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International Research Journal of Computer Science (IRJCS) ISSN: 2393-9842

Issue 01, Volume 5 (January 2018) www.irjcs.com

ELOHIKA: AN EXPERTS SYSTEM LOGICAL ANALYSIS


USING K-NEAREST NEIGHBOR ALGORITHM
Anna Liza A. Ramos
Saint Michael’s College of Laguna, Binan City, Laguna, Philippines
annakingramos@yahoo.com.ph; jhobert.artista@gapps.smcl.edu.ph;
John Michael A. Losito
Saint Michael’s College of Laguna, Binan City, Laguna, Philippines
michaellosito127@gmail.com;
Jhobert H. Artista
Saint Michael’s College of Laguna, Binan City, Laguna, Philippines
Mhon Bryan S. Biglete
Saint Michael’s College of Laguna, Binan City, Laguna, Philippines
mhonbryan@gmail.com;
Karl Joshua F. Lim
Saint Michael’s College of Laguna, Binan City, Laguna, Philippines
karl.joshua.lim@gapps.smcl.edu.ph;
Rica L. Villanueva
Saint Michael’s College of Laguna, Binan City, Laguna, Philippines
rica.villanueva@gapps.smcl.edu.ph;
Manuscript History
Number: IRJCS/RS/Vol.05/Issue01/JACS10081
DOI: 10.26562/IRJCS.2018.JACS10081
Received: 05, December 2017
Final Correction: 17, December 2017
Final Accepted: 06, January 2018
Published: January 2018
Citation: Ramos, Losito, Artista, Biglete, Lim & Villanueva (2018). ELOHIKA: AN EXPERTS SYSTEM LOGICAL
ANALYSIS USING K-NEAREST NEIGHBOR ALGORITHM. IRJCS:: International Research Journal of Computer
Science, Volume V, 20-32. doi: 10.26562/IRJCS.2018.JACS10081
Editor: Dr.A.Arul L.S, Chief Editor, IRJCS, AM Publications, India
Copyright: ©2018 This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License, Which Permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author
and source are credited
Abstract— Logical analysis shows the attributes of an individual decision making, problem solving and verbal
ability. Furthermore, it provides significant information to schools and companies to strategically develop
relevant interventions towards the improvement of individual logical capability skills. This is the reason why
logical test is given, basically to measure the thinking level of an individual. However, experts in this field make
tedious process in generating the result thus consuming time and effort. With this current situation, the study
aims to develop an online logical test to automatically generate score and skills analysis results in real-time. The
study used descriptive method to understand the process and interpretation of skills to ensure its accuracy and
the Rapid Application Development model was adopted to accomplish the technical requirement of the
application. And this application was evaluated by the experts in terms of functionality, reliability, usability, and
efficiency with the over-all weighted mean result of 4.29 “ Very Satisfactorily”.
Keywords— Logical analysis; logical skills; logical test; skill analysis;
I. INTRODUCTION
Logical thinking is a process of problem solving, decision making, verbal reasoning, metacognitive process, and
adaptation ability and purely needed in science and mathematics. [42][22] [10] [30] [46]. In the information
technology it is one of the foundational skill of an ITE students [34].
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International Research Journal of Computer Science (IRJCS) ISSN: 2393-9842
Issue 01, Volume 5 (January 2018) www.irjcs.com
Furthermore, logic help students and graduates to achieve higher levels in their study and profession and able to
effectively handle leadership role [33] and perform well in their courses especially in decision, solving real world
problems, and understand what they read and see [45] [40]. In a programming tasks and activities students need
logical skill to perform accurately by doing abstractions and generalization [6] [47] Moreover in in writing
programming codes, testing software and searching and fixing the ‘bugs’ in their programs [28]. Several studies
reveal that students have different logical thinking levels where they have different abilities to use in performing
problem solving and analysis [9]. Different logical thinking levels explains why some of the students succeed in
subjects that uses problem solving skills and logic while others do not [20]. Reasons why logical test must be
conducted. Logical test are used to measure the logical thinking level of the students. The tests are composed of
ability test such as quantitative reasoning, verbal reasoning, verbal comprehension and figural reasoning skills.
The score is computed by using norms [7] [8] [29] and the result can be also used as basis for the teachers to
create intervention to specific student [27] [39]. For the technical application of the result, the study utilized a
suitable algorithm that will classify the skills of the students and provide a comparative result with to the skill of a
students to other students using a K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm mostly applied in document classification,
where in the method makes use of training documents [52][43], economic forecasting [24], used in diagnosing
which marked high accuracy rate[44] and used in measuring the accuracy level of automatic answer identity
formation and search similarity answer[17].
A. Project Context
Logical assessments are widely used to assess the skills of the individual and this can be observed in schools and
companies. In companies, the logical assessment is one of their criteria to identify and assess candidates during
their recruitment process in order produce capable worker to handle certain tasks. In school it is also important
to identify what type of student they want to develop and what kind of intervention should be employed. In this
