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12/15/2017 Terminalia Arjuna (Arjun Bark) Benefits, Uses, Dosage & Side Effects

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Terminalia Arjuna Bark and Dried Fruits

MEDICINAL PLANTS

Terminalia Arjuna (Arjun Tree)


By Dr. Jagdev Singh On Sep 16, 2016 Last updated Jul 21, 2017

Arjuna (also called Arjun Tree and Botanically, Terminalia Arjuna) is medicinal
plant mainly used for heart diseases due to its cardioprotective and cardio-
strengthening properties. It strengthens cardiac muscle (heart muscle) and
normalizes (mainly reduces) heartbeat. In addition, it is a good source of
minerals, which helps to prevent bone loss (osteoporosis) and improve bone
mineral density. It has ulcer protection action, so it is used for ulcer treatment,
especially indicated for peptic ulcers. It stops bleeding, so it is bene cial in
bleeding disorders. It reduces the frequency of urination, so it is bene cial in
polyuria and frequent urination. It has astringent action, so it is helpful in the
management of leucorrhea.

Table of Contents [hide]

1 Botanical Description
1.1 Synonyms & Vernacular Names
1.2 Botanical Classi cation (Plant Taxonomy)
1.3 Plant Description
2 Medicinal Parts
3 Phytochemistry (Chemical Composition)
4 Pharmacological Actions
4.1 Medicinal Properties
4.2 Ayurvedic Properties
5 Therapeutic Indications
6 Bene ts & Medicinal Uses
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6.1 Cardiovascular Health


6.2 Atherosclerosis
6.3 Heart Failure
6.4 Coronary Artery Disease
6.5 Myocardial Infarction (Heart attack) Prevention
6.6 Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation (IMR)
6.7 Shortness of Breath
6.8 Angina Pectoris
6.9 Tachycardia & Palpitation
6.10 Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
6.11 Dyslipidemia & Hypercholesterolemia
6.12 Hemorrhages & Bleeding Disorders
6.13 Bone Fractures
6.14 Chronic Low-Grade Fever
6.15 Dysentery
6.16 Wounds & Skin Ulcers
6.17 Peptic ulcers
7 Dosage & Administration
7.1 Terminalia Arjuna Bark Powder (Arjuna Churna) Dosage
7.2 Arjuna Ksheera Pak Dosage
7.3 Arjuna Bark Juice Dosage
7.4 Arjuna Bark Decoction Dosage
7.5 Arjuna Bark Water Extract Dosage
8 Arjuna Formulations
9 Safety Pro le
9.1 Side Effects of Terminalia Arjuna
9.2 Pregnancy & Lactation
9.3 Contraindications

Botanical Description
Terminalia Arjuna is a member of Combretaceae family. It is native to India but
also found in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and some other Asian Countries. It
is a deciduous riparian tree and it can grow up to a height of about 20 to 27
meters.

Synonyms & Vernacular Names

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Botanical Name TERMINALIA ARJUNA

English Name ARJUNA, ARJUN TREE

Hindi Name ARJUNA, ARJUN

Sanskrit Name ARJUNA, ARJUN

Ayurvedic Name ARJUNA

Telugu Name THELLA MADDI

Sinhala Name KUMBUK

Tamil Name MARUDHA MARAM

Malayalam Name NEER MARUTHU

Botanical Classi cation (Plant Taxonomy)


Kingdom Plantae

Sub-Kingdom Viridiplantae

Infra Kingdom Streptophyta (Land Plants)

Super Division Embryophyta

Division Tracheophyta (Tracheophytes or Vascular Plants)

Sub Division Spermatophytina (Spermatophytes or Seed Plants)

Class Magnoliopsida

Super Order Rosanae

Order Myrtales

Family Combretaceae (Combretums)

Genus Terminalia L. (tropical almond)

Species Terminalia Arjuna (Arjun Tree)

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Terminalia Arjuna Fruits

Plant Description
Type of Plant Deciduous riparian tree

Native Range India

Height 20 to 27 meters

It prefers humid, fertile and red lateritic soils, but it


Habitat can grow in any type of soils. It can also grow in
shade.

Conical and oblong leaves. Leaves have a green


Leaves
color on the top and brown color below.

