You are on page 1of 182

Paper 4.

3: DISASTER MANAGEMENT
UNIT I
Disaster: Meaning – Types – Manmade – Natural – Need for disaster
management.
UNIT II
Management of Natural Disaster: Earthquake – Drought – Cyclone –
Tsunami – Flood – Volcano – Hurricane – Fire – Landslides – Dam failure.
UNIT III
Management of Manmade Disaster: Household Chemical Emergency –
Terrorism – Nuclear Power Plant Emergency – Hazardous Materials –
Accidents: Road, Train, Fire – Food poisoning.
UNIT IV
Disaster in Events Management: Festivals, Melas, Bull Fight, Sports,
Races – Organisation of medical camps – Transport management.
UNIT V
Disaster Management-I: Project Preparation for disaster related projects –
Awareness – Project preparation – Implementation and monitoring –
Management of epidemics – Prevention methods – Precautions.
UNIT VI
Disaster Management-II: Role of Hospital, Community, Voluntary
agencies and Government in disaster management.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1.Shahunth and Panekar V, First Aid, Vora Publication.
2.First Aid Manual: Accident and Emergency, Vora Medical Publication.

Course Material prepared by –


Dr. S. Sudalaimuthu
Director, Distance Education
Alagappa University, Karaikudi.

1
UNIT–I
DISASTER MANAGEMENT – AN INTRODUCTION
Disasters are sudden, catastrophic events that disrupt pattern of life, often
associated with destruction of property, multiple injuries and even death of a
number of persons. It is an ecological disruption and a mass casualty situation
and the community or the government find it difficult to cope up with the
disasters immediately, as it is sudden and unexpected.
Disasters have devastating effects on the economy and cause huge human
and economic losses, and significantly affect the development efforts of a region
or a State. With the kind of economic losses and developmental setbacks that the
country has been suffering year after year, the development process needs to be
sensitive towards disaster prevention and mitigation aspects. There is thus need
to look at disasters from a development perspective also. Almost all countries in
the world are affected by disasters of different kinds, with different magnitudes
at one time or other. India is not an exception.
In India, many parts are susceptible to different types of disasters due to
its unique topographic and climatic conditions. Floods, droughts, cyclones,
earthquakes and landslides are a recurrent phenomena. About 60 per cent of the
landmass is vulnerable to earthquakes while about 4 crore hectares is vulnerable
to periodic floods, about 8 per cent of the total area is prone to cyclones and 68
per cent of the area is susceptible to drought.. The decade 1990-2000, has been
one of very high disaster losses within the country, losses in the Orissa Cyclone
in 1999, and later, the Gujarat Earthquake in 2001, and the Tsunami in Tamil
Nadu in 2004, alone amount to several thousand crore of Rupees, while the total
expenditure on relief and reconstruction in Gujarat alone has been to the tune of
Rs 11,500 crore. On an an average of about 4344 people lost their lives and
about 30 million people were affected by disasters every year. The country has
suffered four major earthquakes in the span of last fifty years along with a series
of moderate intensity earthquakes that have occurred at regular intervals. Since
1988, six earthquakes have struck different parts of the country. These caused
considerable human and property losses.
The traditional perception has been limited to the idea of “calamity
relief”, which is seen essentially as a non-plan item of expenditure. However, the
impact of major disasters cannot be mitigated by the provision of immediate

2
relief alone and what is required is a long term perspective plan to prevent and if
occurred, meet successfully any disasters without much affecting the life of the
people and loss of property.
At the global level, there has been considerable concern over natural
disasters. Even as substantial scientific and material progress is made, the loss of
lives and property due to disasters has not decreased. In fact, the human toll and
economic losses have mounted. It was in this background that the United
Nations General Assembly, in 1989, declared the decade 1990-2000 as the
International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction with the objective to reduce
loss of lives and property and restrict socio-economic damage through concerted
international action, specially in developing countries.
KINDS OF DISASTERS
Disasters have been classified as natural and man-made.
Natural Disasters
The disasters caused by natural catastrophe are called natural disasters.
These are caused suddenly and unexpected. Hence the government or the people
seldom prepared to face these disasters. But very frequently, the preparedness or
the routine warnings do not match the magnitude of these natural disasters.
Natural disasters are not bound by political boundaries and have no social
or economic considerations. They are borderless as they affect both developing
and developed countries. They are also merciless, and as such the vulnerable
tend to suffer more at the impact of natural disasters. For example, the
developing countries are much more seriously affected in terms of the loss of
lives, hardship borne by population and the percentage of their GNP lost. Since
1991, two-third of the victims of natural disasters were from developing
countries, while just 2 per cent were from highly developed nations. Those living
in developing countries and especially those with limited resources tend to be
more adversely affected.
Natural disasters are caused by:
i) Flood
ii) Earthquake
iii) Cyclone
iv) Hurricane

3
v) Thunderstorm
vi) Tsunami
vii) Tornado
viii) Fire
ix) Wild fire
x) Extreme heat
xi) Volcano
xii) Dam failure
xiii) Winter Storm
xiv) Landslide
Man Made Disasters
Man made disasters are caused by human failures or accidents. The
following are types of man-made disasters:
i) Household Chemical Emergency
ii) Terrorism
iii)Nuclear Power Plant Emergency
iv) Chemical Emergencies
v) Hazardous Material
Man made: Most of these disasters are seen
(a) in thickly populated cities
(b) at the sites where important activities are going on, and
(c) where targeted dignitaries reside or work.
The failure of authorities to warn people adequately and people to
respond promptly can contribute to the increased loss of and damages. Fries
may or may.
Accidental disasters: Many of the accidental disasters result from
(a) Safety violation
(b) Negligence
(c) Inferior quality of work and
(d) Unfair practices which get perpetuated by false certification and false
reports.
4
Examples of this type of disaster are (a) building collapse dam collapse
(b) fire (c) factory explosion (d) air crash (e) ship (f) derailment or (g) head on
collision of trains transport (h) food positron etc.,
Sometimes, a clear distinction between man-made and natural disasters
may be difficult. In an earthquake, the poor construction of buildings can
contribute significantly to loss of life and damages.
Common Elements of Disaster
Common elements of any disaster are:
1. Mass casualties/ seriously injured
2. Large number of homeless persons.
3. Sudden eruption of epidemic
4. Heavy disruptions in basic facilities.
5. High degree of panic.
The disasters caused due to willful or unwillful use of guns, explosives,
fire bombs etc. may produce the following effects:
i) Wounds due to splinters and explosives.
ii) Fractures due to explosives.
iii) Rupture of ear drums due to shock waves of explosives.
iv) Multiple injuries due to the falling of buildings.
v) Burns due to the fires.

Consequences of Disaster
Disasters lead to enormous economic losses that are both immediate as
well as long term in nature and demand additional revenues. As an immediate
fall-out, disasters reduce revenues from the affected region due to lower levels of
economic activity leading to loss of direct and indirect revenues. In addition,
unplanned budgetary allocation to disaster recovery can hamper development
interventions and lead to unmet developmental targets.
Disasters may also reduce availability of new investment, further
restricting the growth of the region. Besides, additional pressures may be
imposed on finances of the government through investments in relief and
rehabilitation work.

5
In the recent earthquake in Gujarat, more than 14,000 lives were lost, ten
lakh houses were damaged and 15,000 crores worth of assets were lost
The dimensions of the damage due to natural disasters cause major
setbacks to development and the most vulnerable group affected is the poorest
and the weakest sections. The efforts required for mitigating the impact of
disasters must be an integral component of any development planning and be
part of poverty reduction strategy.
Need for Disaster Management
As a number of the most vulnerable regions are in India, natural disaster
management has emerged as a high priority for the country. Going beyond the
historical focus on relief and rehabilitation after the event, it is essential to look
ahead and plan for disaster preparedness and mitigation efforts.
The recent disasters, the Orissa Cyclone, the Gujarat Earthquake and
Tsunami in Tamil Nadu are cases underscored the need to adopt a multi
dimensional strategy involving diverse scientific, engineering, financial and
social processes; the need to adopt multi disciplinary and multi sectoral approach
and incorporation of risk reduction in the developmental plans and strategies.
Over the past couple of years, the Government of India have brought
about a paradigm shift in the approach to disaster management. The new
approach Disaster Management in India proceeds from the conviction that
development cannot be sustainable unless disaster mitigation is built into the
development process. Another corner stone of the approach is that mitigation has
to be multi-disciplinary spanning across all sectors of development. The new
policy also emanates from the belief that investments in mitigation are much
more cost effective than expenditure on relief and rehabilitation.
Disaster management occupies an important place in this country’s policy
framework as it is the poor and the under-privileged who are worst affected on
account of calamities/disasters.
The steps being taken by the Government emanate from the approach
outlined above. The approach has been translated into a National Disaster
Framework [a roadmap] covering institutional mechanisms, disaster prevention
strategy, early warning system, disaster mitigation, preparedness and response
and human resource development. The expected inputs, areas of intervention and
agencies to be involved at the National, State and district levels have been
6
identified and listed in the roadmap. This roadmap has been shared with all the
State Governments and Union Territory Administrations. Ministries and
Departments of Government of India, and the State Governments/UT
Administrations have been advised to develop their respective roadmaps taking
the national roadmap as a broad guideline. There is, therefore, now a common
strategy underpinning the action being taken by all the participating
organisations/stakeholders.
Disaster management requires multi-disciplinary and pro-active approach.
Besides various measures for putting in place institutional and policy
framework, disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness enunciated and
initiatives being taken by the Central and State Governments, the community,
civil society organizations and media also have a key role to play in achieving
the goal of moving together, towards a safer India. The message being put across
is that, in order to move towards safer and sustainable national development,
development projects should be sensitive towards disaster mitigation.
The changed approach is being put into effect through:
 Institutional changes
 Enunciation of policy
 Legal and techno-legal framework
 Mainstreaming Mitigation into Development process
 Funding mechanism
 Specific schemes addressing mitigation
 Preparedness measures
 Capacity building
 Human Resource Development and, above all, community
participation.
The Development Perspective
Further, although disaster management is not generally associated with
plan financing, there are in fact a number of plan schemes in operation, such as
for drought proofing, afforestation, drinking water, etc., which deal with the
prevention and mitigation of the impact of natural disasters. External assistance
for post-disaster reconstruction and streamlining of management structures also
is a part of the Plan. A specific, centrally sponsored scheme on disaster

7
management also exists. The Plan thus already has a defined role in dealing with
the subject.
Recently, expert bodies have dwelt on the role of the Planning
Commission and the use of plan funds in the context of disaster management.
Suggestions have been made in this regard by the Eleventh Finance
Commission, and also the High Powered Committee on Disaster Management.
An approach on planning for safe development needs to be set out in the light of
these suggestions.

Regional Vulnerabilities: The Indian Experience


Physical vulnerability relates to the physical location of people, their
proximity to the hazard zone and standards of safety maintained to counter the
effects. For instance, some people are vulnerable to flood only because they live
in a flood prone area. Physical vulnerability also relates to the technical capacity
of buildings and structures to resist the forces acting upon them during a hazard
event.
The extent to which a population is affected by a calamity does not purely
lie in the physical components of vulnerability, but is contextual also to the
prevailing social and economic conditions and its consequential effect on human
activities within a given society. Research in areas affected by earthquakes
indicates that single parent families, women, handicapped people, children and
the aged are particularly vulnerable social groups. The geophysical setting with
unplanned and inadequate developmental activity is a cause for increased losses
during disasters. In the case of India, the contribution of over-population to high
population density, which in turn results in escalating losses, deserves to be
noted. This factor sometimes tends to be as important as physical vulnerability
attributed to geography and infrastructure alone.
Armed Forces
The Indian Armed Forces are supposed to be called upon to intervene and
take on specific tasks only when the situation is beyond the capability of civil
administration. In practice, the Armed Forces are the core of the government’s
response capacity and tend to be the first responders of the Government of India
in a major disaster. Due to their ability to organize action in adverse ground
circumstances, speed of operational response and the resources and capabilities

8
at their disposal, the Armed Forces have historically played a major role in
emergency support functions such as communications, search and rescue
operations, health and medical facilities, transportation, power, food and civil
supplies, public works and engineering, especially in the immediate aftermath of
disaster. Disaster management plans should incorporate the role expected of
them so that the procedure for deploying them is smooth and quick.
External Linkages
The Government of India is a member of various international
organisations in the field of disaster response and relief. While, as a policy, no
requests for assistance or appeals are made to the international community in the
event of a disaster, assistance offered suo moto is accepted. Linkages exist with
the following organisations:
i) UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA),
which has been made responsible by UN General Assembly mandate
for all international disaster response.
ii) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), responsible for
mitigation and prevention aspects of disaster management.
iii) UN Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) System.
Streamlining Institutional Arrangements for Disaster Response
Institutional arrangements for disaster response are the heart of disaster
management systems. There is no dearth of personnel, both civilian and military,
experienced in handling situations arising out of natural disasters. However,
there certainly is a pressing need for improvement and strengthening of existing
institutional arrangements and systems in this regard to make the initial response
to a disaster more effective and professional. Most of the resources and expertise
needed already exist with the Government. What needs to be streamlined is how
they should be integrated, trained and deployed. Some of the areas where
improvement is urgently needed are:
(a) Integrated planning for disasters, including the integration of relevant
Armed Forces formations into disaster management planning at all levels
from District to State and Central Government.
(b) Setting up of a modern, permanent national command centre or
operations room, with redundant communications and data links to all

9
State capitals. The national command centre or operations room needs to
be manned on a 24-hour basis by professionals to cater for instant
integrated response. There needs to be a properly equipped operations
room at the State level as well.
(c) Establishment of a national stand by, quick reaction team composed of
experienced professionals, both military and civilian, drawn from Central
and State Government staff to respond immediately by flying in a matter
of hours an experienced response team to the locations when a disaster
strikes. This team can be organized and run professionally on the same
lines as the United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination
(UNDAC) teams.
(d) Creation of urban search and rescue capacity at all levels, by establishing
a fully equipped Search and Rescue unit, as part of the fire service in all
State capitals, with trained staff and modern equipment such as thermal
imagers, acoustic detection devices etc. This is of immediate relevance
since a major weakness exposed in the Gujarat earthquake was a lack of
specialised urban search and rescue capability in India.
(e) Media policy geared to handling the growing phenomenon of real time
television reporting, which generates enormous political pressures on a
government to respond rapidly and efficiently. This needs attention since
the effect is going to increase, not decrease in future.
(f) Closer interface with and better understanding of the international system
for disaster response, and putting in place, systems for dealing with
international assistance once it comes in e.g. customs, immigration,
foreign policy implications etc. A greater appreciation is needed of the
speed and automation of modern international response to a natural
disaster. Closer interaction is required between the Ministry of External
Affairs and the relevant international agencies concerned with disaster
response.
(g) Standard procedures for dealing with domestic humanitarian and relief
assistance from nongovernment sources. Procedures and systems need to
be set out to avoid confusion and ensure best utilisation of the assistance
being offered, just as in the case of systems for international assistance.

10
(h) Modern unified legislation for disaster management. In view of the
current division of responsibilities between the State and Central
Government into state, central and concurrent lists, there is a need to
create a body of legislation dealing with response to natural disasters and
other emergencies, clearly delineating responsibilities and powers of
each entity and specifying what powers or actions would need to be
triggered on declaration of a disaster by the Government of India or a
State Government. This legislation should also incorporate the current
legislation dealing with chemical emergencies that has been created by
the Ministry of Environment so that all emergencies are dealt with under
one law. The legislation should include clear definitions of what
constitutes a disaster at a national level.
Capacity Building, Training and Education
Personnel involved in the exercise have to draw upon knowledge of best
practices and resources available to them. Information and training on ways to
better respond to and mitigate disasters to the responders go a long way in
building the capacity and resilience of the country to reduce and prevent
disasters. Training is an integral part of capacity building as trained personnel
respond much better to different disasters and appreciate the need for preventive
measures. The directions in this regard are:
 The multi-sectoral and multi-hazard prevention based approach to disaster
management requires specific professional inputs. Professional training in
disaster management should be built into the existing pedagogic research
and education. Specialised courses for disaster management may be
developed by universities and professional teaching institutions, and
disaster management should be treated as a distinct academic and
professional discipline, something that the American education system has
done successfully. In addition to separate diploma/degree courses in disaster
management, the subject needs to be discussed and taught as a specific
component in professional and specialised courses like medicine, nursing,
engineering, environmental sciences, architecture, and town and country
planning.
 The focus towards preventive disaster management and development of a
national ethos of prevention calls for an awareness generation at all levels.
An appropriate component of disaster awareness at the school level will

11
help increase awareness among children and, in many cases, parents and
other family members through these children. Curriculum development
with a focus towards dissemination of disaster related information on a
sustained basis, covering junior, middle and high schools may be worked
out by the different school boards in the country.
 Training facilities for government personnel involved in disaster
management are conducted at the national level by the National Centre for
Disaster Management (NCDM) at the Indian Institute of Public
Administration, in New Delhi which functions as the nodal institution in the
country for training, research and documentation of disasters. At the State
level, disaster management cells operating within the State Administrative
Training Institutes (ATIs) provide the necessary training. Presently, 24
ATIs have dedicated faculties. There is a need for strengthening specialised
training, including training of personnel in disaster response.
 Capacity building should not be limited to professionals and personnel
involved in disaster management but should also focus on building the
knowledge, attitude and skills of a community to cope with the effects of
disasters. Identification and training of volunteers from the community
towards first response measures as well as mitigation measures is an urgent
imperative. A programme of periodic drills should be introduced in
vulnerable areas to enable prompt and appropriate community response in
the event of a disaster, which can help save valuable lives.
Capacity building for effective disaster management therefore needs to be
grounded and linked to the community and local level responders on the one
hand and also to the institutional mechanism of the State and the Nation on the
other.
Our mission is vulnerability reduction to all types of hazards, be it natural
or manmade. This is not an easy task to achieve, keeping in view the vast
population, and the multiple natural hazards to which this country is exposed to.
The ultimate goal is to make prevention and mitigation as a routine task.
It is our firm conviction that with these measures in place, it is our confidence
that disasters like Orissa cyclone, Bhuj earthquake and Tamil Nadu Tsunami will
not be allowed to recur atleast not at the cost, which the country has paid in these
disasters in terms of human lives, livestock, loss of property and means of
livelihood.
12
Our vision 2020 is to build a safer and secure India through sustained
collective effort, synergy of national capacities and people’s participation. What
looks a dream today will be transformed into reality in the next two decades.
This is our goal and we shall strive to achieve this goal with a missionary zeal.

Review Questions:
1. What is disaster management? What are the different types of disasters?
2. Bring out the need for disaster management.
3. State the kinds of man-made disasters.
4. What are the types of natural disasters?

  

13
UNIT – II
NATURAL DISASTERS
The disasters caused by natural catastrophe are called natural disasters.
These are caused suddenly and unexpected. Hence the government or the people
seldom prepared to face these disasters. But very frequently, the preparedness or
the routine warnings do not match the magnitude of these natural disasters.
For addressing natural calamities such as floods and drought, there
already exist a number of plan schemes under which a lot is being done and can
be done. State Governments need to make full use of the existing plan schemes
and give priority to implementation of such schemes that will help in
overcoming the conditions created by the calamity. In some cases this implies
possible diversion of the funds from other schemes to those schemes the
implementation of which will help meeting the situation. There may also be need
in a crisis situation for certain re-appropriations/ reallocations among the
different departments.
The Planning Commission will aim at responding quickly to the needs of
the Central Ministries/Departments/States in matters relating to the Plan for
meeting situations arising out of natural disasters, by enabling adjustment of
schemes to meet the requirements as far as possible. A mechanism will be
evolved to take expeditious decisions on proposals which involve transfer of
funds from one scheme to another, or any other change which involves departure
from the existing schemes/ pattern of assistance, new schemes and relaxation in
procedures, etc. in the case of natural disasters.
As the first responder in any disaster situation, however, each State needs
to build a team, skilled personnel, make provision for specialised equipments,
efficient communication network, and relevant, intelligent and easily accessible
database. There is also a need to consider creation of a plan scheme in each state
basically to meet the minimum requirements for strengthening communications
and emergency control rooms, thereby improving coordination and response to
disasters. No new institutional structures need be created in such a scheme.
In particular, with regard to major disasters, it is also necessary for
disaster mitigation components to be built into all development projects. In order
to save larger outlays on reconstruction and rehabilitation subsequently, a
mechanism would need to be worked out for allowing components that

14
specifically help projects coming up in highly disaster prone areas withstand the
impact of natural disasters as part of approved project cost for projects financed
under the Plan.
The message for the Tenth Plan is that in order to move towards safer
national development, development projects should be sensitive towards disaster
mitigation. With the kind of economic losses and developmental setbacks that
the country has been suffering year after year, it makes good economic sense to
spend a little extra today in a planned way on steps and components that can
help in prevention and mitigation of disasters, than be forced to spend many
multiples more later on restoration and rehabilitation. The design of
development projects and the process of development should take the aspect of
disaster reduction and mitigation within its ambit; otherwise, the development
ceases to be sustainable and eventually causes more hardship and loss to the
nation.
Normally, the following types of disasters come under the category of
natural disasters.
EARTHQUAKE
One of the most frightening and destructive phenomena of nature is a
severe earthquake and its terrible aftereffects.
Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time
of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause
many deaths and injuries and extensive property damage.
Although there are no guarantees of safety during an earthquake,
identifying potential hazards ahead of time and advance planning can save lives
and significantly reduce injuries and property damage.
Actions to be taken before an Earthquake
Repairing deep plaster cracks in ceilings and foundations, anchoring
overhead lighting fixtures to the ceiling, and following local seismic building
standards, will help reduce the impact of earthquakes.
Six Ways to Plan Ahead
1. Check for Hazards in the Home
o Fasten shelves securely to walls.

15
o Place large or heavy objects on lower shelves.
o Store breakable items such as bottled foods, glass, and china in
low, closed cabinets with latches.
o Hang heavy items such as pictures and mirrors away from beds,
couches, and anywhere people sit.
o Brace overhead light fixtures.
o Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas connections. These
are potential fire risks.
o Secure a water heater by strapping it to the wall studs and bolting it
to the floor.
o Repair any deep cracks in ceilings or foundations. Get expert
advice if there are signs of structural defects.
o Store weed killers, pesticides, and flammable products securely in
closed cabinets with latches and on bottom shelves.
2. Identify Safe Places Indoors and Outdoors
o Under sturdy furniture such as a heavy desk or table.
o Against an inside wall.
o Away from where glass could shatter around windows, mirrors,
pictures, or where heavy bookcases or other heavy furniture could
fall over.
o In the open, away from buildings, trees, telephone and electrical
lines, overpasses, or elevated expressways.
3. Educate Yourself and Family Members
o Teach children how and when to call police, or fire department and
which radio station/ television for emergency information.
o Teach all family members how and when to turn off gas, electricity
and water.
4. Have Disaster Supplies on Hand
o Battery/ emergency lights
o First aid kit
o Emergency food and water.
o Essential medicines.
o Cash and credit cards.

16
5. Develop an Emergency Communication Plan
o In case family members are separated from one another during an
earthquake (a real possibility during the day when adults are at
work and children are at school), develop a plan for reuniting after
the disaster.
o Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the “family
contact.” After a disaster, it is often easier to call long distance.
Make sure everyone in the family knows the name, address, and
phone number of the contact person.
6. Help Your Community Get Ready
o Work with local emergency services and Red Cross officials to
prepare special reports for people with mobility impairments on
what to do during an earthquake.
o Provide tips on conducting earthquake drills in the home.
o Interview representatives of the gas, electric, and water companies
about shutting off utilities.
During an Earthquake
Stay as safe as possible during an earthquake. Be aware that some
earthquakes are actually foreshocks and a larger earthquake might occur.
Minimize your movements to a few steps to a nearby safe place and stay indoors
until the shaking has stopped and you are sure exiting is safe.
If indoors
• DROP to the ground; take COVER by getting under a sturdy table or other
piece of furniture; and HOLD ON until the shaking stops. If there is no
table or desk near you, cover your face and head with your arms and
crouch in an inside corner of the building.
• Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything
that could fall, such as lighting fixtures or furniture.
• Stay in bed if you are there when the earthquake strikes. Hold on and
protect your head with a pillow, unless you are under a heavy light fixture
that could fall. In that case, move to the nearest safe place.

17
• Use a doorway for shelter only if it is in close proximity to you and if you
know it is a strongly supported, load bearing doorway.
• Be aware that the electricity may go out.
If outdoors
• Stay there.
• Move away from buildings, streetlights, and utility wires.
• Once in the open, stay there until the shaking stops. The greatest danger
exists directly outside buildings, at exits, and alongside exterior walls.
Most earthquake-related casualties result from collapsing walls, flying
glass, and falling objects.
If in a moving vehicle
• Stop as quickly as safety permits and stay in the vehicle. Avoid stopping
near or under buildings, trees, overbridges, and utility wires.
• Proceed cautiously once the earthquake has stopped. Avoid roads,
bridges, or ramps that might have been damaged by the earthquake.
If trapped under debris
• Do not light a match.
• Do not move about or kick up dust.
• Cover your mouth with a handkerchief or clothing.
• Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can locate you. Use a whistle if one is
available. Shout only as a last resort. Shouting can cause you to inhale
dangerous amounts of dust.
After an Earthquake
• The secondary shockwaves are usually less violent than the main quake
but can be strong enough to do additional damage to weakened
structures..
• Listen for the latest emergency information.
• Use the telephone only for emergency calls.
• Beware of objects that can fall off shelves.

18
• Stay away unless your assistance has been specifically requested by
police, fire, or relief organizations. Return home only when authorities
say it is safe.
• When local authorities issue a tsunami warning, assume that a series of
dangerous waves is on the way. Stay away from the beach.
• Help your neighbors who may require special assistance such as infants,
the elderly, and people with disabilities. Give first aid where appropriate.
Do not move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate
danger of further injury. Call for help.
• Leave the area if you smell gas or fumes from other chemicals.
• Inspect the entire length of chimneys for damage. Unnoticed damage
could lead to a fire.
• Inspect utilities:
o Check for gas leaks.
o Look for electrical system damage.
o Check for sewage and water lines damage.

HURRICANES
A severe tropical cyclone with wind speeds in excess of 74 mph. As they
move ashore, they bring high winds, tornadoes, torrential rains, and flooding.
A hurricane is a type of tropical cyclone, the generic term for a low
pressure system that generally forms in the tropics.
Hurricanes can cause catastrophic damage to coastlines and several
hundred miles inland. Winds can exceed 155 miles per hour. Hurricanes and
tropical storms can also spawn tornadoes and microbursts, create storm surges
along the coast, and cause extensive damage from heavy rainfall.
Hurricanes are classified into five categories based on their wind speed,
central pressure, and damage potential. Category Three and higher hurricanes are
considered major hurricanes, though Categories One and Two are still extremely
dangerous and warrant your full attention.

19
Categories of Hurricanes
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
Scale Sustained
Storm
Number Winds Damage
Surge
(Category) (MPH)
1 74-95 Minimal: Unanchored mobile homes, 4-5 feet
vegetation and signs.
2 96-110 Moderate: All mobile homes, roofs, 6-8 feet
small crafts, flooding.
3 111-130 Extensive: Small buildings, low-lying 9-12 feet
roads cut off.
4 131-155 Extreme: Roofs destroyed, trees 13-18 feet
down, roads cut off, mobile homes
destroyed. Beach homes flooded.
5 More than Catastrophic: Most buildings Greater
155 destroyed. Vegetation destroyed. than 18 feet
Major roads cut off. Homes flooded.

Hurricanes can produce widespread torrential rains. Floods are the deadly
and destructive result. Excessive rain can trigger landslides or mud slides,
especially in mountainous regions. Flash flooding can occur due to intense
rainfall. Flooding on rivers and streams may persist for several days or more
after the storm.
Between 1970 and 1999, more people lost their lives from freshwater
inland flooding associated with land falling tropical cyclones than from any
other weather hazard related to tropical cyclones.
Storm Surge
“The greatest potential for loss of life related to a hurricane is from the
storm surge.” Storm surge is simply water that is pushed toward the shore by
the force of the winds swirling around the storm. The rise in water level can
cause severe flooding in coastal areas, particularly when the storm tide coincides
with the normal high tides.
20
The level of surge in a particular area is also determined by the slope of
the continental shelf. Storm tides, waves, and currents in confined harbors
severely damage ships, marinas, and pleasure boats.
In general, the more intense the storm, and the closer a community is to
the right-front quadrant, the larger the area that must be evacuated. The problem
is always the uncertainty about how intense the storm will be when it finally
makes landfall. Emergency managers and local officials balance that uncertainty
with the human and economic risks to their community. This is why a rule of
thumb for emergency managers is to plan for a storm one category higher than
what is forecast. This is a reasonable precaution to help minimize the loss of life
from hurricanes.

High Winds
The intensity of a landfalling hurricane is expressed in terms of categories
that relate wind speeds and potential damage. According to the Saffir-Simpson
Hurricane Scale, a Category 1 hurricane has lighter winds compared to storms in
higher categories. A Category 4 hurricane would have winds between 131 and
155 mph and, on the average, would usually be expected to cause 100 times the
damage of the Category 1 storm. Depending on circumstances, less intense
storms may still be strong enough to produce damage, particularly in areas that
have not prepared in advance.
Hurricane-force winds can easily destroy poorly constructed buildings
and temporary sheds. Debris such as signs, roofing material, and small items left
outside become flying missiles in hurricanes. Extensive damage to trees, towers,
water and underground utility lines (from uprooted trees), and fallen poles cause
considerable disruption.
High-rise buildings are also vulnerable to hurricane-force winds,
particularly at the higher levels since wind speed tends to increase with height.
It is not uncommon for high-rise buildings to suffer a great deal of damage due
to windows being blown out. Consequently, the areas around these buildings can
be very dangerous.

21
Before a Hurricane
To prepare for a hurricane, you should take the following measures:
• Make plans to secure your property. Permanent storm shutters offer the
best protection for windows.
• Be sure trees and shrubs around your home are well trimmed.

Evacuation Plans
When community evacuations become necessary, local officials provide
information to the public through the media. In some circumstances, other
warning methods, such as sirens or telephone calls, also are used. Additionally,
there may be circumstances under which you and your family feel threatened or
endangered and you need to leave your home, school, or workplace to avoid
these situations. The amount of time you have to leave will depend on the
hazard.
Evacuation Guidelines
Always: If time permits:
Keep a full tank of gas in your car if an Gather your disaster supplies kit.
evacuation seems likely. Gas stations may
be closed during emergencies and unable to
pump gas during power outages. Plan to
take one car per family to reduce
congestion and delay.
Make transportation arrangements with Wear sturdy shoes and clothing
friends or your local government if you do that provides some protection,
not own a car. such as long pants, long-sleeved shirts,
and a cap.
Listen to a battery-powered radio and Secure your home:
follow local evacuation instructions. Close and lock doors and windows.
Listen to a battery-powered radio and Unplug electrical equipment, such as
follow local evacuation instructions. radios and televisions, and small
appliances, such as toasters and
microwaves. Leave freezers and
refrigerators plugged in unless there is a
risk of flooding.

22
Gather your family and go if you are Let others know where you are going.
instructed to evacuate immediately.
Leave early enough to avoid being trapped
by severe weather.
Follow recommended evacuation routes.
Do not take shortcuts; they may be blocked.

Be alert for washed-out roads and bridges.


Do not drive into flooded areas.
Stay away from downed power lines.

