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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

ABSTRACT

Pump is a mechanical device that is used to move or transport fluids. There are many types,

sizes and operations of pump. In this assignment, a pump is used to transport water from a

reservoir into another reservoir, which is located at a higher elevation. Both reservoirs are

exposed to the atmospheric pressure, due to theirs free surface nature. A pump’s performance

can be determined by different ways, like the pump performance curve and calculations. In the

pump performance curve, the total head and the flow of fluids are two important parameters.

From these two parameters, the pump’s operating point could be determined.

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................................... 1
LIST OF FIGURE .............................................................................................................................................. 2
1.0 TITLE: WATER PUMP AND ITS PERFORMANCE ................................................................................ 4
2.0 OBJECTIVE ......................................................................................................................................... 4
3.0 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................ 5
4.0 THEORY ............................................................................................................................................ 8
5.0 SAMPLE CALCULATION ................................................................................................................... 11
6.0 RESULT ............................................................................................................................................ 15
7.0 GRAPH ............................................................................................................................................. 16
8.0 DISCUSSION..................................................................................................................................... 17
9.0 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................... 18
10.0 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................... 19
11.0 APPENDIX ........................................................................................................................................ 20

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 3.1 : A centrifugal pump..................................................................................................................... 5


Figure 3.2 : shows the types of pump blade. ................................................................................................ 6
Figure 3.3 : shows the Total head vs. discharge and suction head............................................................... 6
Figure 3.4 : Operating point for a centrifugal pump ..................................................................................... 7

Figure 4.1 : shows the basic elements of a Centrifugal Pumps. ................................................................... 8


Figure 4.2 : shows the experimental arrangement for Pump Performance Characteristics. ....................... 9
Figure 4.3 : Typical Performance Characteristics of an Axial Centrifugal Pump ......................................... 10

Figure 5.1: Pump system ............................................................................................................................. 11

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

Figure 11.1: Taco graph............................................................................................................................... 20

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

1.0 TITLE: WATER PUMP AND ITS PERFORMANCE

2.0 OBJECTIVE

1) To study the functions of water pumps and its performance;


2) To find out the operating point of the pump

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

3.0 INTRODUCTION

Water pumping system is a must have utilities for a building or a house because water has
essentially been a part of human life from the beginning. Without water, work and life could not
survive long. For this report, a system of pumping system by utilizing a single pump with exact
specification was given to analyse its operating point.

Pump is a device that uses energy to move fluid from one place to another. In piping
system, a tank is usually placed up above a building to ensure smooth distribution of water in the
building by help of gravity. But to put water in the tank in the first place, the correct specification
of pump used for the system is needed to be analyse to make sure no water shortage. The
operating flow of the pump is a major factor that affects the design of the system. Insufficient
pump power could cause water shortage as energy loss during the distribution of water such as
head loss from elbow joint is very high. This is why it is very crucial to select the perfect pump
specification to make sure the system is optimized. [1]

A pump is a type of turbomachinery that absorb energy and transfer it to the fluid by
moving it. One of the most common pump used today is Centrifugal pump or radial pump. This
type of pump can be differentiated by the snail shape like body. There are different type of fins
for the pump depending on the use case. Figure below shows the centrifugal pump. There are
also three types of centrifugal pump blade which include, backward inclined blade, radial blade,
and forward inclined blade. The type of blade chosen could affect the analysis of the pump work.
For this design, the pump is a radial pump blade. A centrifugal pump increases the fluid pressure
thus moving it but does not affect the velocity of the fluid across the pump thus making it a
steady flow. [2]

Figure 3.1 : A centrifugal pump

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

Figure 3.2 : shows the types of pump blade.

The given parameter of the pump and head loss was recognized and analysed in to find
the most optimum operating point of the pump system. This analysis is done to ensure that the
pump is operating at utmost efficiency and not prone to any defect such as cavitation during its
operation. [3]

Head is a term used for to show the height of which a pump can raise water from the
source. The term is used for pumps designer and manufacturers to let the user know of how
much can the pump handle the water level. The total head is used and provided for each pump
specification instead because the manufacturer does not know for what kind of water level is the
pump would be use. Therefore, total head is important in pump specification. For example figure
below shows the total head stays the same for the same pump at different water level.