Bark Grey and smooth bark

Flowers Pale yellow owers

Bloom Time March and June

It has brous woody fruits with ve wings division


Fruits having size around 2 to 5 cm (between September
and November)

Fruition Time Between September to November

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Terminalia Arjuna Leaves

Medicinal Parts
The bark of Terminalia Arjuna is the main medicinal part used for therapeutic
purposes. It is well-known for cardioprotective action.

Phytochemistry (Chemical Composition)


Terminalia Arjuna Bark contains minerals like calcium and magnesium. The
following phytochemicals are found in the Arjuna bark.

1. Phenolic Compounds – terminic acid and arjunolic acid


2. Glycosides: arjunetin and arjunosides I–IV
3. Flavones
4. Tannins
5. Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins
6. B-Sitosterol
7. Casuarinin
8. Phenolic acids: ellagic acid and gallic acid
9. Lactones

Pharmacological Actions
Terminalia Arjuna Bark has a cardioprotective role by restoring the depleted
endogenous myocardial antioxidants and improving myocardial function. (1)

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According to Ayurveda, Arjuna Bark strengthens the heart and myocardium


(cardiac muscles), improves blood circulation to the heart tissue, and improves
its strength to pump the blood. These facts are also now veri ed by some
research studies.

Medicinal Properties
Cardioprotective
Antiarrhythmic
Cardiac Stimulant
Antianginal
Cardiac tonic
Anti-atherogenic
Inotropic (modi es the speed or force of muscle contractions)
Antihyperlipidemic
Anti-thrombotic
Antihypertensive
Antioxidant
Antihemorrhagic
Anti-osteoporotic
Anti-herpes virus (it is found in Casuarinin, hydrolysable tannin compound
in Arjuna bark)
Wound healing
Anti-arthritic
Anti-in ammatory
Antacid
Antiulcerogenic
Mucolytic
Urinary Astringent
Anti-obesity
Antitoxin
Antitumor
Antihyperglycemic
Anti-ischemic

Ayurvedic Properties
RASA (Taste) KASAYA (Astringent)

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GUNA (Main Quality) LAGHU (Light), RUKSHA (Dry)

VIRYA (Potency) SHEETA (Cold)

VIPAKA (Resultant) KATU (Pungent)

PRABHAVA (Action) Cardiac Tonic

DOSHA KARMA
Paci es KAPHA DOSHA & PITTA DOSHA
(Effect on Humors)

Dhatu (Tissue) Effect RASA, RAKTA, MAMSA, MEDA, ASTHI

Organs Effect Heart, Blood Vessels, Bones

Main Indication Heart Diseases

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Therapeutic Indications
Dyslipidemia
Coronary artery disease
Heart failure
Hypercholesterolemia
Angina pectoris
Arrhythmia (especially used for Tachycardia)
Hemorrhages
Edema due to heart disease
Asthma
Cough associated with weakness and fatigue
Heartburn
Gastritis
Peptic ulcers
Dysentery
Bleeding piles
Burning sensation in urine
Urinary tract infections

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Pyuria
Metrorrhagia (excessive uterine bleeding)
Leucorrhea
Obesity
Bone fractures
Low bone mineral density
Osteoporosis
Chronic low-grade fever associated with fatigue and weakness
General weakness & Fatigue

Bene ts & Medicinal Uses


In Ayurveda, Arjuna Bark is mainly used for heart diseases and as a heart tonic.
In addition, it is also indicated in other diseases as listed above. Now, Arjuna is
also studied for an ulcer, diabetes, and cancer treatments.

Terminalia Arjuna Bark Powder

Cardiovascular Health
Terminalia Arjuna improves the functions of left ventricle of the heart. It
provides strength to the heart muscles and improves the heart’s capacity to
pump the blood. It has cardioprotective actions, which helps to preserve the
optimum functions of the heart and speeds up the recovery process for cardiac
injury. It is most commonly used for prevention from Myocardial Infarction

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(Heart attack) because it has anti-atherogenic property, which helps to reduce


plaque buildup in the coronary arteries and improves the blood ow to the heart
tissue.

Terminalia Arjuna is also bene cial for people suffering from Myocardial
ischemia in which blood ow is reduced to heart. It improves blood ow to the
heart and reduces blockage of coronary arteries. In addition, the cardiac tonic
action of it improves tone and strength of the heart muscle and thus improves
the ability of the heart to pump the blood e ciently and increase left ventricular
ejection fraction in people suffering from heart diseases. In addition, it has
antioxidant property, which also helps to maintain the cardiovascular health.

