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Modelling the Three Phases Electrical Power Harmonic in

Multisim

Muhamad Ihsan Fauzi1, Muhamad Ichsan Maulana, Muhammad Ariq Fauzan,


Muhammad Fauzi Reza
Nama Asisten, Santoso S. Soekirno
Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science
Universitas Indonesia, Depok, 16424, Indonesia

E-mail: muhamad.ihsan41@ui.ac.id

Abstract. Harmonic is one kind of physical phenomena where sinusoidal wave is formed. Its
frequency equal to multiplication between integer and basic frequencies. In three-phase load,
wattmeter is used to measure total power in load. The total power is the algebraic sum of each
power. In this experiment, two types circuit is used, star-delta circuit and star-star circuit. Each
circuit have their own characteristics. This experiment is conducted by multisim which means
using simulation technique.

1. Introduction
Power is one of the quantity measured in electrical instrument. It gives information about how much the
electrical energy is used over a period of time. Power is needed to be calculated by another tool called
wattmeter or by indirect method which is voltage times current. When some circuit is established like
delta circuit or star circuit we should know the characteristics of each circuit. So, when we want to
calculate the power using wattmeter, we could do the measurement correctly. The background of this
experiment will be:

1. How to measure the total power from star-star circuit and star-delta circuit?
2. What is the characteristics of each circuit?

The objective of the experiment are to explain basic theory of harmonic power measurement and to
measure electrical power phase by using wattmeter.

2. Basic Theory

2.1. The Explanation of Main Basic Theory of Experiment


Harmonic is an event where sinusoidal wave is created with frequency is the product of integer number
and frequency basis. If there is superposition between any frequency bases with harmonic wave
frequency, there will be formed distorted wave and the waveform will not be sinusoidal.

1
To whom any correspondence should be addressed.
Instrument which is used to measure power is wattmeter. Wattmeter are divided into two AC wattmeter
and DC wattmeter. For AC wattmeter is divided into two, single phase wattmeter and poly phase
wattmeter. One type AC wattmeter commonly used is wattmeter electrodynamometer type. Power
measurement in poly phase system needs two or more wattmeter. Then total power is achieved by
summing every wattmeter value algebraically. Blondel’s theorem state that real power could be
measured by subtract one wattmeter element and some wires in poly phase, with requirement of one
wire could be made in common state for all potential circuit.

Figure 1 Wattmeter configuration

Figure 1 shows two wattmeter connection for measurement of power usage by a symmetric three phase
load in delta configuration. Current coil from wattmeter 1 is connected in A circuit, current coil from
wattmeter 2 is connected in B circuit, and voltage coil between B and C. Total power used by symmetric
three phase load equal to algebraic sum from two wattmeter2.

2.2. Mathematical Formula in Experiment


Sometimes, it is more effective to use two watt meters for measuring three-phase power. This two
wattmeter configuration is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 Three phase power measurement using two watt-meter method


It should be pointed out that, in some systems, the neutral connections are not available. In this case, the
neutral connection to the source and load can be removed. With the two-wattmeter configuration, each
wattmeter uses the b-phase line as its reference. In phasor notation, the line-to-neutral voltages, a- to b-
phase voltage, and a-phase current are given by1

Where Vl-l is the RMS value of the line-to-line voltage which is related to the line-to-neutral voltage by

Considering the connection diagram shown in Figure 2, the wattmeter readings are

We could write in another form according to phasor diagram

If we define P and Q as

Hence,

3. Method of Experiment
Experiment 1: Star-Delta circuit

Figure 1. Star-delta circuit with symmetric load


Figure 2. Star-delta circuit with asymmetric load

1. Build circuit for experiment 1 for R7 = R8 = R9 = 2 Ω (symmetric) as shown in Figure 1


2. Measure the magnitude of power, line current (IL), phase current (IΦ), line voltage (VL), and phase
voltage (VΦ) at three-phase resistor by using wattmeter.
3. Note peak voltage in every phase based on oscilloscope.
4. Change resistor with value of R7 = 2 Ω, R8 = 20 Ω, and R9 = 40 Ω as shown in Figure 2.
5. Repeat the 2nd and 3rd steps.

Experiment 2: Star-Star Circuit

Figure 3. Star-star circuit with symmetric load

Figure 4. Star-star circuit with asymmetric load

1. Build circuit for experiment 1 for R7 = R8 = R9 = 2 Ω (symmetric) as shown in Figure 3


2. Measure the magnitude of power, line current (IL), phase current (IΦ), line voltage (VL), and phase
voltage (VΦ) at three-phase resistor by using wattmeter.
3. Note peak voltage in every phase based on oscilloscope.
4. Change resistor with value of R7 = 2 Ω, R8 = 20 Ω, and R9 = 40 Ω as shown in Figure 4.
5. Repeat the 2nd and 3rd step.