Actions to be initiated
• Determine whether you live in a potential flood zone.
• If advised to evacuate, do so immediately.
• Keep abreast of road conditions through the news media.
• Move to a safe area before access is cut off by flood water.
• Do not attempt to cross flowing water. As little as six inches of water may
cause you to lose control of your vehicle.
• Develop a flood emergency action plan.
• Have flood insurance.
Be Prepared
“Preventing the loss of life and minimizing the damage to property from
hurricanes are responsibilities that are shared by all.”
Disaster Prevention should include:
• Developing a Family Plan
• Creating a Disaster Supply Kit
• Having a Place to Go
• Securing your Home
• Having a Pet Plan

23
Family Disaster Plan
• Discuss the type of hazards that could affect your family. Know
your home’s vulnerability to storm surge, flooding and wind.
• Locate a safe room or the safest areas in your home for each
hurricane hazard. In certain circumstances the safest areas may
not be your home but within your community.
• Determine escape routes from your home and places to meet.
These should be measured in tens of miles rather than hundreds
of miles.
• Have an out-of-state friend as a family contact, so all your
family members have a single point of contact.
• Make a plan now for what to do with your pets if you need to
evacuate.
• Post emergency telephone numbers by your phones and make
sure your children know how and when to call 100.
• Check your insurance coverage.
• Stock non-perishable emergency supplies and a Disaster Supply
Kit.
Disaster Supply Kit
 Food, water and clothing
 Blankets / Pillows etc.
 First Aid Kit / Medicines
 Special items for babies and the elderly
 Toiletries
 Flashlight
 Fully charged cell phone
 Cash and Credit Cards
 Important documents such as insurance, medical records,
bank passbook etc. in a waterproof container
Flood Insurance
The Flood Insurance Program, is a pre-disaster flood mitigation and
insurance protection program designed to reduce the escalating cost of disasters.

24
CYCLONE
The intense tropical storms are known in different part of the world by
different names. In the pacific ocean, they are called “typhoons”. In the Indian
ocean they are called Cyclones and over north Atlantic they are called Hurricane.
Among various natural calamities, tropical cyclones are known to claim a higher
share of death and destruction world over. Records show that about 80 tropical
cyclones formed over the globe every year. India has a vast coast line which is
frequently affected by tropical cyclones causing heavy loss of human lives and
property. Cyclone occurs usually between April and May (Called pre monsoon
cyclonic storms) and between October and December (Called post monsoon
cyclonic storms). While cyclonic storms cannot be prevented, the loss of lives
and damage to the properties can be mitigated, if prompt action is taken after
receiving timely warnings.
Cyclone Warning
Meterologist have been using satellite images for monitoring storms for
about 30 years. One of the most important applications in this endeavour is to
determine the strength and intensity of a storm. In the late 1960’s meteorologist
began observing tropical cyclones at more frequent intervals. There exists a very
efficient cyclone warning system in India which is comparable to the best known
in the world. The approach essentially involves the prediction of the track and
intensity of the cyclone using conventional as well as satellite and radar-based
techniques.
Immediate steps to be taken after the hit of cyclone
 Make sufficient stock of food grains or food pockets, kerosene lanterns
and other dry food commodities are available for distribution to the
victims.
 A large number of people are likely to become homeless as their houses
may wash away or get destroyed. Hence make arrangements for proper
shelter material such as Talpatris, tents, water, blankets, utensils, etc.,
 Medicines (pain killer, surgical cotton and bandage materials,
orthopedic material, etc.,) dry cell batteries/ torches, solar operated
equipments such as lights, pumps and other related equipments, etc.,

25
 All the government vehicles should be kept in road-worthy condition for
putting them to use in the emergency.
 Power failure is likely to occur in affected areas. Hence a list of
generators available with the cinema theaters and other undertakings
should be maintained by the officials of state electricity board and
advance action taken immediately to procure the when necessity arises.
 Communication facilities are likely to get disrupted (both land and
telecommunications ). Hence make immediate arrangements for satellite
phones, mobile phones, etc.,
 Spare road market stores, steel poles, bamboos, G.C.sheets, and slotted
stripes of metals(to be laid on chured up road surface for better
transportation).
 Double handle shows ( for cutting fallen trees ) shovels, candles, land
hailers, hose pipes, first aid kits, cyclone duty sign boards, rodes,
asbestos, sheets, torch lights, detty, cans, empty oil drums, gunny bags,
and sand bags, polythene bags,( for dropping supplies ), buckets.

TORNADOES
Tornadoes are nature’s most violent storms. A tornado appears as a
rotating, funnel-shaped cloud that extends from a thunderstorm to the ground
with whirling winds that can reach 300 miles per hour. Damage paths can be in
excess of one mile wide and 50 miles long. Spawned from powerful
thunderstorms, tornadoes can cause fatalities and devastate a neighborhood in
seconds. Every state is at some risk from this hazard.
Some tornadoes are clearly visible, while rain or nearby low-hanging
clouds obscure others. Occasionally, tornadoes develop so rapidly that it
becomes difficult to give advance warning.
Before a tornado hits, the wind may die down and the air may become
very still. A cloud of debris can mark the location of a tornado even if a funnel is
not visible. Tornadoes generally occur near the trailing edge of a thunderstorm.
It is not uncommon to see clear, sunlit skies behind a tornado.

26
The following are facts about tornadoes:
• They may strike quickly, with little or no warning.
• They may appear nearly transparent until dust and debris are picked up or
a cloud forms in the funnel.
• Tornadoes have been known to move in any direction.
• The average forward speed of a tornado is 30 MPH, but may vary from
stationary to 70 MPH.
• Tornadoes can accompany tropical storms and hurricanes as they move
onto land.
• Waterspouts are tornadoes that form over water.
• Tornadoes are most frequently reported east of the Rocky Mountains
during winter and summer months.
• Tornadoes are most likely to occur between 3 p.m. and 9 p.m., but can
occur at any time.
Following steps to be taken to protect from severe thunderstorms
developed from tornadoes:
1. Find the best shelter like ditches, caves etc. to protect from flying debris.
2. Cover your head with your hands.
3. Learn how to recognize a tornado.
4. Do not depend on hearing a tornado
Things to be done before a Tornado
Be alert to changing weather conditions.
• Listen to weather broadcasting or television news for the latest
information.
• Look for approaching storms
• Look for the following danger signs:
o Dark, often greenish sky
o Large hail
o A large, dark, low-lying cloud (particularly if rotating)
o Loud roar

27
If you see approaching storms or any of the danger signs, be prepared to
take shelter immediately.
During a Tornado
If you are under a tornado warning, seek shelter immediately.

If you are in Then

A structure (e.g. Go to a pre-designated shelter area such as a safe


residence, small building, room, basement, storm cellar, or the lowest building
school, nursing home, level. If there is no basement, go to the center of an
hospital, factory, interior room on the lowest level (closet, interior
shopping center, high-rise hallway) away from corners, windows, doors, and
building) outside walls. Put as many walls as possible between
you and the outside. Get under a sturdy table and use
your arms to protect your head and neck. Do not
open windows.

Get out immediately and go to the lowest floor of a


A vehicle, trailer, or sturdy, nearby building or a storm shelter. Mobile
temporary sheds homes, even if tied down, offer little protection from
tornadoes.

Lie flat in a nearby ditch or depression and cover


your head with your hands. Be aware of the potential
for flooding.
Do not get under an overpass or bridge. You are safer
in a low, flat location.
Outside with no shelter
Never try to outrun a tornado in urban or congested
areas in a car or truck. Instead, leave the vehicle
immediately for safe shelter.
Watch out for flying debris. Flying debris from
tornadoes causes most fatalities and injuries.

28
Recovering from Disaster
Recovering from a disaster is usually a gradual process. Safety is a
primary issue, as are mental and physical well-being. If assistance is available,
knowing how to access it makes the process faster and less stressful.
Ensure your safety
Find out how to care for your safety after a disaster
Your first concern is your family’s health and safety.
Aiding the Injured
Check for injuries. Do not attempt to move seriously injured persons
unless they are in immediate danger of death or further injury. If you must move
an unconscious person, first stabilize the neck and back, then call for help
immediately.
• If the victim is not breathing, carefully position the victim for artificial
respiration, clear the airway, and commence mouth-to-mouth
resuscitation.
• Maintain body temperature with blankets. Be sure the victim does not
become overheated.
• Never try to feed liquids to an unconscious person.
Health
• Be aware of exhaustion. Do not try to do too much at once. Set priorities
and pace yourself. Get enough rest.
• Drink plenty of clean water and eat well.
• Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and clean water often when
working in debris.
Safety Issues
• Be aware of new safety issues created by the disaster. Watch for washed
out roads, contaminated buildings, contaminated water, gas leaks, broken
glass, damaged electrical wiring, and slippery floors.

29
• Inform local authorities about health and safety issues, including chemical
spills, downed power lines, washed out roads, smoldering insulation, and
dead animals.
Rebuilding Resources
• Learn what low-cost measures you can take to reduce your risk from
natural disasters.
• Learn what to do before, during and after a tornado. File claims with
insurance.
Community Rebuilding Resources
• Learn about the requirements and benefits of the Insurance. Find
resources for floodplain management including training, decision-making
guidance, applicable laws and ordinances, cost of compliance information
and technical assistance.
• Safer building design, construction, engineering and floodproofing
guidance for architects, builders, design professionals, engineers, home
installers, surveyors and state and local officials.
Before You Enter Your Home
When you go inside your home, there are certain things you should and
should not do. Enter the home carefully and check for damage. Be aware of
loose boards and slippery floors. The following items are other things to check
inside your home:
• Natural gas. If you smell gas or hear a hissing or blowing sound, open a
window and leave immediately. Turn off the main gas valve from the
outside, if you can. Call the gas company from a neighbor’s residence.
• Sparks, broken or frayed wires. Check the electrical system unless you
are wet, standing in water, or unsure of your safety. If possible, turn off
the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit breaker. If the situation is
unsafe, leave the building and call for help.
• Roof, foundation, and chimney cracks. If it looks like the building may
collapse, leave immediately.
• Appliances. If appliances are wet, turn off the electricity at the main fuse
box or circuit breaker. Then, unplug appliances and let them dry out.
30
• Water and sewage systems. If pipes are damaged, turn off the main
water valve.
• Food and other supplies. Throw out all food and other supplies which
have become contaminated.
• Open cabinets. Be alert for objects that may fall.
• Clean up household chemical spills. Disinfect items that may have been
contaminated by raw sewage, bacteria, or chemicals. Also clean
salvageable items.
• Call your insurance agent. Take pictures of damages. Keep good
records of repair and cleaning costs.
Seeking Disaster Assistance
Throughout the recovery period, it is important to monitor local radio or
television reports and other media sources for information about where to get
emergency housing, food, first aid, clothing, and financial assistance.
Direct assistance to individuals and families may come from any number
of organizations, including:
• Red Cross
• Salvation Army
• Other volunteer organizations
These organizations provide food, shelter, supplies and assist in clean-up efforts.
Lightning Hazards
Lightning and thunder are so common as to seem just part of the
background. Scientists cannot make accurate predictions of when and where
lightning will strike or how often, so for all practical purposes, it looks pretty
random. Anytime you are outdoors, you have increased your risk of being struck
by lightning. If you see clouds like this around, and there are dark cloud bases
overhead, then you are in a potentially dangerous place.
The first lightning flashes will coincide roughly with the time that rain
begins; in the mountains, a lot of that rain might evaporate before it reaches the
ground. Whether it reaches the surface or not, precipitating thunderstorms are a

31
threat to produce lightning! During mountain thunderstorms, the peaks can be
struck frequently and are no place for any wise hiker/camper to be.
Although lightning is seemingly random, there are some things you can
do to minimize your risks if you are caught in the open during a thunderstorm:
1. Avoid to be nearer the tallest object around, like an isolated tree.
2. There is no “warning sign” that will tell you reliably that lightning is
about to strike.
3. The time from the flash to the thunder is a rough measure of how distant
the lightning is.
4. Lightning can travel along the ground from a nearby strike to you. It can
also jump from nearby objects that are struck.
5. Avoid being near fence lines and power lines that lead into areas where
lightning is occurring.
6. Call for medical help immediately if someone is struck.
Flash Floods
After lightning, flash floods are the second most dangerous thunderstorm
hazard. Because virtually everyone has experienced rain, and most of the time
they have survived with no more than a soaking, it’s often difficult to get across
the idea of the hazards of flash floods. Unlike something exotic, like a tornado,
rain is both common and usually nothing more than a minor annoyance. An
extremely common way for people to die in flash floods is by driving into rising
waters. There are some ways to prevent this from being a problem:
1. Never drive into water if you don’t know exactly how deep the water is.
2. Do not underestimate the power of moving water.
3. If you have reason to believe that a flash flood may be in progress stay
out of low water crossings and streams entirely.
Flash floods occur most often late in the evening and at night. Obviously,
this also is not true every time, but it does mean that storms you see nearby or
experience directly at night are not something to be treated lightly.

32
Non-tornadic severe thunderstorms
Thunderstorms are considered severe whenever they produce one or more
of the following: a tornado, hail that is 3/4 in or larger in diameter, or wind gusts
(not associated with tornadoes) approaching 60 mph.
Hail
Large hailstones occasionally can be dangerous The diameter of a
hailstone is roughly 1 3/4 inches, can produce an injury, especially if it strikes a
person’s head. A hailstone with the diameter of a baseball (2 3/4 inches) falls at
a speed comparable to that of a pitched baseball can cause an injury that can be
serious, or even fatal.
Winds
Strong winds, not associated with a tornado, can become very dangerous,
especially if you are hiking or camping in a forest. Often the trees at high
elevation have shallow root systems and are fairly easy for the wind to blow
down.
Any thunderstorm can produce 30-50 mph winds, especially in the
mountains. Since mountain air tends to be dry, evaporating rain from mountain
storms produces cool air, which descends rapidly and spreads out.
In a few rare events, large hailstones combine with strong winds to
produce a dangerous barrage of wind-driven hail and damaging winds. Such
storms are rare, but certainly could be a serious threat to campers, who may not
hear any warnings that normally reach people by radio and television. If such a
storm develops, your only hope is to find shelter from the flying hail and debris.

VOLCANO
A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a reservoir of molten
rock below the surface of the earth. Unlike most mountains, which are pushed up
from below, volcanoes are built up by an accumulation of their own eruptive
products. When pressure from gases within the molten rock becomes too great,
an eruption occurs. Eruptions can be quiet or explosive. There may be lava
flows, flattened landscapes, poisonous gases, and flying rock and ash.

33
Because of their intense heat, lava flows are great fire hazards. Lava
flows destroy everything in their path, but most move slowly enough that people
can move out of the way.
Fresh volcanic ash, made of pulverized rock, can be abrasive, acidic,
gritty, gassy, and odorous. While not immediately dangerous to most adults, the
acidic gas and ash can cause lung damage to small infants, to older adults, and to
those suffering from severe respiratory illnesses. Volcanic ash also can damage
machinery, including engines and electrical equipment. Ash accumulations
mixed with water become heavy and can collapse roofs. Volcanic ash can affect
people hundreds of miles away from the cone of a volcano.
Sideways directed volcanic explosions, known as “lateral blasts,” can
shoot large pieces of rock at very high speeds for several miles. These
explosions can kill by impact, burial, or heat. They have been known to knock
down entire forests.
Volcanic eruptions can be accompanied by other natural hazards,
including earthquakes, mudflows and flash floods, rock falls and landslides, acid
rain, fire, and (under special conditions) tsunamis.
Things to be done before a Volcanic Eruption
• Add a pair of goggles and disposable breathing mask for each member of
the family to your disaster supply kit.
• Stay away from active volcano sites.
• If you live near a known volcano, active or dormant, be ready to evacuate
at a moment’s notice.
During a Volcanic Eruption
If a volcano erupts where you live –
• Follow the evacuation order
• Be aware of mudflows.
• Avoid river valleys and low-lying areas.
• Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance -
infants, elderly people, and people with disabilities.

34
Protection from Falling Ash
• Listen to media for the latest emergency information.
• If you have a respiratory ailment, avoid contact with any amount of ash.
• Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
• Use goggles and wear eyeglasses instead of contact lenses.
• Use a dust mask or hold a damp cloth over your face to help with
breathing.
• Stay away from areas downwind from the volcano
• Stay indoors until the ash has settled
• Close doors, windows, and all ventilation in the house
• Clear heavy ash from flat or low-pitched roofs and rain gutters.
• Avoid driving in heavy ash fall
Ensure your safety
• Find out how to care for your safety after a disaster
• Your first concern after a disaster is your family’s health and safety.
Aiding the Injured
Check for injuries. Do not attempt to move seriously injured persons
unless they are in immediate danger of death or further injury. If you must move
an unconscious person, first stabilize the neck and back, then call for help
immediately.
• If the victim is not breathing, carefully position the victim for artificial
respiration, clear the airway, and commence mouth-to-mouth
resuscitation.
• Maintain body temperature with blankets. Be sure the victim does not
become overheated.
• Never try to feed liquids to an unconscious person.
Health
• Be aware of exhaustion. Don’t try to do too much at once. Set priorities
and pace yourself. Get enough rest.
• Drink plenty of clean water and eat well

35
• Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and clean water often when
working in debris.
Safety Issues
• Be aware of new safety issues created by the disaster. Watch for washed
out roads, contaminated buildings, contaminated water, gas leaks, broken
glass, damaged electrical wiring, and slippery floors.
• Inform local authorities about health and safety issues, including chemical
spills, downed power lines, washed out roads, smoldering insulation, and
dead animals.

WILDFIRE
The threat of wildland fires for people living near wildland areas or using
recreational facilities in wilderness areas is real. Dry conditions at various times
of the year and in various parts of the country greatly increase the potential for
wildland fires.
Advance planning and knowing how to protect buildings in these areas
can lessen the devastation of a wildland fire. There are several safety
precautions that you can take to reduce the risk of fire losses. Protecting your
home from wildfire is your responsibility. To reduce the risk, you will need to
consider the fire resistance of your home, the topography of your property and
the nature of the vegetation close by.
Learn and teach safe fire practices
• Build fires away from nearby trees or bushes.
• Always have a way to extinguish the fire quickly and completely.
• Install smoke detectors on every level of your home and near sleeping
areas.
• Never leave a fire--even a cigarette--burning unattended.
• Avoid open burning completely, and especially during dry season.
Always be ready for an emergency evacuation.
Evacuation may be the only way to protect your family in a wildfire.
Know where to go and what to bring with you. You should plan several escape
routes in case roads are blocked by a wildfire.
36
All vegetation is fuel for a wildfire, though some trees and shrubs are
more flammable than others. To reduce the risk, you will need to modify or
eliminate brush, trees and other vegetation near your home. The greater the
distance is between your home and the vegetation, the greater the protection.
Protect Your Home
• Remove debris from under sun decks and porches.
• Cover house vents with wire mesh.
• Install spark arrestors in chimneys and stovepipes.
• Use fire resistant siding.
• Choose safety glass for windows and sliding glass doors.
• Prepare for water storage; develop an external water supply such as a
small pond, well or pool.
Other safety measures to consider at the time of construction or remodeling.
• Choose locations wisely; canyon and slope locations increase the risk of
exposure to wildland fires.
• Use fire-resistant materials when building, renovating, or retrofitting
structures.
• Avoid designs that include wooden decks and patios.
• Use non-combustible materials for the roof.
• The roof is especially vulnerable in a wildfire.
• Materials that are more fire resistant include single ply membranes,
fiberglass shingles, slate, metal, clay and concrete tile. Clear gutters of
leaves and debris.
Things to be done before a Wildfire
Before the Fire Approaches Your House
• Evacuate your pets and all family members who are not essential to
preparing the home. Anyone with medical or physical limitations and the
young and the elderly should be evacuated immediately.
• Wear Protective Clothing.
• Remove Combustibles.

37
• Remove flammable drapes and curtains. Close all shutters, blinds or
heavy non-combustible window coverings to reduce radiant heat.
• Shut off any natural gas, propane or fuel oil supplies at the source.
• Connect garden hoses for spraying water.
• Place a ladder against the house in clear view.
• Back your car into the driveway and roll up the windows.
• Valuables. Place valuable papers and articles inside the car in the garage,
ready for quick departure.
Preparing to Leave
• Turn on outside lights and leave a light on in every room to make the
house more visible in heavy smoke.
• Leave doors and windows closed but unlocked. It may be necessary for
firefighters to gain quick entry into your home to fight fire.
During a Wildfire
If You Are Trapped at Home
• Stay calm. As the fire front approaches, go inside the house. You can
survive inside. The fire will pass before your house burns down.
If Caught in the Open
• The best temporary shelter is in a non-fuel area.
• If a road is nearby, lie face down along the road cut or in the ditch on the
uphill side. Cover yourself with anything that will shield you from the
fire’s heat.
After a Wildfire
• Check the roof immediately. Put out any roof fires, sparks or embers.
Check the attic for hidden burning sparks.
• If you have a fire, get your neighbors to help fight it.
• The water you put into your pool or hot tub and other containers will
come in handy now.
• For several hours after the fire, maintain a “fire watch.” Re-check for
smoke and sparks throughout the house.

38
FIRE
A considerable number of people die or injure every year, due to fire.
Similarly the property loss due to fire is also considerable.
Fire spreads quickly; there is no time to gather valuables or make a phone
call. In just two minutes, a fire can become life-threatening. In five minutes, a
residence can be engulfed in flames.
Heat and smoke from fire can be more dangerous than the flames.
Inhaling the super-hot air can sear the lungs. Fire produces poisonous gases that
makes disoriented and drowsy. Instead of being awakened by a fire, you may fall
into a deeper sleep. Asphyxiation is the leading cause of fire deaths, exceeding
burns by a three-to-one ratio.
Things to be done before a Fire
The following are things you can do to protect yourself, your family, and
your property in the event of a fire:
Install Smoke Alarms
Escaping from the Fire
• Review escape routes with your family.
• Make sure security gratings on windows have a fire safety opening
feature so they can be easily opened from the inside.
• Consider escape ladders if your residence has more than one level, and
ensure that burglar bars and other antitheft mechanisms that block outside
window entry are easily opened from the inside.
• Teach family members to stay low to the floor (where the air is safer in a
fire) when escaping from a fire.
Flammable Items
• Never use gasoline, benzine, naptha, or similar flammable liquids indoors.
• Store flammable liquids in approved containers in well-ventilated storage
areas.
• Never smoke near flammable liquids.
• Discard all rags or materials that have been soaked in flammable liquids
after you have used them.
39
Heating Sources
• Be careful when using alternative heating sources.
• Place heaters at least three feet away from flammable materials. Make
sure the floor and nearby walls are properly insulated.
• Use only the type of fuel designated for your unit and follow
manufacturer’s instructions.
• Store ashes in a metal container outside and away from your residence.
• Keep open flames away from walls, furniture, drapery, and flammable
items.
• Keep a screen in front of the fireplace.
• Have heating units inspected and cleaned annually by a certified
specialist.
Matches and Smoking
• Keep matches and lighters at a safe distance.
• Never smoke in bed or when drowsy or medicated. Provide smokers with
deep, sturdy ashtrays. Douse cigarette and cigar butts with water before
disposal.
Electrical Wiring
• Have the electrical wiring in your residence checked by an electrician.
• Inspect extension cords for frayed or exposed wires or loose plugs.
• Make sure outlets have cover plates and no exposed wiring.
• Make sure wiring does not run under rugs, over nails, or across high-
traffic areas.
• Make sure insulation does not touch bare electrical wiring.
Others
• Sleep with your door closed.
• Install fire extinguishers in your residence and teach family members how
to use them.
• Consider installing an automatic fire sprinkler system in your residence.
• Ask your local fire department to inspect your residence for fire safety
and prevention.

40
During a Fire
If your clothes catch on fire, you should:
• Stop, drop, and roll - until the fire is extinguished. Running only makes
the fire burn faster.
To escape from a fire, you should:
• Check closed doors for heat before you open them. If you are escaping
through a closed door, use the back of your hand to feel the heat on the
top of the door, the doorknob, and the crack between the door and door
frame before you open it. Never use the palm of your hand or fingers to
test for heat - burning those areas could impair your ability to escape a
fire (i.e., ladders and crawling).
• Crawl low under any smoke to your exit - heavy smoke and poisonous
gases collect first along the ceiling.
• Close doors behind you as you escape to delay the spread of the fire.
• Stay out once you are safely out. Do not reenter.
After a Fire
The following are guidelines for different circumstances in the period following
a fire:
• If you are with burn victims, or are a burn victim yourself, cool and cover
burns to reduce chance of further injury or infection.
• If you detect heat or smoke when entering a damaged building, evacuate
immediately.
• If you are a tenant, contact the owner.

WINTER STORMS AND EXTREME COLD


Heavy snowfall and extreme cold can immobilize an entire region. Even
areas that normally experience mild winters can be hit with a major snowstorm
or extreme cold. Winter storms can result in flooding, storm surge, closed
highways, blocked roads, downed power lines and hypothermia.

41
Before Winter Storms and Extreme Cold
Add the following supplies to your disaster supplies kit:
• Rock salt to melt ice on walkways
• Sand to improve traction
• Snow shovels and other snow removal equipment.

Prepare your home and family


• Prepare for possible isolation in your home by having sufficient heating
fuel.
• Insulate pipes with insulation or newspapers and plastic and allow faucets
to drip a little during cold weather to avoid freezing.
• Keep fire extinguishers on hand, and make sure everyone in your house
knows how to use them.
• Learn how to shut off water valves (in case a pipe bursts).
• Know ahead of time what you should do to help elderly or disabled
friends, neighbors or employees.
• Engage an approved Engineer to check the structural ability of the roof to
sustain unusually heavy weight from the accumulation of snow - or water.
Dress for the Weather
• Wear several layers of loose fitting, lightweight, warm clothing rather
than one layer of heavy clothing. The outer garments should be tightly
woven and water repellent.
• Wear a hat.
• Cover your mouth with a scarf to protect your lungs.
During a Winter Storm
• Listen to media for weather reports and emergency information.
• Eat regularly and drink ample fluids, but avoid caffeine and alcohol.
• If the pipes freeze, remove any insulation or layers of newspapers and
wrap pipes in rags. Completely open all faucets and pour hot water over
the pipes, starting where they were most exposed to the cold.

42
If you are outdoors
• Avoid overexertion when shoveling snow.
• Cover your mouth to protect your lungs from extremely cold
• Change wet clothing frequently to prevent a loss of body heat.
• Watch for signs of frostbite.
• Watch for signs of hypothermia. These include uncontrollable shivering,
memory loss, disorientation, incoherence, slurred speech, drowsiness, and
apparent exhaustion.
DROUGHT
Drought is the single most important weather-related natural disaster
often aggravated by human action. Drought’s beginning is subtle, its progress is
insidious and its effects can be devastating. Drought may start any time, last
indefinitely and attain many degrees of severity. Since it affects very large areas
for months and years it has a serious impact on economy, destruction of
ecological resources, food shortages and starvation of millions of people.
Abnormalities in the monsoon precipitation, in terms of spatial and temporal
variation especially on the late on set of monsoon prolonged break and early
withdrawal of monsoon; drought is a frequent phenomenon over many parts of
India.
Drought Preparedness
Drought mitigation involves three phases, namely, preparedness phase,
prevention phases and relief phases. In case of drought preparedness,
identification of drought prone areas information on land use and land cover,
waste lands, forest cover and soils is a pre-requisite. Space-borne multi spectral
measurements hold a great promise in providing such information.
Drought Relief
The State Governments are primarily responsible for both short-term and
long-term relief management. The NADAMS provide detailed assessment of
drought conditions for providing short-term relief.
Long-term Management
Several chronically drought-affected districts in India experience acute
shortage of drinking and irrigation water. Essentially aims at generating locate-

43
specific action plan for development of land and water resources on a micro
watershed basis in drought-prone areas of the country using IRS data.
For providing safe drinking water to rural masses, a nationwide project
titled “National Drinking Water Technology Mission”, was launched

FLOOD
Floods are one of the most common hazards. Flood effects can be local,
impacting a neighborhood or community, or very large, affecting entire river
basins and many states. India is the worst flood-affected country in the world
Bangladesh and accounts for one-fifth of the global death count due to floods.
About 40 million hectares or nearly 1/8 th of India’s geographical area is flood-
prone. An estimated 8 million hectares of land are affected annually. The
cropped area affected annually ranges from 3.5 million ha during normal floods
to 10 million ha during worst flood. A flood control measure consists mainly of
construction of new embankments, drainage channels and a forestation to save
546 towns and 4700 villages.
Flash floods can develop quickly, without any visible signs of rain. Flash
floods often have a dangerous wall of roaring water that carries rocks, mud, and
other debris and can sweep away most things in its path. Flooding can also occur
when a dam breaks, producing effects similar to flash floods.
Before a Flood
To prepare for a flood, you should:
• Avoid building in a floodplain unless you elevate and reinforce your
home.
• Elevate the furnace, water heater, and electric panel if susceptible to
flooding.
• Install “check valves” in sewer traps to prevent flood water from backing
up into the drains of your home.
• Construct barriers to stop floodwater from entering the building.
• Seal walls in basements with waterproofing compounds to avoid seepage.
The smartest thing you can do to prepare for floods is purchase flood insurance.

44
During a Flood
If a flood is likely in your area, you should:
• Listen to media for information.
• If there is any possibility of a flash flood, move immediately to higher
ground. Do not wait for instructions to move.
• Be aware of streams, drainage channels, canyons, and other areas known
to flood suddenly. Flash floods can occur in these areas with or without
such typical warnings as rain clouds or heavy rain.

After a Flood
The following are guidelines for the period following a flood:
• Listen for news reports to learn whether the community’s water supply is
safe to drink.
• Avoid floodwaters; water may be contaminated by oil, gasoline, or raw
sewage. Water may also be electrically charged from underground or
downed power lines.
• Avoid moving water.
• Be aware of areas where floodwaters have receded. Roads may have
weakened and could collapse under the weight of a car.
• Stay away from downed power lines, and report them to the Electricity
Board.
• Return home only when authorities indicate it is safe.
• Stay out of any building if it is surrounded by floodwaters.
• Use extreme caution when entering buildings; there may be hidden
damage, particularly in foundations.
• Service damaged septic tanks, pits, and leaching systems as soon as
possible. Damaged sewage systems are serious health hazards.
• Clean and disinfect everything that got wet.