In Ayurveda, Arjuna is commonly recommended for heart disease’s prevention


in people suffering from diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

Atherosclerosis
Terminalia Arjuna has anti-atherogenic and hypolipidemic properties. It also
reduces low-grade in ammation of the blood vessels and antihyperlipidemic
action lowers serum concentration of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL
total cholesterol, and triglycerides. It also reduces atherogenic index. A rabbit
study suggested a reduction in the atherosclerotic lesion in rabbit’s aorta.
These effects are likely to be due to its antihyperlipidemic, anti-in ammatory
and antioxidant characteristics. (2, 3)

Therefore, Arjuna bark can be used for its anti-atherogenic action, reducing
atherosclerotic lesion and stopping the progress of atherosclerosis.

Heart Failure
Terminalia Arjuna reduces manifestations of heart failure. It increases left
ventricular stroke volume index and left ventricular ejection fractions. The study
suggested it helps to improve exercise performance and effort tolerance. (4)

Terminalia Arjuna bark extract improves cardiac output and cardiac contractility
index. It prevents and reduces cardiac dysfunction and helps to recover from
myocardial injury in congestive heart failure, a rat study suggested.
Furthermore, the study suggested Arjuna bark inhibits lipid peroxidation and
acts as an antioxidant. Its action was comparable to FLUVASTATIN, a standard
modern drug. (5, 6)

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Arjuna along with Ashwagandha helps to strengthen heart. In Ayurveda, Arjuna


bark is used as Arjuna Ksheera Pak or Ashwagandha Arjuna Ksheera Pak for
the treatment of congestive heart failure. It helps to reduce the edema and
generally recommended along with Punarnava (Boerhavia Diffusa) formulations
such as Punarnavarishta, Punarnavasava, Punarnavadi Kashayam or Punarnava
Mandur for the best results. Arjuna bark powder, extract, juice or decoction can
be used for therapeutic purposes in people with chronic heart failure.

Coronary Artery Disease


Coronary Artery Disease is a common cause of heart failure in addition to
uncontrolled hypertension. Terminalia Arjuna helps to stop its progress and
further plaque deposition by reducing low-grade in ammation in the blood
vessels and coronary arteries. In addition, it also checks cholesterol deposits
and plaque formation. It signi cantly reduces serum cholesterol, triglycerides,
low-density lipoprotein and atherogenic index. (7, 8)

However, it may not help alone to treat the coronary artery disease, but along
with following herbs, it works e ciently to clear the blockage caused by
Cholesterol-containing deposits.

Pushkarmool (Inula Racemosa)


Shuddha Guggulu (Puri ed Guggul)
Triphala (three myrobalans)
Kutki (Picrorhiza Kurroa)
Tamra Bhasma (Copper)
Trikatu Churna

Myocardial Infarction (Heart attack) Prevention


Pre-treatment with Terminalia Arjuna and α-tocopherol had protected the rats
from myocardial injury on induction of ISOPROTERENOL. The study suggested
the prophylactic value of Terminalia Arjuna in the treatment of Myocardial
Infarction and Myocardial Ischemia because it increases endogenous
antioxidants in the heart tissue, which protects the heart from myocardial
trauma or injury. (9)

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Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation (IMR)


A study suggested that Terminalia Arjuna signi cantly reduces the Ischemic
Mitral Regurgitation (IMR) and frequency of angina pain. It also improves E/A
ratio, which indicates improvement in the function of the left ventricle of the
heart after using T. Arjuna Bark for 3 months. (10)

Shortness of Breath
In heart patients, narrow coronary arteries decrease oxygen supply to the heart,
which may result in shortness of breath. As discussed above, Terminalia Arjuna
reduces narrowness of the blood vessels by treating low-grade in ammation
and reducing deposited plaque in the blood vessels, so it also helps to treat
breathing troubles in heart patients. For good results, it should be used in
combination with other herbs as described under coronary artery disease
heading.

