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is always based on the specifications and Type of installation

demands of the project at hand. The following Ambient temperatures (incl. external effects)

details are required for calculation: Special thermal resistance of the ground

- The type of cable insulation

- Nominal and maximum operating voltage The calculation of the admissible load currents

- Short-circuit capacity or short-circuit current with (ampacity) and the cable temperatures is

statement of the effect time performed in accordance with the IEC publication

- Transmission capacity or nominal current 60287. At Brugg Cables, professional computer

- Operating mode: permanent operation or partial programs are in use for the calculation of the

load operation (load factors) various cable data.

high voltage XLPE cable can be regarded as a

homogenous cylinder. Its field distribution or

voltage gradient is therefore represented by a

homogenoius radial field. The value of the voltage

gradient at a point x within the insulation can

therefore be calculated as:

Uo

Ex (kV/mm)

r

rx ln a

ri ri rx ra

with

Uo = Operating voltage (kV) x

rx = Radius at position x (mm)

ra = External radius above the insulation (mm)

ri = Radius of the internal field delimiter (mm)

semiconductor and lowest above the insulation

(below the external semiconductor, rx = ra).

The operating capacity depends on the type of d = Diameter over inner semiconducter (mm)

insulation and its geometry. The following formula Single-core high voltage XLPE cables represent

applies for all radial field cables: an extended capacitance with a homogenous

radial field distribution. Thus a capacitive charging

5.56 current to earth results in the following formula:

r

Cb ( F/km)

D IC U0 C b (A/km)

ln

d

with

with Uo = Operating voltage (kV)

r = Relative permittivity (XLPE: 2,4) = Angular frequency (1/s)

D = Diameter over main insulation (mm) Cb = Operating capacity (µF/km)

High Voltage XLPE Cable Systems Techincal User Guide

the relation between the conductor axis spacing

and the external conductor diameter. Practically, 2r

two cases have to be considered: a a

Laying formation: trefoil The mean operating inductance for the three

phases calculates as

4 a'

Lm 2 10 ln (H/km)

a a 0,779 rL

with

2r

a aÿ= 3 2 a Mean geometric distance (mm)

The operating inductance for all three phases a = Phase axis distance (mm)

calculates as: rL = Diameter of conductor over inner

a semiconducting layer (mm)

4

L 2 10 ln (H/km)

0,779 rL

The inductive reactance of the cable system

with calculates for both cases as:

a = Phase axis distance (mm) X L [ /km]

rL = Diameter of conductor over inner with

semiconducting layer (mm) = Angular frequency (1/s)

losses occur in cables.

The current-dependent losses consist of the

I) Voltage-dependent losses following components:

Voltage-dependent power losses are caused by - Ohmic conductor losses

polarization effects within the main insulation. - Losses through skin effect

They calculate to: - Losses through proximity effect

- Losses in the metal sheath

Pd U o2 C b tan (W/km) Ohmic conductor losses

The ohmic losses depend on material and

with temperature. For the calculation of the ohmic

Uo = Operating voltage (kV) losses R I², the conductor resistance stated for

20°C (Ro) must be converted to the operating

= Angular frequency (1/s)

Cb = Operating capacity (µF/km) temperature of the cable:

Dielectric power loss factors tan for typical cable R = Ro [1 + ( - 20°C )] [ /km]

insulations are:

XLPE (1,5 to 3,5) 10þ4 with

þ4

EPR (10 to 30) 10 = 0.0393 for Copper

þ4

Oil cable (18 to 30) 10 = 0.0403 for Aluminium

resistances at 20°C (Ro) correspond to the

standards series pursuant to IEC 60228.

High Voltage XLPE Cable Systems Techincal User Guide

Losses in the metal sheath

The losses caused by the skin effect, meaning the

High voltage cables are equipped with metal

displacement of the current against the conductor

sheaths or screens that must be earthed

surface, rise approximately quadratic with the

adequately.

frequency. This effect can be reduced with

suitable conductor constructions, e.g. segmented

conductors. Sheath losses occur through:

- Circulating currents in the system

Losses through proximity effect

- Eddy currents in the cable sheath

The proximity effect detects the additional losses (only applicable for tubular types)

caused by magnet fields of parallel conductors - Resulting sheath currents caused by induced

through eddy currents and current displacement sheat voltage (in unbalanced earting systems)

effects in the conductor and cable sheath. In

practice, their influence is of less importance, The sheath losses, especially high circulating

because three-conductor cables are only installed currents, may substantially reduce the current

up to medium cross-sections and single-conductor load capacity under certain circumstances. They

cables with large cross-sections with sufficient can be lowered significantly through special

axis space. The resistance increase through earthing methods.

proximity effects relating to the conductor

resistance is therefore mainly below 10%.

High voltage cables have a metallic sheath, along sufficiently to the earthing system. The following

which a voltage is induced as a function of the table gives an overview of the possible methods

operating current. In order to handle this induced and their characteristics:

voltage, both cable ends have to be bonded

Earthing method Typical application

at cable ends limiters required

Substations, short connections,

Both-end bonding No No hardly applied for HV cables,

rahter for MV and LV cables

Usually only for circuit lengths

Single-end bonding Yes Yes

up to 1 km

Cross-bonding Yes

bonding points where joints are required

Both-end bonding

Both ends of the cable sheath are connected to

the system earth. With this method no standing

voltages occur at the cable ends, which makes it

the most secure regarding safety aspects. On the

other hand, circulating currents may flow in the

sheath as the loop between the two earthing U

points is closed through the ground. These

circulating currents are proportional to the

conductor currents and therefore reduce the cable

ampacity significantly making it the most

disadvantegous method regarding economic

aspects.

x

Induced voltage distribution at both-end bonding

High Voltage XLPE Cable Systems Techincal User Guide

Single-ended Bonding

One end of the cable sheath is connected to the

system earth, so that at the other end (ýopen

endü) the standing voltage appears, which is earth continuity

induced linearily along the cable length. In order

to ensure the relevant safety requirements, the

ýopen endü of the cable sheath has to be U

protected with a surge arrester. In order to avoid

potential lifting in case of a failure, both earth

points have to be connected additionally with an

earth continuity wire. The surge arrester (sheath

voltage limiter) is designed to deflect switching

and atmospheric surges but must not trigger in x

case of a short-circuit.