45
TSUNAMI
Tsunamis (pronounced soo-ná-mees), also known as seismic sea waves
(mistakenly called “tidal waves”), are a series of enormous waves created by an
underwater disturbance such as an earthquake, landslide, volcanic eruption, or
meteorite. A tsunami can move hundreds of miles per hour in the open ocean
and smash into land with waves as high as 100 feet or more.
From the area where the tsunami originates, waves travel outward in all
directions. Once the wave approaches the shore, it builds in height. The
topography of the coastline and the ocean floor will influence the size of the
wave. There may be more than one wave and the succeeding one may be larger
than the one before. That is why a small tsunami at one beach can be a giant
wave a few miles away. All tsunamis are potentially dangerous, even though
they may not damage every coastline they strike.
Earthquake-induced movement of the ocean floor most often generates
tsunamis. If a major earthquake or landslide occurs close to shore, the first wave
in a series could reach the beach in a few minutes, even before a warning is
issued. Areas are at greater risk if they are less than 25 feet above sea level and
within a mile of the shoreline. Drowning is the most common cause of death
associated with a tsunami. Tsunami waves and the receding water are very
destructive to structures in the run-up zone. Other hazards include flooding,
contamination of drinking water, and fires from gas lines or ruptured tanks.
TSUNAMI RISK IN INDIA AND ITS ASSESSMENT
Prior to the Tsunami of 26 December 2004, the most destructive Pacific-
wide Tsunami of recent history was generated along the coast of Chile on May
22, 1960. No accurate assessment of the damage and deaths attributable to this
Tsunami along the coast of Chile can be given; however, all coastal towns
between the 36th and 44th (latitude) parallels either were destroyed or heavily
damaged by the action of the waves and the quake. The combined Tsunami and
earthquake toll included 2,000 killed, 3000 injured 2,000,000 homeless and $550
million damages. Off Corral, the waves were estimated to be 20.4 meters (67
feet) high. The Tsunami caused 61 deaths in Hawaii, 20 in the Philippines, and
100 or more in Japan. Estimated damages were $50 million in Japan, $24 million
Hawaii and several millions along the west coast of the United States and

46
Canada. Wave heights varied from slight oscillations in some areas to range of
12.2 meters (40 feet) at Pitcairn Islands; 10.7 meters (35 feet) at Hilo, Hawaii
and 6.1 meters (20 feet) at various places in Japan.
The hydrographic survey in Japan after the great Kwato earthquake of
September 1, 1923 showed that vertical displacements of the order of 100 meters
had occurred over a large area of sea floor. Tsunamis are very common over the
Pacific Ocean because it is surrounded on all sides by a seismically active belt.
In the Hawain Islands, Tsunamis approach from all directions, namely, from
Japan, the Aleutian Islands and from South America.
Tsunamis in India
The Indian coastal belt has not recorded many Tsunamis in the past.
Waves accompanying earthquake activity have been reported over the North Bay
of Bengal. During an earthquake in 1881 which had its epicenter near the centre
of the Bay of Bengal, Tsunamis were reported. The earthquake of 1941 in Bay of
Bengal caused some damage in Andaman region. This was unusual because
most Tsunamis are generated by shocks which occur at or near the flanks of
continental slopes. During the earthquakes of 1819 and 1845 near the Rann of
Kutch, there were rapid movements of water into the sea. There is no mention of
waves resulting from these earthquakes along the coast adjacent to the Arabian
sea, and it is unlikely that Tsunamis were generated. Further west, in the Persian
Gulf, the 1945 Mekran earthquake (magnitude 8.1) generated Tsunami of 12 to
15 metres height. This caused a huge deluge, with considerable loss of life and
property at Ormara and Pasi. The estimated height of Tsunami at Gulf of
Combay was 15m but no report of damage is available. The estimated height of
waves was about 2 metres at Mumbai, where boats were taken away from their
moorings and casualties occurred. A list showing the Tsunami that affected
Indian coast in the past is given in Table-3.2. The information given in the Table
is sketchy and authenticity cannot be confirmed except the Tsunami of 26th
December 2004.
Above facts indicate the coastal region of Gujarat is vulnerable to
Tsunamis from great earthquakes in Mekran coast. Earthquake of magnitude 7 or
more may be dangerous. It may be noted that all earthquake do not generate
Tsunami. Research is still being undertaken in this field. For the Indian region,
two potential sources have been identified, namely Mekran coast and Andaman
to Sumatra region. Model generated Travel time of 26th December Tsunami is

47
shown in Fig 3.1. Fig. 3.2 indicates the wave heights generated by the model
which show the wave heights in Indian coast could have been between 2-4
meter. (Actual on some coasts was observed more than 4m)
Table : A Global List of Some Historical Tsunami Deaths
Year Place No. of Lives Lost
1692 Port Royal, Jamaica 3000
1703 Tsunamis in Honshu, Japan following a large 5000
earthquake
1707 38 foot Tsunami, Japan 30,000
1741 Volcanic eruptions 30 feet wave in Japan 1400
1753 Combined effect of an earthquake and Tsunami 50,000
in Lisbon, Portugal
1783 A Tsunami in Italy 30,000
1868 Tsunami Chile and Hawaii 25,000
1883 Krakatoa Volcanic explosion and Tsunami 36,000
Indonesia
1896 Tsunami Sanrika, Japan 27,000
1933 Tsunami, Sanrika Japan 3,000
1946 32 foot high waves in Hilo, Hawaii 159
1960 Along the coast of Chille 5,000
1946 Honsu, Japan Earthquake Spawan Tsunami 2,000
1964 195 foot waves engulf Kodiak, Alaska after the 131
Good Friday Earthquake
1976 Philippines 8,000
1977 Indonesia 189
1979 Indonesia 540
1979 New Guinea 100
1979 Columbia 500
1983 Sea of Japan 100
1998 Papua New Guinea 179

48
List of Tsunami that Affected India: Date Remarks
Year Place Level of Intensity
12 April, 1762 Earthquake in bay of Tsunami wave of 1.8 m at
Bengal Bangladesh coast
19th Aug. 1868 Earthquake Mag. 7.5 in Tsunami run-up 4.0 m at Port Blair
Bay of Bengal.
31st Dec. 1881 Earthquake of mag 7.9 in Tsunami run-up level of 0.76 m at
the Bay of Bengal Car Nicobar, 0.3 m at
Nagapattinam, 1.22 m at Port Blair
27th Aug. 1883 Earthquake in the Karakatoa 1.5 m Tsunami at
western part of the Bay Madras, 0.6 m at Nagapattainam,
of Bengal 0.2 m at Arden 1884 Tsunamis at
Port Blair, Doublet (mouth of
Hoogly River)
26th June 1941 Some damage from East 8.1 quake in the Andaman Sea at
Coast was reported. 12.90 N,92.5o E. Tsunamis on the
east coast of India with amplitudes
from 0.75 to 1.25 m.
27th November Mekran Earthquake 12 to 15 m wave height in Ormara
1945 (Magnitude 8.1) in Pasi (Mekran coast)
Considerable damage in Mekran
coast. In Gulf of Cambay of
Gujarat wave heights of 11-11.5
meter was estimated. Damage
report from Gujarat coast was not
available. The estimated height of
waves at Mumbai was about 2
meters, boats were taken away
from their moorings and causality
occurred.
26th December Earthquake of magnitude In India, Andaman & Nicobar
2004 9.3 off north Sumatra Island, Tamil Nadu, Pondichery,
coast generated Andhra, Kerala affected about

49
devastating Tsunami 12400 people lose their lives &
waves affecting several 700 injured.
countries in South East
Asia.
Before and During a Tsunami
The following are guidelines for what you should do if a tsunami is likely
in your area:
• Turn on your radio/ television to learn if there is a tsunami warning if an
earthquake occurs and you are in a coastal area.
• Move inland to higher ground immediately and stay there.
• Stay away from the beach.
• If there is noticeable recession in water away from the shoreline this is
nature’s tsunami warning and it should be heeded, you should move away
immediately.
After a Tsunami
The following are guidelines for the period following a tsunami:
• Stay away from flooded and damaged areas until officials say it is safe to
return.
• Stay away from debris in the water; it may pose a safety hazard to boats
and people.
• Save yourself - not your possessions

Anatomy of the Disease


Disaster, irrespective of hour severe, they are generalized localized
events. For e.g., the earthquake in later the plague in Gujarat the 94 cm of
rainfall on a Angle day in Mumbai. But what happened on Dec 26 2004 however
had no boundaries. In the damage it inflicted on the country it was a truly
national disaster. Most of peninsular India as well as the Andaman and NICO
bar islands was engulfed by the Tsunami that Sunday morning. From
Kanyakumari to Mid-Andhra Pradesh with east to parts of the karalla in the west
the coastline was shuck by giant tidal waves, of a scale never witnessed in recent
history. The word tsunami confined eater to science books and specialized
artistes, became the staff of common parlance.

50
LANDSLIDE AND DEBRIS FLOW (MUDSLIDE)
Landslides constitute a major geologic hazard. Landslides pose serious
threats to highways and structures that support fisheries, tourism, timber
harvesting, mining, and energy production as well as general transportation.
Landslides may be small or large, slow or rapid. They are activated by:
• storms,
• earthquakes,
• volcanic eruptions,
• fires,
• alternate freezing or thawing,
• steepening of slopes by erosion or human modification.
Debris and mud flows are rivers of rock, earth, and other debris saturated
with water. They develop when water rapidly accumulates in the ground, during
heavy rainfall or rapid snowmelt, changing the earth into a flowing river of mud
or “slurry.” They can flow rapidly, striking with little or no warning at avalanche
speeds. They also can travel several miles from their source, growing in size as
they pick up trees, boulders, cars, and other materials.
Landslide problems can be caused by land mismanagement, particularly
in mountain, canyon, and coastal regions. In areas burned by forest and brush
fires, a lower threshold of precipitation may initiate landslides. Land-use zoning,
professional inspections, and proper design can minimize many landslide,
mudflow, and debris flow problems.
Before a Landslide or Debris Flow
Protect yourself from the effects of a landslide or debris flow:
• Do not build near steep slopes, close to mountain edges, near drainage
ways, or natural erosion valleys.
• Get information on landslides in your area, specific information on areas
vulnerable to landslides, and request a professional referral for a detailed
site analysis of your property, and corrective measures you can take, if
necessary.

51
Recognize Landslide Warning Signs
• Changes occur in your landscape such as patterns of storm-water drainage
on slopes, land movement, small slides, flows, or progressively leaning
trees.
• Doors or windows stick or jam for the first time.
• New cracks appear in plaster, tile, brick, or foundations.
• Outside walls, walks, or stairs begin pulling away from the building.
• Slowly developing, widening cracks appear on the ground or on paved
areas such as streets or driveways.
• Underground utility lines break.
• Bulging ground appears at the base of a slope.
• Water breaks through the ground surface in new locations.
• Fences, retaining walls, utility poles, or trees tilt or move.
• A faint rumbling sound that increases in volume is noticeable as the
landslide nears.
• The ground slopes downward in one direction and may begin shifting in
that direction under your feet.
• Unusual sounds, such as trees cracking or boulders knocking together,
might indicate moving debris.
• Collapsed pavement, mud, fallen rocks, and other indications of possible
debris flow can be seen when driving (embankments along roadsides are
particularly susceptible to landslides).
During a Landslide or Debris Flow
What you should do if a landslide or debris flow occurs:
• Stay alert and awake.
• If you are in areas susceptible to landslides and debris flows, consider
leaving if it is safe to do so.
• Listen for any unusual sounds that might indicate moving debris, such as
trees cracking or boulders knocking together.
• If you are near a stream or channel, be alert for any sudden increase or
decrease in water flow and for a change from clear to muddy water.
• Be especially alert when driving.

52
After a Landslide or Debris Flow
Guidelines for the period following a landslide:
• Stay away from the slide area. There may be danger of additional slides.
• Listen to media for the latest emergency information.
• Watch for flooding, which may occur after a landslide or debris flow.
• Check for injured and trapped persons near the slide, without entering the
direct slide area.
• Help a neighbor who may require special assistance
• Look for and report broken utility lines and damaged roadways and
railways to appropriate authorities.
• Check the building foundation, chimney, and surrounding land for
damage.
• Replant damaged ground as soon as possible

EXTREME HEAT/ SUN STROKE


Heat kills by pushing the human body beyond its limits. In extreme heat
and high humidity, evaporation is slowed and the body must work extra hard to
maintain a normal temperature.
Most heat disorders occur because the victim has been overexposed to
heat or has over-exercised for his or her age and physical condition. Older
adults, young children, and those who are sick or overweight are more likely to
succumb to extreme heat.
Conditions that can induce heat-related illnesses include stagnant
atmospheric conditions and poor air quality. Consequently, people living in
urban areas may be at greater risk from the effects of a prolonged heat wave than
those living in rural areas. Also, asphalt and concrete store heat longer and
gradually release heat at night, which can produce higher nighttime temperatures
known as the “urban heat island effect.”
Before Extreme Heat
To prepare for extreme heat, you should:
• Install window air conditioners

53
• Install temporary window reflectors (for use between windows and
drapes), such as aluminum foil-covered cardboard, to reflect heat back
outside.
• Weather-strip doors and sills to keep cool air in.
• Cover windows that receive morning or afternoon sun with drapes, shades
etc.
During a Heat Emergency
What you should do if the weather is extremely hot:
• Stay indoors as much as possible and limit exposure to the sun.
• Stay on the lowest floor out of the sunshine if air conditioning is not
available.
• Consider spending the warmest part of the day in public buildings such as
libraries, shopping malls, and other community facilities. Circulating air
can cool the body by increasing the perspiration rate of evaporation.
• Eat well-balanced, light, and regular meals.
• Drink plenty of water.
• Limit intake of alcoholic beverages.
• Dress in loose-fitting, lightweight, and light-colored clothes that cover as
much skin as possible.
• Protect face and head by wearing a wide-brimmed hat.

First Aid for Heat-Induced Illnesses


Extreme heat brings with it the possibility of heat-induced illnesses. The
following table lists these illnesses, their symptoms, and the first aid treatment.

Condition Symptoms First Aid

Sunburn Skin redness and pain, Take a shower using soap to remove
possible swelling, blisters, oils that may block pores, preventing
fever, headaches the body from cooling naturally.
Apply dry, sterile dressings to any
blisters, and get medical attention.

54
Heat Painful spasms, usually in Get the victim to a cooler location.
Cramps leg and abdominal muscles; Lightly stretch and gently massage
heavy sweating affected muscles to relieve spasms.
Give sips of up to a half glass of cool
water every 15 minutes. (Do not give
liquids with caffeine or alcohol.)
Discontinue liquids, if victim is
nauseated.

Heat Heavy sweating but skin Get victim to lie down in a cool
Exhaustion may be cool, pale, or place.
flushed. Weak pulse. Normal Loosen or remove clothing.
body temperature is possible, Apply cool, wet clothes.
but temperature will likely Fan or move victim to air-
rise. Fainting or dizziness, conditioned place. Give sips of water
nausea, vomiting, if victim is conscious.
exhaustion, and headaches Be sure water is consumed slowly.
are possible. Give half glass of cool water every
15 minutes.
Discontinue water if victim is
nauseated.
Seek immediate medical attention if
vomiting occurs.

Heat Stroke High body temperature Call 9-1-1 or emergency medical


(a severe (105+); hot, red, dry skin; services, or get the victim to a
medical rapid, weak pulse; and rapid hospital immediately. Delay can be
emergency) shallow breathing. Victim fatal.
will probably not sweat Move victim to a cooler
unless victim was sweating environment.
from recent strenuous Removing clothing
activity. Possible Try a cool bath, sponging, or wet
unconsciousness. sheet to reduce body temperature.
Watch for breathing problems.
Use extreme caution.
Use fans and air conditioners.

55
Review Questions:
1. What are the precautions to be taken during and after Earthquake?
2. What is Tsunami? As a disaster manager what role do you play after a
Tsunami?
3. As a disaster manager what steps would you take in case of disaster caused
by Fire?
4. What are the causes of Hurricane? What are its effects? What precautions to
be taken before a Hurricane?
5. What are the precautions to be taken in the case of Landslides?

  

56
UNIT–III
MAN-MADE DISASTERS
The disasters caused by human factors are called man-made disasters.
This may be either intentional with evil design or unintentional. In either case,
they result in major loss of human lives and properties. Hence adequate steps
need to be taken for managing such disasters.
The following are some of the man-made disasters:
HOUSEHOLD CHEMICAL EMERGENCY
Nearly every household uses products containing hazardous materials or
chemicals. Although the risk of a chemical accident is slight, knowing how to
handle these products and how to react during an emergency can reduce the risk
of injury.
There are probably many hazardous materials throughout your home.
Take stock of these materials and their location. Once you have located a
product, check the label and take the necessary steps to ensure that you are
using, storing, and disposing of the material according to the manufacturer’s
directions.
It is critical to store household chemicals in places where children cannot
access them. Remember that products such as aerosol cans of hair spray and
deodorant, nail polish and nail polish remover, toilet bowl cleaners, and furniture
polishes all fall into the category of hazardous materials.
Hazardous Household Items
Cleaning Products
• Utensils cleaners
• Wood and metal cleaners and polishes
• Toilet cleaners
• Tub, tile, shower cleaners
• Bleach (laundry)
Indoor Pesticides
• Cockroach, rat, ant, bug sprays and baits
• Flea, mosquito repellents
• Houseplant insecticides

57
Automotive Products
• Motor oil
• Fuel additives
• Carburetor and fuel injection cleaners
• Air conditioning refrigerants
• Starter fluids
• Automotive batteries
• Transmission and brake fluid
• Antifreeze
Workshop/Painting Supplies
• Adhesives and glues
• Furniture strippers
• Oil- or enamel-based paint
• Stains and finishes
• Paint thinners and turpentine
• Paint strippers and removers
• Fixatives and other solvents
• Batteries
• Fluorescent light bulbs
Other Flammable Products
• Compressed gas cylinders
• Kerosene
• Diesel fuel
• Lighter fluid

Before a Household Chemical Emergency


Guidelines for buying and storing hazardous household chemicals safely:
• Buy only as much of a chemical as you think you will use.
• Keep products containing hazardous materials in their original containers
and never remove the labels unless the container is corroding.
• Never store hazardous products in food containers.

58
• Never mix household hazardous chemicals or waste with other products.
Incompatibles, such as chlorine bleach and ammonia, may react, ignite, or
explode.
Take precautions to prevent and respond to accidents:
• Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for the proper use of the
household chemicals.
• Never smoke while using household chemicals.
• Never use hair spray, cleaning solutions, paint products, or pesticides near
an open flame.
• Clean up any chemical spill immediately.
• Dispose of hazardous materials as prescribed.
During a Household Chemical Emergency
If there is a danger of fire or explosion:
• Get out of the residence immediately.
• Stay upwind and away from the residence to avoid breathing toxic fumes.
Recognize and respond to symptoms of toxic poisoning:
• Difficulty breathing.
• Irritation of the eyes, skin, throat, or respiratory tract.
• Changes in skin color.
• Headache or blurred vision.
• Dizziness.
• Clumsiness or lack of coordination.

TERRORISM
Throughout human history, there have been many threats to the security
of nations. These threats have brought about large-scale losses of life, the
destruction of property, widespread illness and injury, the displacement of large
numbers of people, and devastating economic loss.
Terrorism is the use of force or violence against persons or property in
violation of the criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom.

59
Terrorists often use threats to:
• Create panic among the public.
• Demonstrate to the citizens that their government is powerless to prevent
terrorism.
• Get immediate publicity for their causes.

Acts of terrorism include threats of terrorism; assassinations;


kidnappings; hijackings; bomb scares and bombings; cyber attacks and the use
of chemical, biological, nuclear and radiological weapons.
High-risk targets for acts of terrorism include military and civilian
government facilities, international airports, large cities, and high-profile
landmarks. Terrorists might also target large public gatherings, water and food
supplies, utilities and corporate centers. Further, terrorists are capable of
spreading fear by sending explosives or chemical and biological agents through
the mail.
Within the immediate area of a terrorist event, you would need to rely on
police, fire, and other officials for instructions. However, you can prepare in
much the same way you would prepare for other crisis events.
Recent technological advances and ongoing international political unrest
are components of the increased risk to national security.
• Explosions
• Biological Threats
• Chemical Threats
• Nuclear Blast
• Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD)
• Homeland Security Advisory System
General Safety Guidelines:
• Be aware of your surroundings.
• Move or leave if you feel uncomfortable or if something does not seem
right.
• Take precautions when traveling. Be aware of conspicuous or unusual
behavior. Do not accept packages from strangers. Do not leave luggage
unattended. You should promptly report unusual behavior, suspicious or

60
unattended packages, and strange devices to the police or security
personnel.
• Learn where emergency exits are located in buildings you frequently visit.
Plan how to get out in the event of an emergency.
• Be prepared to do without services you normally depend on—electricity,
telephone, natural gas, cash, ATMs etc.

EXPLOSIONS
Terrorists frequently use explosive devices as one of their most common
weapons. Terrorists do not have to look far to find out how to make explosive
devices; the information is readily available in books and other information
sources. The materials needed for an explosive device can be found in many
places including variety, hardware, and auto supply stores. Explosive devices are
highly portable using vehicles and humans as a means of transport. They are
easily detonated from remote locations or by suicide bombers.
Conventional bombs have been used to damage and destroy financial,
political, social, and religious institutions. Attacks have occurred in public places
and on streets with thousands of people around injured and killed.
Bomb Threat
If you receive a telephoned bomb threat, you should do the following:
• Get as much information from the caller as possible. Try to ask the
following questions:
1. When is the bomb going to explode?
2. Where is it right now?
3. What does it look like?
4. What kind of bomb is it?
5. What will cause it to explode?
6. Did you place the bomb?
7. Why?
8. What is your address?
9. What is your name?
• Keep the caller on the line and record everything that is said.
• Notify the police.

61
During an Explosion
If there is an explosion, you should:
• Get under a sturdy table or cot, if things are falling around you. When
they stop falling, leave quickly, watching for obviously weakened floors
and stairways.
• Leave the building as quickly as possible.
• Do not use elevators.
• Do not stand in front of windows, glass doors, or other potentially
hazardous areas.
• Move away from sidewalks or streets to be used by rescue personnel or
others still exiting the building.
Recovering from Disaster
Recovering from a disaster is usually a gradual process. Safety is a
primary issue, as are mental and physical well-being. If assistance is available,
knowing how to access it makes the process faster and less stressful.
Suspicious Packages and Letters
Be wary of suspicious packages and letters. They can contain explosives,
chemical or biological agents. Be particularly cautious at your place of
employment.
Some typical characteristics postal inspectors have detected over the
years, which ought to trigger suspicion, include parcels that:
• Are unexpected or from someone unfamiliar to you.
• Have no return address, or have on that cannot be verified as legitimate.
• Have protruding wires or aluminum foil, strange odors, or stains.
• Show a city or state in the postal seal that doesn’t match the return
address.
• Are of unusual weight given their size, or are lopsided or oddly shaped.
• Are marked with threatening language.
• Have inappropriate or unusual labeling.
• Have excessive postage or packaging material, such as masking tape and
string.
• Have misspellings of common words.
62
• Are addressed to someone no longer with your organization or are
otherwise outdated.
• Have incorrect titles or titles without a name.
• Are not addressed to a specific person.
• Have hand-written or poorly typed addresses.
With suspicious envelopes and packages other than those that might
contain explosives, take these additional steps against possible biological and
chemical agents.
• Refrain from eating or drinking in a designated mail handling area.
• Place suspicious envelopes or packages in a plastic bag or some other
type of container to prevent leakage of contents. Never sniff or smell
suspect mail.
• If you do not have a container, then cover the envelope or package with
anything available (e.g., clothing, paper, trash can, etc.) and do not
remove the cover.
• Leave the room and close the door, or section off the area to prevent
others from entering.
• Wash your hands with soap and water to prevent spreading any powder to
your face.
• If you are at work, report the incident to your building security official or
an available supervisor, who should notify police and other authorities
without delay.
• List all people who were in the room or area when this suspicious letter or
package was recognized. Give a copy of this list to both the local public
health authorities and law enforcement officials for follow-up
investigations and advice.
• If you are at home, report the incident to local police.

BIOLOGICAL THREATS
Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can kill or incapacitate
people, livestock, and crops. The three basic groups of biological agents that
would likely be used as weapons are bacteria, viruses, and toxins. Most
biological agents are difficult to grow and maintain. Many break down quickly

63
when exposed to sunlight and other environmental factors, while others, such as
anthrax spores, are very long lived. Biological agents can be dispersed by
spraying them into the air, by infecting animals that carry the disease to humans,
and by contaminating food and water.
Delivery methods include:
• Aerosols - biological agents are dispersed into the air, forming a fine mist
that may drift for miles. Inhaling the agent may cause disease in people or
animals.
• Animals - some diseases are spread by insects and animals, such as fleas,
mice, flies, mosquitoes, and livestock.
• Food and water contamination - some pathogenic organisms and toxins
may persist in food and water supplies. Most microbes can be killed, and
toxins deactivated, by cooking food and boiling water. Most microbes are
killed by boiling water for one minute, but some require longer. Follow
official instructions.
• Person-to-person - spread of a few infectious agents is also possible.
Humans have been the source of infection for smallpox, plague, and the
Lassa viruses.
Specific information on biological agents is available at the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention’s Web site.
Before a Biological Attack
Check with your doctor to ensure all required or suggested immunizations
are up to date. Children and older adults are particularly vulnerable to biological
agents.
Building owners and managers should determine the type and level of
filtration in their structures and the level of protection it provides against
biological agents.
During a Biological Attack
In the event of a biological attack, public health officials may not
immediately be able to provide information on what you should do. It will take
time to determine what the illness is, how it should be treated, and who is in
danger. Watch media for official news and information including signs and

64
symptoms of the disease, areas in danger, if medications or vaccinations are
being distributed, and where you should seek medical attention if you become
ill.
The first evidence of an attack may be when you notice symptoms of the
disease caused by exposure to an agent. Be suspicious of any symptoms you
notice, but do not assume that any illness is a result of the attack. Use common
sense and practice good hygiene.
If you become aware of an unusual and suspicious substance nearby:
• Move away quickly.
• Wash with soap and water.
• Contact authorities.
• Listen to the media for official instructions.
• Seek medical attention if you become sick.
If you are exposed to a biological agent:
• Remove and bag your clothes and personal items. Follow official
instructions for disposal of contaminated items.
• Wash yourself with soap and water and put on clean clothes.
• Seek medical assistance. You may be advised to stay away from others or
even quarantined.
After a Biological Attack
In some situations, such as the case of the anthrax letters sent in 2001,
people may be alerted to potential exposure. If this is the case, pay close
attention to all official warnings and instructions on how to proceed. The
delivery of medical services for a biological event may be handled differently to
respond to increased demand. The basic public health procedures and medical
protocols for handling exposure to biological agents are the same as for any
infectious disease. It is important for you to pay attention to official instructions
via radio, television, and emergency alert systems.
CHEMICAL THREATS
Chemical agents are poisonous vapors, aerosols, liquids, and solids that
have toxic effects on people, animals, or plants. They can be released by bombs
or sprayed from aircraft, boats, and vehicles. They can be used as a liquid to
create a hazard to people and the environment. Some chemical agents may be

65
odorless and tasteless. They can have an immediate effect (a few seconds to a
few minutes) or a delayed effect (2 to 48 hours). While potentially lethal,
chemical agents are difficult to deliver in lethal concentrations. Outdoors, the
agents often dissipate rapidly. Chemical agents also are difficult to produce.
A chemical attack could come without warning. Signs of a chemical
release include people having difficulty breathing; experiencing eye irritation;
losing coordination; becoming nauseated; or having a burning sensation in the
nose, throat, and lungs. Also, the presence of many dead insects or birds may
indicate a chemical agent release.
Before a Chemical Attack
What you should do to prepare for a chemical threat:
• Check your disaster supplies kit to make sure it includes:
o A roll of duct tape and scissors.
o Plastic for doors, windows, and ventilators for the room in which
you will shelter in place. To save critical time during an
emergency, pre-measure and cut the plastic sheeting for each
opening.
• Choose an internal room to shelter, preferably one without windows and
on the highest level.
During a Chemical Attack
What you should do in a chemical attack:
If you are instructed to remain in your home or office building, you should:
• Close doors and windows and turn off all ventilation, including furnaces,
air conditioners, vents, and fans.
• Seek shelter in an internal room and take your disaster supplies kit.
• Seal the room with duct tape and plastic sheeting.
• Listen to your radio for instructions from authorities.
If you are caught in or near a contaminated area, you should:
• Move away immediately in a direction upwind of the source.
• Find shelter as quickly as possible.

66
After a Chemical Attack
Decontamination is needed within minutes of exposure to minimize
health consequences. Do not leave the safety of a shelter to go outdoors to help
others until authorities announce it is safe to do so.
A person affected by a chemical agent requires immediate medical
attention from a professional. If medical help is not immediately available,
decontaminate yourself and assist in decontaminating others.
Decontamination guidelines are as follows:
• Use extreme caution when helping others who have been exposed to
chemical agents.
• Remove all clothing and other items in contact with the body.
Contaminated clothing normally removed over the head should be cut off
to avoid contact with the eyes, nose, and mouth. Put contaminated
clothing and items into a plastic bag and seal it. Decontaminate hands
using soap and water. Remove eyeglasses or contact lenses. Put glasses in
a pan of household bleach to decontaminate them, and then rinse and dry.
• Flush eyes with water.
• Gently wash face and hair with soap and water before thoroughly rinsing
with water.
• Decontaminate other body areas likely to have been contaminated. Blot
(do not swab or scrape) with a cloth soaked in soapy water and rinse with
clear water.
• Change into uncontaminated clothes. Clothing stored in drawers or
closets is likely to be uncontaminated.
• Proceed to a medical facility for screening and professional treatment.

NUCLEAR BLAST
A nuclear blast is an explosion with intense light and heat, a damaging
pressure wave, and widespread radioactive material that can contaminate the air,
water, and ground surfaces for miles around. A nuclear device can range from a
weapon carried by an intercontinental missile launched by a hostile nation or
terrorist organization, to a small portable nuclear devise transported by an
individual. All nuclear devices cause deadly effects when exploded, including

67
blinding light, intense heat (thermal radiation), initial nuclear radiation, blast,
fires started by the heat pulse, and secondary fires caused by the destruction.
Nuclear Explosion:
The effects of nuclear explosion are as follows.
1. Blast: there is a sudden and tremendous increase in the air pressure that
spreads out in waves rapidly from the site of explosion. The blast waves
knock down buildings and shatter windows. Victims suffer from injuries
from falling building and/or flying glass and rubble.
2. Heat: a flash of intense heat is generated. It lasts for only a few seconds. It
causes burns in the exposed skin of victims within a perimeter of several
miles of the site of explosion. Fires starting in buildings cause additional
more serious burns.
3. Radiation: there is an instantaneous discharge of ionizing radiation effects in
victims within a perimeter of one mils of the site of explosion. These effects
are delayed. Gamma rays are able to penetrate of stone, concrete or earth.
They harm body tissues like bone marrow, liver and spleen. Nausea and
vomiting occur early. Resistant loss of appetite, anemia, and loss of hair
develop later. Blood and other cancers may develop late.
Hazards of Nuclear Devices
The extent, nature, and arrival time of these hazards are difficult to
predict. The geographical dispersion of hazard effects will be defined by the
following:
• Size of the device. A more powerful bomb will produce more distant
effects.
• Height above the ground the device was detonated. This will determine
the extent of blast effects.
• Nature of the surface beneath the explosion. Some materials are more
likely to become radioactive and airborne than others. Flat areas are more
susceptible to blast effects.
• Existing meteorological conditions. Wind speed and direction will affect
arrival time of fallout; precipitation may wash fallout from the
atmosphere.

68
Radioactive Fallout
Even if individuals are not close enough to the nuclear blast to be affected
by the direct impacts, they may be affected by radioactive fallout. Any nuclear
blast results in some fallout. Blasts that occur near the earth’s surface create
much greater amounts of fallout than blasts that occur at higher altitudes. This is
because the tremendous heat produced from a nuclear blast causes an up-draft of
air that forms the familiar mushroom cloud. When a blast occurs near the earth’s
surface, millions of vaporized dirt particles also are drawn into the cloud. As the
heat diminishes, radioactive materials that have vaporized condense on the
particles and fall back to Earth. The phenomenon is called radioactive fallout.
This fallout material decays over a long period of time, and is the main source of
residual nuclear radiation.
Fallout from a nuclear explosion may be carried by wind currents for
hundreds of miles if the right conditions exist. Effects from even a small portable
device exploded at ground level can be potentially deadly.
Nuclear radiation cannot be seen, smelled, or otherwise detected by
normal senses. Radiation can only be detected by radiation monitoring devices.
This makes radiological emergencies different from other types of emergencies,
such as floods or hurricanes. Monitoring can project the fallout arrival times,
which will be announced through official warning channels. However, any
increase in surface build-up of gritty dust and dirt should be a warning for taking
protective measures.
In addition to other effects, a nuclear weapon detonated in or above the
earth’s atmosphere can create an Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP), a high-density
electrical field. An EMP acts like a stroke of lightning but is stronger, faster, and
shorter. An EMP can seriously damage electronic devices connected to power
sources or antennas. This includes communication systems, computers, electrical
appliances, and automobile or aircraft ignition systems. The damage could range
from a minor interruption to actual burnout of components. Most electronic
equipment within 1,000 miles of a high-altitude nuclear detonation could be
affected. Battery-powered radios with short antennas generally would not be
affected. Although an EMP is unlikely to harm most people, it could harm those
with pacemakers or other implanted electronic devices.