regard, the study will focus on the school setting practices. With this the researchers conducted an interview to
schools namely: Saint Michael's College of Laguna, STI Sta.Rosa, and University of Perpetual Help System Laguna-
JONELTA to gather relevant information that will support the study and make the study suitable and applicable.
B. Statement of the Problem
1) General Problem: The researchers found out that the psychologists are taking a hard time in assessing the
logical skills of students.
2) Specific Problem:
• Time consuming to generate logical thinking test result
The researchers conducted a group discussion with the psychologist with regards to the process in conducting a
logical test and generation analysis result. According to them, they set a date on when to give exam to the students.
Tests are given to the students per classroom for an hour. After the student took the exam, the school psychologist
collect the exams and check it manually using a pattern answered sheet to check the papers of the examiners
which they need more time and effort. Then the individual score of the students is manually encoded using
spreadsheet application with set formulas based on the standardized norms. Other schools, manually write the
scores in a paper then compare the scores using the hardcopy of their respective standardized norms used. Most
of them only produced report based on the scaled score, SAI, percentile rank and stanine conversion to interpret
the skills analysis and the results with regards to the strength and weaknesses are verbally communicated to the
students which means no print copies is provided. The process took about 3-6 months to generate the results
because the norms have to deal with various area of assessing the skills. On the other hand. As observed schools
used different norms such as OLSAT and LSAT. It differs with regards to the computation but with the same type
of results such as scaled score, standard ability index, percentile rank and stanine conversion which is needed in
assessing logical thinking of students. In addition, OLSAT and LSAT are purchased by versions and only registered
psychologists are allowed to buy.
C. Research Objective
1) General Objective: The researchers aim to develop an expert system to assess the logical skills of an
individual using a K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm.
2) Specific Objective:
• To create an online logical test that generates accurate and real time result.
The system will automatically generate the result of Student Ability Index (SAI) that refers to the standardized
comparison of student's score according to their age, the Percentile rank that refers to the percentage of other
examiners in which the student is higher and the Stanine that refers to the conversion of test scores into a single
digit for determining the level of the student's thinking. For the Skills analysis result the K-Nearest Neighbor
Algorithm is used to find the Euclidean distance of the score of the student who take the exam then compared the
score to the rest of examiners then it will be sorted from furthest to nearest and get the 30 % of the student from
the nearest distance to produce the accurate result. From the 30 %, it produced the characteristics depending on
the most similar characteristics being generated. These characteristics will serve as the data to analysis of skills of
the student in particular their strength and weakness and be part of the data sets for the next comparison.
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International Research Journal of Computer Science (IRJCS) ISSN: 2393-9842
Issue 01, Volume 5 (January 2018) www.irjcs.com
In addition, the system will allow the authorized users to upload the norms in a CSV file format sequentially that
contains the raw score, scaled score, student ability index, percentile rank and the stanine conversion.
Furthermore, it allows the users to upload various version of norms. The norms will be used to generate score
analysis.
D. Scope and Limitations
1.) Scope: The study mainly focused on verbal reasoning, verbal comprehension, figural reasoning and
quantitative reasoning and skills analysis to purposely use for assessing the logical thinking.
• Login module. This module allows the user to access the system using their assigned username and
password;
• Manage account module. This module allows the user to add, update and deactivate users account
• Report module. This module allows the authorize users to view exam result module such as the scaled
score, percentile rank stanine, SAI and skills analysis;
• Schedule exam module. This module allows the psychologist to set schedule of the logical test
2.) Limitation:
• The size of the CSV file is limited to 2mb and must followed accordingly based on the specified format.
E. Significance of the Study
1.) Students: The result of the logical test will greatly provide relevant information which would make them
identify what skills to be improved.
2.) Faculty: The result of the assessment will be used as basis to study the student’s capability thus help them
create interventions.
3.) Institution: The study will be beneficial to the institutions since the system will provide information in the
logical thinking status of their students that will be an input to develop new approaches and techniques.
4.) Future Researchers: The study will benefit the future researchers to serve as a basis to improve their studies
related to this concept.
II. METHODOLOGY
The researchers used Rapid Application Development (RAD) with iterative approach and applied of joint
application requirement and joint application design in developing the system to ensure the accuracy, efficiency
and effectiveness of the system.

