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DHAWADE

B. E. FIFTH SEMSTER –RCC-II (CGS)

SECTION A

Unit I 1. Design of circular tanks with rigid and flexible base resting on firm ground by

Working Stress Method.

2. Design of rectangular water tanks resting on firm ground by using IS code

method (Working Stress Method.)

INTRODUCTION

1. Storage reservoirs and overhead tank are used to store water, liquid petroleum, petroleum

products and similar liquids.

2. All tanks are designed as crack free structures to eliminate any leakage.

3. Water or raw petroleum retaining slab and walls can be of reinforced concrete with adequate

cover to the reinforcement.

4. Water and petroleum and react with concrete and, therefore, no special treatment to the

surface is required.

5. The petroleum product such as petrol, diesel oil, etc. are likely to leak through the concrete

walls, therefore such tanks need special membranes to prevent leakage.

OBJECTIVE

1. To make a study about the analysis and design of water tanks.

2. To make a study about the guidelines for the design of liquid retaining structure according to

IS Code.

3. To know about the design philosophy for the safe and economical design of water tank.

GENERAL

1. A water tank is used to store water to tide over the daily requirements. In general, water

tanks can be classified under three heads:

(i) tanks resting on ground

(ii) elevated tanks supported on staging, and

(iii) underground tanks.

2. From the shape point of view, water tanks may be of several types, such as

(i) circular tanks

(ii) rectangular tanks

(iii) Spherical tanks

1

RCC-II (WATER TANK) S. M. DHAWADE

(iv) Intze tanks and

(v) Circular tanks with conical bottoms.

3. When the joints at base are flexible, hydrostatic pressure induces maximum increase in

diameter at base and no increase in diameter at top

top.

4. When the joint at base is rigid, the base does not move.

5. Due to fixity at base of wall, the upper part of the wall will have hoop tension and lower

part bend like cantilever.

6. For deep tanks of small diameter the cantilever action due to fixity at the base is small

and the hoop action is predominant

predominant.

7. The exact analysis of the tank to determine the portion of wall in which hoop tension is

predominant and the other portion, in which cantilever action is predominant, is difficult.

difficult

8. It is desirable to specify cement content sufficiently high to ensure that thorough

compaction is obtainable while maintaining a sufficiently low water-cement

cement ratio.

9. The quantity of cement should not be less than 330 kg/m3 of concrete. It should also be

less than 530 kg/m3 of concrete to keep the shrinkage low.

2

RCC-II (WATER TANK) S. M. DHAWADE

10. In thicker sections, where a reduction in cement content might be desirable to restrict the

temperature rise due to cement hydration, lower cement content is usually permissible.

11. It is usual to use rich mix like M 30 grade in most of the water tanks.

12. Design of liquid retaining structure has to be based on the avoidance of cracking in the

concrete having regard to its tensile strength.

GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ACCORDING TO INDIAN STANDARD CODE

OF PRACTICE (IS: 3370 – Part II, 1965)

1. Plain Concrete Structures: Plain concrete members of reinforced concrete liquid structures

may be designed against structural failure by allowing tension in plain concrete as per the

permissible limits for tension in bending specified in IS : 456 – 2000 (i.e. permissible stress in

tension in bending may be taken to be the same as permissible stress in shear, q measured as

inclined tension). This will automatically take care of failure due to cracking. However,

nominal reinforcement in accordance with the requirements of IS: 456 shall be provided for

plain concrete structural members.

2. Permissible Stresses in concrete

a) For resistance to cracking: Indian Standard Code IS: 456-2000 does not specify the

permissible stresses in concrete for its resistance to cracking. However, its earlier version (IS:

456-1964) included the permissible stresses in direct tension, bending tension and shear. These

values are given in Table below. The permissible tensile stresses due to bending apply to the face

of the member in contact with the liquid. In members with thickness less than 225 mm and in

contact with the liquid on one side, these permissible stresses

PERMISSIBLE CONCRETE STRESSES IN CALCULATIONS RELATING TO

RESISTANCE TO CRACKING

3

RCC-II (WATER TANK) S. M. DHAWADE

b) For strength calculations: In strength calculations the usual permissible stresses, in accordance

with IS: 456-2000 are used. Where the calculated shear stress in concrete above exceeds the

permissible value, reinforcement acting in conjunction with diagonal compression in concrete

shall be provided to take the whole of the shear.