69
Protection from a Nuclear Blast
The danger of a massive strategic nuclear attack is predicted by experts to
be less likely today. However, terrorism, by nature, is unpredictable.
If there were threat of an attack, people living near potential targets could
be advised to evacuate or they could decide on their own to evacuate to an area
not considered a likely target. Protection from radioactive fallout would require
taking shelter in an underground area or in the middle of a large building.
In general, potential targets include:
• Strategic missile sites and military bases.
• The capital of the country and state capitals.
• Important transportation and communication centers.
• Manufacturing, industrial, technology, and financial centers.
• Petroleum refineries, electrical power plants, and chemical plants.
• Major ports and airfields.
The three factors for protecting oneself from radiation and fallout are
distance, shielding, and time.
• Distance - the more distance between you and the fallout particles, the
better.
• Shielding - the heavier and denser the materials - thick walls, concrete,
bricks, books and earth - between you and the fallout particles, the better.
• Time - fallout radiation loses its intensity fairly rapidly.
Remember that any protection, however temporary, is better than none at
all, and the more shielding, distance, and time you can take advantage of, the
better.
Before a Nuclear Blast
To prepare for a nuclear blast, you should do the following:
• Find out from officials if any public buildings in your community have
been designated as fallout shelters. If none have been designated, make
your own list of potential shelters near your home, workplace, and school.
These places would include basements or the windowless center area of
middle floors in high-rise buildings, as well as subways and tunnels.

70
• If you live in an apartment building or high-rise, talk to the manager
about the safest place in the building for sheltering and about providing
for building occupants until it is safe to go out.
• During periods of increased threat increase your disaster supplies to be
adequate for up to two weeks.
Taking shelter during a nuclear blast is absolutely necessary. There are
two kinds of shelters - blast and fallout. The following describes the two kinds of
shelters:
• Blast shelters are specifically constructed to offer some protection
against blast pressure, initial radiation, heat, and fire. But even a blast
shelter cannot withstand a direct hit from a nuclear explosion.
• Fallout shelters do not need to be specially constructed for protecting
against fallout. They can be any protected space, provided that the walls
and roof are thick and dense enough to absorb the radiation given off by
fallout particles.
During a Nuclear Blast
The following are guidelines for what to do in the event of a nuclear explosion.
If an attack warning is issued:
• Take cover as quickly as you can, below ground if possible, and stay there
until instructed to do otherwise.
• Listen for official information and follow instructions.
If you are caught outside and unable to get inside immediately:
• Do not look at the flash or fireball - it can blind you.
• Take cover behind anything that might offer protection.
• Lie flat on the ground and cover your head. If the explosion is some
distance away, it could take 30 seconds or more for the blast wave to hit.
• Take shelter as soon as you can, even if you are many miles from ground
zero where the attack occurred - radioactive fallout can be carried by the
winds for hundreds of miles. Remember the three protective factors:
Distance, shielding, and time.

71
After a Nuclear Blast
Decay rates of the radioactive fallout are the same for any size nuclear
device. However, the amount of fallout will vary based on the size of the device
and its proximity to the ground. Therefore, it might be necessary for those in the
areas with highest radiation levels to shelter for up to a month.
The heaviest fallout would be limited to the area at or downwind from the
explosion, and 80 percent of the fallout would occur during the first 24 hours.
People in most of the areas that would be affected could be allowed to
come out of shelter within a few days and, if necessary, evacuate to unaffected
areas.
Remember the following when returning home:
• Keep listening to the media for news about what to do, where to go, and
places to avoid.
• Stay away from damaged areas. Stay away from areas marked “radiation
hazard”. Remember that radiation cannot be seen, smelled, or otherwise
detected by human senses.

RADIOLOGICAL DISPERSION DEVICE


Terrorist use of an RDD—often called “dirty nuke” or “dirty bomb”—is
considered far more likely than use of a nuclear explosive device. An RDD
combines a conventional explosive device—such as a bomb—with radioactive
material. It is designed to scatter dangerous and sub-lethal amounts of
radioactive material over a general area. Such RDDs appeal to terrorists because
they require limited technical knowledge to build and deploy compared to a
nuclear device. Also, the radioactive materials in RDDs are widely used in
medicine, agriculture, industry, and research, and are easier to obtain than
weapons grade uranium or plutonium.
The primary purpose of terrorist use of an RDD is to cause psychological
fear and economic disruption. Some devices could cause fatalities from exposure
to radioactive materials. Depending on the speed at which the area of the RDD
detonation was evacuated or how successful people were at sheltering-in-place,
the number of deaths and injuries from an RDD might not be substantially
greater than from a conventional bomb explosion.
72
The size of the affected area and the level of destruction caused by an
RDD would depend on the sophistication and size of the conventional bomb, the
type of radioactive material used, the quality and quantity of the radioactive
material, and the local meteorological conditions—primarily wind and
precipitation. The area affected could be placed off-limits to the public for
several months during cleanup efforts.
Before a Radiological Dispersion Device Event
There is no way of knowing how much warning time there will be before
an attack by terrorists using a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD), so being
prepared in advance and knowing what to do and when is important.
To prepare for an RDD event, you should do the following:
• Find out from officials if any public buildings in your community have
been designated as fallout shelters. If none have been designated, make
your own list of potential shelters near your home, workplace, and school.
These places would include basements or the windowless center area of
middle floors in high-rise buildings, as well as subways and tunnels.
• If you live in an apartment building or high-rise, talk to the manager
about the safest place in the building for sheltering and about providing
for building occupants until it is safe to go out.
• During periods of increased threat increase your disaster supplies to be
adequate for up to two weeks.
Taking shelter during an RDD event is absolutely necessary. There are two kinds
of shelters - blast and fallout. The following describes the two kinds of shelters:
• Blast shelters are specifically constructed to offer some protection
against blast pressure, initial radiation, heat, and fire. But even a blast
shelter cannot withstand a direct hit from a nuclear explosion.
• Fallout shelters do not need to be specially constructed for protecting
against fallout. They can be any protected space, provided that the walls
and roof are thick and dense enough to absorb the radiation given off by
fallout particles.

73
During a Radiological Dispersion Device Event
While the explosive blast will be immediately obvious, the presence of
radiation will not be known until trained personnel with specialized equipment
are on the scene. Whether you are indoors or outdoors, home or at work, be extra
cautious. It would be safer to assume radiological contamination has occurred—
particularly in an urban setting or near other likely terrorist targets—and take the
proper precautions. As with any radiation, you want to avoid or limit exposure.
This is particularly true of inhaling radioactive dust that results from the
explosion. As you seek shelter from any location (indoors or outdoors) and there
is visual dust or other contaminants in the air, breathe though the cloth of your
shirt or coat to limit your exposure. If you manage to avoid breathing radioactive
dust, your proximity to the radioactive particles may still result in some radiation
exposure.
If the explosion or radiological release occurs inside, get out immediately
and seek safe shelter. Otherwise, if you are:

Outdoors Indoors

Seek shelter indoors If you have time, turn off ventilation and
immediately in the nearest heating systems, close windows, vents,
undamaged building. fireplace dampers, exhaust fans, and
clothes dryer vents. Retrieve your disaster
supplies kit and a battery-powered radio
and take them to your shelter room.

If appropriate shelter is not Seek shelter immediately, preferably


available, move as rapidly as is underground or in an interior room of a
safe upwind and away from the building, placing as much distance and
location of the explosive blast. dense shielding as possible between you
Then, seek appropriate shelter as and the outdoors where the radioactive
soon as possible. material may be.

Listen for official instructions Seal windows and external doors that do
and follow directions. not fit snugly with duct tape to reduce
infiltration of radioactive particles. Plastic

74
sheeting will not provide shielding from
radioactivity nor from blast effects of a
nearby explosion.

Listen for official instructions and follow


directions.

After a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD) Event


After finding safe shelter, those who may have been exposed to
radioactive material should decontaminate themselves. To do this, remove and
bag your clothing (and isolate the bag away from you and others), and shower
thoroughly with soap and water. Seek medical attention after officials indicate it
is safe to leave shelter.
Contamination from an RDD event could affect a wide area, depending
on the amount of conventional explosives used, the quantity and type of
radioactive material released, and meteorological conditions. Thus, radiation
dissipation rates vary, but radiation from an RDD will likely take longer to
dissipate due to a potentially larger localized concentration of radioactive
material.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
Chemicals are found everywhere. They purify drinking water, increase
crop production, and simplify household chores. But chemicals also can be
hazardous to human or the environment if used or released improperly. Hazards
can occur during production, storage, transportation, use, or disposal. The
community is at risk if a chemical is used unsafely or released in harmful
amounts into the environment where they live or work.
Hazardous materials in various forms can cause death, serious injury,
affects health, damage to buildings, homes and other properties. Many products
containing hazardous chemicals are used and stored in homes regularly. These
products are also shipped daily on the nation’s highways, railroads, waterways,
and pipelines.

75
Chemical manufacturers are one source of hazardous materials, but there
are many others, including service stations, hospitals, and hazardous materials
waste sites.
Hazardous materials come in the form of explosives, flammable and
combustible substances, poisons, and radioactive materials. These substances are
most often released as a result of transportation accidents or because of chemical
accidents in plants.
Things to be done before a Hazardous Materials Incident
Many communities have local organisations whose responsibilities
include collecting information about hazardous materials in the community and
making this information available to the public upon request.
You should add the following supplies to your disaster kit:
• Plastic sheeting
• Duct tape
• Scissors

During a Hazardous Materials Incident


Listen to media for detailed information and instructions and follow them
carefully. You should stay away from the area to minimize the risk of
contamination. Remember that some toxic chemicals are odorless.

If you are: Then:

Asked to Do so immediately.
evacuate Stay tuned to a radio or television for information on evacuation
routes, temporary shelters, and procedures.
Follow the routes recommended by the authorities--shortcuts
may not be safe. Leave at once.
If you have time, minimize contamination in the house by
closing all windows, shutting all vents, and turning off attic fans.
Take pre-assembled disaster supplies.
Remember to help your neighbors who may require special
assistance--infants, elderly people and people with disabilities.

76
Caught Stay upstream, uphill, and upwind! In general, try to go at least
Outside one-half mile (usually 8-10 city blocks) from the danger area.
Move away from the accident scene and help keep others away.
Do not walk into or touch any spilled liquids, airborne mists, or
condensed solid chemical deposits. Try not to inhale gases,
fumes and smoke. If possible, cover mouth with a cloth while
leaving the area.
Stay away from accident victims until the hazardous material
has been identified.

In a motor Stop and seek shelter in a permanent building. If you must


vehicle remain in your car, keep car windows and vents closed and shut
off the air conditioner and heater.

Requested to Close and lock all exterior doors and windows. Close vents,
stay indoors fireplace dampers, and as many interior doors as possible.

Turn off air conditioners and ventilation systems. In large


buildings, set ventilation systems to 100 percent recirculation so
that no outside air is drawn into the building. If this is not
possible, ventilation systems should be turned off.

Go into the pre-selected shelter room. This room should be


above ground and have the fewest openings to the outside.

Seal gaps under doorways and windows with wet towels or


plastic sheeting and duct tape.

Seal gaps around window and air conditioning units, bathroom


and kitchen exhaust fans, and stove and dryer vents with duct
tape and plastic sheeting, wax paper or aluminum wrap.
Use material to fill cracks and holes in the room, such as those
around pipes.
If gas or vapors could have entered the building, take shallow
breaths through a cloth or a towel. Avoid eating or drinking any
food or water that may be contaminated.

77
Shelter Safety for Sealed Rooms
Ten square feet of floor space per person will provide sufficient air to
prevent carbon dioxide build-up for upto five hours, assuming a normal
breathing rate while resting. Also you should ventilate the shelter when the
emergency has passed to avoid breathing contaminated air still inside the shelter.

After a Hazardous Materials Incident


The following are guidelines for the period following a hazardous
materials incident:
• Return home only when authorities say it is safe. Open windows and
vents and turn on fans to provide ventilation.
• Act quickly if you have come in to contact with or have been exposed to
hazardous chemicals. Do the following:
o Follow decontamination instructions from local authorities. You
may be advised to take a thorough shower, or you may be advised
to stay away from water and follow another procedure.
o Seek medical treatment for unusual symptoms as quickly as
possible.
o Place exposed clothing and shoes in tightly sealed containers. Do
not allow them to contact other materials.
o Advise everyone who comes in to contact with you that you may
have been exposed to a toxic substance.
• Find out from local authorities how to clean up your land and property.
• Report any lingering vapors or other hazards to your local authorities.

OTHER KINDS OF MAN-MADE DISASTERS


The nature of disaster and the remedial measures to be taken are given
below:

78
Situation Measures

Road accidents Instruct a by standard to control the traffic, keeping


it away from oneself and the victim.

Switch off the ignition of the vehicles concerned.

Watch out for risk of fire from petrol spillage.

Electrical Contact Break the contact.

Take the necessary measures prevent further


contact.

Gas and poisonous fumes Cut off the source.

Fire Move the victim to a safe place immediately.

Collapsing building Move the victim to a safe place immediately.

How to obtain help from others?


Bystanders should be asked to perform the following tasks.
 Control traffic.
 Stand with their backs to the victim to give her privacy and keep others
away.
 Telephone for assistance.
 Telephone for ambulance to shift the victim.
 Perform tasks outlined under assessment of situation.
 Help control bleeding or apply splints.

How to call for assistance?


1. Make a decision about the type of assistance required first, e.g. ambulance,
fire brigade, police.
2. Send for it immediately as soon as the decision is made.
3. Get a bystander to go to the nearest phone and make the necessary calls.
4. Give the following information accurately.

79
• Exact location of the victim.
• The type and severity of the condition.
• The number of victims.
Details of how the incident occurred should be obtained, if possible from
the victim or from those present at the time of the occurrence. The symptoms
described by the victim should be noted carefully. These include pain, vomiting,
giddiness, sensation of heat or cold, loss of motor power etc.
How to remove clothing: Removing footwear.
 Support the ankle and remove the shoe carefully.
 Slit long shoes down the back seam with a sharp knife.
Socks: Removing socks.
 Pull them off gently.
 If that cannot be done, lift each one away from the leg with a finger passed
into it and cut it with scissor.
Trousers: Removing trousers.
 Pull up the trouser leg gently and expose the calf and knee.
 Pull the trouser down from the waist to expose the thigh.
Sweater: Removing sweater
 Remove the victim’s uninjured are from its sleeve.
 Ease the sweater from his head without disturbing the injured arm.
 Support the injured arm and slip off the sweater.
Shirt or Coat: Removing shirt or coat.
 Unbutton it.
 Remove the uninjured arm from its sleeve first.
 Pull the shirt/coat round the injured side.
 Support the injured arm and slip the shirt/coat off the arm.
How to remove protective helmet?
If the victim can do so, get him to remove it himself. If he cannot do so,
it is best left on, and is removed only if absolutely necessary, e.g. for
performance of artificial ventilation. Two persons are required to remove it.

80
One should support the victim’s head and neck. The other should remove the
helmet.

Biological Warfare
It involves introduction of diseases germs or certain toxins (poisons)
produced by germs by bombs, aerial sprays, or by saboteurs who add the
dangerous organism to food or water reservoirs. Fortunately effective antibiotics
or vaccines are available against almost all known biological agents.
First aid
1. Use face makes and oxygen cylinders for breathing. If these are not
available, use thick pad pf gauze or cotton or several layers of cloth over the
nose and mouth during breathing. This gives protection from airborne germs.
2. No water and food should be consumed until it is declared to be safe by
proper authorities.
3. Send the victim to a hospital if an illness develops.
4. Report to a physician at the earliest evidence of any unusual type of
epidemic.
Chemical Warfare
The agents most commonly used in biological warfare are never gas and
mustard gas.
Never Gas
These are highly poisonous chemicals which are colorless and odorless,
and hence difficult to detect to detect when sprayed from planes, or dropped
contained in bombs or shells. The liquid quickly penetrates clothes and gets
absorbed through intact skin. Unabsorbed liquid quickly evaporates to form a
gas which is also very dangerous. They can produce severe illness and death in
even low concentrations. Features of nerve gas poisoning are as follows.
1. Abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting.
2. Convulsions.
3. Difficulty in vision due to marked construction of the pupils.

81
4. Tightness in the chest and difficulty in breathing.
5. Unconsciousness.
6. Watery discharge from the nose.
First aid
• Remove outer clothes of the victim and leave them outside the house in a
plastic bag.
• Blot the droplets off the skin with handkerchief and discard it. Do not rub
the skin with the handkerchief,
• Wash the whole body thoroughly with running water and soap.
• Ask him to dry and dress in clean clothes
• Give artificial respiration if needed.
• Atropine is the only effective antidote for nerve gas poisoning.
Mustard Gas
These are a number of oily liquids. Their colors vary form brown to
yellow. They smell like garlic, rotten fish, or shoe polish. They are used in a
farm of liquid spray from aircraft, or dropped contained in bombs or shells.
Drops on the skin quickly cause blister formation. The blisters heal very slowly.
Remaining liquid produces a gas which irritates the eyes causing soreness,
redness, and ulceration. Inhaled it damages the lungs, causing cough, difficulty
in breathing, and fever.
First aid
• Wash the eyes immediately with copious amount of warm water.
• Blot free liquid off the skin with disposable tissue paper or cloth that is then
disposed off safely.
• Send the victim to the nearest hospital.

ACCIDENTS
An accident has been defined as: an unexpected, unplanned occurrence
which may involve injury. Accident have their own natural history and follow
the same epidemiological pattern as any other disease-that is, the agent, the host
and the environment interacting together to produce injury or damage.

82
TYPES OF ACCIDENTS
Road Traffic Accidents
In many countries motor vehicle accidents rank first among all fatal
accidents. There are almost 885,000 deaths from road accidents annually in the
world. In addition, for every death there are as many as 30 to 40 minor injuries
and 10-15 serious injuries requiring long periods of expensive care, nursing and
treatment.
India has one of the highest road accident rates in the world-one out of
every 42 vehicles in the country met with an accident in 1986. In the US and
Europe, the average is one in every 100 vehicle. The death toll is about 8 for
every 1000 vehicles as compared to 1 in industrialized countries. In 1991, 60,000
people were killed in road accidents as against 24,600 in 1980. The number of
people injured in road accidents doubled in the past 6 years, touching 1.75 lakh.
Studies done by WHO show that road accidents account for 2.5 per cent of the
total deaths. But in the 5-44 years age group it is as high as 10 per cent and is
among the six leading causes of death.
The peak mortality and morbidity from road accidents are seen in the 15-
24 years age group of males. A large proportion of vehicles involved in
accidents were two-wheelers. Compared to cars, they are unstable and provide
little protection for their riders in accidents. At present in some countries, more
than one-third of all traffic deaths occur among users of two-wheeled vehicles.
Developing countries are very different from the industrialized countries
with regard to the environment and the mix of vehicles in the traffic stream. The
following are the more important differences.
1. Large numbers of pedestrians and animals share the roadway with fast-
moving and slow-moving (e.g., bullock carts) vehicles. There is almost no
segregation of pedestrians from wheeled traffic.
2. Large numbers of old poorly maintained vehicles.
3. Large numbers of motor cycles, scooters, and mopeds.
4. Low driving standards.
5. Large numbers of buses often overloaded.
6. Widespread disregard of traffic rules.
7. Defective roads, poor street lighting, defective lay out of cross roads and
speed breakers

83
8. Unusual behavior of men and animals
Domestic Accidents
By “domestic accident” is meant an accident which takes place in the
home or in its immediate surroundings, and, more generally, all accidents not
connected with traffic, vehicles or sport. The most frequent causes of domestic
accidents are:
• drowning
• burns (by a flame, hot liquid, electricity, crackers or fire works, chemicals)
• poisoning (e.g., drugs, insecticides, rat poisons, kerosene )
• falls
• injuries from sharp or pointed instruments
• Bites and other injuries from animals.
Domestic accidents are a frequent cause of death or disability at the
extremes of life. They account for about 75per cent of injuries to people over 65
in the industrialized countries. At all ages, people who are subject to attacks of
unconsciousness have an increased risk of domestic accidents, e.g., epilepsy,
vertigo.
Industrial Accidents
Industrial accidents are a class by themselves. Every year, almost a
thousand workers die and another 250,000 are injured in industries. The figures
pertain only to organized industry; thousands of others are crippled in accidents
in unorganized sector. In terms of loss of working days and payment of
compensation, industrial accidents impose a heavy burden on national economy.
Industrial accidents have been far more successfully controlled
notwithstanding rapid development of industrialization. This is because,
industrial accidents occur in a stable environment in which repetitive tasks are
performed so that scientific investigation aimed at prevention is relatively easy.
Railway Accidents
Daily over 11,000 trains carry over one corer passengers throughout the
country. With the increase in number of trains and passengers, the increase in
number of accidents and casualties resulting thereof, is not unexpected. In 1991,
there were 16,080 deaths as against 7133 deaths in 1967. The main factor
involved in railway accidents is human failure.
84
Burns
Over 100,000 people are affected by burns and scalds in India annually
and 20,000 of them die according to rough estimate. In 1991, the reported deaths
were 22,306. Ten per cent of all accidental deaths and seven per cent of all
suicides in India were caused by fire.
Multiple Causation
Accidents are complex phenomena of multiple causation. The aetiological
factors may be classified into two broad categories-human and environmental.
Up to 90 per cent of the factors responsible for accidents are attributed to human
failure. Many of the psychological circumstances in which accidents occur are
still poorly known.
HUMAN FACTORS ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Age Relating to road


Sex  defective, narrow roads
Education  defective lay out of cross roads
Medical conditions and speed breakers
 sudden illness  poor lighting
 heart attack  lack of familiarity
 impaired vision Relating to vehicle
Fatigue  excessive speed
Psychosocial factors  old, poorly maintained
Lack of experience  large number of 2/3 wheelers
 risktaking  overloaded bused
 impulsiveness  low driving standards
 defective judgment delay
in decisions Bad weather
 aggressiveness Inadequate enforcement of
 poor perception existing laws
 family dysfunction Mixed traffic (slow and fast
Lack of body protection moving, pedestrians and animals)
 helmets
 safety belts

85
Increased vulnerability
and /or risk situation
Precipitating factors Precipitating factors
Heightened emotional Special traffic conditions
Tension Social Pressure(traveling in group)
Alcohol and Drugs Use of stolen vehicles.

PREVENTION
Accidents don’t just happen; they are caused. The causes in a given
situation must be identified by epidemiological methods. Since accidents are
multifactorial, they call for an intersectoral approach to both prevention and care
of the injured. The various measures comprise the following:
1. Data collection
There should be a basic reporting system of all accidents. The national
data should be supplemented by special surveys and in-depth studies. These
studies will bring out of the risk factors, the circumstances and chain of events
leading up to the accident. These details are rarely provided by the basic
reporting system. Detailed environmental data relating to the road, vehicle,
weather, etc must also be collected. The police have a statutory duty in many
countries to investigate accidents, for legal as well as preventive purposes; the
data collecting systems should recognize this and take police records as their
starting point. Without adequate data collection, analysis and interpretation
there could be no effective countermeasures, evaluations and strategies for
prevention.
2. Safety education
There is widespread belief that accidents are inevitable; this fatalistic
attitude must be curbed. Safety education must begin with school children. The
drivers need to be trained in proper maintenance of vehicles and safe driving.
Young people need to be educated regarding risk factors, traffic rules and safety
precautions. They should also be trained in first aid. It has been aptly said that
“if accident is a disease, education is its vaccine”.

86
3. Promotion of safety measures
(a) Seat belts: The use of seat belts reduces the number of fatalities and
non-fatal injuries by approximately 50 percent each. They should be
made compulsory for cars, light trucks and similar vehicles.
(b) Safety helmets: They reduce the risk of head injury by 30 percent on
an average and that of fatalities by 40 percent. They prevent
laceration of the scalp to a great extent. Recently, the full-face
integral helmet has become very popular.
(c) Leather clothing and boots: Leather clothing reduces risk of
extensive superficial soft-tissue injury. Leather boots can to some
extent, protect the lower legs and feet and their use should therefore
be encouraged.
(d) Children: Another safety measure is to ensure that children remain
seated when they are in a vehicle. They should be prohibited to take
the front seats of cars. A few countries have introduced laws which
require that children of under 12-15 years in cars be in the rear seats.
(e) Others: These comprise use of door locks, proper vehicle design, use
of laminated high-penetration resistance windscreen glass, etc.
4. Alcohol and other drugs
Alcohol impairs driving ability and increases the risk of an accident as
well as the severity of its consequences. Conclusions of surveys carried out in
several countries have shown that alcohol is the direct cause of 30 to 50 percent
of severe road accidents. Although the legal limit is 80 mg/100ml, impairment
from alcohol can occur at blood alcohol levels as low as s50mg/100ml and the
accident risk rises significantly between 50 and 80mg/100ml.
Drugs such as barbiturates, amphetamines and cannabis impair one’s
ability to drive safely. They should be avoided altogether.
5. Primary care
Emergency care should be taken at the accident site, continue during
transportation and admit in the hospital emergency room. For doing these, there
should be an Accident Services Organization and one fully equipped specialized
trauma care hospital in all major cities.

87
(1) Elimination of causative factors: The factors which tend to cause accidents
must bee sought out and eliminated, e.g., improvement of roads, imposition
of speed limits, marking of danger points, reduction of electric voltage,
provision of fire guards, use of safety equipment in industries, safe storage
of drugs, poisons and weapons, etc.,
(2) Enforcement of laws: Legislation embodies codified set of rules. These are
enforced by the State to prevent accidents. These include driving tests,
medical fitness to drive, enforcement of speed limits, compulsory wearing of
seat belts and crash helmets, checking of blood alcohol concentration, road-
side breath testing for alcohol, regular inspection of vehicles, periodic re-
examination of drives over the age of 55,etc. In addition, there are factory
and industrial laws to ensure safety of the people at work.
(3) Rehabilitation services: Rehabilitation consists of a number of elements
which each injured person should benefit from. These are medical
rehabilitation, social rehabilitation, occupational rehabilitation etc. The aim
of rehabilitation is to prevent, reduce or compensate disability and thereby
handicap.
(4) Accident research: The future of accident prevention is in research. Such
research will be concerned with gathering precise information about the
extent, type and other characteristics of accidents, correlating accident
experience with personal attributes and the environments in which accidents
occur, investigating new and better methods of altering human behaviors;
seeking ways to make environments safer; and evaluating more precisely the
efficiency of control measures. This area is now termed accidentology

PLAN OF ACTION
A plan of action to effectively manage any crisis should be worked out in
anticipation. Absence of a plan will add to the chaos and confusion which will
come on whenever large numbers of people are affected.
Different Types of Crisis
Certain areas are more prone to certain types of disasters, for example,
cyclones, earthquake, fires etc., East coast of India is prone to cyclone, the
Himalayan ranges to earthquakes. The needs to be met would also depend on the

88
size of the city, town or village and the population and presence of other health
care institutions in the area. The past experience will help. Specific action plans
can then be drawn up apart from general preparedness.
Steps to be Taken
The action plan should give the various steps in handling crisis. This
would give the personnel and the activities, in the proper sequence. As the health
care institution tackles problems, the experience will help in reviewing the plan
to make it more effective and efficient.
Crisis Team
The crisis team should be capable of being assembled quickly at any time
of day or night. Hence in the selection of people, priority should be given to
those who are available easily and live close-by in the campus in the
neighborhood, preferably with own transport facility.
The crisis team should be able to secure the help of others in the area.
This would include medical practitioners and other volunteers, skilled and semi-
skilled. A donor list of people willing to donate blood at short notice should be
ready with their correct addresses and telephone numbers.
Linkages
Crisis management in disasters might involve large numbers and
specialist’s requirement beyond what is available in the particular institution.
Hence, linkages must be formed and be in place for proper referral system.
Training and Reinforcement
The crisis team needs training and retraining. Some members of the team
may leave and new persons may join. They will have to be trained and assigned
responsibilities.
Rehearsals are necessary periodically to ensure that the plan will work
smoothly should disaster strike. The members of the team should always be
alert.
Leadership
There must be a need for unified command. One leader should be
identified, who will issue instructions. which must be prudently followed.

89
The leaders should be available at the control station always. His duty is
to coordinate and supervise the activities, ensuring that the plan is being carried
out efficiently. He should be available to give advice and instructions. The leader
motivates and encourages the crisis team to give their best.
The leader should ensure that there is proper communication –
• among the members of the team,
• with the anxious relatives and friends of the victims,
• with the public,
• with the authorities, and
• with the media

POISONING
A poison is a substance that, if taken into the body in sufficient quantity,
can cause temporary or permanent damage or even death. Poisoning is a
condition caused by introduction of harmful substances into the body by
injection, ingestion, or inhalation. A poison may be taken by a person
accidentally, for suicidal purpose, or be given to a person with homicidal
purpose.
Household Poisoning
A number of household items are actually poisons, e.g. insecticides,
pesticides, bleaching power or solution, acids, kerosene, turpentine, glue,
paraffin, alcohol, etc. chemical burn pr by swallowing. Children may swallow
these accidentally. The symptoms of poisoning appear suddenly and may
intensify. They can be quite serious form if not treated in time. Sleeping pills
can cause unconsciousness.
First Aid
(1) In case of ingestion of a poison, note the name on the empty packet or bottle
of the suspected poisonous substance and record it for telling the doctor.
Preserve the container of the poison. If the victim has vomited, preserve the
material for chemical analysis for detecting the poison.
(2) Give a lot of water orally to dilute the poison in the stomach.

90
(3) If the victim is conscious and does not have corrosive burns in and around
the mouth, take out of poisonous substances by inducing vomiting. Give two
tablespoons of sodium bicarbonate in a glass of water orally.
(4) If there are corrosive burns in and around the mouth, give the victim water
or milk to drink. Do not induce vomiting.
(5) If the victim is unconscious, place him in recovery position. If he has
developed cardiorespiratory arrest, resuscitate him.
(6) Shift him to a hospital immediately.
(7) Do not contaminate yourself with the poison.
(8) Inform the police.
Gas Poisoning
Various poisonous gases that may be inhaled accidentally are carbon
monoxide, carbon dioxide, ammonia vapor, inflammable gases, etc. Gases in the
exhaust of a car or running engine in an enclosed space, and gases coming from
burning stoves in closed space are carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. It can
also occur in a refrigeration plant or cold storage. Cooking gas may leak from
cylinders or faulty connections. These gases reduce the amount of oxygen in
inhaled air. Carbon monoxide also affects the oxygen carrying capacity of the
hemoglobin itself.
First Aid
 Open the windows to ventilate the room before attempting to rescue a
victim of gas poisoning from a closed room.
 Avoid switching on electric light or striking a match, because that may
cause an explosion of the gas, if it is inflammable.
 Remove the patient from the site of the accident to an airy and well-
ventilated place immediately. Cover your nose with a handkerchief while
rescuing the victim from a gas-filled room.
 Give oxygen through a face mask.
 Give artificial respiration if there is respiratory arrest.
 Shift him to a hospital immediately.
Food Poisoning
Food poisoning is commonly due to ingestion of contaminated water,
food substances, not boiled and unclean vegetables, contaminated milk and milk

91
products, and toxins produced by bacteria present in these foods. Such cases
mostly occur in summer due to higher environment temperature that promotes
decomposition of food. A large number of persons may get affected at a time in
parties, marriages dinners etc.
First Aid
 Keep the victim at rest.
 Give plenty of fluids orally, e.g. water, fruit juice, light tea etc.
 Induce vomiting.
 Shift him to a hospital immediately.
Alcohol Poisoning
Alcohol (ethanol) is a drug of addiction that depresses the activity of the
central nervous system. Prolonged intake can result in impairment of physical
and mental abilities, and extensive damage to the liver and other organs in the
body.
First aid
 Make a conscious victim sit up and vomit
 Then give tea or coffee.
 If he is unconscious, send him to the hospital immediately.
Prevention of Poisoning
In children the accidental poisoning occurs generally due to the intake of
attractive substances, in anxiety or ignorance and in adults it occurs due to
intoxicating substances if taken in excessive amount. The normal dose given to
adult person can be toxic to children. Therefore the following preventive
measures are required.
 Label all medicine bottles and packets properly.
 Write the word ‘poison’ on the toxic medicines and household substances
that are poisonous.
 Keep all poisonous substance out of reach of children.
 Always check the label on the bottle before taking any medicine.
 Put new labels on bottles that are filled with acids.