Angina Pectoris
Terminalia Arjuna Bark Powder has Antianginal and Cardioprotective actions. A
study suggested it is signi cantly effective in cases of stable angina pectoris.
However, its results in unstable angina pectoris are limited and it does not
reduce the anginal frequency in such cases. Arjuna reduces systolic blood
pressure and increases good cholesterol level signi cantly. There are no side
effects observed on the kidney and liver functions. Therefore, T. Arjuna can be
used in cases of stable angina pectoris successfully. (11, 12, 13)

Tachycardia & Palpitation


Terminalia Arjuna Bark Powder is used in form of Arjuna Ksheera Pak in
Ayurveda for Tachycardia and Palpitation. It provides good results. A 3 months
therapy with Arjuna Ksheera Pak signi cantly reduces palpitation and
abnormally high heartbeat.

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)


However, Terminalia Arjuna Bark contracts blood vessels due to its astringent
action rst, but then affects heartbeat and lowers the blood pressure.

Its effects are more observable on systolic blood pressure, according to study.
(14, 15)
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Furthermore, it prevents narrowing of blood vessels by reducing atherosclerotic


lesions and plaque deposits in blood vessels, and lowering cholesterol and
elevated lipids in the blood, and treating dyslipidemia. Therefore, its long-term
use is bene cial in the management of high blood pressure resulting due to
atherosclerosis or narrowing of blood vessels or when hypertension is
associated with high cholesterol levels or dyslipidemia.

In Ayurveda, Terminalia Arjuna is always recommended as a cardiac tonic to


improve cardio-vascular endurance and functions in cases of high blood
pressure. However, it may not produce signi cant control over high blood
pressure when used alone. Therefore, a combination therapy is recommendable
and useful according to underlying causes of hypertension. Generally, the
following combination is effective.

Terminalia Arjuna Bark Powder 20 Parts

Sarpagandha Churna 2 Parts

Jahar Mohra Pishti 2 Parts

Praval Pishti 2 Parts

Mukta Pishti 1 Part

Dosage: 3 grams Twice Daily with Milk

Dyslipidemia & Hypercholesterolemia


Terminalia Arjuna Bark has antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant actions, which
helps to lower serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL lipoprotein, VLDL
Lipoprotein and atherogenic index. These effects may be due to
phytochemicals like tannins, saponins, and avonoids present in Arjuna Bark.
(16, 17)

For best results in dyslipidemia and Hypercholesterolemia, it can be used along


with other herbs as follows:

Herbs Quantity

Terminalia Arjuna Bark 8 Parts

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Triphala (three myrobalans) 8 Parts

Kutki (Picrorhiza Kurroa) 2 Parts

Shuddha Guggulu (Puri ed Guggul) 2 Parts

Trikatu Churna 1 Part

Pushkarmool (Inula Racemosa) 1 Part

Dosage: ½ teaspoon (around 3 grams) twice daily with warm water, or


pure natural honey (if not diabetic)

Hemorrhages & Bleeding Disorders


Astringents substances in Arjuna Bark have anti-hemorrhagic property, which
may be because it may causes vasoconstriction that helps to reduce bleeding
and treat hemorrhages. It is commonly used in Ayurveda for bleeding disorders
along with other herbs.

Bone Fractures
In Ayurveda, a paste of Arjuna Bark is prepared with water and applied on the
part of bone fracture after alignment. The application of bark powder is
repeated twice a day until recovery.

In addition, 3 to 4 grams Arjuna Bark Powder is advised to take twice daily with
Cow’s Ghee and Desi Khand (naturally prepared sugar). It is believed this helps
to speed up the proliferative physiological process, which enhances the fracture
healing.

Chronic Low-Grade Fever


Arjuna Bark Ksheera Pak is useful for the treatment of chronic low-grade fever
associated with extreme fatigue and physical weakness. However, it is not the
perfect medicine for lowering fever, but it assists other medicines to ght off
infections and fever. In addition, it reduces fatigue and weakness and restores
body strength.

Dysentery

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Terminalia Arjuna is used as Arjuna Ksheera Pak along with Indrayava


(Holarrhena Antidysenterica seeds) for the treatment of dysentery. This
combination reduces bleeding in stools, frequency of defecation, and
eradicates the infection.

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Wounds & Skin Ulcers


The bark decoction of Terminalia Arjuna is used for washing wounds and skin
ulcers. It kills microbes, especially several strains of bacteria, and promotes
wound healing.

Peptic ulcers
Arjuna bark powder and its water extract are very safe in ulcer and their ulcer
protection action is comparable with RANITIDINE.