Figure 3.3 : shows the Total head vs. discharge and suction head

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

Operating point for a pump is the point where it operate at its best. The point is influence
by the flow rate and head loss of that system. For the system, the volumetric flow is compare
between the system head loss on a graph curve generated. The point could be identified by
graphing the a system characteristics curve and the pump characteristic curve on the same
coordinate. Figure below shows the example of graphing process to find the operating point of a
pumping system.

Figure 3.4 : Operating point for a


centrifugal pump

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

4.0 THEORY

Centrifugal pump is one of the most common radial-flow turbo machines. This type of
pump has two main components, an impeller attached to a rotating shaft and a stationary casing
or housing enclosing the impeller. Figure 3.1 below is shown the schematic diagram of basic
elements of a centrifugal pump.

Figure 4.1 : shows the basic elements of a Centrifugal Pumps.


The actual performance of the pumps cannot be determined and predicted based on
completely theoretical basis because of its general complexity of flow that pass through the
centrifugal pump. Actual pump performance is represented by a Performance curves chart after
the pump gone through some experiment and tests. Performance characteristics for a given pump
geometry and operating speed are usually given in the form of plots of head rise, efficiency and
power versus flow rate which commonly referred to as capacity. This information is most helpful
to the engineer responsible for incorporating pumps into a given pipe flow system.

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

Consider the system arrangement for determining the head rise or pressure rise gained by
a fluid flowing through a pump, as shown below.

Figure 4.2 : shows the experimental arrangement for Pump


Performance Characteristics.

Below are the representations of the symbol for formula provided below:

hp = actual head rise (m)

p = pressure (Pa, N/m2)

z = elevation (m)

ρ = water density (1000 kg/m3)

v = velocity (m/s)

g = acceleration of gravity (9.81 m/s2)

Q = volume flow rate (m3/s)

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

The pump head rise energy equation is as below:

h2 = (p2 - p1) / ρg +(z2 - z1) + (v22 - v12) / 2 g

The differences in elevations and velocities between inlet and outlet are so small so that

hp = (p2 - p1) / ρg

The power, Pf gained by the fluid is given by the equation

Pf = ρgQhp

The pump overall efficiency, η, is the ratio of power actually gained by the fluid to the shaft
power supplied Wshaft as given by the equation below:

η = Pf / Wshaft

Where, Wshaft the shaft power, is the product of the torque applied to the shaft and the angular
velocity, ω(rad/s).

Wshaft = Tshaft / ω

Where,

ω = 2πN / 60

As a referenced below provided the typical performance curve for the axial centrifugal pump of a
given size operating at constant speed as shown below:

Figure 4.3 : Typical Performance Characteristics of an


Axial Centrifugal Pump

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

5.0 SAMPLE CALCULATION

Assumptions

 The water is incompressible.


 The flow is nearly steady since the reservoirs are large.
 The water is at room temperature.
 No difference of pressure because both reservoirs are exposed to the atmospheric
pressure.
 The velocity of both reservoirs are are equal to zero

Figure 5.1: Pump system

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

𝑃₂ − 𝑃₁ 𝑉₂2 − 𝑉₁2
𝐻𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 = ( ) +( ) + (𝑍₂ − 𝑍₁) + Σℎ𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠
2𝑔 2𝑔

L 𝑉2
𝐻𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 = (𝑍 2 −𝑍 1)
+ ( 𝑓 + ΣK L )
𝐷 2𝑔

𝑉2 40
= (6.7𝑚) + (𝑓( ) + 11.37 )
2(9.81) 0.03

𝐻𝑎 = 𝐻𝑜 − 𝑎𝑄 2

When 𝐻𝑜 = 0, Q = max When Q = 0, 𝐻𝑎 = max

Qmax = 90.18 L/min 𝐻𝑎 = 𝐻𝑜 = 11.45𝑚

Assume the value of Q = 70.18 L/min

𝑄 𝐿 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛3 1𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑉= => 70.18 𝑥 𝑥
𝐴 𝑚𝑖𝑛 1000𝐿 60𝑠