92
COPING WITH DISASTER
The emotional toll that disaster brings can sometimes be even more
devastating than the financial strains of damage and loss of home, business, or
personal property.
Children and older adults are of special concern in the aftermath of
disasters. Even individuals who experience a disaster “second hand” through
exposure to extensive media coverage can be affected.
Signs of Disaster Related Stress
When adults have the following signs, they might need crisis counseling
or stress management assistance:
• Difficulty in communicating thoughts.
• Difficulty in sleeping.
• Difficulty in maintaining balance in their lives.
• Low threshold of frustration.
• Increased use of drugs/alcohol.
• Limited attention span.
• Poor work performance.
• Headaches/stomach problems.
• Tunnel vision/muffled hearing.
• Colds or flu-like symptoms.
• Disorientation or confusion.
• Difficulty in concentration.
• Reluctance to leave home.
• Depression, sadness.
• Feelings of hopelessness.
• Mood-swings and easy bouts of crying.
• Overwhelming guilt and self-doubt.
• Fear of crowds, strangers, or being alone.
Easing Disaster-Related Stress
The following are ways to ease disaster-related stress:

93
• Talk with someone about your feelings - anger, sorrow and other
emotions - even though it may be difficult.
• Seek help from professional counselors who deal with post-disaster stress.
• Do not hold yourself responsible for the disastrous event or be frustrated
because you feel you cannot help directly in the rescue work.
• Take steps to promote your own physical and emotional healing by
healthy eating, rest, exercise, routine work, relaxation and meditation.
Helping Children Cope with Disaster
Disasters can leave children feeling frightened, confused, and insecure.
Whether a child has personally experienced trauma or has merely seen the event
on television, or has heard it discussed by adults, it is important to inform to
teachers and parents so that they can be ready to help, if reactions to stress begin
to occur.
Children may respond to disaster by demonstrating fears, sadness, or
behavioral problems. Younger children may return to earlier behavior patterns,
such as bedwetting, sleep problems, and separation anxiety. Older children may
also display anger, aggression, school problems, or withdrawal. Some children
who have only indirect contact with the disaster but witness it on television may
develop distress.
Who is at Risk?
For many children, reactions to disasters are brief and represent normal
reactions to “abnormal events.” A smaller number of children can be at risk for
more enduring psychological distress as a function of three major risk factors:
• Direct exposure to the disaster, such as being evacuated, observing
injuries or death of others, or experiencing injury along with fearing one’s
life is in danger.
• Loss/grief: This relates to the death or serious injury of family or friends.
• On-going stress from the secondary effects of disaster, such as
temporarily living elsewhere, loss of friends and social networks, loss of
personal property, parental unemployment, and costs incurred during
recovery to return the family to pre-disaster life and living conditions.

94
What Creates Vulnerabilities in Children?
In most cases, depending on the risk factors above, distressing responses
are temporary. In the absence of severe threat to life, injury, loss of loved ones,
or secondary problems such as loss of home, moves, etc., symptoms usually
diminish over time. For those that were directly exposed to the disaster,
reminders of the disaster such as high winds, smoke, cloudy skies, sirens, or
other reminders of the disaster may cause upsetting feelings to return. Having a
prior history of some type of traumatic event or severe stress may contribute to
these feelings.
Children’s coping with disaster or emergencies is often tied to the way
parents cope. They can detect adults’ fears and sadness. Parents and adults can
make disasters less traumatic for children by taking steps to manage their own
feelings and plans for coping. Parents are almost always the best source of
support for children in disasters. One way to establish a sense of control and to
build confidence in children before a disaster is to engage and involve them in
preparing a family disaster plan. After a disaster, children can contribute to a
family recovery plan.
Reassuring Children After a Disaster
Suggestions to help reassure children include the following:
• Personal contact is reassuring. Hug and touch your children.
• Calmly provide factual information about the recent disaster and current
plans for insuring their safety along with recovery plans.
• Encourage your children to talk about their feelings.
• Spend extra time with your children such as at bedtime.
• Re-establish your daily routine for work, school, play, meals, and rest.
• Involve your children by giving them specific chores to help them feel
they are helping to restore family and community life.
• Praise and recognize responsible behavior.
• Understand that your children will have a range of reactions to disasters.
• Encourage your children to help update your a family disaster plan.

If you have tried to create a reassuring environment by following the


steps above, but your child continues to exhibit stress, you can get professional

95
help from the child’s primary care physician, a mental health provider
specializing in children’s needs.
Monitor and Limit Your Family’s Exposure to the Media
News coverage related to a disaster may elicit fear and confusion and
arouse anxiety in children. This is particularly true for large-scale disasters or a
terrorist event where significant property damage and loss of life has occurred.
Particularly for younger children, repeated images of an event may cause them
to believe the event is recurring over and over.
If parents allow children to watch television or use the Internet where
images or news about the disaster are shown, parents should be with them to
encourage communication and provide explanations. This may also include
parent’s monitoring and appropriately limiting their own exposure to anxiety-
provoking information.
Use Support Networks
Parents help their children when they take steps to understand and
manage their own feelings and ways of coping. They can do this by building and
using social support systems of family, friends, community organizations and
agencies, faith-based institutions, or other resources that work for that family.
Parents can build their own unique social support systems so that in an
emergency situation or when a disaster strikes, they can be supported and helped
to manage their reactions. As a result, parents will be more available to their
children and better able to support them. Parents are almost always the best
source of support for children in difficult times. But to support their children,
parents need to attend to their own needs and have a plan for their own support.
Preparing for disaster helps everyone in the family accept the fact that
disasters do happen, and provides an opportunity to identify and collect the
resources needed to meet basic needs after disaster. Preparation helps; when
people feel prepared, they cope better and so do children.
Helping Others
Some general guidelines on helping others after a disaster:
• Volunteer: Check with local organizations or listen to local news reports
for information about where volunteers are needed. Note: Until volunteers
are specifically requested, stay away from disaster areas.

96
• Bring your own food, water, and emergency supplies to a disaster area if
you are needed there. This is especially important in cases where a large
area has been affected and emergency items are in short supply.
• Give a check or money order to a recognized disaster relief organization.
These groups are organized to process checks, purchase what is needed,
and get it to the people who need it most.
• Do not drop off food, clothing, or any other item to a government agency
or disaster relief organization unless a particular item has been requested.
Normally, these organizations do not have the resources to sort through
the donated items.
• Donate a quantity of a given item or class of items (such as nonperishable
food) rather than a mix of different items. Determine where your donation
is going, how it’s going to get there, who is going to unload it, and how it
is going to be distributed. Without sufficient planning, much needed
supplies will be left unused.

Review Questions:
1. Describe how Household Chemical Emergency disasters are caused? What
are the remedial measures to be taken before and after this disaster?
2. Explain how Terrorism creates disaster? What are the various kinds of
terrorism disasters?
3. What is meant by Radiological Dispersion Device? What precautions to be
taken before RDD?
4. What steps would you take to rescue the persons who had taken poison?
5. What are the first aid to be given to patients met with accidents during road,
and rail disasters?
  

97
UNIT–IV
DISASTERS IN EVENT MANAGEMENT

There are many events, which are taking place in day-to-day life on fixed
dates in connection with religion or for a specific purpose. This may be for
human beings or for animals like cattle fair. Some events are routine happening
every year on fixed days which are called fair’s and festivals. But, some festivals
happening once in few years are called melas (or) Maha Kumbabishekam which
attracts huge crowds in lakhs, on a particular day. But whatever the event,
certain measures are required to be taken in the interest of health and safety of
the pilgrims, who are attending such festivals, melas (or) yatra. This will help to
provide, protected water supply, food supply, shelter, sanitary facilities, first aid
for emergencies, protection form thefts of belongings of the pilgrims preventing
violence, eve teasing, safety for the women, transport for quick movement of
pilgrims , lighting facilities etc. Preventive measures, like inoculation against
infectious diseases, chlorination of water causes epidemic like cholera are likely
to occur. Providing barricades controlling the crowds to prevent accidents and
guiding the pilgrims to appropriate places are also necessary. End route
arrangements for the convenience of the arrangements are also to be done.
Considering the above factors the following points below have to be
collected.
i) Dates of festival.
ii) Duration of the festival.
iii) Important day of the festival.
iv) Local population.
v) Appropriate number of people expected to participate during the important
days and other days.
vi) The areas from where they are expected and the route they are expected to
pass through.
vii) Arrangement to be considered the water supply. Existing water supply
source.
viii) Type of water supply; whether to meet protected or chlorinated,
arrangements for the addition supply of water requirements, all the wells and
water sources to be chlorinated.
98
Sanitation:
Existing arrangements in the area, additional sanitary facilities and staff
required for sweeping, scavenging, sewage water cleaning additional staff
required for the above to be estimated, and to be employ. After getting sanction
adequate number of brooms, baskets carts to transport to the place of disposal to
be arranged sanitary facilities, adequate number of temporary toilets considering
the existing toilets to be worked out and provided. Taps or pots to be provided
for supply of water for ablution.
Shelter: Adequate temporary shelter for the accommodation of pilgrims
Lighting arrangements: The sheds, streets and toilets should be provided with
adequate lights.
Security: Adequate police bandobust should be arranged for the safety of
the pilgrims to prevent accidents and violence.
Food arrangements: To provide adequate food either free annadhanam (or) on
payment preferably subsidized, should be arranged to meet the needs of the
pilgrims. The hotels or feeding centers should be frequently inspected for proper
cooking of food stuffs to provides safe food and proper feeding arrangements to
avoid rush. The movement of pilgrims to the festival site to and fro should be
properly arranged and managed with the queue system to avoid any melee.
The sanctum sanitariums should be kept clean always as the people will
be moving continuously. Accommodation, food and waterand light should be
and made available for the staff posted on festival duty.
Transport: Adequate transport facilities to be provided for the quick movement
of pilgrims.
Final cleaning: After the festival is over the entire area should be finally cleaned
to keep the area clean without refuse. Adequate arrangements should be made
for proper disposal of night soil collected from the toilet, where there is a change
of spread of epidemic like cholera, the pilgrims should be inoculated with anti
cholera vaccine to prevent cholera epidemic.
End route arrangement: Shelter, water supply, food arrangements, light and
security, sanitary facilities of different places needs to be arranged. The traffic
should be regulated.

99
First aid
Medical centers should be established with doctors, paramedical staff,
nurses, drugs and first aid equipments should be made available round the clock.
Mobile medical vans should be arranged to provide medical and first aid services
in end route and all directions.
MELAS (OR) YATRAS
Melas or Yatra are conducted on a particular day once in a few years
which attract huge crowd, a well planned measures in advance to be chalked out
to carry out measures on the lines suggested above in large scale required for the
lakhs of people attending the melas.
In most of the melas, bathing in a tank or river or sea is one of the major
component of the religious function. It is necessary to put up barricates to
prevent pilgrims going to the deep area and the crowd should be controlled.
BULL CHASING AND FIGHTING
In rural areas, chasing to catch the bulls which gathered in hundreds on a
particular day in specified areas especially during summer, ie) January to April,
is after the harvest when there is no agricultural activities, it is almost, a testing
ground to test the valour of youth. In chasing and catching the bulls running
ferousiolesy in the mids of the crowd.
In each and every function like this about 500-800 bulls, used to
participate and about 10-15,000 people used to attend these function.
One of the major health problem in these function is, bulls coring the
persons who are trying to catch them. This causes piercing the one trying to
catch the animal causes fracture and wounds, which require immediate first aid
treatment. So one of the major activities on the medical side is stationing a
medical team consisting of doctors, paramedical staff with first aid kit, dressing,
injections and drugs to treat them on the spot. Serious cases require,
hospitalization, presence of ambulance on the spot is also necessary to transport
the injured to the nearly hospital. Providing protected water supply and cleaning
of the area also to be attended to which is normally done by the organizers.
SPORTS AND RACE
The management of accidents , in sports and race are common now-a-
days. The needs are same for all functions and occasions on fixed days. But the

100
medical team needs a doctor with ortho specialty, first aid team, stretcher, spints,
dressing, etc.
ORGANISING MEDICAL CAMP
Objectives
The purpose of medical camp is to provide free medical aid to the
economically poor and vulnerable population or for the specific group affected
by particular disease or for a specific specialty. (eg) cancer detection, cardiac
cases, infertility, eye diseases, etc., especially from rural areas where normally
medical facilities are lacking.
Planning
Selection of Area:
The selection of area for camp depends upon the need of the people or
organizers like NGOs, type of diseases prevailing and approximate number of
cases likely to be available and proximity to the available medical facilities.
Dates for Camps:
It depends upon the climatic conditions, agricultural operations and
festivals, seasons, a suitable periods should be selected and the date convenient
to the people, and medical team should be taken in to consideration and dates to
be fixed. Its preferable to have the camps on Sundays or holidays.
Time of the Camp:
Most of the camps are normally conducted for one especially till 2’0
clock in the afternoon. In major camps where thousands of peoples of people are
expected from many villages around the location of the camp, the camp may be
for 2 days.
Organisers
The agency who is organizing the camp should finalize the area, dates,
materials and drugs required in consultation with the medical team who is likely
to participate and provide medical care in the camps.
The following arrangement have to be made prior to the camp.
1. Place (or) building preferably school, Choultry, Marriage hall,
Community hall, with adequate space should be fixed.

101
2. Electricity- fan, light ,water supply and sanitary facilities like toilets
should be available.
3. Place for waiting of the patients, seating arrangements for the patients
like benches, chairs should be made available.
4. Medical team: Depending on the number of doctors, each doctor should
be provided with a table, chair and a stool for the patient to sit should
be made available.
Adequate no of tables/chairs and benches to be provided for laboratory
investigations, drugs distribution, ECG, scan, etc.
Snacks and tea in addition to break fast and lunch, if possible to be
arranged for medical team and leaders organizing camp.
Drugs and Lab Items:
Adequate quantity of drugs for the number of patients expected
chemicals and reagents for lab investigation, ECG and scan should be arranged.
To keep privacy while conducting physical examination, separate room or
screens for scans and ECG should be arranged.
Transport:
Transport for the medical team as well as for patients if necessary to be
arranged.
Publicity:
In advance, wide publicity through posters, notices and mike
announcements utilizing the leaders of each village or panchyats, self help
groups, teachers, youth organization and women’s association and community
welfare associations should be carried out for 2-3 days prior to the camp. If
possible local cable TV channels and mike sets can be made use of.
Records:
OP register separate for men and women, OP cards referral cards and
concession slips, prescription pads should be made available. Volunteers should
be engaged for receiving the patients making them to sit comfortable, writing op
registers and OP cards, queuing the people, helping, and guiding then to
different sections and clarity the people’s doubts. Adequate number of weighing

102
machines, Bp apparatus, thermometers, hemometers for Hb %, glucometer for
urine and blood sugar test, Should be arranged and kept in the appropriate
places.
The patients who require further investigations like X-ray, scan, special
lab test, screening, etc, may be advised about the place where they have to obtain
these services. Any serious case, critically ill requires special treatment in a
referral hospital can be referred if the voluntery agencies or organizers are
prepared to sponsor them and meet the medical cost.
To encourage the volunteers, leaders, medical teams who have helped in
organizing in successful conducting of camps can be rewarded with shawl,
mementoes, Certificates, etc, to give a boost, to the visiting team, receiving
creating cordial atmosphere and thanking them and appreciate their participation
are also part of the game.
TRANSPORTATION
General Principles of Transportation
1. The aim of transportation is to enable the victim to reach the
destination without deterioration of his condition.
2. Do not move a severely injured or ill person unless there is immediate
danger to his life or skilled help is not available. That is because
moving a casualty may result in aggravation of his or her injury or
condition.
3. Do not presume that a victim can sit or stand without support.
4. If it’s possible to wait, it is better to leave the victim undisturbed and
end for help. If there is risk of exposure, the victim may be moves to a
sheltered place while you wait for help to arrive. If the victims to
shifted to a hospital, arrange for an ambulance.
5. If there’s a risk to your life at the site of the mishap, move the
casualty’s quickly as, possible without endangering your life.
6. The method of transportation depends on the nature and severity of
injury, the distance to be covered, the facilities availingly, the
condition the road of transportation, and the victim’s build
7. Confirm the everyone involved understands the steps involved in
transportation

103
A stretcher is used to carry a seriously ill or injured victim. There are a
number of stretchers available, e.g. the standard stretcher, the pole-and-canvass
stretcher, the Utila folding chair, the trolley bed, the Neil Robertson stretcher,
and the Para guard stretcher. A stretcher should be rigid enough to carry
causalities with suspected spine fracture without having to add boards to it. To
ensure that a stretcher is capable of taking the weight of a victim, it should be
tested before it is used. A person should lie on it and then others should lift it up,
one end at a time first, then both the ends at the same time.
Ambulance Service
If there are multiple casualties, as in a disaster, firs aid has to be
administered to a large number of victims. In such cases, the ambulance service
has to be very good for rapid and efficient transport to a hospital.
The ambulance should be in perfect condition in all of the following respects.
 Wheels, engine, and brakes.
 Doors and windows.
 Communication equipment.
 Warning devices.
 Lights.
 Fuel.
Practical Steps involved in the Management of Disaster
On receipt of information about disasters, the following steps are taken.
i) The disaster protocol officer is informed. He/she in turn activates the
entire team.
ii) Immediate communication and alert
iii) Transportation of victims
iv) Triage system
v) Control of crowd
vi) Identification of victims
vii) Segregations of patients
viii) Ensuring adequate and uninterrupted supplies
ix) Facilities for the hospital staff
x) Disposal of dead bodies

104
xi) Handling media
xii) Handling visits of politicians and other dignitaries.
xiii) Continuous monitoring of the action and suitable changes if required.
Immediate Communication and Alert
 Alert within the institution: Using public address system, pager, alarm,
siren, intercom telephone or mobile phone the protocol officer, CEO
nursing director, chief security officer, blood bank officer and other staff on
emergency duty are informed by the telephone operator.
 Communication outside the institution: (a) local police station (b) police
control room (c) site of disaster (d) ambulance service and (e) other near by
hospitals are contacted and alerted.
Transportation of Victims
a. Site of disaster: Victims are transported to the hospital from the site of
disaster, using(a) ambulance (b) mobile care units (c)’flying squads’ (d)police
van (e) jeep or (f) any other available mode of transport.
b. Within the hospital: After implementing triage system patients are shifted to
the desired areas for investigations, intervention or observation using trolleys
and wheel chairs. It is essential too mobilize trolleys from other areas of the
hospital and keep them ready at the entrance of the hospital.
Triage system:
Triage means sorting out. When large number of persons are brought at
the same time, it becomes imperative to categorize them to decide priority in
managing them. Victims are classified as follows.
(a) those requiring urgent attention and intervention.
(b) those requiring indoor admission
(c) those needing only outdoor treatment
(d) those who are capable of tolerating delay in treatment
(e) those requiring only assurance
(f) victims brought dead.
Similar triage is also carried out at the site of the disaster.

105
Control of Crowd
During any unusual event onlookers and members of the public in
connected with the patients’ tend to crowd around. Undesirable human traffic
can also create law and order situation. For controlling crowd following steps are
necessary:
1. Making repeated announcements in local languages, giving details of the
situation and proper guidelines to prevent unnecessary crowding at the
working place.
2. It is desirable to set up a separate inquiry counter.
3. All the available information about the victims, i.e. name, nature of injury,
condition and the department or ward number must be displayed on the
board. Proper chart prepared in the style of railway reservation chart will
enable the relative to locate respective victim.
4. Local security staff may not be adequate to handle unusually large crowd.
Help from police and other volunteers, particularly local community leaders
may be taken.
Identification
Identification of conscious victims or the victims accompanied by
relatives does not pose problem. If unconscious victims are brought either by the
police, well wishers, social workers or volunteers they need to be given
temporary identity using arbitrary alphabet and numerical. eg.PS2, PT4, etc. This
‘name’ can be pasted on the victim’s forehead. The same identification code
must be used while requisitioning x-rays, blood group etc. After emergency care
is over and once the victim is stabilized a search for proper identification can be
made. Railway pass, identity card, visiting card or name mentioned in any of the
other belongings of the victim will establish the identity. Regular registration
number and police constable’s number are essential for later reference as these
are medico legal cases.
Handling Media
Personnel from different media, i.e. press, television, private channels of
television radio and other periodicals start making enquiries, either telephonic or
in person. Multiple, repeated enquires take away a lot of time. Hence it is
desirable to go on preparing and updating a report mentioning details of victims;

106
deaths etc. and supply the same to media. In case of telephonic or personnel
enquiries, one responsible staff member should be given the responsibility to
handle media. He alone should interact with media so that there is accuracy and
consistency in reporting the facts, and others members can carry out their duties
without hindrances. Photography or video shooting be allowed only after prior
permission from the management and also the relatives if they are present. In
case of violation of this norm by the media, security staff is empowered to
confiscate the camera/roll.
Handling Visitors of Dignitaries:
It is usual practice for the politicians, community leaders and other
dignitaries to visit site of disaster and also visit the hospitals managing them. At
times such visits may take away a lot of time of CEO and other staff. If this
visitor belongs to special security arrangement category, then the preparation for
his visit may lead too interruptions in working, human traffic and patient care.
To avoid this inconvenience, it is necessary to work out certain guidelines as to
who shall be accompanied by CEO, who shall be accompanied by another
administrative/clinical staff member, who shall be helped by the servant to locate
victims and who would be requested to find his own way.

Review Questions:
1. State some disasters caused out of various events. What are the
arrangements to be made to prevent those disasters?
2. Describe the procedure in organising medical camp to provide clinical
treatment to the victims of bull fight.
3. What are the various transportation available to the victims to reach the
hospital for treatment?

  

107
UNIT – V
MANAGEMENT OF DISASTERS-I
Various Disasters like earthquake, landslides, volcanic eruptions, fires,
flood and cyclones are natural hazards that kill thousands of people and destroy
billions of dollars of habitat and property each year. The rapid growth of the
world’s population and its increased concentration often in hazardous
environment has escalated both the frequency and severity of natural disasters.
With the tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with deforestation
unplanned growth proliferation non-engineered constructions which make the
disaster-prone areas mere vulnerable, tardy communication, poor or no
budgetary allocation for disaster prevention, developing countries suffer more or
less chronically by natural disasters. Asia tops the list of casualties due to natural
disaster. Among various natural hazards earthq8uakes landslides floods and
cyclones are the major disasters adversely affecting very large areas and
population in the India sub-continent. These natural disasters are of (i)
geophysical origin such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and (ii)
climatic origin such as drought, flood, cyclone, locust, corest fire. Though it may
not be feasible to control nature and to stop the development of natural
phenomena but the efforts could be made too avoid disasters and alleviate their
effect on human lives, infrastructure and property. Rising frequency, amplitude
and number of natural disasters and attendant problem coupled with loss of
human lives prompted the General Assembly of the United Nations to proclaim
1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR)
through a resolution 44/236 of December 22, 1989 to focus on all issues related
to natural disaster reduction. In spite of IDNDR, there had been a string of major
disaster throughout the decade. Nevertheless, by establishing the rich disaster
management related traditions and by spreading public awareness the IDNDR
provided required stimulus for disaster reduction. It is almost impossible to
prevent the occurrence of natural disasters and their damages. However it is
possible to reduce the impact of disasters by adopting suitable disaster mitigation
strategies.
The disaster mitigation works mainly address the following:
(1) Minimize the potential risks by developing disaster early warning strategies,
(2) Prepare and implement developmental plans to provide resilience to such
disasters,

108
(3) Mobilize resources including communication and tele-medicinal services
and
(4) To help in rehabilitation and post-disaster reduction. Disaster management
on the other hand involves
 pre-disaster planning preparedness, monitoring including relief
management capability.
 prediction and early warning
 damage assessment and relief management disaster reduction
is a systematic work which involves with different reasons.
Different professions and different scientific fields and has become an
important measure for human society and nature sustainable development.

PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING


Project Implementation Unit
Ministry of Home Affairs will be the Nodal Agency for execution of the
project at the National Level. The Disaster Management Authority/Disaster
Management Depts. in the project States/UTs will function as Implementing
Agencies with respect to procurement of works, goods, and services for the
specific components under the project.
Each of the Project States/UTs will set up a Project Implementation Unit
(PIU) in the Department of Disaster Management/Disaster Management
Authority, which will be responsible for the project implementation. The PIU
will be responsible for coordination with various line Depts. for putting together
investment proposals and coordinating the implementation of the project
activities. The PIU will be headed by Secretary Disaster Management as ex-
officio Project Director of the PIU with appropriate support staff and will
function under the overall direction of the State Steering Committee Chaired by
the Chief Secretary/ Administrator.
State Steering Committee
The States/UTs are expected to draw up sectoral investment proposals for
taking up cyclone mitigation activities. A State level Steering Committee will
be set up in each of the project State/UT to scrutinize the investment proposals
so as to ensure that the investment proposals adhere to the prescribed

109
norms/guidelines, before sending it to MHA for consideration and endorsement
to the World Bank.
Prioritization of cyclone risk mitigation investment
Prioritization of cyclone risk mitigation activities/investments is crucial
for efficient allocation of available resources under the project. Keeping in view
the available resources, project States/UTs may prioritize/identify activities in
order to effectively address the most immediate and prominent cyclone risks and
draw up investment proposals accordingly. The State Steering Committee may
decide on the prioritization of the activities and inter-allocation of resources
among various activities that are proposed to be taken up under the project.
Linkages with other sectoral area implementation units
Every line Dept. in the State/UT will also need to set up a Team with
appropriate support staff for implementing project activities concerning to that
dept. The Team will be lead by an officer not below the rank of Addl. Secretary
in the State Govt./ UT Administration.
Financial arrangement
The cost of cyclone mitigation investments will be shared on a 75:25
basis; where in 75% resources will be provided by the Central Govt. as grant to
project States/UTs and the rest (25%) matching resources will have to be
provided by the States/UTs for taking up various activities under the project.
The project States/UTs are required to make necessary budgetary provision in
their budget so as to avail assistance under the project.
Third Party Quality Assurance and Monitoring
States/UTs will follow the latest versions of codes of practice of Indian
Road Congress (IRC), Ministry of Rural Development (MRD). Bureau of Indian
Standards (BIS) as applicable for recording and presentation of the relevant
design, construction, condition survey, retrofitting, purchase of materials and
equipment concerning all the works under the project. For each work/sector a
panel of quality assurance monitors will be identified by the States/UTs from
amongst the State/Regional/National level institutions, which have the
established expertise in that work/sector. The protocols and standards for quality
control progress of work, time schedule and benchmarking of the expected
norms and cash flow on these issue will be defined for each sector by the PIU as

110
part of specifications laid down by latest version of codes of practice of IRC,
MRD, BIS etc. and also be harmonized with the World Bank norms.
Environmental and Social Impact
Assessment of environmental and social impact of an investment project
at various stages of and implementation is an integral part of the planning
process. The concerned States / UTs will have to undertake a screening process
and based on the potential impact of the proposed activities on the environment
will have to classify the said project in the respective category as per the
guidelines. Projects with severe adverse impact on the environment will have to
be subjected to Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and will be considered
separately. The proposed activities will also attract various provisions of
Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification, 1994 and Coastal
Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification , 1991 as amended from time to time
besides provisions of other relevant acts as applicable. Adequate mitigation
measures for the respective activities with potential environmental impacts will
be identified and an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) to address these
mitigation measures will be appended to the project document.
The project proponent will also undertake a screening of social impact of
the proposed activities so as to avoid conflicts and ensure successful
implementation and sustainability of the project. Preferable activities involving
negative environmental and social impact vis-à-vis providing sustainable
livelihood and employment opportunities to the local people should be
encouraged. The environment/social screening format is attached at Annexure-I.
Beneficiary consultation process
Beneficiary consultation process during planning/designing and execution
of the proposals is crucial in order to ensure that investments are well targeted to
meet the needs of the community. The sustainability of the assets created under
the project would be ensured, if the choices and preferences of the community
are factored-in during the planning, designing and implementation of the project
activities. This may be achieved though involvement of community during site
selection, involvement of existing community based organizations, such as
women’s SHGs, youth groups, mahila mandals etc., during the execution of the
project.

111
Issues involving acquisition of land and resettlement of people as well as
any conflicting interest pertaining to the implementation of any of the proposed
activities shall be resolved prior to the commencement of the screening/
scooping process. Adequate consultation and participation of the local
community should be ensured at all the stages of the project cycle right from its
inception. Public hearing, as applicable in the EIA Notification, 1994, as
amended from time to time is inevitable for the respective activities and has to
undertaken by the concerned authorities according to the procedure laid down in
the said Notification prior to the submission of the investment proposal.
Participation of women and Panchayati Raj Members in various activities should
be considered on priority.
Thus in order to enhance local ownership of public assets, build up
expertise and strengthen existing local institutions the States/UTs should ensure
the participation of the community in the widest sense in the proposed
interventions.
Sustainability
Since a number of assets will be created under the project, their operation
and maintenance is going to be a key issue. Therefore it is essential that the
States/UTs should address sustainability of the interventions either through
clear-cut budget provision or by surrendering responsibility of O&M to the
community or through any other innovative manner.
Project Monitoring
Two kinds of indicators would be considered for monitoring progress of
the proposed project: (i) programme performance indicator, which allow to
measure progress made toward the fulfillment of the stated short, medium and
long-term cyclone risk mitigation as described for each of the proposed project
components; and (ii) project performance indicators, which measures the flow of
the project with respect to procurements, contract preparation and approval, and
general disbursement issues.
PROJECT BUDGETS
Sectoral Budget Summary
Head wise expenditure details for each investment may include recurring
cost and non-recurring cost, implementation/operational/establishment cost, cost

112
for monitoring, evaluation and sustainability and quality control, training &
capacity building etc.
SECTORAL PROPOSALS
1. Construction of Cyclone Shelter
2. Construction/Renovation of coastal canals and embankments for improved
drainage.
3. Shelterbelt Plantation
4. Plantation and regeneration of mangroves
5. Construction of Missing Road Links/Bridges
6. Institutional Capacity Building and Hazard Reduction Studies
7. Improvement of on-shore warning system
8. Retrofitting of life-line/key/vital installations (roads/culverts/bridges)
9. Awareness generation for cyclone risk mitigation.
The State/UTs are required to submit detailed information on the project
i.e., its location, description of the works to be undertaken, expected benefits
from the project, time frame for execution of works, expected project cost,
internal control mechanism, audit plan, environmental evaluation, etc.
The project proposal has to be submitted in the format prescribed below
a. Description of the project investment
b. Project objectives
c. Brief description of location (Please enclose site plan)
d. Present status of the area before project and how will the investment
address the goal of reducing State’s vulnerability to cyclones
e. Expected outcome, including social and economic benefits
f. Planning assumption
g. Proposed activities( Brief description of the work components,
description of works to be executed and phases of execution).
h. Environmental and social impact
i. Involvement of community in the proposed investment
j. Risk factors
k. Project management arrangements including brief outline of
accounting policies to be adopted & accounting records proposed to be
113
maintained for the project, audit plan, internal controls proposed to be
set up for proper control over the project
l. Quality control & Monitoring
m. Project Costs/Budget (labour, capital, operation cost, contingency,
maintenance, any other)
n. Time Frame (preliminary study, engineering design, expected date of
fulfillment of all technical conditions to be met prior to start up)
o. Sustainability

INVESTMENT PROPOSAL GUIDELINES FOR AWARENESS GENERATION


The public awareness programme is an important component of disaster
risk management. Involvement of community under threat is essential for the
success of any disaster risk reduction programme. Prior knowledge about the
warning system and its limitations, source of warnings, meaning of language and
the steps that need to be taken on the receipt of warnings makes the community
better equipped to fight a disaster.
Mechanisms like distribution of circulars, Dos and Don’ts, posters and
publicity about precautionary measures through media and by screening short
films are in existence but past experience shows that such actions are not
sufficient and more need to be done. Man to man contact is essential for the
success of awareness programme. Such activities not only to be continued but
also these are to be frequent and regular.
A well informed awareness programme involving the community is
essential. A “Task Force” is needed to implement such drawn up programme in
its initial phase.
Description of the Project investment
Proposed Investment initiatives should address need and rationale for
undertaking the activity; indicate status of ongoing awareness generation
activities in the State/UT. Emphasis should be given for involvement of
NGOs/CBOs for carrying out awareness generation activities. Project should be
designed in such a way that it should target the most vulnerable communities.