Fig.1 Rapid Application Development with Iterative Approach


 Analysis and Planning
The researchers conducted one on one interview to the school psychologists of University of Perpetual Help
System Laguna- Jonelta, STI Sta.Rosa and Saint Michael's College of Laguna and STI regarding the process of their
logical test from taking the exam up to the generation and distribution of reports in order to identify what process
needs to improve. Also, focal group discussion is applied to get the consensus of the of the process owners to
comply the requirements in developing the system. Most importanly, the concept is presented to the psychologists
to ensure that the system is in accordance with their expected requirements.
 Design
In this phase, the process are graphically drawn as guide for the development of the system: the context diagram,
use-case diagram, data flow diagram, class diagram, flow chart, and entity relationship diagram. These diagram is
throughly check to ensure its confirmity of the requirements. Also in this phase, the user interface is carefully
plan together with the process owner and the technical expert to check to check the labels, the color combination,
the arrangement of results and what to be display in every form.
 Development
The researchers build the system using XAMPP to runt he PHP files and creating the database structure , Sublime
text editor and a browser. Sublime text editor is used in coding the system and the browser is used to run the
system. While coding the each module the researchers/developer check the code structure and evaluate its
efficiency
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
IRJCS: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2016): 4.281
Indexcopernicus: (ICV 2016): 88.80
© 2014- 18, IRJCS- All Rights Reserved Page -22
International Research Journal of Computer Science (IRJCS) ISSN: 2393-9842
Issue 01, Volume 5 (January 2018) www.irjcs.com
 Implementation
The researchers installed the system and schedule the training on how to use the system. The students are used
the system by taking the online logical test examination while Pychologist used the system by uploading the norm,
setting the schedule of logical test and view the result of the students.
A. Algorithm
K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm is typically need in large data sets to achieve accuracy and efficiency. KNN
algorithm is used in various systems like text categorization where in the text is analyzed and compared to all
other text documents and assign what is the category of the text document. This system proves that KNN is
suitable for categorizing in a large data set. In this study, the K –Nearest neighbor algorithm perform first by
finding the Euclidean distance. Euclidean distance is the distance of the score of the student who take the exam of
the score of each student who also took the exam After getting the distance, then it will be sorted from furthest to
nearest and get the K is a number of students which are the nearest to the examiner. To find the K, you will get the
30 % of the students who also take the exam. After getting the K, it will get the characteristics of the K number of
students depending on who got the most number of similar characteristics. Those characteristics will be the
analysis of the student who take the exam and placed it in the data set as a raw data.