Dosage & Administration


Terminalia Arjuna can be used in different forms and dosage is as follows:

Terminalia Arjuna Bark Powder (Arjuna Churna) Dosage


The general dosage of Terminalia Arjuna Bark Powder (Arjuna Churna) is
as follows.

Children 1 to 3 grams

Adults 3 to 6 grams

24 grams Per Day (in divided


Maximum Possible Dosage
doses) **

* Twice a day

** The maximum dosage of Arjuna Churna is a general estimate.

Best Time to Take: 2 Hours After Food

Adjuvant: Milk, Jaggery, or Sugar

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Arjuna Ksheera Pak Dosage


The general dosage of Arjuna Ksheera Pak is as follows.

Children 40 to 80 ml *

Adults 160 ml *

320 ml Per Day (in divided doses)


Maximum Possible Dosage
**

* Twice a day

** The maximum dosage of Arjuna Ksheera Pak is a general estimate.

Best Time to Take: 2 Hours After Food or Anytime, but do not eat
anything 30 minutes before drinking Arjuna Ksheer and 60 minutes after
drinking Arjuna Ksheer.

Read More about preparation and ingredients of Arjuna Ksheera Pak


here.

Arjuna Bark Juice Dosage


The general dosage of Arjuna Bark Juice is as follows.

Children 5 to 10 ml *

Adults 10 to 20 ml *

Maximum Possible Dosage 40 ml Per Day (in divided doses) **

* Twice a day

** The maximum dosage of Arjuna Bark Juice is a general estimate.

Best Time to Take: On Empty Stomach in the morning and in the late
afternoon or early evening.

Adjuvant (if required): Water

Arjuna Bark Decoction Dosage

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The general dosage of Arjuna Bark Decoction is as follows.

Children 25 to 50 ml *

Adults 50 to 100 ml *

200 ml Per Day (in divided doses)


Maximum Possible Dosage
**

* Twice a day

** The maximum dosage of Arjuna Bark Decoction is a general estimate.

Best Time to Take: On Empty Stomach in the morning and in the late
afternoon or early evening, or 30 minutes before a meal, or 2 hours after a
meal.

Arjuna Bark Water Extract Dosage


The general dosage of Arjuna Bark Water Extract is as follows.

Children 125 to 250 mg *

Adults 250 to 500 mg *

1500 mg Per Day (in divided doses)


Maximum Possible Dosage
**

* Twice a day

** The maximum dosage of Arjuna Bark Water Extract is a general


estimate.

Best Time to Take: On Empty Stomach in the morning and in the late
afternoon or early evening, or 2 hours after a meal.

Adjuvant: Water

Arjuna Formulations
1. Arjuna Ksheera Pak (Arjuna Siddha Kshir)
2. Arjunarishta

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3. Arjuna Ghrita
4. Kukumbhadi Churna

Safety Pro le
Terminalia Arjuna Bark is used in different forms like bark juice, powder,
decoction etc. All formulations of Arjuna are considerably safe and well-
tolerated in most individuals when taken in recommended dosage under the
supervision of an ayurvedic physician.

According to the rat study, there is no oral toxicity found with 2 grams/Kg of
Arjuna ethanolic extract. (18)

According to clinical studies, Terminalia Arjuna Bark is likely safe in


recommended dosage. It does not cause any deleterious effect on kidney and
liver functions. (19)

The long-term administration of Arjuna Bark Powder has no side effects and
likely to safe for kidney and liver. There are no signi cant changes are observed
in hematological parameters. (20, 21)

Arjuna bark extract is likely to be safer than Arjuna leaf extract, so Arjuna bark
use is suggestible.

Side Effects of Terminalia Arjuna


There are no side effects reported with Terminalia Arjuna.

Pregnancy & Lactation


The safety pro le of Terminalia Arjuna is not well established for pregnant
women. However, Arjuna may be possibly safe in its natural form, but the use of
its derivatives and extracts in pregnancy should be discouraged. You should
also consult an ayurvedic physician before taking Arjuna formulations during
pregnancy.

Terminalia Arjuna is likely to be safe to consume by lactating mothers. There


are no adverse effects reported with the use of Arjuna in lactating mothers and
breastfeeding babies.

Contraindications
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There are no absolute contraindications for Terminalia Arjuna.

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