114
Objectives
To spread awareness on cyclone risk mitigation in the vulnerable groups
of people and help the community in adapting practices to ensure better
prevention. Aim is to promote an informed, alert and self-reliant community,
capable of playing its full part in support of and in coordination with
government, in all relevant disaster management activities.
Reduction of Vulnerability to Cyclones
Community will be knowledgeable and will be better equipped to fight
the disaster situation. Community will know what a cyclone disaster will do,
what actions they need to take, what actions they need to take immediately on
receipt of an alert or warnings from the source of warnings or government, what
the government has planned to do to assist the community, how to respond
effectively to cyclone warnings and where to take shelter in the case of cyclone
threat.
Expected Outcome, including social and economic benefits
Community will be knowledgeable to fight a cyclone disaster and take advantage
of advance warning for precautionary measures. These will lead to reduction of
their vulnerability and loss of lives and properties in the State.
Planning Assumption
• Identification of target population
• Appropriate use of medium (print, audio, visual, through mass media like
radio, television, street plays etc.)
• Use of vernacular language (local language/people friendly messages for
better comprehension)
• Acceptable format.
• Development of area/region specific awareness campaigns keeping in
view the target population/literacy/vulnerability etc.
• Involvement of NGOs/CBOs in awareness generation
Proposed Activities
Awareness generation is the key to disaster risk reduction. An effective
disaster risk mitigation may be developed in consultation with all stakeholders of

115
the selected States for public education to take preventive measures in the event
of a cyclone. Massive and sustained awareness campaigns may be taken up
through out the selected coastal districts for preparedness through various mass
medias, rallies, mass meetings, audio-visual shows, distribution of pamphlets,
posters covering various aspects of cyclones, their effects, Do’s and Don’ts in
local language to create awareness among the people about vulnerability to
cyclones.
Proposed activities should include.
• Formulation of state specific awareness campaigns and strategies for
implementation of cyclone risk mitigation
• Awareness generation programmes at different levels including
villages/wards through workshops/seminars/training, poster/leaflets, wall
painting, street play, use of mass media etc.
• Development of school primers/ sensitization of school teachers etc.
• Development of IEC materials for circulation among various stake
holders.
• Development of manuals for design and construction of cyclone resistant
houses, retrofitting etc.
• Formation and Training of village volunteer group specially constituted to
fight natural disasters like cyclone, floods etc.
• Programme for updating such trainings from time to time.
Environmental and Social Impact
No negative environmental impact is anticipated. Social impact will be
positive. Community risk to cyclone disasters will be reduced. Bonds of
community living will be increased.
Risk Factors
Expectancy and dependency factors, which may lead to communities to
become over dependent on government assistance may erode self-reliance of
community and individuals’ self-reliance. Over expectation from the government
assistance programme may lead to frustration.

116
Project Management Arrangement
Phasing of activities/ responsible institutions/ implementation
arrangements: It should be implemented in phases. Timings of training and place
of training should be decided in consultation with the communities.
Implementation should be through an identified institution or through a Task
Force especially constituted for the above programme, in its initial phase.
Quality Control and Monitoring
By time to time monitoring the progress of work in various activities
Project Costs
Cost estimates for different elements/ Cost sharing-Project/ State/Central
Cost would be programme and state specific. Some costs will be of
recurring type.
Time Line
Implementing Agency should identify suitable activities and prioritise
them, identify institutional mechanism and draw a feasible Work Programme
for its effective implementation indicating Phasing of activities for the entire
duration of the Project ( Give PERT Chart )
Sustainability
Effectiveness of public awareness programme needs to checked. The
activities of programmes to gain and maintain the interest of targeted people
need to be monitored. Adequate awareness levels need to be continuously
maintained so that public interest is not faded out.

ENVIRONMENTAL/SOCIAL SCREENING ASSESSMENT OF INVESTMENT


PROPOSALS
All proposals proposed for financing will be subjected to an
environmental/social screening. The screening exercise shall be carried out by
concerned line Depts. prior to initiation of detailed investment proposals. The
screening exercises shall be a useful tool to identify the environmental and social
issues, and thereby integrate them into the project preparation, and not as an
exclusion criterion for avoiding environmental and social impacts.

117
Objectives of the screening exercise:
• Prevent execution of projects with significant negative environmental
impacts;
• Decrease potential negative impacts through adaptations in investment
proposal design, location or execution;
• Enhance the positive impacts of investment proposals;
• Prevent additional stress on environmentally sensitive areas.
• Screening of social factors such as land availability, loss of structure, loss of
livelihood, impact on indigenous population, impact on common property
resources etc.
Environmental/social screening involves classifying an investment
proposal into one of several categories of likely environmental impact. For this
project, three investment proposal categories have been identified:
• ‘C’ those whose expected impacts are small in scale, do not require special
studies other than filling-in an Environmental Screening (ES) form, and can
be addressed through standardized environmental mitigation/management
measures;
• ‘B’ those whose impacts are larger and more complex than ‘C’, requiring
preparation of a Limited Environmental Assessment (LEA) and incorporation
of recommended mitigation/management measures into investment proposal
design; and,
• ‘A’ those whose potential impacts involve significant environmental risk,
normally requiring a full Environmental Assessment (EA), and which will
normally not receive funding under the immediate phase of this project.
Investment Proposals shall be subjected to the existing provisions of the
EIA Notification, 1994 as well as Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 1991 as
amended from time to time besides other Acts and Rules formulated by the
Central/State/UT as applicable for the respective activities.
The screening process is shown in the figure below:

118
Action required before Category
Process investment proposal
can proceed

Projects likely to have some YES Environmental C


minor impacts on the Screening (ES)
environment but for which
sufficient standard mitigation
measures have been identified

NO

Projects that have some YES Limited Environmental B


moderately significant Assessment (LEA)
environmental impacts, for which
mitigation measures can be
readily identified

NO

Projects that potentially have Environmental A


significant impacts on the YES Assessment (EA); in
environment; (mitigation most cases these projects
measures may be identified, but will NOT be eligible for
there remains a risk of significant funding under the
impacts) immediate phase

Implementation Steps
The environmental screening procedure consists of the following steps:
Step 1: Filling out the Routing Slip by the proponent
Step 2: Filling out the Environmental Screening Form by the proponent
- determination of scores on specific issues
- determination of the overall environmental category
Step 3: Limited Environmental Assessment, or
Step 4: Environmental Assessment

119
All investment proposal proposals will have a Routing Slip attached,
which visualizes the environmental history of the investment proposal.
The line departments can under most circumstances carry out steps
1-2 of the instructions. For the vast majority of investment proposals (which are
Category C), an Environmental Screening will suffice. For a small percentage of
investment proposals (environmental screening categories B and A), Limited
Environmental Assessments or Environmental Assessments will be required, and
proponents need to follow steps 3 or 4. In practice, however, local capacity for
carrying out LEAs and EAs may be lacking, and these may need to be carried
out by consultants, contractors or other environmental specialists. Projects that
require an EA are unlikely to be financed under the immediate phase of the
project.
Institutional Arrangements
Investment proposals, along with Routing Slips, Environmental Screening
forms, Limited Environmental Assessments and Environmental Assessments
will be submitted by the line departments, and will need to be reviewed by State
Steering Committee/ PIU. The State Steering Committee/PIU together will have
responsibility to clear category C projects.
All category A and B projects will be referred to the respective State
Coastal Zone Management Authority for consideration and forwarding the same
to the Ministry of Environment and Forest Government of India through the
State Dept. of Environment and Forest for environmental clearance as
applicable.
The review undertaken by the State Coastal Zone Management
Authority/State Steering Committee/PIU involve assessing if impacts have been
scored correctly, and if the mitigation actions proposed are sufficient to alleviate
the potential impacts. If shortcomings are detected during the review, the
environmental documents (usually a Routing Slip with attached ES, or LEA)
should be returned to the line Depts. who formulated the project. After
modifications have been made, the proposal and Routing Slip with revised ES,
or the revised LEA, may be re-submitted. If the review assesses that sufficient
mitigation measures have been incorporated in the project design, the
environmental assessment of the proposal is to be approved by the State Steering
Committee/PIU in consultation with the Dept. of Environment and Forest.

120
Implementation and Supervision
The monitoring/management measures will need to be implemented and
supervised by the line department. In theory, this would require a
monitoring/management plan for each investment proposal.
During the construction or implementation phase, it is possible that
certain unforeseen impacts may occur due to the investment proposal. If
significant, these should be reported to the State Steering Committee/PIU along
with proposed mitigation measures, if these are known, and budget implications.
Specimen formats:
Environmental/Social Screening of investment/proposals
ROUTING SLIP
1. Investment proposal
Name
Location (enclose a sketch map)
Nature of Work
Financial Outlay
Modifications (in design, siting
etc.) to reduce vulnerability to
future natural disasters

2. Proponent
Department
Designated contact for this
activity

3. Environmental Screening on ................................... (date) by:


Name
Address

121
4. Results of Environmental Screening (circle both category and follow-up):
Screening category C B A
Follow-up required ES LEA EA

5. ES progress:
ES report (date) Carried out by:
delivered
Main mitigation/management measures in proposal and proposed budget

6. LEA/EA progress:
Requested (name)
from/contracted to:
(Date) (address)

Report/format delivered (name)


to:
(Date)

Decision/remarks/actions:

122
GUIDELINES FOR CONSTRUCTION OF SHELTERS FOR PROTECTION
FROM DISASTERS CAUSED BY CYCLONES, TSUNAMI, HURRICANES,
HUGE STORMS ETC.
A large number of people in the Coastal area do not have access to safe
shelters, which could withstand the fury of cyclone. States/UTs may conduct
studies along the entire coastline to find out villages/settlements where people do
not have access to safe shelters within a range of 1.5 km and without having to
cross a natural barrier. Cyclone shelters may be constructed in such places.
However, the cyclone shelters, unless maintained properly would
gradually dilapidate and become useless. Therefore, the cyclone shelters should
be designed for multi-purpose use such as school building, community center, or
any other public utility buildings so as to ensure that these building are used and
maintained during normal times. For proper maintenance of these specially
designed buildings in hostile terrains communities should have a sense of
ownership of these. Therefore, Cyclone Shelter Management and Maintenance
Committees may be constituted for upkeep of these shelters. A corpus fund may
be placed with the committee for routine maintenance of the buildings. The
committees may be encouraged to generate funds/revenue by collecting fees
from people for using the buildings for social/cultural functions.
Description
(i) Need and rationale for undertaking this activity
(ii) Present status of Cyclone shelters in the States/UTs
(iii) Assessment about the need and requirement and of the number of
Cyclone shelters
(iv) Availability of other buildings which can be used as cyclone shelters
(v) Number of shelters to be built
(vi) Involvement of the other departments while deciding the assessment
needs
(vii) Key issues such as location of cyclone prone areas, design criteria,
multiplicity of usage and arrangement for maintenance
Objectives
(i) To build adequate cyclone shelters so as to ensure physical safety of
people those who have no access to safe shelters

123
(ii) To save human lives and livestock and to ensure their sustenance
during a disaster
(iii) To safeguard basic assets needed by people to survive after disaster
(iv) To carry out basic medical facility during and after disaster
(v) To use as integrated service delivery centers (such as immunization
programmes, feeding, social, cultural and education programmes)
(vi) To use for community functions
(vii) To use as a school
Reduction to Vulnerability to Cyclones
(i) By building safe structures for the physical safety of the vulnerable
community.
(ii) By designing and building robust cyclone proof shelters which have
storage and resting areas sufficiently high above the ground using
corrosion resistant and durable materials
(iii) Using construction methods with sufficient quality assurance and
monitoring checks.
Expected outcome including social and economic benefits
(i) Minimization of loss of lives, property and livestock
(ii) Can be used as the nodal point for receipt and dissemination of
cyclone warning.
(iii) Ensures safekeeping of essential stocks/items for post disaster usage.
(iv) Can be used as a nodal point for carrying out post disaster response
and relief activities.
(v) Provides temporary protection from the monsoon and the summer to
the shelter less people.
(vi) Provides a place for providing basic health services like immunization
programmes etc
(vii) It can function as integrated service delivery center for the activities
like feeding, training programmes, group meetings of youth, men and
women during normal times
(viii) Transfer of cyclone/flood/corrosion resisting housing technology

124
Planning Assumption
Population exposed to cyclones and population that need protection,
inaccessible/remote/coastline villages having without safe shelters, population
and number of villages in the coast line, number of cyclone shelters required,
proximity from the coastline, multiple usage of the building, space planning
(functional requirements have to be taken into consideration), ensuring
availability of drinking water facility, sanitation, electricity & power back up
interior building design, road-connectivity to the village where the cyclone
shelters are planned, approach road to the cyclone shelters, special care to be
taken so as to address the needs of children, old, disabled and women issue etc.
Performance Criteria
• To withstand storm surge and wind speed of the locality,
adherence to existing codes regarding dead and live loads, soil
bearing capacity, space, shape, disable friendliness etc.
• The cyclone shelters are to designed to serve the population in a
radius of 1.5 km from their location. These are to be designed
keeping in mind the expected storm surge height at the place where
it is to be located.
• If the storm-surge level is 1 meter, then, plinth height for cyclone
shelters should be 1.5 meters. In these cases stilts are not required.
The building could be single story only.
Design Criteria
• If the storm- surge level is more than 1.5 meters and less than 4.5
meters, then, the plinth should be taken as 1.5 meters and the
ground floor should be used as stilt with a height varying from 2.5
meters to 4.5 meters.
• If the storm-surge level is more than 4.5 meters, then, the roof of
the first floor/terrace could be used as cyclone shelter.
• To make use of the space provided as stilt on the ground floor the
temporary partitions could be erected and concrete benches could
be provided which are easy to maintain and clean after a cyclone.

125
• Rain water harvesting technique could be adopted so as to make
drinking water available to people in the cyclone shelter at the time
of cyclone/storm-surge.
• In general the shelters are in RCC frame with non-load bearing,
laterally supported filler walls and deeper foundation on elevated
ground so as to avoid submergence of the main structure during
cyclonic events. Building specifications which are currently in
use and specified in the National Building Code (NBC) will be
adopted in all the proposed works.
• Following specifications are to be adopted to make the cyclone
shelters structurally safe.
• At least 5 millimeters extra cover to that normally specified in IS
456 is to be provided to all steel reinforcement.
• Improved design of roof covering with shorter eaves to prevent
uplift, with appropriate roof-slopes (say 22.5 deg to horizontal)
with stronger anchoring, Hipped roofs are better then gabled roofs.
Loads- The shelter is to be designed for a basic wind speed taken 40% higher
than that specified for the sea coast areas in IS: 875 (Part –3 1987). Floor and
roof are to be designed for live load 500 kg/sqm as per IS:875-1964 so as to
cater for crowding in the shelter.
Foundations- The shelters shall be supported by under – reamed pile
foundation with the top of the pile cap at 2 ft below ground level to keep the
piles free from scouring action. The pile and pile caps are to be designed as per
IS:2911-1973 (giving minimum 5 millimeter extra cover to the reinforcement
for corrosion protection.)
Plaster- Where plastering of RCC elements has to be carried out, use of Recron
3S fibers may be considered to achieve tougher non-cracking surface providing
extra safety against corrosion.
Design Criteria- The RCC members are to be designed on the basis of limit
state design as recommended in IS-456 –2000. RCC frames may be analyzed by
using any standard elastic method. The concrete grade to be adopted is M 30.
Blended cement may be used for improved durability.

126
Steel- High yield strength deformed bars of corrosion resisting quality with a
minimum guaranteed yield stress of 500 MPa may be adopted.
(Suggestions furnished here are for guidance in project proposal preparation)
Proposed Activities
i. Detailed Project proposal preparation
ii. Selection and taking possession of location
iii. Soil investigation
iv. Construction suitability tests
v. Shelter design and estimates
vi. Selection of construction, quality assurance and monitoring agencies.
vii. Testing of construction materials to be used.
viii. Construction activity and completion of work.
Environmental and Social Impact
Generally, does not involve large land acquisition, or displacement of
people, hence no negative environmental and ecological impacts are envisaged.
If it does, necessary remedial steps are to be taken.
Risk Factors
Facing unfavourable foundation strata, ground water may not be potable,
unfavourable climate may delay construction, lack of cooperation and co-
ordination among concerned agencies etc.
Management and Maintenance
(i) Management
Management of the cyclone shelters may be entrusted to the village
Panchayat/community members
(ii) Maintenance
 Ensure multipurpose use of shelters
 Collect suitable maintenance fund from the users by putting them for use
for social functions.
 Establish corpus fund

127
Quality control and monitoring strategy
The State/UTs will follow the Proforma of the latest versions of Bureau
of Indian Standard (BIS) codes of practice BIS 456-2000 and National Building
Code (NBC) Guidelines for recording and presentation of relevant design and
construction work details. For the protocol and standards for quality assurance
and monitoring of the work and bench marking and expected norms, the
direction of PIU will be followed.
Project Cost
Cost estimates for the respective activities shall be worked out by the
Implementing Agency based on the standard practices and norms and indicated
against the respective activity. A summary of Budget may be appended
indicating the Cost sharing for the respective components through the Project
Budget as well as through various Schemes / Projects of the State/Central
Agencies as well as or any other sources of funding including international
initiatives.
Time Frame
Implementing Agency should identify suitable activities and prioritise
them, identify institutional mechanism and draw a feasible Work Programme
for its effective implementation indicating Phasing of activities for the entire
duration of the Project ( Give PERT Chart )
Sustainability
(i) Properly designed and constructed shelters with assured quality will
make the shelters will withstand cyclone hazards and give durable and
satisfactory service for a long period with least maintenance.
(ii) The shelters during normal period can be put to use as schools,
hospital, community centers, social gathering centers by collecting
suitable user fee and these funds can be used for maintaining these
shelters.
(iii) Community involvement ensures ownership of programmes and
maintenance of assets.

128
ENVIRONMENTAL/SOCIAL SCREENING FORM FOR CYCLONE
SHELTERS

S. Issues Score Mitigation/Management Measures


No. (0–5)* (tick/add as applicable)
1 Clogging of drainage works  Construction during dry season if
possible
 Proper disposal of waste/debris
2 Decline in water quality  Proper design and siting of
leading to health risks investment proposals
 Provision for waste water treatment
3 Loss of productive  Avoiding productive agricultural
agricultural land land
4 Loss of natural habitat and  Avoiding natural habitat sites/
damage to ecologically ecologically sensitive areas/heritage
sensitive areas/heritage sites sites/sand dunes at the site if any,
should not be disturbed
5 Solid waste management  Adequate Provision of disposal (e.g.
(esp. municipal waste) land filling etc)
6 Sewerage and sanitation  Adequate provision and connection
facilities to existing facilities
 Proper design and siting of latrines
to avoid any contamination
7 Handling/disposal of  Proper waste handling codes to be
construction debris (esp. followed as per the norms of the
asbestos) construction industry
8 Quality of drinking water  Connection to adequately treated
supply domestic water supply systems
9 Impact on cultural  Principle of avoidance to be
heritage/vulnerable groups followed
 Extensive public consultations
before proceeding
10 Social conflict (e.g. due to  Public consultation at different
loss of congenial stages
environment, increase in  Creation of management
unsociable activities, committees with active public
competition etc) participation
11 Provision for livestock  Provision of adequate shelter for
livestock also provided

129
12 Air Pollution due to  Provision of access to cleaner fuels
domestic fuel use (e.g. kerosene and LPG)
13 Design considerations  In order to make them cyclone
resistant, special engineering/design
considerations have been followed.
CATEGORY C/ B/ A
*Score: environmentally beneficial/benign - 0; increasing severity of
adverse impact – 1 to 5; not applicable - NA
**Category: please use your judgment to provide a category based on the scores
provided.
While assigning Category and assessing an environmental impact existing
provisions of EIA Notification, 1994 and CRZ Notification, 1991 as amended
from time to time along with other relevant Acts as applicable shall be strictly
adhered to.

GUIDELINES FOR CONSTRUCTION/RENOVATION OF COASTAL


CANALS AND SALINE EMBANKMENTS
Construction /Renovation of Coastal Canals
In the deltaic areas surface communication is a major handicap for
response activities. In the flat terrains intertwining of rivers and rivulets is quite
common. The widths of the tidal rivers are linked to the sea tide and may not
have a stable embankment. This makes it difficult to construct bridges on these.
An alternative to road communication could be a coastal canal system. A canal
network in the coast would also be an effective tool of water management. In
the deltaic area in some of the States such canal system existed but are now in a
derelict state. Renovation of such canals may also be considered under the
project.
Besides the States/UTs may also consider improvement to minor drains in
the coastal areas for effective drainage of water and flood embankment works,
which may include repair and reconstruction of damaged and other vulnerable
flood embankments. Before taking up the work, one has to complete the
reconnaissance survey and visual inspection, find the causes of damage, and
establish the degree of damage and workout appropriate remedial measures. In
the case of new constructions, the feasibility study involving the economic
importance of the project, geographical features, measurable and non-
130
measurable benefits, the method of economic appraisal and cost benefit analysis
should be completed. Preparation of a Detailed Project Report (DPR) is a pre-
requisite for proper evaluation of the project and it ensures timely completion
and avoids time and cost over runs.
Construction /renovation of Saline Embankments
Saline embankments protect people, livestocks and agricultural fields
from saline water inundation/storm surge. Hence, there is a need to protect
vulnerable areas by renovating the existing embankments and creating new ones.
However, saline embankments have a potential to kill the mangroves due
to chocking of saline water. The States/UTs may carry out detailed inspections
to identify areas where these are required to be constructed particularly, where
vegetative protection would not suffice. In those areas saline embankments will
be constructed.
Description
Construction/Renovation of Coastal Canals
(i) Need and rationale for undertaking this activity.
(ii) Present status of coastal canals and drains
(iii) No. of villages that do not have proper irrigation canals and drains
(iv) No. of villages affected by damaged irrigation canals and drains
(v) Assessment about the need, requirement of canal/drains length
(km) to be renovated/newly constructed.
(vi) Assessment about the need, requirement and the number of
canals/drains locking gates and sluices to be renovated/newly
constructed
(vii) Involvement of the community and other departments while
assessing the needs.
(viii) Key issues such as location of cyclone prone areas, alignment
selection, design criteria, range of tests to be carried and
renovation/construction methodology etc.
Construction/renovation of Saline Embankments
The points (i), (vii) and (viii) are same as stated above
(ii) Present status of saline embankments/ locking gates and sluices

131
(iii) No. of villages that do not have saline embankment/ locking gates
and sluices
(iv) No. of villages affected by damaged saline embankments/ locking
gates and sluices
(v) Assessment about the need, requirement of saline embankments
length (Km)/ No. of locking gates/sluices to be renovated
(vi) Assessment about the need, requirement of saline embankments
length (km) / No. of locking gates/sluices to be constructed.
Objectives
Construction/renovation of Coastal Canals
(i) Improved drainage for better flood water management.
(ii) To have alternate mode of transport through waterways in times of
need.
Construction/renovation of Saline Embankments
(i) To protect people, livestock, agricultural fields from saline water
inundation.
(ii) The Secondary objective is to ensure sustainable agricultural
production of the vulnerable population.
Reduction of Vulnerability to Cyclones
Construction/renovation of coastal canals
(i) It will ensure the expected functionality of canals /drains in acting
as shock absorbers for flood water and its force during cyclonic
event. As a consequence of this, the prospect of inundation of
agricultural fields, villages and roads is diminished completely or
at least to a manageable level.
(ii) All weather access to vulnerable villages is maintained as road
inundation is reduced.
(iii) By adopting the state-of-the-art technology for design and
construction works, one can achieve robust canals and drains that
are cyclone resistant, all weather serviceable and durable.
Construction/renovation of Saline Embankments
(i) As it will ensure the expected functionality of saline embankments
in the event of cyclonic event, the prospect of inundation of
agricultural fields and villages is diminished .
132
(ii) It will help in keeping the agricultural activity sustainable even
during cyclonic events.
(iv) By adopting the state-of-the-art technology for design and
construction works, one can achieve robust canals and drains that
are cyclone resistant, all weather serviceable and durable.
Expected Outcome including Social and Economic benefits
Construction and renovation of costal canals/ drains
(i) Minimization of loss of life and livestock
(ii) Providing all weather alternate access through waterways to the
cyclone prone areas
(iii) Helps the artisans, farmers and fishermen in transporting their
produce to market centers through alternate route ensuring them
daily livelihood.
(iv) Helps in movement of relief/emergency aid
(v) Helps in evacuation of vulnerable groups/communities to safer
places
(vi) Ensure measurable benefits like reduction in operation and
transport costs for goods and people etc. and non-measurable
benefits like development of adjoining areas, promotion of social
and cultural contacts among people of neighbouring villages and
restoration f self confidence among vulnerable people.
Construction/renovation of saline embankments
(i) Minimization of loss of life and live-stock
(ii) Protect people, livestock and agricultural fields from saline water
inundation and ensure sustainable agricultural production
(iii) Ensures measurable benefits like reduction in vulnerability of crop
production and improved productivity in the coastal saline belt and
restores self-confidence among vulnerable people.
Planning Assumptions
Construction and renovation of costal canals/ drains
(i) Feasibility study, preparation of preliminary project report have
been carried out by competent authority using conventional
methods as indicated in (i) IS 8835-1978 and IS 12094-1978

133
standard specifications that deal with drainage network and
waterway embankments and the CWPC guidelines For
embankments IS -1786 is followed.
(ii) Number and length of canals/drains and their locking gates and
sluices to be renovated / constructed in the cyclone prone areas.
(iii) Feasibility report and Preliminary Project Report are prepared as
per relevant BIS/CWPC standards and practices and are available.
Such a report has covered the following elements (a) cross section
of canal/drain, (b) cross section of embankments, (c) soils
stabilization aspects, (d) details of locking gates and sluices etc.
(iv) Preliminary survey, hydraulic survey and subsoil investigations of
the proposed site have been carried in accordance with relevant IS
specifications and CWPC standard practices currently being
followed for canals and drains.
(v) Locking gates/sluices where applicable are designed following the
corresponding BIS, Central Water Planning Commission (CWPC)
standards.
Construction/renovation of saline embankments
(i) Feasibility study, preparation of preliminary project report have been
carried out by competent authority as given in relevant BIS codes of
practice and CWPC practice
(ii) Number and length of saline embankments constructed and their
locking gates and sluices to be renovated
(iii) Feasibility report and preliminary project report are prepared as per
relevant BIS standards and CWPC practices and are available. Such a
report has covered the following elements (a) cross section of
embankments (b) low-tide level and high-tide level, (c) details of
locking gates and sluices etc.
(iv) Preliminary survey, sub-soil investigation of the propose site have
been carried out in accordance with relevant IS specifications and
CWPC practices currently being followed for embankments

134
Performance Criteria (construction/renovation of coastal canals/drains
and embankments)
To withstand the fury of cyclone floods, storm-surge, wind speed and
seismic forces, of the locality, hydraulic forces as indicted in relevant CWPC
practices and BIS codes of Practice.
Design Criteria (construction/renovation of coastal canals/drains and
embankments)
The reinforcement cover of the foundations, substructure locking
gates/sluices will be at the level specified in IRC:SP: 33-1989 to achieve the
expected level durability. For steel structure, the IS-800 will be followed.
The materials used and the construction methodology followed will be in
conformity with the relevant BIS specifications and CWPC practices. In absence
of specific guidelines in these codes, the designers/manufacturers guidelines are
to be followed.
Proposed Activities (construction/renovation of coastal canals/drains and
embankments)
• Inspection of the site and its surroundings for planning construction
related work.
• Study of design Report.
• Preparation of design review report which includes details of the
likely difficulties that may arise during the implementation process
of renovation/construction work and suggested alterations if any.
• Selection of competent agency for the development of construction
methodology and cost estimates
• Selection of an experienced agency to carryout the construction
work.
• Mobilization of construction machinery and manpower, constructing
of site office, stores, work force residences etc.
• Tests on construction materials.
• Construction activity and completion of work.

135
Environmental and Social Impact
Generally, it does involve acquisition and displacement of people; hence
negative environmental and ecological impact is envisaged. In the case of canal
work, it will also involve the borrow areas. Necessary remedial steps are
accordingly to be taken.
Risk Factors (construction/renovation of coastal canals/drains and
embankments)
While executing the construction work, new site problems such as
encountering of unexpected soil strata and deciding about course of action which
may arise, fresh land acquisition problems may also crop-up. Unfavourable
climate, untimely supply of construction materials, lack of cooperation and
coordination among concerned agencies etc may crop-up.
Management and Maintenance
(i) Management
Concerned State Depts. will be responsible for day to day
management under the overall guidance of the PIU established in
the State Dept. of disaster Management/DM Authority.
(ii) Maintenance
(a) The State/ UTs have to make a separate provision for carrying out
the maintenance work of canals, drains and embankments of
cyclone prone areas in their annual budget.
(b) The State Public Works Department /Irrigation Department/
Panchayat Raj Engineering Department which-ever deals with
canals, drains and embankments in the concerned States/UTs is to
be entrusted with the maintenance work.
Quality Control and Monitoring Strategy
The State/ UTs will follow (for recording and presentation of relevant
construction works and materials.) the proformas of the corresponding BIS/
CWPC practices for quality systems for canals, drains and embankments, IS 456
for RCC works and for material standards relevant latest BIS codes. For the
protocol and standards for quality assurance and monitoring of the works and
bench marking and expected norms, the direction of PIU will be followed.

136
Project Cost (construction/renovation of coastal canals/drains and
embankments):
Cost estimates for different elements/cost sharing – Project /State/Central.
State/ UTs will work out estimates following CWPC/ irrigation Department
practices and include the items (following standard practices and norms) in
their budget and submit the proposal to MHA after the approval of the State
Steering Committee.
Time Frame (construction/renovation of coastal canals/drains and
embankments)
Implementing Agency should identify suitable activities and prioritise
them, identify institutional mechanism and draw a feasible Work Programme
for its effective implementation indicating Phasing of activities for the entire
duration of the Project ( Give PERT Chart )
Sustainability (construction/renovation of coastal canals/drains and
embankments)
(i) Canals, drains and embankments that are properly inspected, proof
checked design and executed by experienced agencies will give expected
serviceability and durability and in most case satisfactory service for a
long period with least maintenance.
(ii) Regular allocation of funds for inspection and maintenance of roads,
culverts and bridges through a provision in their annual budget.
(iii) Collection of nominal cess from the road users helps in routine
maintenance like removing of weeds and plants from the canals, drains
and embankments.

