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Unit I 1. Design of circular tanks with rigid and flexible base resting on firm ground by
Working Stress Method.
2. Design of rectangular water tanks resting on firm ground by using IS code
method (Working Stress Method.)

1. Storage reservoirs and overhead tank are used to store water, liquid petroleum, petroleum
products and similar liquids.
2. All tanks are designed as crack free structures to eliminate any leakage.
3. Water or raw petroleum retaining slab and walls can be of reinforced concrete with adequate
cover to the reinforcement.
4. Water and petroleum and react with concrete and, therefore, no special treatment to the
surface is required.
5. The petroleum product such as petrol, diesel oil, etc. are likely to leak through the concrete
walls, therefore such tanks need special membranes to prevent leakage.
1. To make a study about the analysis and design of water tanks.
2. To make a study about the guidelines for the design of liquid retaining structure according to
IS Code.
3. To know about the design philosophy for the safe and economical design of water tank.
1. A water tank is used to store water to tide over the daily requirements. In general, water
tanks can be classified under three heads:
(i) tanks resting on ground
(ii) elevated tanks supported on staging, and
(iii) underground tanks.
2. From the shape point of view, water tanks may be of several types, such as
(i) circular tanks
(ii) rectangular tanks
(iii) Spherical tanks

(iv) Intze tanks and
(v) Circular tanks with conical bottoms.
3. When the joints at base are flexible, hydrostatic pressure induces maximum increase in
diameter at base and no increase in diameter at top
4. When the joint at base is rigid, the base does not move.

5. Due to fixity at base of wall, the upper part of the wall will have hoop tension and lower
part bend like cantilever.
6. For deep tanks of small diameter the cantilever action due to fixity at the base is small
and the hoop action is predominant
7. The exact analysis of the tank to determine the portion of wall in which hoop tension is
predominant and the other portion, in which cantilever action is predominant, is difficult.
8. It is desirable to specify cement content sufficiently high to ensure that thorough
compaction is obtainable while maintaining a sufficiently low water-cement
cement ratio.
9. The quantity of cement should not be less than 330 kg/m3 of concrete. It should also be
less than 530 kg/m3 of concrete to keep the shrinkage low.

10. In thicker sections, where a reduction in cement content might be desirable to restrict the
temperature rise due to cement hydration, lower cement content is usually permissible.
11. It is usual to use rich mix like M 30 grade in most of the water tanks.
12. Design of liquid retaining structure has to be based on the avoidance of cracking in the
concrete having regard to its tensile strength.
OF PRACTICE (IS: 3370 – Part II, 1965)
1. Plain Concrete Structures: Plain concrete members of reinforced concrete liquid structures
may be designed against structural failure by allowing tension in plain concrete as per the
permissible limits for tension in bending specified in IS : 456 – 2000 (i.e. permissible stress in
tension in bending may be taken to be the same as permissible stress in shear, q measured as
inclined tension). This will automatically take care of failure due to cracking. However,
nominal reinforcement in accordance with the requirements of IS: 456 shall be provided for
plain concrete structural members.
2. Permissible Stresses in concrete
a) For resistance to cracking: Indian Standard Code IS: 456-2000 does not specify the
permissible stresses in concrete for its resistance to cracking. However, its earlier version (IS:
456-1964) included the permissible stresses in direct tension, bending tension and shear. These
values are given in Table below. The permissible tensile stresses due to bending apply to the face
of the member in contact with the liquid. In members with thickness less than 225 mm and in
contact with the liquid on one side, these permissible stresses

b) For strength calculations: In strength calculations the usual permissible stresses, in accordance
with IS: 456-2000 are used. Where the calculated shear stress in concrete above exceeds the
permissible value, reinforcement acting in conjunction with diagonal compression in concrete
shall be provided to take the whole of the shear.
1. Permissible Stresses in Steel Reinforcement
a) For resistance to cracking: When steel and concrete are assumed to act together for checking
the tensile stresses in concrete for avoidance of cracking the tensile stresses in steel will be
limited by the requirement that the permissible tensile stress in concrete is not exceeded so that
tensile stresses in steel shall be ‘equal to the product of modular ratio of steel and concrete, and
the corresponding allowable tensile stress in concrete.
b) For strength calculations: Though the Indian Standard Code IS: 456 had its fourth revision
in 2000, the corresponding Codes IS: 3370 (Part I, II, III and IV) for concrete structures for the
storage of liquids have not been revised since 1965. The main Code on concrete-IS: 456 is in SI
units. However, the fourth reprint (May 1982) of IS: 3370 (Part 11)-1965 incorporates the
amendment regarding the permissible stresses in steel reinforcement. The revised values of
permissible stresses are given in Table. Converted into SI units, using the approximation 10
kg/cm2 = 1 N/mm2