4. Data of Experiment
Experiment 1 (Star-Delta Circuit)
Parameter Resistor R6 = R7 = R8 = 2 Ω R6 = 2 Ω, R7 = 20 Ω, R8 = 40 Ω
1 207.862 207.862
VL 2 207.862 207.862
3 207.862 207.862
1 120.009 120.009
VΦ 2 120.009 120.009
3 120.009 120.009
1 180.014 10.393
IL 2 180.014 10.393
3 180.014 5.197
1 10.393 109.498
IΦ 2 10.393 106.624
3 5.197 13.749

Experiment 2 (Star-Star Circuit)


Parameter Resistor R6 = R7 = R8 = 2 Ω R6 = 2 Ω, R7 = 20 Ω, R8 = 40 Ω
1 207.862 207.862
VL 2 207.862 207.862
3 207.862 207.862
1 120.009 120.009
VΦ 2 120.009 120.009
3 120.009 120.009
1 60.005 11.955
IL 2 60.005 9.272
3 60.005 4.761
1 60.005 11.955
IΦ 2 60.005 9.272
3 60.005 4.761

5. Data Processing

5.1. Data Processing in Experiment 1


Symmetric Load Line Power Calculation
Resistor 1
𝑃𝐿1 = 𝑉𝐿1 𝐼𝐿1
𝑃𝐿1 = 207.862 х 180.014 = 37.4 𝑘𝑊

Line power for resistor 2 and resistor 3 will be the same. Hence the total line power is 112.25 kW

Symmetric Load Phase Power Calculation


Resistor 1

𝑃𝛷1 = 𝑉𝛷1 𝐼𝛷1


𝑃𝛷1 = 120.009 х 10.393 = 1.25 𝑘𝑊

Phase power for resistor 2 will be the same as phase power resistor 1. But not phase power resistor 3
Resistor 3
𝑃𝛷3 = 𝑉𝛷3 𝐼𝛷3
𝑃𝛷3 = 120.009 х 5.197 = 0.62 𝑘𝑊
Total phase power in symmetric load will be 3.11 kW

Asymmetric Total Line Power


Resistor 1
𝑃𝐿1 = 𝑉𝐿1 𝐼𝐿1
𝑃𝐿1 = 207.862 х 10.393 = 2.16 𝑘𝑊

Line power resistor 1 will be the same as line power resistor 2, but not for resistor 3.
Total line power for asymmetric is 5.4 kW

Asymmetric Total Phase Power


Resistor 1
𝑃𝛷1 = 𝑉𝛷1 𝐼𝛷1
𝑃𝛷1 = 120.009 х 109.498 = 13.14 𝑘𝑊

Phase power in each resistor will be different. Using the same method we could get total asymmetric
phase power is 27.59 kW

5.2. Data Processing in Experiment 2


Symmetric Total Line Power in Star-Star Circuit
Resistor 1
𝑃𝐿1 = 𝑉𝐿1 𝐼𝐿1
𝑃𝐿1 = 207.862 х 60.005 = 12.47 𝑘𝑊

Line power for resistor 2 and resistor 3 will be same. The total line power therefore 37.42 kW

Symmetric Total Phase Power


Resistor 1
𝑃𝛷1 = 𝑉𝛷1 𝐼𝛷1
𝑃𝛷1 = 120.009 х 60.005 = 7.2 𝑘𝑊

Phase power in resistor 2 and resistor 3 will be the same. The total phase power is 21.6 Kw

Antisymmetric Total Line Power


Resistor 1
𝑃𝐿1 = 𝑉𝐿1 𝐼𝐿1
𝑃𝐿1 = 207.862 х 11.955 = 2.48 𝑘𝑊

Each resistor have different line power. We could calculate it and total line power is 5.4 kW

Antisymmetric Total Phase Power


Resistor 1
𝑃𝛷1 = 𝑉𝛷1 𝐼𝛷1
𝑃𝛷1 = 120.009 х 11.955 = 1.43 𝑘𝑊

Phase power in each resistor will be different. Total phase power will be 3.11 kW

6. Analysis
In this section there will be analysis in method of experiment which had been conducted. During
experiment 1, we built a delta-star circuit in multisim application. Delta-star circuit for symmetric load
and asymmetric load. After built the circuit, we measure some quantity like line current, phase current,
line voltage, and phase voltage for each load. This should be done because we could measure indirectly
the value of power and its relation to current and voltage. If we get the relation, then we could get some
information about characteristic in delta-star circuit. Those value should be noted when the load
symmetric or asymmetric. Then, we conducted experiment 2, the star-star circuit. We built the circuit
according to the experiment step in multisim application and measure some quantities same as
experiment 1. Determination to locate ammeter and voltmeter is very important. When we want to
measure the line quantities, then the instrument should be put in some way to measure current/voltage
between lines. When we want to measure the phase quantity, we only measure it in one from the three
line.

Then, we will analyse the result from data processing in each experiment. Based on data, in experiment
1 (delta-star circuit) for symmetric load, the value from phase voltage is the same as line voltage in each
resistor. There will be difference between voltage and current. The line current will be greater than phase
current by the factor√3. When the load asymmetric the phase voltage value also the same as line voltage.
The total power will be the sum of each power in resistor. For experiment 2 (star-star circuit), the phase
voltage is not same as line voltage but the phase current and line current is the same. This could be the
proof the validity of the theory. As we can see in data processing, the asymmetric load total line power
in both circuit is same. Also symmetric load total phase power in star-delta circuit is same as asymmetric
load total phase current.

7. Summary
 Harmonic can be used to explain power measurement in three-phase load circuit
 Asymmetric load total line power will be the same in star-delta circuit and star-star circuit
 Total power is the algebraic sum of each power value from its component.

8. Reference
[1] ece.mst.edu
[2] Measurement Technique Experiment Module

Acknowledgments