1. Permissible Stresses in Steel Reinforcement

a) For resistance to cracking: When steel and concrete are assumed to act together for checking

the tensile stresses in concrete for avoidance of cracking the tensile stresses in steel will be

limited by the requirement that the permissible tensile stress in concrete is not exceeded so that

tensile stresses in steel shall be ‘equal to the product of modular ratio of steel and concrete, and

the corresponding allowable tensile stress in concrete.

b) For strength calculations: Though the Indian Standard Code IS: 456 had its fourth revision

in 2000, the corresponding Codes IS: 3370 (Part I, II, III and IV) for concrete structures for the

storage of liquids have not been revised since 1965. The main Code on concrete-IS: 456 is in SI

units. However, the fourth reprint (May 1982) of IS: 3370 (Part 11)-1965 incorporates the

amendment regarding the permissible stresses in steel reinforcement. The revised values of

permissible stresses are given in Table. Converted into SI units, using the approximation 10

kg/cm2 = 1 N/mm2

•

PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN STEEL REINFORCEMENT FOR STRENGTH

CALCULATIONS

4

RCC-II (WATER TANK) S. M. DHAWADE

Note. Stress limitations for liquid retaining faces shall also apply to the following:

(a) Other faces within 225 mm of the liquid retaining face.

(b) Outside or external faces of structures away from the liquid but placed in water-logged soils

upto the level of highest subsoil water.

1. Stresses due to drying shrinkage or temperature change:

(i) Stresses due to drying shrinkage or temperature change may be ignored provided

a) The permissible stresses specified for concrete and steel respectively are not exceeded.

b) Adequate precautions are taken to avoid cracking of concrete during the construction period

and until the reservoir is put into use.

c) The recommendations as regards the provision of joint and for suitable sliding layer are

complied with, or the reservoir is to be used only for the storage of water or aqueous liquids at or

near ambient temperature and the circumstances are such that the concrete will never dry out.

(ii) Shrinkage stresses may, however, be required to be calculated in special case, when a

shrinkage coefficient of 300 x 10-6 may be assumed.

(iii) When the shrinkage stresses are allowed, the permissible stresses, tensile stresses in concrete

(direct and bending) as given in Table 21.1 may be increased by 33 ~ percent.

(iv) Where reservoirs are protected with an internal impermeable lining, consideration should be

given to the possibility of concrete eventually drying out. Unless it is established on the basis of

tests or experience that the lining has adequate crack bridging properties, allowance for the

increased effect of drying shrinkage should be made in the design.

1. Steel Reinforcement

a) Minimum reinforcement:

(i) The minimum reinforcement in walls, floors and roofs in each of the two directions at right

angles shall have an area of 0.3 percent of the concrete section in that direction for sections upto

100 mm thickness. For sections of thickness greater than 100 mm and less than 450 mm the

minimum reinforcement in each of the two directions shall be linearly reduced from 0.3 percent

for 100 mm thick section to 0.2 percent for 450 mm, minimum reinforcement in each of the two

directions shall be kept at 0.2 percent. In concrete sections of thickness 225 mm or greater, two

layers of reinforcing bars shall be placed one near each face of the section to make up the

minimum reinforcement specified above.

5

RCC-II (WATER TANK) S. M. DHAWADE

(ii) In special circumstances, floor slabs resting directly on the ground may be constructed with

percentage of reinforcement less than that specified above. In no case the percentage of

reinforcement in any member is less than 0.15 % of the concrete section.

b) Minimum cover to reinforcement:

(i) For liquid faces of parts of members either in contact with the liquid or enclosing the space

above the liquid (such as inner faces of slab), the minimum cover to all reinforcement should be

25 mm or the diameter of the main bar, whichever is greater. In the presence of sea water and

soils and water of corrosive character the cover should be increased by 12 mm but this additional

cover shall not be taken into account for design calculations.