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

= 1.170 𝑥 10−3 𝑚/𝑠

1.170 𝑥 10−3
𝑉= 2 = 1.66 𝑚2 /𝑠
0.03
𝜋 ( 2 )

𝜌𝑉𝑑 998 𝑥 1.66 𝑥 0.03


𝑅𝑒 = = ( 𝑅𝑒𝑦𝑛𝑜𝑙𝑑𝑠 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 )
𝜇 1.002 𝑥 10−3

= 49601.2 (Turbulent)

∈ 0.0028
𝑅𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑔ℎ𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 ; =
𝐷 3

= 9.33 x 10-4

To find friction factor,

1 6.9 ∈/𝐷 1.11


= −1.8 log [ + ( ) ]
√𝑓 𝑅𝑒 3.7

1
𝑓= 1.11 = 0.024
6.9 9.33 𝑥 10−4
−1.8 log [ 𝑅 + ( ) ]
𝑒 3.7
( )
Assume Q is unknown to find the range value of Hp in pump performance curve.

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

𝑄 𝑄
𝑉= = 𝜋
𝐴 ( 4) (0.03)2

= 1414.7 Q

𝑄 1414.72 𝑄 2
ℎ𝑝 = 6.7 + ( 43.47)
2 (9.81)

ℎ𝑝 = 6.7 + 4.424 x 106 Q2

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

6.0 RESULT

Flow Rate Q,m3/s Head Available, m (Taco) Head required, m


(Calculated)
0.00000 11.45 6.70

0.00025 11.00 6.98

0.00050 10.50 7.81

0.00075 9.50 9.19

0.00100 8.80 11.12

0.00125 7.80 13.61

0.00150 6.50 16.65

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

7.0 GRAPH

Volume flow rate againts head


25

20
Flow Rate Q,m3/s

15
Head Available, m (Taco)

10
Head required, m
(Calculated)

0
0 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008 0.001 0.0012 0.0014 0.0016 0.0018 0.002
Head (m)

The operating point of the pump is :

Flow Rate Q= 9.75m3/s

Head H= 0.0008 m

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

8.0 DISCUSSION

Based on the calculation we find the value of Q max which is 90.18 L/min. So when When Q =

0, the value of 𝐻𝑎 𝑖𝑠 11.45𝑚. Then we assume the value of Q which is70.18 L/min. Based on our

assuming of Q we get the velocity the flow which is 1.66 𝑚2 /𝑠 and the flow is turbulent. Then

we calculate the relative roughness based on equation ; and the value is 9.33 x 10-4 . We get the
𝐷

friction factor is 0.024. Finally we find the range of HP in pump performance curve base on

equation ℎ𝑝 = 6.7 + 4.424 x 106 Q2. So the pump will operate at 9.75m3/s of volume rate and

0.0008 m of head.

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

9.0 CONCLUSION

In conclusion we achieved the objective of this assignment which are to study the functions of
water pumps and its performance and to find out the operating point of the pump. Base on the graph the
intersection point is the value of the operating pump. Failure to choose the right pump will cause the
pump will not operate at the specific time.

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

10.0 REFERENCES
[1] "http://www.hydromatic.com," 2017. [Online]. Available:
http://www.hydromatic.com/ResidentialPage_techinfopage_headloss.aspx. [Accessed 16 June
2017].

[2] J. A. Nathanson, "www.britannica.com," 2017. [Online]. Available:


https://www.britannica.com/technology/water-supply-system/Pumps. [Accessed 16 June 2017].

[3] D. S. (. i. g. Beat Stauffer (seecon international gmbh), "http://www.sswm.info/," 2012. [Online].


Available: http://www.sswm.info/content/pumping-stations. [Accessed 16 June 2017].

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MEC442 ASSIGNMENT

11.0 APPENDIX

Figure 11.1: Taco graph

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