Fig. 2 Euclidean Distance Formula


TABLE I - SYMBOLS
Symbols:
i1 Score of examiner in verbal comprehension
a1 Score of all students in verbal comprehension
i2 Score of examiner in verbal reasoning
a2 Score of all students in verbal reasoning
i3 Score of examiner in quantitative reasoning
a3 Score of all students in quantitative reasoning
i4 Score of examiner in figural reasoning
a4 Score of all students in figural reasoning
B. Result and Discussion

Fig. 3 Conceptual Framework


Fig.3 shows the conceptual framework of e-Lohika. The input value is the raw score of student who took the exam
then it will be converted to a scaled score to determine the Student Ability Index (SAI) which determined by
comparing scores of students within the same age group then the data will be stored in the data sets and the SAI
will determine the Percentile rank which represent the percentage of students exam result to other examiners and
the Stanine is a method of scaling the score of students on a nine point standard scale using the OLSAT standard
scale with a mean of five and standard deviation of two. This standard deviation is a number used to tell how
measurements for a group are spread out from the average (mean), or expected value. On the other hand, the raw
score of a students will be analysed based on verbal reasoning, verbal comprehension, figural reasoning and
quantitative reasoning then will be compared to each of the students who took the exam using the Euclidean
distance After getting the distance, it will be sorted from furthest to nearest and get the K is a number of students
which are the nearest to the examiner. To find the K, you will get the 30 % of the students who also take the exam.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
IRJCS: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2016): 4.281
Indexcopernicus: (ICV 2016): 88.80
© 2014- 18, IRJCS- All Rights Reserved Page -23
International Research Journal of Computer Science (IRJCS) ISSN: 2393-9842
Issue 01, Volume 5 (January 2018) www.irjcs.com
After getting the K, it will get the characteristics of the K number of students depending on who got the most
number of similar characteristics. Those characteristics will be the analysis of the student who take the exam and
placed it in the data set as a raw data.

Fig. 4 System Architecture


Fig. 4 shows the system architecture of the e-lohika. MySQL is the main server to manage the database and the
application. All users can access the application through the internet. The application is design for HTML 5
supported browser.

Fig. 5 Context Diagram


Fig. 5 shows the context diagram of eLOHIKA where the Admin of the system should register the authorized users
of the system for them to access their respective account level: the students, faculty and the school psychologist.
The school psychologist can add students, upload the norms, create questions then set the schedule of the exam to
allow students when to take the exam. The results of the exam can be viewed by the psychologist, the faculty can
only view analysis of their students and the students can also view their respective individual result.

Fig. 6 Use Case Diagram


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International Research Journal of Computer Science (IRJCS) ISSN: 2393-9842
Issue 01, Volume 5 (January 2018) www.irjcs.com
Fig. 6 shows the activity of the users. The Admin can register Psychologists, add School, and add Courses. The
Psychologists on the other hand, is allowed to register students, customize questions, customize norms, add
schedule and view results and the student can only take exam as schedule and view the result of their logical test.
C. E-Lohika Web Interface

Fig. 7 Login Page


Fig 7 shows the log-in page of the application which contains the username and password to access their
respective account.

Fig. 8 Homepage (Admin)


Fig. 8 shows the homepage which contains the dashboard of the system: view results, add schools and courses
and update the accounts.

Fig. 9 Homepage (Psychologist)


Fig.9 shows the dashboard for the Psychologists which contains the list of students to view their analysis, list of
course to view the analysis-per-course, the questions which composed of verbal comprehension, verbal reasoning,
quantitative reasoning, and figural reasoning, the norms used in converting the score into a score analysis and
schedule of the logical test.
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International Research Journal of Computer Science (IRJCS) ISSN: 2393-9842
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Fig. 10 Question Module


Fig. 10 shows the questions for every category. Note : The psychologists can add or edit the questions.

Fig.11 Add Schedule


Fig. 11 shows the add schedule module which contains the schedule information that needs to be filled up by the
Psychologists including the schedule title, norm, question set, and time frame of the test.

Fig. 12 Students Information and Exam Schedule Module


Fig. 12 shows the student’s basic information and date when the student take the exam. This will also to view the
his/her skills analysis.
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Fig. 13 Student Assessment Module


Fig. 13 shows the student assessment which contains the. student’s score analysis including the Student Ability
Index, Percentile Rank, Stanine and Score Breakdown

Fig. 14 Logical Thinking Analysis


Fig. 14 shows the logical thinking analysis which contains the score of the one student to other students in terms
of Verbal Comprehension, Verbal Reasoning, Figural Reasoning and the Quantitative Reasoning. In this graph the
red represents the score of one student and the blue represent the other student’s scores.