(ii) For faces away from the liquid and for parts of the structure neither in contact with the liquid

on any face nor enclosing the face above the liquid, the cover should be the same as provided for

other reinforced concrete sections.

JOINTS IN WATER TANKS

The various types of joints may be categorized under three heads:

(a) Movement joints

(b) Constructions joints

(c) Temporary open joints.

6

RCC-II (WATER TANK) S. M. DHAWADE

The procedure of IS code method:

Step 1: Design constant calculation-

For Concrete Grade calculate σcbc & σct

For Steel Grade, calculate σst

a) To calculate N. A. Constant = k =

b) To calculate lever arm constant = j =

1

c) To calculate M. R. constant = Q =

Volume = Area x Height

From this calculate dia. of water tank.

Consider free board = 0.2 m

Guideline for thickness of wall, 30 50

Step 3: B. M. and Hoop Tension Calculation

(Assuming side wall free at top and fixed at base and subjected to triangulation water

pressure)

(i) B. M. Calculation

-.

B. M. = . !. "#$%%&&$' ( (( )*$&%& ( #% (+$, 10 /0

For B.M. Coefficient, refer Table No. 9, page no. 36 of IS 3370 (Part-IV)

(ii) H. P. Calculation

T max = !+1 ##* 2$')&#' "#$%%&&$' ( 3/2

For B.M. Coefficient, refer Table No. 10, page no. 36 of IS 3370 (Part-IV)

Step 4: Check for thickness of side wall (from strength/max B. M. consideration)

Max B. M. = M. R. Constant = Q b d², calculate d required

d provided = Overall depth – Nominal cove r - ɸ/2

Step 5: Ast Calculation

(i) B. M. (Step 3 (i) ) = ) 6 *,#7&6$6 8)

Assume dia. of bar, 8mm/10mm etc

Spacing = (Area of one bar/Ast) * 1000

7

RCC-II (WATER TANK) S. M. DHAWADE

Check, greater than and not equal to 3d or 300 mm, where d is the depth provided.

Providing mm ɸ bar @ mm c/c on inner face of side wall in vertical direction.

(ii) Main Ast

Ast = Tmax/σst

Providing on both face, Ast on each face = Ast/2

Provide dia of bar 12 mm/16mm

Spacing = (Area of one bar/Ast) * 1000

Check, greater than and not equal to 3d or 300 mm, where d is the depth provided.

Providing dia mm ɸ hoop rings @ spacing mm c/c along the both faces.

(iii) Distribution Ast

0.3 % gross c/s area of side wall – 100 mm

0.2 % gross c/s area of side wall – 450 mm

To find the % c/s area of side wall for thickness.

% ;<=>?

Ast min. = 0.8

@@

1000)

Provide dia of bar 8mm/10mm

Spacing = (Area of one bar/Ast) * 1000

Check, greater than and not equal to 5d or 450 mm, where d is the depth provided.

Step 6: Check for thickness of side wall (from cracking consideration)

Tensile stress computed from the following equation should be less than the permissible

stress for safe design

T

σc =

1000t + (m − 1 )Ast

B/<C

+A

D

/EDFG

Tmax = Max hoop tension

Ac = Area of area of wall = t *1000

Ast = Ast (Step 5 (ii))

Check, +A H OK

Step 7: Design of Base Slab

8

RCC-II (WATER TANK) S. M. DHAWADE

Base slab thickness generally varies from 150mm to 250 mm and minimum steel is

distributed to top and bottom of slab.

The thickness of base slab shall be 150 mm. The base slab rests on firm ground, hence

only minimum reinforcement is provided.

Ast min. = % value* t * 1000

Providing on both face, Ast on each face = Ast/2

Provide dia of bar 8mm/10mm

Spacing = (Area of one bar/Ast) * 1000

Providing dia of bar mm ɸ @ spacing mm c/c in the form of mesh at the top face

and bottom face.

Step 8: Reinforcement detail Skethes & Drawing of Vertical c/s & Plan.

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