Induced voltage distribution at single-end bonding

Cross-bonding

This earthing method shall be applied for longer sheath crossing after each section. The

route lengths where joints are required due to the termination points shall be solidly bonded to earth.

limited cable delivery length. A cross-bonding

system consists of three equal sections with cyclic

L1

L2

L3

Along each section, a standing voltage is induced. Very long route lengths can consist of several

In ideal cross-bonding systems the three section cross-bonding systems in a row. In this case, it is

lengths are equal, so that no residual voltage recommended to maintain solid bonding of the

occurrs and thus no sheath current flows. The system ends in order to prevent travelling surges

sheath losses can be kept very low with this in case of a fault.

method without impairing the safety as in the two- In addition to cross-linking the sheaths, the

sided sheath earthing. conductor phases can be transposed cyclicly. This

solution is especially suited for very long cable

engths or parallel circuits.

High Voltage XLPE Cable Systems Techincal User Guide

The induced voltage Ui within a cable system and where LM is the mutual inductivity between

depends on the mutual inductance between core core and sheath (H/km).

and sheath, the conductor current and finally on

the cable length:

The mutual inductivity between core and sheath

Ui X M I L (V) LM calculates as follows:

with

XM = Mutual inductance between core and sheath For installation in trefoil formation:

( /km) 2a

7

I = Conductor current per phase (A) LM 2 10 ln (H/km)

L = Cable length dM

determination of the maximum occurring voltage For installation in flat formation:

and for the dimensioning of the surge arresters: 3

7 2 2 a

I = IN Normal operating current (A) LM 2 10 ln (H/km)

I = Ic Three-pole Short-circuit current (A) dM

calculates from the following formula: with

XM LM ( /km) a = Axial spacing (mm)

dM = Mean sheath diameter (mm)

with

= Angular frequency (1/s)

circuit current capacity for both þ the conductor Insulation

and the metallic sheath þ have to be calculated. material XLPE Oil

Conductor

Both values are depending on material Cu Al Cu

- the duration of the short-circuit current kA kA

mm2 1s; 90..250°C 1s; 85..165°C

- the material of the current carrying component

2500 358 237 260

- the type of material of the adjacent

2000 287 190 208

components and their admissible temperatue

1600 229 152 166

1400 201 133 -

The duration of a short circuit consists of the

inherent delay of the circuit breaker and the relay 1200 172 114 125

time. 1000 143 95 104

800 115 76 83

630 90 60 66

Short-Circuit current capacity of conductors 500 72 47 52

The following table contains the maximum 400 57 38 42

admissible short-circuit currents Ik,1s for 300 43 28 31

conductors acc. to IEC 60949 with a duration of 240 34 23 25

1 second for the different conductor and insulation

types. Admissible short-circuit currents

High Voltage XLPE Cable Systems Techincal User Guide

Based on these reference values, the short-circuit transfer from the current carrying componen to its

currents for other durations can be converted with adjacent components is allowed.

the following formula:

1 Short-Circuit current capacity of metallic sheaths

I k ,x I k ,1s In addition to the above mentioned, the short-

tc circuit current capacity of metallic sheaths

depends on their layout. The short-circuit current

with capacity is different for tubular sheats and wire

Ikx = Short-circuit current during x seconds [kA] screens, but generally the total short-circuit

tc = Duration of short-circuit [s] current capacity of a metallic sheath is the sum of

Ik,1s = Short-circuit current during 1 second [kA] the capacity of its components.

The above stated values were calculated on a Typical metallic sheath layouts with their

non-adiabatic basis, which means that heat constructional details are listed in a separate

section.

position at certain intervals. The calculation of

The dynamic force that a spacer has to absorb is:

dynamic forces for cable systems is important for

the determination of the fixing interval and the Fr Fs

layout of the fixing devices. It has to be Fs = Dynamic force [kN/m]

distinguished between radial (e.g. clamps, = Layout factor (typical value for mid phase:

spacers) and tangential (belts etc.) forces. 0.866)

calculated applying the following formula: Tangential force

2 10 I s2 is:

Fs (kN/m)

a Ft Fs

Fs = Dynamic force [kN/m]

with = Layout factor (value for trefoil: 0.5)

a = Phase axis distance (mm)

Is 2 Ic

wherein

ls = Impulse short-circuit current [kA]

= surge factor (usually defined as 1.8)

lc = Short-circuit current [kA]

The metallic sheath of high voltage XLPE single Since high voltage XLPE cables are very sensitive

core cables has to fulfill the following electrical to moisture ingression, the metallic sheath also

requirements: serves as radial moisture barrier. There are

- Conducting the earth fault current several modes of preventing water and moisture

penetrating into the cable and travelling within it

- Returning the capacitive charging current

along its length. Solutions for closed metallic

- Limitation of the radial electrostatic field sheathes can be based on welding, extruding or

- Shielding of the electromagnetic field gluing. Some typical sheath layouts as available

from Brugg Cables are shown in the following

table.

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