of
petrodiesel, including acid methyl ester). You  Bio Diesel properties of Jatropha
combustion energy and can't tell these two apart, produces 80% oil and standard
cetane ratings. because FAME is a good carbon specification of diesel oil
In many chemical solvent and thus the un- dioxide and are shown in table
reactions we know of a reacted WVO is 100% less
Specification Std
thing called equilibrium dissolved. You shouldn't sulphur
specification o
(some reactions go in one run a regular diesel engine dioxide
Jatropha oil
direction only). Let's look on unheated WVO, so we emissions. It Specific gravity 0.9/86
at a reaction like this: have to do something. provides a
Flash point 240/1.0°C
. 90%
Carbon residue 0.64
A+BC+D 4. IMPORTANT Reduction in
Cetane value 51
OF BIO-DIESEL cancer risks.
Distillation point 295 °C
 Bio Diesel is 4.1 Storage conditions
A+BC+D Kinematic 50.78CS
the most for biodiesel
As you noticed, the viscosity
valuable form The Sulpher % 0.13%
reaction direction is
of renewable containers should be
reversible, and of this type Caloric value 94/0Kcal/kg
energy that protected from weather,
Pour point 8°C FILTERATION(The oil oil this strong polar- Methanol till it

Colour -40 was collected and filtered) bonded chemical break dissolves
the transfatty acid in to completely to get
5 . TRANS – glycerine and ester chain potassium
ESTRIFICATION (bio-diesel) , along with methoxide.
There are various some soap if you are not 5. Bio- Diesel
problems associated with careful. The esters fraction is then
vegetable oils being as become methyl esters. washed and
fuel in compression – They would be ethyl dried.
ignition engines, mainly esters if reacted with 6. It is then checked
caused by the high ethanol instead of for quality.
to remove the seed coat)
viscosity . The high methanol. For 0% Jatrapha

viscosity is due to the TRANS-
MILLING Time(s Temperature Weigh
large molecular mass and ESTERIFICATION
(The unshelled seed were ) (C◦) g)
chemical structure of PROCESS
milled in to mix using the
vegetable oils which in Transesterifi 29.5 42 41
corn milling machine)
turn leads to problem in cation is a reversible

plumbing , combustion reaction of a fat or oil 27.3 53.6 40.9
and atomization in the (mainly triglycerides)
MOISTURE CONTENT 26.4 62.5 40.9
injector system of a diesel with an alcohol to form
(If the moisture is less
engine . due to high esters and glycerol.
than 12% we have to add
viscosity ,in long term Manufacturing Process
water or remove the
operation ,vegetable oil 1. Jatropha oil is
water to achieve 12% For 5% jatropha
normally introduce the filtered to
moisture content)
development of remove any solid

gumming ,the formation particles.
of injector deposits, ring 2. Jatropha oil is Time( Temperature Weigh
(Mix the roller in to balls
sticking , as well as then heated to S) (C◦) (g)
of 1 Kg by weight)
incompatibility with remove any

conventional lubrication water content 32.1 32.5 41.2
oils.. (optional)
(Raise the temperature of 29.4 46.5 41.15
5.1 MECHANISUM OF 3. Titration is done
the rolled mixture to 75 –
TRANS to determine how
80C by the use of oven.) 27.5 57.3 41.1
ESTRIFICATION much catalyst is

needed. 26.6 67.5 41.1
In transestrification , 4. Exact quantity of 25.95 82.5 41
(Rolled heated mixture
KOH and methanol are Potassium
was pressed using ram
mixed to create potassium Hydroxide is For 10% Jatropha
methoxide (k+ CH3 O-) . then thoroughly

when mixed in with the mixed in
Time(S) Temperature Weight( A four Therefore
(C◦) g) cylinder four stroke FHP= IHP – BHP
36.9 36.3 43.5
common rail diesel
engine available in the 8.1 Maximum load
34.8 43.5 43.4
33.4 32 41.5 models lab was employed calculation

29.8 46.5 41.4 33.5 51.2 43.4 for conducting the Maximum load =
experiment. Table show [Rated power
28.5 53.3 41.4 31.5 61.5 43.4 the details of the engine (kW) × 60× 1000]/ [2 × π
26.9 68 41.3 × N× Re × 9.81] (unit:
28.1 83 43.3
26.1 81.5 41.3 7. PERFORMANCE OF kgf)
AN IC ENGINE Where Re =effective
For 80% Jatropha
For 20% Jatropha So many radius of brake drum
Time(S) Temperature(C◦)
Time( Temperature( Weight( terms have to be dealt (unit: m)