ENVIRONMENTAL/SOCIAL SCREENING FORM FOR COASTAL CANAL

Sl. Issues Score Mitigation/Management Measures


No. (0–5)* (tick/add as applicable)
1 Siltation during construction  Appropriate construction and
and during operation operation practices to be adopted
 If possible, undertake construction
in the dry season

137
 Community involvement in the
operation phase for operation and
maintenance
2 Saltwater intrusion –  Appropriate construction and
flushing operation practices to be adopted
3 S/G water quality  Appropriate monitoring and
maintenance
4 Flooding of receiving areas  Community involvement in
operation and maintenance
5 Impacts on sensitive habitats  Proper design and sitting of sub-
(e.g. fisheries, wetlands), projects to avoid any impact on
flora and fauna dues to sensitive habitats
alteration in water quality  Community involvement and
awareness to ensure that water
quality in not altered
6 Contamination by  Community involvement and
agricultural run-off , awareness about associated risks
industrial effluents,  Proper design and sitting of sub-
livestock/poultry, and human projects
waste
7 Eutrophication/clogging by  Community involvement in
weeds monitoring and maintenance
8 Water logging during  Proper design and sitting of sub-
operation projects
 Community involvement in
monitoring and maintenance
9 Impediment to movement of  Proper design and sitting of sub-
people and animals projects
10 Impact on cultural  Principle of avoidance to be
heritage/vulnerable groups followed if any adverse impact
foreseen
 Extensive public consultations
before proceeding
11 Conflict among communities  Water user rights of affected
water usage/quantity and communities to be clearly defined
quality before project implementation
12 Impact on ecosystem (e.g.  Proper design and sitting of sub-
fisheries, wetland), bio- projects to avoid any impact on
diversity ecosystems and bio-diversity

138
Impact on ecologically  Construction of saline embankment
sensitive areas e.g. should be strictly prohibited along
mangroves and coral reefs Mangrove/coral reef areas
CATEGORY C/B/A

INVESTMENT PROPOSAL FOR VULNERABILITY AND RISK REDUCTION


STUDIES / CAPACITY BUILDING
Hazard analysis, vulnerability and risk assessment of the coastal areas are
essential components for the effective coastal zone management and planning.
Description of the Project investment
Need and rationale for undertaking studies/capacity building. While the
hazards due to tropical cyclones cannot be reduced, mitigation strategies to
reduce their impacts can be devised. Mitigation measures like timely
communication of warnings, land use planning, enforcement of cyclone resistant
construction, retrofitting, etc. go a long way in reducing the vulnerability of
structures to cyclonic impacts and the resulting losses. Assessment and mapping
of risks to physical assets are fundamental before devising any successful
mitigation strategies or plans. Micro scale (block/ taluk level) hazard
vulnerability and risk zonation maps for cyclone hazards and classification of
settlements by priority and type of intervention required are, important for
effective utilization of funds.
Objectives of the studies/capacity building of concerned officials
(i) To prepare state/district/mandal or taluka level hazard zonation maps for
cyclone, storm surge and flood risk and classify settlements according to
risk perception.
(ii) To assess the risks in terms of damages/losses to buildings and structures
due to tropical cyclones for planning.
(iii) To recommend feasible mitigation options to reduce the vulnerability to
the above risks.
The result of the study should address the various issues of hazard
exposure of the concerned State/UT and should provide for the basis for drawing
up comprehensive hazard risk mitigation plans, technical capacity building of
the Project Managers in the State/UT for better project management, quality
assurance and certification, workshops/consultations.

139
Reduction of Vulnerability to Cyclones
This will help States in devising required mitigation strategies or plans.
Expected Outcome of the study
This will enhance the capacity of states/UTs’ for taking proper investment
decision in Disaster Management Planning. A Catastrophe Risk Atlas of the
state should be prepared. The atlas should provide detailed maps of exposures,
hazards and risks that help in planning and devising mitigation strategies. The
Atlas should contain information in microscale (Block/Talukwise). A detailed
report discussing the risks involved and recommended mitigation options to
reduce these risks should be prepared. While the target audience for the risk atlas
is all the stakeholders in general, the report is aimed at the policy makers,
insurance companies and administrators.
Planning Assumption
Availability of data, assimilation of data, identification of institution with
adequate capability for carrying out the study.
(i) Learn from the experience of states that undertook similar studies in the
past – AP, Gujarat, etc.
(ii) Review of data availability – historical data (event, damage), hazard
parameters, inventories of buildings and structures, etc.
(iii) Identification of a champion department within the state administration to
initiate, monitor and implement the studies.
(iv) Identification of an agency with adequate capability and experience for
carrying out the studies.
Proposed Studies
i. Risk assessment study for housing, business and public infrastructure
due to cyclones.
ii. Disaster mitigation study to reduce vulnerability to cyclone impacts.
Environment and Social Impact
No adverse environmental impact is anticipated.
Positive social impact

140
Risk Factor
Non availability of basic data in time may delay the completion of such
study. Good data is key for good modeling. Availability, accessibility and
reliability of data are major hurdles for the success of such study.
Project Management Arrangement
By Disaster Management Department/Institution/ Authority in this State .
Such study can be executed by hiring the services of Agencies having adequate
experience and expertise in executing such study.
Quality Control and Monitoring
Through progress report and time to time presentation of interim results
and peer review.
Project Costs
Cost estimates for different elements/ Cost sharing-Project/ State/Central
The estimated cost of study No. 1 could be around Rs.30 lakhs for one state.
The estimated cost of study No.2 could be around Rs.15 lakhs for one state.
Note: If the project is executed for several states/all these states by one agency
total cost could be less.
Time Line
Implementing Agency should identify suitable activities and prioritise
them, identify institutional mechanism and draw a feasible Work Programme
for its effective implementation indicating Phasing of activities for the entire
duration of the Project ( Give PERT Chart )

INVESTMENT PROPOSAL GUIDELINES FOR STRENGTHENING OF


ONSHORE WARNING SYSTEM
Early reliable warning is one of the important short term mitigation
measures that can reduce the severity of the cyclone related disasters if acted
upon timely. The degree to which this reduction can be effected will depend
upon the interplay of three main elements. Namely, the accuracy of the warning,
the length of time between the warning’s being issued and the expected onset of
the event and the state of pre-disaster planning and readiness. The public

141
response to warning in the form of correct precautionary action is another
important component for the reduction of loses of lives and properties due to
tropical cyclone impact.
It is often seen that the fishermen out at sea and unorganized weaker
section of the coastal communities, salt pan workers, migratory labourer etc are
among the first causalities of tropical cyclone disasters, when caught unaware.
The strengthening of onshore warning communication system is therefore is an
important intervention that can save many valuable human lives. Under the
project the States/UTs may consider strengthening the below-district level
warning dissemination system through appropriate interventions.
Description of the Project investment
Need and rationale for undertaking this activity, status of existing onshore
warning system in the State, system of warning to fishermen in coastal waters
and the high seas and coastal communities up to village level, gap areas, future
needs and possible interventions.
Description should include the existing system of receiving cyclone
warnings in the state from warning originating Agency (IMD), mode of
communications, time delay in receipt, accuracy and adequacy of warnings,
sustainability of the communication system, standby arrangements if any, name
of air stations and T.V. stations from where warnings are broadcast, coverage
area of AIR broadcast, system of dissemination warnings from State
Headquarters up to community, method of warning by the state govt. to
fisherman, salt pan workers, migratory labourer and nomadic population along
coast if any.
Objectives
The main objective is that warning should reach every one in least
possible time and in right (understandable language) format particularly to
people living in the shoreline/coastline. Time taken to process the input data and
transmission of warning to the vulnerable people should be bare minimum.
Second important objective the format and language of the warning messages. It
is also important that fishermen in the coastal water and high seas (those who
have ventured out for fishing) should be warned about an approaching cyclone
so that they return back to home before disaster strike. Therefore, a system needs
to be put in place so that warnings reach the target group at regular intervals with

142
minimum time delay if possible on real-time basis, and in a language or code
which could be easily understandable by them.
Reduction of Vulnerability to Cyclones
• Increase lead time of warnings for taking precautions.
• Communities will be warned well before in time.
• Scope for precautionary actions and preparedness will increase.
Expected Outcome, including social and economic benefits:
• Minimize the loss of lives, live stocks, harvested and harvestable crops.
• Economically weaker sections will be benefited most as they are most
vulnerable to cyclone disasters and need intervention.
• Reduction in expenditure on relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction
leading to availability of more funds for developmental work.
Planning Assumption
• Reasonably accurate and timely warning will be available from IMD*
• Population, communities and areas likely to be affected.
• Sustainability of equipment and communication set up proposed.
• Identification of gaps and future needs.
• Sustainability of proposed system under adverse cyclonic weather
conditions (strong winds, storm surge inundation and heavy rain).
• Integration of existing/planned (for the improvement) communication
network so as to maximize benefit and avoid duplication.
* Upgradation of cyclone warning/tracking and warning will be a separate
project to be executed by IMD under the project.
• Population, communities and areas likely to be affected and need to be
warned (all coastal population including communities living in
inaccessible/remote/island village, salt pan workers, fishing community,
fishermen those who are in high seas, etc.)
• Review of existing warning dissemination below district level.
• Identification of gaps and future needs.

143
• Sustainability of proposed system under adverse cyclonic weather
conditions (strong winds, storm surge inundation and heavy rain).
Proposed Activities
• Strengthening of communication systems by linking State HQ up to
Block / Taluka /Panchayat level by a system sustainable to adverse
weather (such as a use of fibre optics/ satellite links/wireless links up to
block/taluka/village level along the coast.)
• Networking of existing and planned (for improvement) communication
system in the State.
• Wide Area Computer Networking upto Taluka/Mandal level.
• Raising of power of AIR Stations broadcasting cyclone warnings in the
State to extend the range of broadcast, if insufficient.
• Modernization of State Control Rooms by upgrading them to State
Control Centre (SCC) / Emergency Operation Centre (EOC) and by
installing equipments to receive and display warnings, satellite pictures,
other information, weather maps etc. (one such equipment is the
installation of World Space Receiver) and immediate dissemination of
warnings from EOC to community.
• Promotion of HAM radio system/
• Fail proof communication link between State Control Centre and warning
provider (IMD, CWC etc.). (Satellite / Fiber Optic links).
• Fail proof communication system between State Control Centre and
block/ taluka/ village .
• Installation of adequate number (in close spacing) digital Cyclone
Warning Dissemination System (CWDS).
• Provide World Space Radio Receivers and/or windup Radios like the one
manufactured by Philips India Limited to fisherman (This would be a fail-
proof communication option to warn fishermen out at sea and along the)
Environmental and Social Impact: Issue of land acquisition, displacement of
people, negative environmental impacts
Risk factors:
Non-availability of adequate funds (recurring cost).

144
Non-availability of trained manpower.
Non-placement of trained manpower.
Project Management Arrangement: Phasing of activities/ responsible
institutions/ implementation arrangements
Quality Control and Monitoring: Timely preparation of bid documents, timely
procurement of equipments, timely training and timely completion of periodic
reports on implementation and peer review.
Training Needs: For instrument operation and maintenance staff
Project Costs: Cost estimates for different elements/ Cost sharing-Project/
State/Central. This should include – cost of equipments, buildings, operational
cost, maintenance cost, training cost etc under two heads viz. , (a) Capital cost
and (b) Recurring cost
Time Line
Implementing Agency should identify suitable activities and prioritise
them, identify institutional mechanism and draw a feasible Work Programme
for its effective implementation indicating Phasing of activities for the entire
duration of the Project ( Give PERT Chart )
Sustainability:
The utility and maintenance of the proposed system during non-disaster
period (peace time utilizations).

MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMICS
Specific Emergency Measures in Epidemics
In the rural areas a variety of communicable and infectious diseases
prevails and are normal occurrences. However, when these same diseases occur
in higher numbers than usual the community becomes more aware of their
presence.

An epidemic is defined as the occurrence in a community of an illness


clearly in excess of normal occurrence and derived from a common
source.

145
Health/hospital workers in the front line of action in the control of
epidemics in the community and you must be able to recognize the signs of and
our break of an infectious disease. There are two types of signs which indicate
the presence of an epidemic.
1. The occurrence of an illness in excess of normal numbers, e.g., if the number
of cases of diarrhea in the community averages 20 per day and the incidence
suddenly increases to 60, then a diarrhea epidemic is on.
2. The occurrence of a disease which is normally absent from the area, e.g., if
cholera normally does not occur in an area and one case of cholera occurs,
then a cholera epidemic is on.
Epidemictiy is, therefore, relative to the usual frequency of a
disease in the area.
Vigilance against the common communicable and infectious diseases is
an essential component of public health, particularly in areas where these
infections prevail. It is, therefore, necessary to keep accurate records of the
occurrence of these diseases to be able to know when their incidence increases or
decreases.

It is essential to know the signs which indicate a disease out-break so


that you can mobilize as early as possible preventive measures to limit
the spread of the disease. It is also vital to know how the particular
disease spreads.
Certain diseases are listed as notifiable, i.e. their occurrence must be
immediately notified to the Medical Officer of the hospital and health Inspector.
Make sure that each workers familiar with the list of modifiable diseases
in the state in which you are working.
The main purpose of notification is to put into operation as soon as
possible measures to prevent the disease from spreading.

CHOLERA
Cholera is a modifiable disease and as soon as a case is detected it must
be notified immediately to the Medical Officer of the hospital and health
authorizer.

146
Identification
Cholera is a serious acute intestinal disease. Look for the following signs
and symptoms:
i. Sudden onset of profuse watery stool (rice water stool).
ii. Vomiting.
iii. Rapid dehydration (loss of elasticity of the skin)
iv. No fever.
v. Collapse.
Remember that both the stool and the vomit are infectious and may
transmit the disease.
CONTROL MEASURES
If you see even one case with the signs and symptoms listed above, take
the following steps:
 Notify immediately the Medical Officer/health authority.
 Ensure that all stool and vomit from the patient are buried and that they do
mot come into contact with flies.
 Transfer the patient immediately to the hospital
 Disinfect the vehicle which takes the patient to the hospital.
 Chlorinate all water supplies in the area.
 Advise the community to boil all drinking water.
 Educate the community on the method of transmission of cholera and the
steps they should take to prevent getting the infection.
 Immunize the community against cholera.
 Disinfect the house from where the patients come.
 Wash your hands with soap and water and dry them properly after entering
a house where there is a patient with cholera.
 Watch for more cases of cholera.
Always work closely with the health workers particularly in carrying
out health education, treatment of the water supply sources with
chlorine, and immunization.

147
PLAGUE
Plague is an infectious disease transmitted to human beings through the
bite of a flea which has been infected by plague-infected rat or other rodent. In
rural areas, wild rodents transmit the infection to each other through flea bites
and, therefore, keep a focus of plague infection alive. These infective rodents
may pass the infection on to the domestic rats which live in or near houses. From
them the infection spreads to human beings.

Plague is transmitted by the bite of an infected flea, handling of tissues


or pus of infected rats, and by infected droplets or sputm from patients
suffering from pneumonic plague.

Identification
The signs and symptoms of plague are both local and general. Look for
the following:
i. Swelling of the glands in the groin or armpits.
ii. Small skin hemorrhages which look like red spots.
iii. Fever
iv. Restlessness, mental confusion and, in some cases coma.
v. Staggering gait which makes the patient walk like a drunken person.
Very often these symptoms, especially in the early stages, are missed
and the patient is treated for a gland injection. Therefore, enquire as to
whether other cases with similar symptoms from the same area have
occurred. If so, plague must be suspected.

vi. Signs of pneumonia develop as the disease progresses.

When pneumonia develops the spread of the disease is rapid and


several cases occur in a short time with signs and symptoms of
pneumonia.

The confirmation of plague can be made only by laboratory


investigations. It is, therefore, very important to confirm the presence of plague
early in order to take emergency measures and start treatment. Early treatment
reduces the mortality rate, which is very high in pneumonic cases.

148
Control Measures
As soon as you see a patient suspected to be suffering from plague,
proceed as follows:
i) Notify the Medical Officer immediately.
ii) Inform your supervisor.
iii) Isolate the patient. The isolation must be very strict in cases pneumonia and
no person should be allowed near the patient until the doctor sees him and
gives further instructions.
iv) Collect all sputum and other discharges in containers, if possible in a
disinfectant solution.
v) Clothing which has been in contact with the patient should disinfect.
vi) Educate the community and tell them how the disease is spread, particularly
stressing the importance of the flea in transmission of the diseases.
Carry out all the instructions given by the doctor and help your
supervisor in containing the spread of plague.
vii) Usually the area is closed for travelers and people are not allowed to leave or
enter the area for about a week from the last confirmed case.
viii) Immunization with plague vaccine should be carried out to contain the
infection and protect the local community.
ix) Measures to control the rat population are carried out.
x) Destruction of fleas by spraying with DDT is an important control measure.
You have a role to play particularly in health education, immunization,
rat control, and ddt spraying operations.
Remembers, if an unusually large number of dead rats are seen around
human habitations, you should not allow people to touch them. Arrange
for the dead rats to be examined for plague.
TYPHOID
Typhoid fever occurs is all parts of the worked where water supplies and
sanitation are sub-standard. Typhoid fever is the result of systemic infection
mainly by Salmonella typhoid found only is man. The disease is clinically
characterized by a typical continuous fever for 3 to 4 weeks. The teem “Entire

149
fever” includes both typhoid and paratyphoid fevers. The disease may occur
sporadically, epidemically or endemically.

Genus salmonellae is found is the intestine of man, animals and birds.


Some times food (egg and meat) may be contaminated with this
organism. It may cause entire fever, gastroenteritis and septicemia.
Identification:
The sign and symptoms of Typhoid are
• Toxic symptoms like Headache, anorexia, continuous fever and congestion
of mucous membrane.
• Chills and spiked fever, lesions is various parts of the body, pneumonia and
pulmonary abscess-septicemia condition.
The confirmations of Typhoid can be made only by laboratory
investigations-Hematological investigation (TLCand DLC) Bacteriological
investigation (samples from blood, urine, faces, etc.) Serological Test (WIDAL)
Antibiotics like Chloramphenical, Furazolidine and Ampicillin are effective.
Control Measures
The Control or elimination of typhoid fever is well within the scope of
modern public health. There are generally three lines of defence against typhoid
fevers:
1. Control of reservoir of infection
2. Control of sanitation
3. Immunization
1. Control of Reservoir: The usual methods of control of reservoir are their
identification isolation, treatment and disinfection.
2. Control of Sanitation: Protection and purification of drinking water supplier
and improvement of basic sanitation and promotion of food hygiene are
essential measures to interrupt transmission of typhoid fevers.
3. Immunization: Anti-typhoid vaccines
• Mono-valent anti-typhoid vaccine
• Bivalents anti-typhoid vaccine
• Tab vaccine

150
JAUNDICE
Viral hepatitis may be defined as infection of the liver caused by any half
dozen viruses; Hepatitis (HAV)and Hepatitis B virus (HBV)were the only
known etiological agents of viral hepatitis. Today is addition to HAV and HBV
hepatitis viruses C, D, E and G have also been identified and are recognized as
axiological agents of viral hepatitis.
Symptoms
The disease is heralded by Non-specific
1) Fever, chills, headache, fatigue
2) Generalized weakness
3) Aches and Pains followed by anorexia, nausea, vomiting
4) Dark Urine and faradic
Mode of transmission- fecal oral route only reservoir of infection. Mainly
mark faces, blood, serum, etc.,

Incubation period-15-45 days (usually 25-30 days)


Diagnosis
A specific laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis a can be obtained by
1) Demonstration of HAV particles in farces
2) Demonstration of a rise in anti-HAV titer
3) Detection of IgM antibody
Control Measures
1. Control of reservoirs-is difficult, because of
• fecal shedding of the virus
• Absence of specific treatment
• Low socio-economic profile of population usually involved
2. Control of transmission –Reducing the spread of infection by personal and
community hygiene –hand washing sanitary disposal, prevent contamination
of water, food and milk.
3. Control of susceptible population
4. Vaccines

151
Hepatitis b virus(formerly known sa “serum” hepatitis) is an acute systemic
infection with major pathology is lives.

Symptoms
1) A symptomatic
2) Chronic carrier Primary liver cancer cirrhosis
3) Death
Mode of Transmission
Blood transfusions, health care and laboratory personnel, homosexuals,
prostitutes, precutaneous drug abusers, infants of HBV carrier
A parental route
B prenatal transmission
C sexual transmission
D other routes
Incubation period:- 45-180 days. Midair incubation period is said to be lower
than 100days.
Control Measures
Since there is no specific treatment, prevention has been the major aim in
managing HBV. The following Measures are available
a. Hepatitis B vaccine
b. Rona deceived vaccine
c. Passive –active immunization

EPIDEMIOLOGY
Aims of Epidemiology
According to the Intonation Epidemiological Association (IEA),
epidemiology has three main aims to describe the distribution and magnitude of
health and disease problems in human populations
 to identify a etiological factors (risk factors )in the pathogenesis of
disease; and

152
 to provide the data essential to the planning implementation and
evaluation of services for the prevention control and treatment of disease
and to the setting up of priorities among those services.
In order to fulfill these aims three rather different classes of
epidemiological studies may be mentioned descriptive studies analytical studies
and experimental or intervention studies. These studies are described in the
following pages.
The ultimate aim of epidemiology is to lead to effective action:
a. to eliminate or reduce the health problem or its consequences; and
b. to promote the health and well-being of society as a whole.

II MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
The basic difference between epidemiology and clinical medicine is that
in epidemiology, the unit of study is a “defined population” or “population at
risk”; in clinical medicine, the unit of study is a “case” or “cases”. In the clinical
medicine, the physician is concerned with disease in the individual patient,
whereas the epidemiologist is concerned with disease patterns in the entire
population. Epidemiology is thus concerned with both the sick and healthy. It
has been stated that clinicians are interested in cases with the disease, the
statistician with the population from which the cases are derived and the
epidemiologist is interested in the relationship between cases and the population
in the form of a rate.
In clinical medicine, the physician seeks a diagnosis from which he
derives a prognosis and prescribes specific treatment. In epidemiology, an
analogous situation exists. The particular epidemiological study. He seeks to
identify a particular source of infection, a mode of spread or an etiological factor
in order to determine a future trend and recommend specific control measures.
The epidemiologist also evaluates the outcome of preventive and therapeutic
feed-back to the health care administrator for effective management of public
health programmes.
In clinical medicine the patient comes to the doctor; in epidemiology the
investigator goes out into the community to find persons who have the disease or
experience of the suspected causal factor in question. Clinical medicine is based
on biomedical concepts with an ever-increasing concern for refining the
153
technique of diagnosis and treatment at the individual level. The subject matter
of epidemiology is “conceptual” and can only be symbolized in the form of
tables and graphs.
Finally, it may be stated that clinical medicine and epidemiology are not
antagonistic. Both are closely related, coexistent and mutually helpful. Most
epidemiological enquires could never be established without appropriate clinical
consideration as to how the disease in question can be identified among
individuals comprising the group under scrutiny. Likewise, knowledge of
prevalence, a etiology and prognosis derived from epidemiological research is
important to the clinician for the diagnosis and management of individual
patients and their families.
Investigation of an Epidemic
The occurrence of an epidemic always signals some significant shift in
the evicting balance between the agent, host and environment. It calls for a
prompt and through investigation of the cases to uncover the factor (s)
responsible an to guide in advocating control measures to prevent further spread.
Emergencies caused by epidemics remain one of the most important challenges
to national health administrations. Epidemiology has an important role to play in
the investigation of epidemics. The objectives of an epidemic investigation are:
• To define the magnitude of the epidemic outbreak or involvement in
term of time, place and person.
• To determine the particular conditions and factors responsible for the
occurrence of the epidemic.
• To identify the cause, source(s) pf infection, and modes of
transmission to determine measures necessary to control the
epidemic; and
• To make recommendations to prevent recurrence.
An epidemic investigation calls for inference as well as description.
Frequently, epidemic investigations are called for after the peak of the epidemic
has occurred; in such cases, the investigation is mainly retrospective. No step by
step approach applicable in all situations can be described like a “cook-book”.
However, in investigating an epidemic, it is desired to have an orderly procedure
or practical guidelines as outlined below which are applicable for almost any
epidemic study. Some of the steps can be done concurrently.
154
1.Verification of Diagnosis
Verification of diagnosis is the first step in an epidemic investigation, as it
may happen sometimes that the report may be spurious and arise from
misinterpretation of signs and symptoms by the lay public. IT is therefore
necessary to have the verification of diagnosis on the spot, as quickly as
possible. It is not necessary to examine all the cases to arrive at a diagnosis. A
clinical examination of a sample of cases may well suffice. Laboratory
investigations wherever applicable, are most useful to confirm the diagnosis but
the epidemiological investigation should not be delayed until the laboratory
results are available.
2. Confirmation of the Existence of an Epidemic
The next step is too confirm if epidemic exists. This is done by comparing
the disease frequencies during the same period of previous years. An epidemic is
said to exist when the number of cases (observed frequency) is in excess of the
expected arbitrary limit of two standard errors from the endemic occurrence is
used to define the epidemic threshold for common diseases such as influenza (3)
Often the existence of an epidemic is obvious needing no such comparison, as in
the case of common-source epidemics of cholera, food poisoning and hepatitis
A. These epidemics are easily recognized. In contrast the existence of modern
epidemics (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular diseases) is not easily recognized unless
comparison is made with previous experience.
3. Defining the Population at Risk
a. Obtaining a map of the area: Before beginning the investigation, it is
necessary to have a detailed and current map of the area. If this not
available, it may be necessary to prepare such a map. It should contain
information concerning natural landmarks, roads and the location of
all dwelling units along each road or in isolated areas. The area may
be divided into segments, using natural landmarks as boundaries this
may again be divided into smaller sections. Within each section, the
dwelling units (houses) may be designated by numbers.
b. Counting the population: The denominator may be related to the
entire population or subgroup of population. It may also be related to
total events (see page 46 for more details). For example, if the
denominator is the entire population a complete census of the

155
population by age and sex should be carried out in the defined area by
house-to-house visits. For this purpose lay health workers in sufficient
numbers may be employed. Using this technique it is possible to
establish the size of the population. The population census will help in
computing the much needed attack rates in various groups and
subgroups of the population later on. Without an appropriate
denominator of “population at risk “attack rates cannot be calculated.
4. Rapid search for all cases and their characteristics
(a) Medical survey: Concurrently a medical survey should be carried out
in the defined area to identify all cases including those who have not
sought medical care, and those possibly exposed to risk. Ideally, the
complete survey (screening each member of the population for the
presence of the disease in question) will pick up all affected
individuals with symptoms or signs of the disorder. Lay health
workers may be trained to administer the “epidemiological case
sheet” or questionnaire to collect relevant data.
(b) Epidemiological case sheet: The epidemiologist should be armed
with an “epidemiological case sheet” for collecting data from cases
and from persons apparently exposed but unaffected. The
epidemiological case sheet or “case interview from” should be
carefully designed (based on the findings of a rapid preliminary
inquiry) to collect relevant information. This includes: name, age,
sex, occupation, social class, travel, history of previous exposure,
time of onset of disease, sings and symptoms of illness, personal
contacts at home work, school and other places; special events such
as parties attended, foods eaten and exposure to common vehicles
such as water, food and milk; visits out of the community, history of
receiving injections or blood products, attendance at large gathering,
etc., The information collected should be relevant to the disease under
study. For example, it the disease is food-borne, detailed food
histories are necessary. A case review form will ensure completeness
and consistency of data collection.
If the outbreak is large, it may not be possible to interview all the cases
(e.g., influenza). In such cases, a random sample should be examined and data
collected.

156
Searching for more cases: The patient may be asked if he knew of other
cases in the home, family, neighbourhood, school, work place having an onset
within the incubation of the index case. Cases admitted to the local hospitals
should also be taken info consideration. This may reveal not only additional
cases but also person-to-preps, s[read. The search for new cases (secondary
cases) should be carried out everyday, till the area is declared free of epidemic.
This period is usually takes as twice the incubation period of the disease since
the occurrence of last case.
5. Data Analysis
The data collected should be analyzed on ongoing basis, using the
classical epidemiological parameter-time, place and person. If the disease agent
is known, the characteristics of time place and person may be rearranged into
Agent-Host-Environment model (3).
(a) Time: Prepare a chronological distribution of dates of onset and
construct an “epidemic curve”. Look for time clustering of cases. An
epidemic curve may suggest; (a) a time relationship with exposure to
a suspected source, (b) whether it is a common-source or propagated
epidemic and (c) whether it is a seasonal or cyclic pattern suggestive
of a particular infection.
(b) Place: Prepare a “spot map” (geographic distribution) of cases, and if
possible, their relation to possible sources of infection, e.g., water
supply air pollution, foods eaten occupation, etc. Clustering of cases
may indicate a common source of infection. Analysis of geographic
distribution may provide evidence of the source of disease and its
mode of spread. This was demonstrated by John Snow in the cholera
outbreak in the Golden Square district, London.
(c) Persons: Analyze the data by age, sex, occupation and other possible
risk factors. Determine the attack rates/case fatality rates, for those
exposed and those not exposed and according to host factors. For
example, in most food-borne outbreaks, food-specific attack rates
must be calculated for each food eaten to determine the source of
infection.
The purpose of data analysis is to identify common event or experience,
and to delineate the group involved in the common experience.

157
6. Formulation Hypotheses
On the basis of time, place and person distribution or the Agent-Host-
Environment model, formulate hypotheses to explain the epidemic in terms of
(a) possible source (b) causative agent (c) Possible modes of spread, and (d) the
environmental factors which enabled it to occur. These hypotheses should be
placed in order of relative likelihood. Formulation of a tentative hypothesis
should guide further investigation.
7. Testing of Hypotheses
All reasonable hypotheses need to be considered and weighed by
comparing the attack rates in various groups for those exposed and those not
exposed to each suspected factor. This will enable the epidemiologist to
ascertain which hypothesis is consistent with all the known facts. When
divergent theories are presented, it is not easy to distinguish immediately
between those which are sound and those which are merely plausible. Therefore
it is instructive to turn back to arguments which have been rested by the
subsequent of events (163).
8. Evaluation of Ecological Factors
An investigation of the circumstances involved should be carried out to
undertake appropriate measure to prevent further transmission of the disease.
Ecological factors hatch have mode the epidemic possible should be investigated
such as sanitary status of eating establishments, water supply system;
movements of the human population, atmospheric changes such as temperature,
humidity and air pollution, population dynamics of insects and animal reservoirs.
The outbreak can be studied in a case control fashion. One of the primary
concerns of the epidemiologist is to relate the disease to environmental factors to
know the source(s) of infection, reservoirs and modes of transmission.
9. Further Investigation Population at Risk
A study of the population at risk or a sample of it may be needed to obtain
additional information. This may involve medical examination, screening tests,
examination of suspected food, faces or blood samples, biochemical studies
assessment of immunity status, etc. The approach may be retrospective or
prospective. For example, serological study may reveal clinically in apparent
cases and throw light on the pathogenesis of the condition. Healthy individuals

158
(those who are not ill) from the same universe may be studied in a case control
fashion. This will permit classification of all members as to:
 exposure to specific potential vehicles
 whether ill or not
Writing the Report
The report should be complete and convincing. Information to be
included in the final report on an epidemic .

Review Questions:
1. How would you plan for a project to create awareness on preparedness to
face disasters?
2. How do you prepare a project for construction of shelters to protect during
tsunami disaster?
3. State the specific emergency measures to be taken in case of epidemics.
4. What are the aims of epidemiology?
5. What are the objectives of epidemic investigation?
6. Discuss the procedure involved in epidemic investigation.

  

159
UNIT – VI
MANAGEMENT OF DISASTER-II
DISASTER WARNING SYSTEM
Prerequisites for a Responsive warning System
The goal of a warning system is to ensure that all possible precautions are
carried out in order to minimize loss of life and property damage. These
preparedness measures are directed both to pre-disaster precautions and to the
facilitation of prompt, efficient post-disaster emergency measures.
A responsive warning system is based on preparedness, which includes
the following components:
Public Education
A public education program should provide the public with information
about disasters, their possible effects, and the appropriate precautions to take.
Training programs should be provided for public servants who will have
special responsibilities during disasters.
Training aids (including booklets, films, posters, handouts, etc.)
Should be developed for the public school and university curriculum
public servant.
Preparedness Plans
All departments and institutions in the disaster-prone area should develop
disaster preparedness plans specific to community needs and to locally available
staff, equipment and facilities.
Government Response
When a Disaster Watch bulletin has been issued (indicating that a
potentially threatening cyclone has formed,) the Meteorological Department will
notify to the government. The government will then be asked to activate a top-
level standing coordinating committee to:
 Activate an information center.
 Distribute forecast bulletins

160
 Ensuring that all ministers, the mass media, agencies and
nongovernmental groups receive accurate details about impending
danger.
 Encourage all minister to direct their personnel toward implementing
preparedness plans and carrying out all necessary precaution.
 Provide the public, via TV radio and newspapers, information including:
 a description of disasters and their likely effects;
 details on the precautions that the public should take for
protecting lives and property.
 Develop a data collection and coordination system in anticipation of
 Post disaster needs.
Ministry Level Response
When a Disaster Watch bulletin has been issued, all ministries will set in
motion their respective disaster preparedness plans that include:
 Activating one coordinating point within each ministry for intra ministry
response and data collection.
 Ensuring that all ministry field staff in the disaster-prone areas receives the
forecast bulletin information.
 Ensuring that all field staff have information about disasters, their effects,
and the precautions to take protecting life and property.
 Ensuring that all necessary precautions are taken to protect public property
and to maintain services.
 Determining from field personnel the availability of staff, equipment and
supplies to cope with the disaster, and determining with field staff the
need for additional support.
 Providing field personnel with emergency authorizations needed to cope
with post-disaster needs.
Evacuation
1. Prior to a disaster, evacuation of people from areas considered too be
particularly dangerous should be carried out, by legal sanctions if
necessary.