Note. Stress limitations for liquid retaining faces shall also apply to the following:
(a) Other faces within 225 mm of the liquid retaining face.
(b) Outside or external faces of structures away from the liquid but placed in water-logged soils
upto the level of highest subsoil water.
1. Stresses due to drying shrinkage or temperature change:
(i) Stresses due to drying shrinkage or temperature change may be ignored provided
a) The permissible stresses specified for concrete and steel respectively are not exceeded.
b) Adequate precautions are taken to avoid cracking of concrete during the construction period
and until the reservoir is put into use.
c) The recommendations as regards the provision of joint and for suitable sliding layer are
complied with, or the reservoir is to be used only for the storage of water or aqueous liquids at or
near ambient temperature and the circumstances are such that the concrete will never dry out.
(ii) Shrinkage stresses may, however, be required to be calculated in special case, when a
shrinkage coefficient of 300 x 10-6 may be assumed.
(iii) When the shrinkage stresses are allowed, the permissible stresses, tensile stresses in concrete
(direct and bending) as given in Table 21.1 may be increased by 33 ~ percent.
(iv) Where reservoirs are protected with an internal impermeable lining, consideration should be
given to the possibility of concrete eventually drying out. Unless it is established on the basis of
tests or experience that the lining has adequate crack bridging properties, allowance for the
increased effect of drying shrinkage should be made in the design.
1. Steel Reinforcement
a) Minimum reinforcement:
(i) The minimum reinforcement in walls, floors and roofs in each of the two directions at right
angles shall have an area of 0.3 percent of the concrete section in that direction for sections upto
100 mm thickness. For sections of thickness greater than 100 mm and less than 450 mm the
minimum reinforcement in each of the two directions shall be linearly reduced from 0.3 percent
for 100 mm thick section to 0.2 percent for 450 mm, minimum reinforcement in each of the two
directions shall be kept at 0.2 percent. In concrete sections of thickness 225 mm or greater, two
layers of reinforcing bars shall be placed one near each face of the section to make up the
minimum reinforcement specified above.

(ii) In special circumstances, floor slabs resting directly on the ground may be constructed with
percentage of reinforcement less than that specified above. In no case the percentage of
reinforcement in any member is less than 0.15 % of the concrete section.
b) Minimum cover to reinforcement:
(i) For liquid faces of parts of members either in contact with the liquid or enclosing the space
above the liquid (such as inner faces of slab), the minimum cover to all reinforcement should be
25 mm or the diameter of the main bar, whichever is greater. In the presence of sea water and
soils and water of corrosive character the cover should be increased by 12 mm but this additional
cover shall not be taken into account for design calculations.
(ii) For faces away from the liquid and for parts of the structure neither in contact with the liquid
on any face nor enclosing the face above the liquid, the cover should be the same as provided for
other reinforced concrete sections.
The various types of joints may be categorized under three heads:
(a) Movement joints
(b) Constructions joints
(c) Temporary open joints.

The procedure of IS code method:
Step 1: Design constant calculation-
For Concrete Grade calculate σcbc & σct
For Steel Grade, calculate σst

To calculate, m = 280/3 σcbc

a) To calculate N. A. Constant = k =  

b) To calculate lever arm constant = j =

c) To calculate M. R. constant = Q =      

Step 2: To decide the dimension of water tank

Volume = Area x Height
From this calculate dia. of water tank.
Consider free board = 0.2 m
Guideline for thickness of wall,   30   50
Step 3: B. M. and Hoop Tension Calculation
(Assuming side wall free at top and fixed at base and subjected to triangulation water
(i) B. M. Calculation
B. M. = . !. "#$%%&&$'  (    ((  )*$&%& ( #% (+$,  10 /0 

For B.M. Coefficient, refer Table No. 9, page no. 36 of IS 3370 (Part-IV)
(ii) H. P. Calculation
T max = !+1 ##* 2$')&#' "#$%%&&$'  (  3/2
For B.M. Coefficient, refer Table No. 10, page no. 36 of IS 3370 (Part-IV)
Step 4: Check for thickness of side wall (from strength/max B. M. consideration)
Max B. M. = M. R. Constant = Q b d², calculate d required
d provided = Overall depth – Nominal cove r - ɸ/2

Check, d provided ˃ d req. OK

Step 5: Ast Calculation
(i) B. M. (Step 3 (i) ) =  )    6 *,#7&6$6  8)
Assume dia. of bar, 8mm/10mm etc
Spacing = (Area of one bar/Ast) * 1000

Check, greater than and not equal to 3d or 300 mm, where d is the depth provided.
Providing mm ɸ bar @ mm c/c on inner face of side wall in vertical direction.
(ii) Main Ast
Ast = Tmax/σst
Providing on both face, Ast on each face = Ast/2
Provide dia of bar 12 mm/16mm
Spacing = (Area of one bar/Ast) * 1000
Check, greater than and not equal to 3d or 300 mm, where d is the depth provided.
Providing dia mm ɸ hoop rings @ spacing mm c/c along the both faces.
(iii) Distribution Ast
0.3 % gross c/s area of side wall – 100 mm
0.2 % gross c/s area of side wall – 450 mm
To find the % c/s area of side wall for thickness.
% ;<=>?
Ast min. = 0.8

Providing on both face, Ast on each face = Ast/2

Provide dia of bar 8mm/10mm
Spacing = (Area of one bar/Ast) * 1000
Check, greater than and not equal to 5d or 450 mm, where d is the depth provided.
Step 6: Check for thickness of side wall (from cracking consideration)
Tensile stress computed from the following equation should be less than the permissible
stress for safe design
σc =
1000t + (m − 1 )Ast


Where,   +A = Calculated tensile stress in conc.

Tmax = Max hoop tension
Ac = Area of area of wall = t *1000
Ast = Ast (Step 5 (ii))
Check,   +A H   OK
Step 7: Design of Base Slab

 Base slab thickness generally varies from 150mm to 250 mm and minimum steel is
distributed to top and bottom of slab.
 The thickness of base slab shall be 150 mm. The base slab rests on firm ground, hence
only minimum reinforcement is provided.
Ast min. = % value* t * 1000
Providing on both face, Ast on each face = Ast/2
Provide dia of bar 8mm/10mm
Spacing = (Area of one bar/Ast) * 1000
Providing dia of bar mm ɸ @ spacing mm c/c in the form of mesh at the top face
and bottom face.
Step 8: Reinforcement detail Skethes & Drawing of Vertical c/s & Plan.