S) C◦) g) with, while appraising the Maximum load =

performance of an IC [4.774 × 60× 1000]/ [2 ×
40.6 35.6
engine. Some are π × 2500× 0.1225× 9.81]
33.9 34 41.9 described below:
35.1 52.8
7.1 Indicated Horse = 15.88
30.3 50.5 41.8
32.1 63.5 Power (IHP) 7.3 kg f
28.3 61.5 41.8 Frictional Horse Power 8.2 Experimental
30.2 73.6 (FHP) procedure
27.6 71.5 41.8  Check the
The input power
28.8 82.5
in an engine is greater whole setup
For 40% Jatropha than the output power, i.e. for proper

Time( Temperature( For 100% Jatropha

Weight( the indicated house power connections.
Time Temperature Weight(g)is greater than the brake  Supply fuel to
S) C◦) g)
(S) (C◦)
horse power. The the engine.

49.6 32.5 45.2 difference between the  Disengage

35.6 33.6 42.7 input and output energy is  the

32 49.6 42.6 44.8 42.6 45.1 due to the loss of power in decompression
overcoming friction lever and crank
29.4 66.5 42.6 42.6 47.3 45 between the various the engine.
28.6 75.6 42.5 moving parts of the  Adjust the
34.5 64.5 44.9
engine. The power loss speed to a
27.3 84.5 42.4 29.4 81.9 44.9
due to friction while the constant
6. EXPERIMENTAL engine is running is called (1730rpm) and
For 60% Jatropha SETUP FOR COMMON frictional horse power. take following
Time( Temperature( Weight( RAIL DIESEL The friction horse power readings at no-
S) C◦) g) ENGINE(CRDe) is the difference between load
condition. Where N speed in rpm Where Cd – =.3821
 Note down the T-torque in Nm. coefficient of discharge
following 2.Total Fuel a –Area of orifice  bth =
readings Consumption,TFC = h –manometer reading in (BP×3600×100)/
Time 10×ρ×3600/t×1000 Kg/hr meters of air (TFC×CV)
for 5cc of fuel Where, t- Time taken for 9. Theoretical discharge =
consumption 10cc of fuel consumption Q th = 2×A×L×N/60 (.835×3600×100)/ (0.
 Apply load in sec A – Area of piston , L – 278×10300)
gradually ρ –Density of fuel stroke length, N-rpm =20.2
and at each gm/cc(p=0.815gm/cc for
step again diesel) 9.1 Calculations  ith = (IP×3600×100)/
note down 3.Specific fuel Calculation: Diesel (TFC×CV)
the above consumption, SFC = Maximum Load =(2.185×360
said TFC/Pb kg/kWhr BP = 0×100)/(0.3278×10300)
readings. 4.Break thermal (2πNT)/60000 =55.34
 Repeat the efficiency, η = Calculation:
procedure for Pb×3600×100/TFC×CV Bio-Diesel
Where T = Re ×
various loads % TFC = (5/t) ×
and note down Where Pb –Brake Power ρ fuel × (3600/10 ) 6
W = (16.4 × 60000) /
the readings. in kW = (5 /
(2 ×3.14 ×2500 .1225)
 After taking CV – calorific value of 46.61)×880 ×(3600/106)
readings, fuel. = 0.3398
TFC = (5/t) × ρdiesel ×
gradually 5. Indicated power, Pi = BP =
release the Pb + Pf kW. (2πNT)/60000
= (5 /
load, reduce Pf – Frictional power = (2 ×3.14
45.57)×840 ×(3600/106)
the speed which can be obtained ×1730
= 0. 3278
and cut off from the graph of TFC ×4×9.81×.1225)/60000
BP = (2πNT)/60000
the fuel versus Brake Power. = .835
= (2 ×3.14
supply. 6. Indicated thermal
×1730 × )/60000
 Calculate the efficiency. SFC =
= .835
required ηnth = TFC/BP
parameters Pb×3600×100/TFC×CV% = 0.3398 /
= 0.
and draw the 7. Volumetric efficiency .835
3278 / .835 = .392
graphs. It is defined as the ratio of = .4069
actual discharge to IP =
9. EQUATIONS USED theoretical discharge. BP+FP
=.835+1.35 =2.185
FOR CALCULATIONS 8.Actual discharge Qa =.835+0.9
1. Brake power,Pb = = 1.735
=Cd*a* ηmech = BP/IP
2πNT/60 ηmech = BP/IP
= .481 B5 blend as compared to is lower than that of pure
 bth = JATROPHA (B5) the efficiency of 100% diesel.
(BP×3600×100)/ EMISSION diesel at higher loads. The
(TFC×CV) LOAD(kg) N% K general trend of dropping
= of the curves was not Break power Vs specific
(.835×3600×100)/ 0 0.3 0.0 obtained as we could not fuelConsumption
(0.3398×10300) load to full rated condition
= 23.16 5 1.6 0.03
 ith = 10.1 Graph
(IP×3600×100)/ 10 2.3 0.05 Break thermal efficiency
(TFC×CV) VS break power
=(1.735×360 15 4.3 0.10
0×100)/ .3398×10300)
= 64.47 25 7.2 0.17