Fig. 15 Students Skills Interpretation


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International Research Journal of Computer Science (IRJCS) ISSN: 2393-9842
Issue 01, Volume 5 (January 2018) www.irjcs.com

Fig. 15 shows the interpretation of student skills which contains the interpretation of student strength and
weakness in terms of verbal comprehension, verbal reasoning , quantitative reasoning, and figural reasoning.
Note : The rectangle red symbol means the students strength and the blue symbol means the student’s
weaknesses.

Fig. 16 Skill Analysis


Fig. 16 shows the skills analysis of the students which contains the score of the one student to other students in
terms of the analytical skills, problem-solving skills, creativity, critical thinking skills, resilience reading
comprehension, innovative, and persistence. In this graph, the red color represents the score of one student and
the blue color represent the other student’s scores.

Fig. 17 Norm List


Fig.17 shows the norms list that contains the list of norms version used by the Psychologist.

Fig. 18 Raw Score-Scaled Score Conversion


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International Research Journal of Computer Science (IRJCS) ISSN: 2393-9842
Issue 01, Volume 5 (January 2018) www.irjcs.com
Fig.18 shows the raw-score scaled core conversion. Note : The psychologist can upload the CSV file of the
conversion to update or add norm.

Fig. 19 SAI to Percentile rank and Stanine


Fig.19 shows the SAI to Percentile rank and Stanine conversion. Note : Psychologist can upload the table of
conversion in in a CSV file format to update the norms.

Fig. 20 Examination Module


Fig.20 shows the examination module page which contains the question that the student should answer the
questions completely then the submit will activate and automatically compute the score. Note: The student can
only take exam once per schedule.
D. Software Evaluation
TABLE II - SOFTWARE EVALUATION SURVEY RESULTS
All Characteristics Mean Verbal Interpretation
Functionality 4.45 Very Satisfactory
Reliability 4.18 Very Satisfactory
Usability 4.28 Very Satisfactory
Efficiency 4.30 Very Satisfactory
Total Weighted Mean 4.30 Very Satisfactory
Table 2 shows the result of the software evaluation: Functionality garnered an average of 4.4 weighted mean
“Very Satisfactory”; Reliability garnered an average of 4.1 weighted mean “Very Satisfactory”; Usability garnered
an average of 4.28 weighted mean “Very Satisfactory; and Efficiency garnered an average of 4.30 weighted mean
Very Satisfactory with an over-all result of 4.30 weighted mean Very Satisfactory level which means that the
application meet the users requirements.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
IRJCS: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2016): 4.281
Indexcopernicus: (ICV 2016): 88.80
© 2014- 18, IRJCS- All Rights Reserved Page -29
International Research Journal of Computer Science (IRJCS) ISSN: 2393-9842
Issue 01, Volume 5 (January 2018) www.irjcs.com
III. CONCLUSIONS
The study concluded that the system greatly helps the users to generate accurate and real time results thus
improve its productivity and quality service to its clientele.
IV. RECOMENDATIONS
The researchers will recommend this system to the schools in the Philippines to improve it services thus increase
their productivity level however to further improve the system the following features will be added.
• Include other components of the aptitude test.
• Create a mobile version of the system.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The researchers would like to thank the following people who have helped in making this study possible; Mrs.
Ruth Ann L. Musngi of Saint Michael's College of Laguna, Helga P. Cabarle of University of Perpetual Help System
of Laguna and Gee Rose B. Aguila of STI Sta. Rosa for the validation and certification of norms, interpretations and
formulas applied in the study and to Dr. Renelina M. Manabo, Ramon M. Almazan, Mr. Michael Jessie Theodore A.
Sese and Dr. Maria Regina M.C, Manabat for their valuable insights to make the study more applicable and usable.
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Indexcopernicus: (ICV 2016): 88.80
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International Research Journal of Computer Science (IRJCS) ISSN: 2393-9842
Issue 01, Volume 5 (January 2018) www.irjcs.com
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IRJCS: Impact Factor Value – SJIF: Innospace, Morocco (2016): 4.281
Indexcopernicus: (ICV 2016): 88.80
© 2014- 18, IRJCS- All Rights Reserved Page -32