161
2. Evacuation from an affected area after a disaster should only be
carried out if the post-disaster situation constitutes a threat to life
(such as continued flooding).
3. When evacuation is necessary, it should be organized on a family or
community basis. Family members should not be separated.
4. Evacuation for the purpose of providing better services may actually
cause hardships by separating victims from their land and/or personal
property or by delaying the cleanup and reconstruction process
Evacuation Safety Rules
When a disaster comes, stay at home if it is a sturdy house on high
ground. If it is not, move to another area of shelter on high ground and stay there
until the storm is over.
Before making any last minute preparations, be absolutely certain you
have time. If advised to evacuate, do so immediately. Don’t wait until the last
minute to leave, hoping to save your possessions. Save your life.
Move quickly and charily. Don’t take chances. Getting safely to higher
ground or away from the seashore is your first consideration.
Follow police instructions about evacuation. It is better to be safe than
sorry.
Know where you are going before you leave and make sure you have
adequate time to get there.
If you have only limited time for evacuation preparation, take only
blankets, cloths and any foods available. If you have time to gather supplies, take
with you:
• Any polyethylene raincoats. Important documents and papers
• Emergency supply of food
• Emergency supply of water
• Matches and a lamp
• Flashlight with extra batteries
• Lock your house when you leave.
• Watch for:

162
 Washed out bridges
 Downed power lines
 Floating hazards
Don’t walk through streams more than knee deep. Flood currents are
strong and people can easily be washed away in them.
The possibility of looting is always a concern. Secure items as well as
possible, but don’t delay evacuation.
Problem and Solution
In the disruption following a natural disaster, information immediately
necessary may be difficult to gather in a conventional manner. Aerial
observation can provide an alternate or complementary data source to ground
surveillance. Information derived from aerial observation includes interpretation
of aerial photographs, data recorded on video tapes and notes and symbols
marked on maps by an observer in the plane or helicopter. Critical information
includes geographic extent and severity of damage, and immediate and accurate
accounts of specific damage sites. A permanent record of this is important for
later referral.
This information derived from aerial observation provides a basis on
which to make decisions. Decisions include those related to the life-saving
function of search and rescue. Whether the emergency involves numerous
stranded persons over a large area , data can be collected more quickly than by
ground search, especially if conditions are difficult for ordinary ground
movement.
Search and Rescue Guidelines
Search and rescue operations are usually a cooperative community effort.
Search and rescue efforts usually require a two phase process:
Phase1-Immediate post disaster rescue work by local survivors
Phase 2-Specialized assistance, possibly from outside the immediate area
Immediate post disaster rescue work will predominantly consist of
rescuing people trapped by feline debris, identifying and assisting seriously
injured persons, and evacuating or assisting people marooned by flood waters.

163
The majority of all immediate post disaster rescue work is carried out by
local survivors.
The specialized assistance most often required in search and rescue
operations after disasters is:
Transportation for the seriously injured;
Aerial reconnaissance for the identification of people stranded in
inaccessible places;
Boats for rescue or for supply to people in marooned situation;
Heavy equipment to clean landslides or remove debris.
Regional or national rescue units which must travel any great distance are
often of little use for the immediate post-disaster rescue work but may be of
some assistance in providing specialized help (such as helicopters).
Each community should designate one department or agency to be
responsible for coordination of rescue activities within its boundaries.
When a disaster can be predicted, search and rescue operations should be
organized within a community as soon as there is notification that the disaster is
likely to strike.
Agencies and organizations likely to participate in search and rescue
operations should carry out preparedness training for all personnel involved.
Any agencies likely to be involved in search and rescue work should carry
out annual practice sessions.
Search and rescue must be carried out systematically to ensure that no one
has been missed.
First Aid
The key to effective post disaster first aid programs is preplanning and
good coordination.
There are four basic facets to the provision of first aid after disasters:
i) The provision of on-site, immediate post-disaster first aid, available
resource people;

164
ii) The provision of medical treatment for minor injuries and secondary
illnesses by health care professionals, such as mobile health teams;
iii) The treatment of more serious injuries and illnesses at district or
provincial hospitals;
iv) The monitoring and surveillance of post- disaster illnesses, medical
needs, and the possibility of epidemics.
For the provision of effective first aid services, all of the above-listed
functions should be mutually
Supportive and well coordinated to ensure good medical care and to avoid
duplication of effort.
On-site, immediate post disaster first aid will necessarily be provided by
those resource people living within each village or neighborhood because:
 For at least 12 hours after a cyclone, for example, continuing winds and
rain will prevent auxiliary help from being flow in;
 Roads may be blocked by fallen trees, landslides, or flooding for as long
as several days, making grout transport hazardous or impossible.
The quality of first aid treatment given immediately post disaster will
depend largely upon the first aid training of auxiliary health care workers and
non-professionals in each community. For the treatment of more serious injuries,
emergency medical attention should be directed toward transporting the patient
to treatment center, rather than attempting to bring in limited services to treat the
injured.
Steps to be taken in a Disaster
i) Establish a command post in a safe area.
ii) Establish communication with hospitals or medical facilities, and
other emergency units.
iii) The first aider should continue to be the triage officer until physician
arrives on the scene.
iv) Set up a triage point in a safe area such that all victims to be taken to
the ambulance pass through this point.
v) Determine the hospital to which the ambulance should go.

165
vi) Set up a point for giving information to relatives and friends of the
disaster victims.
vii) Set up a temporary morgue out of sight for keeping dead bodies.
Keep a guard there to prevent unauthorized persons from going there.

Relief Work in Disasters


Every community should have a civil defense plan and organization, to be
used not only for all disasters. First aiders, nurses, paramedical people, police,
military and volunteers must participate in this work. Problems that need to be
solved in a disaster are as follows.
1. The electric power supply is impaired. The telephone lines become
nonfunctional, making it difficult to call for help from the fire or
police department, or to contact the doctors.
2. Electric motors will not work and hence water supply will be stopped.
Whatever water exists may not be safe to drink.
3. The streets may be so damaged that it will be impossible for help to
reach you.
4. Even if the grocery stores survive the disaster, their goods may too
damage to be safe for consumption.
5. Diseases thrive under disaster conditions.
6. Sanitation may become poor, spreading diseases.
7. Childbirth or miscarriage can take place under conditions of stress.
Effective handling of disasters requires combined efforts of the local
agencies in the area e.g. public health division, public welfare department, public
works department, police and fire departments, public and private hospitals, Red
Cross and civil defense services.

RESOURCES
The various agencies that provide resources in a disaster and their work
are shown in the following table.

166
Resources for Readiness
Resources Work
Red Cross Provide relief for human suffering in the form of food,
shelter, clothing, medical care, and occupational
rehabilitation of victims.
Community and Local Clear rubble, maintain law and order, determine the
Government safety of a structure for habitation, repair bridges,
resume transportation, maintain sanitation, provide safe
food and water.
Civil Defence Service Mobilize the staff and equipment of the Red Cross.
Recruit and assign nurses to manage disaster.
Provide for shelter; establish communication linkage,
disaster services, assistance to affected community in
the area of health, sanitation, maintaining law and
order, fire-fighting, clearing debris & various diseases.
Emergency Planning At both central and state government level is
Section established; this is also established at the Ministries/
Departments like meteorology, environment, health,
food supply, transport, housing, finance, etc.
Medical facilities Organize resuscitation and first aid at the site of
disaster, make arrangements for hospitalization, set up
blood donation centers, and organize supply and
equipment stores.

ROLE OF GOVERNMENT
The country with its federal system of Government has specific roles for
the Central and State Governments. However, the subject of disaster
management does not specifically find mention in any of the three lists in the 7th
Schedule of the Indian Constitution, where subjects under the Central and State
Governments as also subjects that come under both are specified. On the legal
front, there is no enactment either of the Central or of any State Government to

167
deal with the management of disasters of various types in a comprehensive
manner.
The country has an integrated administrative machinery for management
of disasters at the National, State, District and Sub-District levels. The basic
responsibility of undertaking rescue, relief and rehabilitation measures in the
event of natural disasters, as at present, is that of the State Governments
concerned. The Central Government supplements the efforts of the States by
providing financial and logistic support.
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT
The dimensions of response at the level of the Central Government are
determined in accordance with the existing policy of financing relief expenditure
and keeping in view the factors like:
• the gravity of a natural disaster;
• the scale of the relief operation necessary; and
• the requirements of Central assistance for augmenting financial
resources and logistic support at the disposal of the State Government.
The Contingency Action Plan (CAP) identifies initiatives required to be
taken by various Central Ministries and Public Departments in the wake of
natural calamities. It sets down the procedures and determines the focal points in
the administrative machinery to facilitate launching of relief and rescue
operations without delay.
The Ministry of Home Affairs is the nodal Ministry for coordination of
relief and response and overall natural disaster management, and the Department
of Agriculture and Cooperation is the nodal Ministry for drought management.
Other Ministries are assigned the responsibility of providing emergency support
in case of disasters that fall in their purview.
The following decision-making and standing bodies are responsible for
disaster management at the Central level:
 Union Cabinet, headed by the Prime Minister.
 Empowered Group of Ministers, headed by the Deputy Prime Minister
 National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC), under the
chairmanship of the Cabinet Secretary.
168
 Crisis Management Group (CMG): under the chairmanship of the Central
Relief Commissioner comprising senior officers from the various
Ministries and other concerned Departments which reviews contingency
plans, measures required for dealing with a natural disaster, and co-
ordinates the activities of the Central Ministries and the State
Governments in relation to disaster preparedness response and relief.
 Technical Organizations, such as the Indian Meteorological Department
(cyclone/earthquake), Central Water Commission (floods), Building
Material and Technology Promotion Council (construction laws), Bureau
of Indian Standards (norms), Defence Research & Development
Organization (nuclear/biological), Directorate General Civil Defence
provide specific technical support to coordination of disaster response and
management functions.
 The setting up of a National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is
being contemplated by the Ministry of Home Affairs as the proposed apex
structure within the government for the purpose. Amongst other major
organizational initiatives, it is proposed to:
(a) establish a specialised and earmarked response team for dealing
with nuclear/ biological/ chemical disasters;
(b) establish search and rescue teams in each State;
(c) strengthen communication systems in the North Eastern Region.
STATE GOVERNMENT
The responsibility to cope with natural disasters is essentially that of the
State Government. The role of the Central Government is supportive in terms of
supplementation of physical and financial resources. The Chief Secretary of the
State heads a state level committee which is in overall charge of the relief
operations in the State and the Relief Commissioners who are in charge of the
relief and rehabilitation measures in the wake of natural disasters in their States
function under the overall direction and control of the state level committee. In
many states, Secretary, Department of Revenue, is also in-charge of relief. State
Governments usually have relief manuals and the districts have their
contingency plan that is updated from time to time.

169
District and Local Level
The district administration is the focal point for implementation of all
governmental plans and activities. The actual day-to-day function of
administering relief is the responsibility of the Collector/ District
Magistrate/Deputy Commissioner who exercises coordinating and supervising
powers over all departments at the district level. Though it may not be a
common phenomenon, there exists by and large in districts also a district level
relief committee consisting of officials and non- officials.
The 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments recognise Panchayati Raj
Institutions as ‘Institutions of self- government’. The amendment has also laid
down necessary guidelines for the structure of their composition, powers,
functions, devolution of finances, regular holding of elections and reservation of
seats for weaker sections including women. These local bodies can be effective
instruments in tackling disasters through early warning system, relief
distribution, providing shelter to the victims, medical assistance etc.
Other than the national, state, district and local levels, there are various
institutional stakeholders who are involved in disaster management at various
levels in the country. These include
 the police and para-military forces, civil defence and home-guards, fire
services, ex-servicemen,
 nongovernment organisations (NGOs), public and private sector
enterprises, media and HAM operators, all of whom have important roles
to play.

FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS
Financing of Relief Expenditures
The policy arrangements for meeting relief expenditure related to natural
disasters are, by and large, based on the recommendations of successive finance
commissions. The two main windows presently open for meeting such
expenditures are:
(1) The Calamity Relief Fund (CRF) and
(2) National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF).

170
The Calamity Relief Fund is used for meeting the expenditure for
providing immediate relief to the victims of cyclone, drought, earthquake, fire,
flood and hailstorm. Expenditure on restoration of damaged capital works
should ordinarily be met from the normal budgetary heads, except when it is to
be incurred as part of providing immediate relief, such as restoration of drinking
water sources or provision of shelters etc., or restoration of communication links
for facilitating relief operations. The amount of annual contribution to the CRF
of each State for each of the financial years 2000-01 to 2004-05 is as indicated
by the Finance Commission. Of the total contribution indicated, the Government
of India contributes 75 per cent of the total yearly allocation in the form of a
non-plan grant, and the balance amount is contributed by the State Government
concerned. A total of Rs. 11,007.59 crore was provided for the Calamity Relief
Fund from 2000-05.
Pursuant to the recommendations of the Eleventh Finance Commission,
apart from the CRF, a National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF) Scheme
came into force with effect from the financial year 2000-01 and would be
operative till the end of the financial year 2004-05. NCCF is intended to cover
natural calamities like cyclone, drought, earthquake, fire, flood and hailstorm,
which are considered to be of severe nature requiring expenditure by the State
Government in excess of the balances available in its own Calamity Relief Fund.
The assistance from NCCF is available only for immediate relief and
rehabilitation. Any reconstruction of assets or restoration of damaged capital
should be financed through re-allocation of Plan funds. There is need for
defining the arrangements in this regard.
The initial corpus of the National Fund is Rs.500 crore, provided by the
Government of India. This fund is required to be recouped by levy of special
surcharge for a limited period on central taxes. An amount of about Rs.2,300
crore has already been released to States from NCCF. A list of items and norms
of expenditure for assistance chargeable to CRF/NCCF in the wake of natural
calamities is prescribed in detail from time to time.
Financing of Disaster Management Through Five Year Plans
Although not specifically addressed in Five Year Plan documents in the
past, the Government of India has a long history of using funds from the Plan for
mitigating natural disasters. Funds are provided under Plan schemes i.e., various
schemes of Government of India, such as for drinking water, employment

171
generation, inputs for agriculture and flood control measures etc. There are also
facilities for rescheduling short-term loans taken for agriculture purposes upon
certification by the District/ State administration. Central Government’s assets/
infrastructure are to be repaired/rectified by the respective Ministry/Department
of Government of India. Besides this, at the occurrence of a calamity of great
magnitude, funds flow from donors, both local and international, for relief and
rehabilitation, and in few cases for long-term preparedness/ preventive measures.
Funds for the latter purposes are also available from multilateral funding
agencies such as the World Bank. These form part of the State Plan.
There are also a number of important ongoing schemes that specifically
help reduce disaster vulnerability. Some of these are:
• Integrated Wasteland Development Programme (IWDP),
• Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP),
• Desert Development Programme (DDP),
• Flood Control Programmes,
• National Afforestation and Ecodevelopment Programme
(NA&ED),
• Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP),
• Crop Insurance, Sampurn Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY),
• Food for Work etc.

Initiatives Proposed by Various Bodies regarding Financing under the Plan


References have recently been made to the role of the Plan in disaster
management by the High Power Committee (HPC) on Disaster Management, as
well as by the Eleventh Finance Commission. The HPC was constituted in 1999
and submitted its Report in October 2001. The HPC took an overview of all
recent disasters (natural as well as manmade) in the country and identified
common response and preparedness mechanisms on the basis of a series of
consultations with a number of government, non-government, national and
international agencies and media organisations. An important recommendation
of the Committee was that at least 10 per cent of plan funds at the national, state
and district levels be earmarked and apportioned for schemes which specifically
address areas such as prevention, reduction, preparedness and mitigation of
disasters.

172
The Eleventh Finance Commission too paid detailed attention to the issue
of disaster management and, in its chapter on calamity relief, came out with a
number of recommendations, of which the following have a direct bearing on the
Plan:
(a) Expenditure on restoration of infrastructure and other capital assets, except
those that are intrinsically connected with relief operations and connectivity
with the affected area and population, should be met from the plan funds on
priority basis.
(b) Medium and long-term measures be devised by the concerned Ministries of
the Government of India, the State Governments and the Planning
Commission to reduce, and if possible, eliminate, the occurrences of these
calamities by undertaking developmental works.
(c) The Planning Commission, in consultation with the State Governments and
concerned Ministries, should be able to identify works of a capital nature to
prevent the recurrence of specific calamities. These works may be funded
under the Plan.

PLANNING FOR SAFE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT


Development programmes that go into promoting development at the
local level have been left to the general exercise of planning. Measures need also
to be taken to integrate disaster mitigation efforts at the local level with the
general exercise of planning, and a more supportive environment created for
initiatives towards managing of disasters at all levels: national, state, district and
local.
The future blue-print for disaster management in India rests on the
premise that in today’s society while hazards, both natural or otherwise, are
inevitable, the disasters that follow need not be so and the society can be
prepared to cope with them effectively whenever they occur. The need of the
hour is to chalk out a multi-pronged strategy for total risk management,
comprising prevention, preparedness, response and recovery on the one hand,
and initiate development efforts aimed towards risk reduction and mitigation, on
the other. Only then can we look forward to “sustainable development.”

173
Disaster Prevention And Preparedness Measures Information and Research
Network
Disaster prevention is intrinsically linked to preventive planning. Some of
the important steps in this regard are:
 Introduction of a comprehensive process of vulnerability analysis and
objective risk assessment.
 Building a robust and sound information database: A comprehensive
database of the land use, demography, infrastructure developed at the
national, state and local levels along with current information on climate,
weather and man-made structures is crucial in planning, warning and
assessment of disasters. In addition, resource inventories of governmental
and nongovernmental systems including personnel and equipment help in
efficient mobilisation and optimisation of response measures.
 Creating state-of-the-art infrastructure: The entire disaster mitigation
game plan must necessarily be anchored to frontline research and
development in a holistic mode. State-of-the art technologies available
worldwide need to be made available in India for upgradation of the
disaster management system; at the same time, dedicated research
activities should be encouraged, in all frontier areas related to disasters
like biological, space applications, information technology, nuclear
radiation etc., for a continuous flow of high quality basic information for
sound disaster management planning.
 Establishing Linkages between all knowledge- based institutions: A
National Disaster Knowledge Network, tuned to the felt needs of a
multitude of users like disaster managers, decision makers, community
etc., must be developed as the network of networks to cover natural,
manmade and biological disasters in all their varied dimensions.
During an emergency the disaster preparedness authorities may assume
responsibility for coordination of emergency activities, or a new emergency
committee may be established. Depending on the type of disaster, however,
operational responsibilities will again usually be assigned to one or more
ministries, usually those with some degree of operational capacity or with
special equipment required for the emergency period. For example, public works
departments, which have trucks and engineering equipment, are often assigned

174
lead responsibility during floods, while public health departments are usually
assigned lead responsibility during reconstruction, operational responsibility
may be shifted to another government ministry or combination of ministries. If
the disaster has been particularly destructive or widespread, special regional
agencies may sometimes be formed with staff seconded from the normal
ministries. These regional agencies tend to remain in existence for about one to
five years. They are then disbanded and the personnel return to their former jobs.
Strengthening of Plan Activities
Given the pervasive nature of disasters and the widespread havoc caused
by some of them, planned expenditure on disaster mitigation and prevention
measures in addition to the CRF is required. The Central Sector Scheme of
Natural Disaster Management Programmes has been implemented since 1993-94
by the Department of Agriculture and Co-operation with the objective to focus
on disaster preparedness with emphasis on mitigation and preparedness
measures for enhanced capability to reduce the adverse impact of disasters. The
major activities undertaken within this scheme include the setting up of the
National Centre for Disaster Management (NCDM) at the Indian Institute of
Public Administration, creation of 24 disaster management faculties in 23 states,
research and consultancy services, documentation of major disaster events and
forging regional cooperation. The Eighth Plan allocation of Rs 6.30 crore for this
scheme was increased to Rs. 16.32 crore in the Ninth Plan. Within this scheme,
NCDM has conducted over 50 training programmes, training more than 1000
people, while 24 disaster management centres with dedicated faculty have been
established in the states. Over 4000 people have been trained at the State level.
In addition, some important publications and audio-visual training modules have
been prepared and documentation of disaster events has been done.
Though limited in scope and outlays, the Scheme has made an impact on
the training and research activities in the country. Creation of faculties in
disaster management in all 28 states is proposed to be taken up in the Tenth Plan
in addition to community mobilisation, human resource development,
establishment of Control Rooms and forging international cooperation in disaster
management. There is also an urgent need for strengthening the disaster
management pedagogy by creating disaster management faculties in universities,
rural development institutes and other organisations of premier research.

175
Sustainability is the key word in the development process. Development
activities that do not consider the disaster loss perspective fail to be sustainable.
The compounded costs of disasters relating to loss of life, loss of assets,
economic activities, and cost of reconstruction of not only assets but of lives can
scarcely be borne by any community or nation. Therefore, all development
schemes in vulnerable areas should include a disaster mitigation analysis,
whereby the feasibility of a project is assessed with respect to vulnerability of
the area and the mitigation measures required for sustainability. Environmental
protection, afforestation programmes, pollution control, construction of
earthquake resistant structures etc., should therefore have high priority within the
plans.
The aim of a mitigation strategy is to reduce losses in the event of a future
occurrence of a hazard. Structural mitigation may comprise construction of
individual disaster resistant structures like retrofitted or earthquake-resistant
buildings or creation of structures whose function is primarily disaster protection
like flood control structures, dykes, levees, infiltration dams etc.
Mitigation measures on individual structures can be achieved by design
standards, building codes and performance specifications. Building codes,
critical front-line defence for achieving stronger engineered structures, need to
be drawn up in accordance with the vulnerability of the area and implemented
through appropriate techno-legal measures.
Mitigation measures need to be considered in land use and site planning
activities. Constructions in hazardous areas like flood plains or steep soft slopes
are more vulnerable to disasters. Necessary mitigation measures need to be built
into the design and costing of development projects.
Insurance is a potentially important mitigation measure in disaster-prone
areas as it brings quality in the infrastructure & consciousness and a culture of
safety by its insistence on following
 building codes, norms, guidelines, quality materials in construction etc.
Disaster insurance mostly
 works under the premise of ‘higher the risk higher the premium, lesser the
risk lesser the premium’
thus creating awareness towards vulnerable areas and motivating people to settle
in relatively safer areas.
176
ROLE OF HOSPITALS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT
The message emanating form the international decade for natural disaster
reduction in May 1994 underlined the need for an emphatic shift in the strategy
for disaster mitigation. It was inter-alias stressed that disaster prevention,
mitigation, preparedness and relief are four elements which contribute to and
gain, from the implementation of the sustainable development policies. These
elements along with environmental protection and sustainable development, are
closely inter related. Therefore, nations should incorporate them in their
development plans and ensure efficient follow up measures at the community,
sub-regional, regional, national and international levels. The strategy also
emphasized that disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness are better than
disaster response in achieving the goals and objectives of vulnerability reduction.
Disaster response alone is not sufficient as it yields only temporary results at a
very high cost. Prevention and mitigation contribute to lasting improvement in
safety and are essential to integrated disaster management.
The Government of India have adopted mitigation and prevention as
essential components of their development strategy. The Tenth Fiver year Plan
document has a detailed chapter on Disaster Management. The plan emphasizes
the fact that development cannot be sustainable without mitigation being built
into developmental process. Each State is supposed to prepare a plan scheme for
disaster mitigation in accordance with the approach outlined in the plan. In
brief, migration is being institutionalized into developmental planning.
The Finance Commission makes recommendations with regard to
devolution of funds between the Central Government and State Governments as
also outlays for relief and rehabilitation. The earlier Finance Commissions were
mandated to look at relief and rehabilitation. The term of Reference of the
Twelfth Finance commission have been changed and the Finance Commission
has been mandated to look at the requirements for mitigation and prevention
apart form its existing mandate of looking at relief and rehabilitation. A
memorandum has been submitted to the Twelfth Finance Commission after
consultation with States. The memorandum proposes a Mitigation Fund.
The Government of India have issued guidelines that where there is a
shelf of projects, projects addressing mitigation will be given a priority. It has
also been mandated that each project in a hazard prone area will have disaster

177
prevention/mitigation as a term of reference and the project document has to
reflect as to how the project addresses that term of reference.

ROLE OF COMMUNITY
Under this programme Disaster Management Plans have been prepared
for 8643 villages, 1046 Gram Panchayat, 188 blocks and 82 districts. More than
29000 elected representatives of Panchayati Raj Institutions have already been
trained, besides imparting training to members of voluntary organizations. About
18000 Government functionaries have been trained in disaster mitigation and
preparedness at different levels. 865 engineers and 425 architects have been
trained in under this programme in vulnerability assessment and retrofitting of
lifeline buildings. 600 master trainers and 1200 teachers have already been
trained in different districts in disaster preparedness and mitigation. Disaster
Management Committees consisting of elected representatives, civil society
members, Civil Defense Volunteers and Government functionaries have been
constituted at all levels including village/urban local body/ward levels. Disaster
Management Teams have been constituted in villages and are being imparted
training in basic functions of first aid, rescue, evacuation and related issues.
The thrust of the programme is to build up capabilities of the community
since the community is invariably the first responder.
During the recent past, it has been experienced that the capacity building
of the community has been very helpful even in normal situations when isolated
instances of drowning, burns etc. take place. With the creation of awareness
generation on disaster mitigation, the community will be able to function as a
well-knit unit in case of any emergency. Mock drills are carried out from time to
time under the close of supervision of Disaster Management Committees. The
Disaster Management Committees and Disaster Management Teams have been
established by notifications issued by the State Governments which will ensure
that the entire system is institutionalized and does not disintegrate after the
conclusion of the programme.
The key points being stressed under this programme are the need to
ensure sustainability of the programme, development of training modules;
manuals and codes, focused attention to awareness generation campaigns;
institutionalization of disaster management committees and disaster management

178
teams, disaster management plans and mock-drills and establishment of techno-
legal regimes.
Community Level Initiatives
The goal of any disaster management initiative is to build a disaster
resistant/resilient community equipped with safer living and sustainable
livelihoods to serve its own development purposes. The community is also the
first responder in any disaster situation, thereby emphasising the need for
community level initiatives in managing disasters. To encourage such initiatives,
the following are required:
(a) Creating awareness through disaster education and training and
information dissemination are necessary steps for empowering the
community to cope with disasters.
(b) Community based approach followed by most NGOs and Community
Based Organisations (CBOs) should be incorporated in the disaster
management system as an effective vehicle of community participation.
(c) Within a vulnerable community, there exist groups that are more
vulnerable like women and children, aged and infirm and physically
challenged people who need special care and attention especially during
disaster situations. Efforts are required for identifying such vulnerable
groups and providing special assistance in terms of evacuation, relief, aid
and medical attention to them in disaster situations.
(d) Management of disasters should therefore be an interface between a
community effort to mitigate and prevent disasters as also an effort from
the government machinery to buttress and support popular initiatives.
ROLE OF VOLUNTARY AGENCIES
When most people think of disasters, they imagine voluntary agencies or
the Red Cross or Red Crescent providing emergency relief materials and aid to
disaster victims. While this image is, in part, correct, it depicts only a portion of
the assistance that is provided and the manner in which it is delivered. Will
explore the full range of disaster assistance and identify the types of
organizations and the way in which disaster assistance is (or should be)
provided. It is important to know what type of organizations are normally

179
assigned disaster responsibilities and the specific organizations that become
involved in each time phase.

FOREIGN ASSISTANCE PATTERNS


Donor governments and international voluntary organizations render
foreign assistance when the disaster relief and recovery requirements exceed the
resources available in the affected country. The assistance patterns vary
according to the phase and the type of disaster. While many development
agencies participate in development activities that might mitigate disasters, few
would see this as their primary role. Likewise, few participate in disaster
preparedness planning.
During the emergency phase, non-governmental organizations often
become prominent in dispensing emergency relief. This is because of their
flexibility and inherent ability to respond quickly to an emergency. In general,
non-governmental organizations should usually be regarded as specialized
service agencies; that is, they have special skills or interests that are generally
sector- focused. They usually provide assistance for only limited periods of time,
primarily during the emergency and rehabilitation phase. Since their funding is
dependent on public support and interest in a particular disaster. Voluntary
agencies tend to work in person-to-person types of activities and generally prefer
to do small-scale, short-term projects rather than long-term activities that require
large capital expenditures. In order to make the most of scarce resources,
governments often prefer to turn over large segments of humanitarian efforts to
these agencies so that government resources can be channeled into longer term,
and more expansive recovery activities. The United Nations Development
Program (UNDP), the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), and the
United Nations Center for Housing and Human Settlements (HABITAT) are the
principal U.N. agencies actively engaged in disaster-prevention programs.
Preparedness activities fall under the domain of the United Nations
Disaster Relief Office (UNDRO) The Red Cross system (or Red Crescent in
Moslem countries) can also bring many resources to bear in an emergency. The
Red Cross/Red Crescent Society in each country is usually chartered by the
government and given semi-official status. Each national society, in turn,
belongs to the international League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

180
(LRCS) to which they can turn for additional foreign assistance should it be
required.
The Red Cross/Red Crescent is primarily concerned with emergency
operations. The vast majority of their activities involve preparing for and
responding to an emergency. Ideally, the national society will have many
regional and local chapters, all of which have undergone some form of
emergency training.
The various prevention, mitigation measures outlined above are aimed at
building up the capabilities of the communities, voluntary organisations and
Government functionaries at all levels. Particular stress is being laid on ensuring
that these measures are institutionalized considering the vast population and the
geographical area of the country. This is a major task being undertaken by the
Government to put in place mitigation measures for vulnerability reduction. This
is just a beginning. However, what is required is firm commitment and
conviction by the government and the people to deal with hazards of all types
effectively and efficiently.

Questions:
1. Explain the methods of disaster warning system.
2. What are the evacuation safety rules to be followed at the time of disasters?
3. Describe how crisis teams to be formed to provide services during
emergency period and their operations.
4. Bring out the role of hospitals in disaster management.
5. Explain how community helps rescue the victims affected by disasters?
6. Discuss the role of Government and Voluntary Agencies in disaster
management.

  

181
MODEL QUESTION PAPER
Paper 4.3: DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Time: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 100
SECTION - A (5 x 8 = 40)
Answer any Five questions
All questions carry equal marks
1. What is disaster management? What are the different types of disasters?
2. What are the precautions to be taken during and after Cyclone?
3. What are the steps to be taken after a fire accident?
4. State some disasters caused during festivals. What are the arrangements to
be made to prevent those disasters?
5. How do you organise medical camp during bull fight event?
6. Explain the methods of disaster warning system.
7. What are the aims of epidemiology?
8. What are the evacuation safety rules to be followed at the time of disasters?

SECTION - B (4 x 15 = 60)
Answer any Four questions
9. What is Tsunami? As a disaster manager what role do you play after a
Tsunami?
10. What are the causes of Hurricane? What are its effects? What precautions to
be taken before a Hurricane?
11. Explain how Terrorism creates disaster? What are the various kinds of
terrorism disasters?
12. What is meant by Radiological Dispersion Device? What precautions to be
taken before RDD?
13. How would you plan for a project to create awareness on preparedness to
face disasters?
14. State the procedure involved in epidemic investigation.
15. Discuss the role of Government in disaster management.



182