RESULT AND Fig compare the total
DISSCUSSIONS fuel consumption of diesel
EFFECT OF EFFECT OF BREAK and B5 blend of Jatropha
BREAK OPWEW ON POWER ON SFC at varying break loads in
BREAK THERMAL Fig compare the range 0-8 KW
EFFICIENCY specific fuel consumption The highest value of total
The variation of of diesel and B5 blend at fuel consumption obtained
break thermal efficiency varying break loads in the for B5 blend was 2.455
of the engine with B5 range 0-8 kw. It was Kg/hr where as that for
blend and brake thermal observed that the specific diesel was 2.758 Kg/hr.
efficiency obtained with fuel consumption of blend the volume that would be
diesel is shown in fig. was decreased with consumed can be
100% DIESL there was a small increasing load from 1KW calculated from TFC plots
EMMISSION increase in efficiencies for to 8 KW . The trend of for pure diesel it was
LOAD(kg) N% K T(deg C) T(deg C) further increase in the found to be 3.64 liters/hr
specific fuel consumption while that for B5 blend
0 0.5 0.01 37 47
could not be traced out as was 2.98litres/hr .
we could not load the considering cost /litter for
5 3.4 0.08 39 79
engine up to rated power diesel as Rs 40 and
10 4.9 0.11 39 89 and further overload it. Jatropha as Rs 25, when
Also the SFC of B5 blend commercialized the
15 8.9 0.21 39 98

25 12.4 0.31 39 112

running cost of CRDIe power increases with the Total demand of diesel in fuel
engine for 1 hour are increase in load . so it is year 2019-2020 = 90.64 consumption
found to be as 131.2 for clear that the indicated MMT and thermal
diesel and 114.13 for B5 power increases with the 5% of total demand efficiencies
blend. increase in break power = 4.527 MMT with little
Comparisons (BP vs. and there by indicated Cost of diesel engine
TFC) thermal efficiency = Rs 18286crores modification.
increase as shown in fig Cost of same amount of • Bio-diesel and
INDICATED Biodiesel = Rs diesel exhibit
THERMAL 15580crores almost similar
EFFICIENCY VS Savings characteristics.
BREAK POWER = Rs 2400crores

=$600 million

Thus we can

EFFIECT OF BREAK save $600 million if we

POWER ON just replace 5% of diesel

INDICATED with jatropha and we can

THERMAL save considerable savings

EFFICIENCY in the import bill of diesel

Indicated thermal CONCLUSION

efficiency goes on Viscosity of jatropha oil

increasing for B5 blend has been reduced by trans-

corresponding to the 11. Pollution test esterification process and

break power. Indicated made comparable to that

thermal efficiency is the Diesel of diesel by blending

ratio of energy in the Co2 - 1.015% • In the case of

indicated power to the H2 - 0% CRDI engine

input fuel energy in O2 - 43.05% ,the

appropriate unit . Co - 10.16% performance(br

Indicated thermal Bio Diesel ake thermal

efficiency goes on Co2 - 1.42% efficiency

increasing for all the H2 - 0% &SFC)are

blends corresponding to O2 - 32.5 % better for

break power is constant Co -5.08% diesel than bio-

but the break power . diesel

• The jatropha oil
Frictional power is 12.1
blends gives
constant but the break FORECASTING FOR
better values of