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# Homework #1 EE5120 Error Control Coding Due: 10 Feb 2014

1. (a) Let Rp be the set of all rational numbers whose denominator is coprime to p. Show that Rp is a
group under addition. Is Rp \ {0} a group under multiplication?
(b) Suppose that H, K are subgroups of G. Then show that H ∩ K is also a subgroup of G.
2. Let G be an abelian group and H a subgroup of G. Let G/H denote all the cosets of H. Define a binary
operation on two cosets aH and bH as aH ◦ bH = (ab)H. Show that under this binary operation G/H
forms a group. Assuming finite groups what is the size of G/H?
3. (a) Find all the subgroups of Z× 32 and verify Lagrange’s theorem.
(b) Show that a cyclic group is abelian.
(c) Show that a subgroup of a cyclic group is also cyclic.
4. Let g ∈ G. The order of an element g ∈ G is defined as the smallest positive integer such that
g ∗ g ∗ · · · ∗ g = e. Show that (i) ord(g) divides the order of the group (ii) G has a subgroup whose
| {z }
ord(g)
size is ord(g).
5. Let R be a ring and a subset I ⊆ R is said to be an ideal if (i) I forms a group (ii) ra ∈ I for all r ∈ R
and a ∈ I.
(a) Find all the ideals of Z8 .
(b) Show that if R is a field then it has only two ideals.
6. (a) Find a 2 dimensional subspace U ⊆ F62 such that every vector in u, v ∈ U satisfies u · v = 0.
(b) Give a basis for U ⊥ , the dual space of U .
(c) Express x = (111111) and y = (101010) as a linear combination of vectors in U and U ⊥ .
(d) Suppose we regard U and U ⊥ as linear codes compute their parameters.
7. (a) Let u, v, w ∈ Fn2 . Show that wt(x + y) = wt(x) + wt(y) − wt(x ∩ y), where x ∩ y is the vector which
is given by (x1 y1 , . . . , xn yn ).
(b) Show that the triangle inequality holds for the Hamming distance i.e. d(u, v) + d(v, w) ≥ d(u, w)
8. (a) Suppose we consider the ensemble of all [n, k] binary linear codes. Show that a vector u ∈ Fn2 is
contained in exactly 2(k−1)(n−k) codes or in none at all.
(b) Show that there does not exist a binary linear code of parameters [4, 2, 3].
9. (a)
   

 1 1 1 
 
 0 0 0 0  
0 1 0 0 1 0 1
   
C1 = C2 = (1)

 1 0 0 
 
 1 0 1 1  
0 0 1 1 1 1 0
   

For the codes C1 and C2 determine (a) dimension (b) distance (c) if the code is linear? If so, give the
generator and parity check matrix in systematic form.
(b) Suppose we list all the codewords of an [n, k, d] linear code. Show that in the ith coordinate 0 and 1
occur the same number of times.
10. Let us construct a linear code as follows. Assume that we have a tetrahedron and each edge corresponds
to a bit. Let us form parity checks as follows. For each vertex form one check and the bits that take part
in the check are the edges (i.e. bits corresponding to those edges) that are incident on that vertex.
(a) Give a parity check matrix of this code.
(b) Find the parameters of the code.
(c) Find the generator matrix of the code and parameters of the dual code.