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Page Mechanism Affected Materials Temperatures & Critical Factors

Fracture toughness, flaw size, stress (residual or applied), presence of embrittling phases, cleanliness, grain size,
4-19 Brittle Fracture CS, low alloy steels, 400 SS
thickness and temperature.
velocity and concentration of impacting medium, the size and hardness of impacting particles, the hardness and
Erosion/Erosion-Corrosion All metals, alloys and refractories
corrosion resistance of material subject to erosion, and the angle of impact
All engineering alloys (300 SS, 400 SS, Geometry, stress level, number of cycles, and
Mechanical Fatigue
4-53 aluminum, most other non-ferrous alloys) material properties (strength, hardness, microstructure)
physical location (industrial, marine, rural); moisture (humidity), particularly designs that trap moisture or when
CS, low alloy steels, copper alloyed
Atmospheric Corrosion present in a cooling tower mist; temperature; presence of salts, sulfur compounds and dirt; corrosion rates
4-69 increases up to about 250°F
CS, low alloy steels, 300 SS, duplex
4-71 Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) stainless steels most severe when temperature is 212°F-250°F
CS, all grades of stainless steel, copper, Fluid temperature, type of water (fresh, brackish, salt water) and the type of cooling system (once-through, open
4-75 Cooling Water Corrosion aluminum, titanium, nickel base alloys circulating, closed circulating), oxygen content, and fluid velocities are critical factors.

CS, low alloy steels, 300 SS, 400 Increases with temperature; CS sulfidation begins > 500°F; Cr significantly increases
4-109 Sulfidation SS, Ni- base alloys and Cu alloys resistance

4-138 Caustic Corrosion CS, low alloy steels, 300 SS Increase caustic concentration, increased temperatures.
300 SS, Duplex SS, some nickel base
Chloride Stress Corrosion alloys. Chloride content, pH, temperature, stress, presence of oxygen and alloy composition; Cracking usually occur at
4-130 Cracking (Cl-SCC) Carbon steels, low alloy steels and 400 metal temperatures > 140°F
Series SS are not susceptible.
Carbon steel, low alloy steels and 300 Function of caustic strength, metal temperature and stress levels.
Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking
4-199 (Caustic Embrittlement)
Series SS are susceptible. Nickel base Increases with concentration and temperature.
alloys are more resistant. 50 to 100 ppm are sufficient to cause cracking
All common materials of construction used
in refineries. Increases with HCl concentration, increased temperature and oxidizing agents (oxygen, ferric and cupric ions) CS
5-16 Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Corrosion Titanium performs well in oxidizing & LAS : pH < 4.5
conditions but fails rapidly in dry HCl

5-39 Sour Water Corrosion (Acidic) Primarily affects carbon steel H2S content, pH, temperature, velocity and oxygen concentration.

Wet H2S Damage

5-41 CS, low alloy steels Blistering, HIC, SOHIC occur between ambient to >300°F; SCC occurs <180°F

5-55 Amine Stress Corrosion Cracking CS, low alloy steels Tensile stress, amine concentration and temperature

5-56 (HTHA) CS, low alloy steels (up to 5 Cr) Keep 25-50°F below the partial pressure (Nelson) curves in API 941

1. All materials: 3. CS, low alloy steels, 300 SS:

- Erosion/Erosion-Corrosion - Caustic Corrosion
- Mechanical Fatigue - Caustic SCC (Caustic Embrittlement)
- HCL Corrosion 4. CS and low alloy steels
- Cooling Water Corrosion (LAS not mentioned) - Wet H2S
- Sulfidation (Except for Al & Titanium are not mentioned) - Amine SCC
2. CS, low alloy steels, 400 SS: - HTHA
- Susceptible to Brittle fracture 5. CS
- Not susceptible to Cl-SCC (only 300 SS, Duplex SS, some nickel base alloys are - Sour Water Corrosion (Acidic)