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12/09/2017

Step 1:

ANSYS 2D Plane Strain Tutorial: Analysis of a Pressure Vessel - Online Finite Element Analysis Consultancy Service

Launch ANSYS

We have already covered how to launch ANSYS properly in tutorials 1 and 2. Please go back and re-read these tutorials if you cannot remember how to do it.

Step 2: Define Element Type

1. In the Main Menu select Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete

2. Click on Add in the dialog box that appears:

3. Select Solid in the left hand menu and Quad 8 node 183 in the right hand menu and then click OK

4. This defines element type 1 as a 2D quadratic 8-node quadrilateral element (i.e. a rectangle with curved edges)

5. Now we must define how this element behaves. Click on Options in the Element Types dialog box:

6. In the element type options dialog box that appears, make sure that the Element behavior is set to "Plane Strain" as shown in the figure below:

7. Click Close to close the Element Type dialog box.

Step 3: Define the Material Model

1. In the Main Menu click on Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models, the Define Material Model Behaviour dialog box will now appear.

2. Expand the options in the right hand pane of the dialog box: Structural > Linear > Isotropic

3. In the dialog box that pops up, enter suitable material parameters for steel ( E = 207 x 10 9 Pa, Poissons ratio =

0.27):

4. Click on Ok to close the dialog box in which you entered the material parameters.

5. Close the Define Material Model Behaviour dialog box by clicking on the X in the upper right corner.

12/09/2017

ANSYS 2D Plane Strain Tutorial: Analysis of a Pressure Vessel - Online Finite Element Analysis Consultancy Service

Step 5: Create the Model Geometry

1. In the Main Menu click on Preprocessor > Modelling > Create > Areas > Circle > Partial Annulus

2. Enter the values shown in the figure below to create a partial annulus representing the 1/4 model of the pressure vessel cross section:

3. Your screen should now look like this:

4. Note: if the background of your screen is black then that is not a problem. In the image above reverse video has been used. If you want to use reverse video (i.e. have a white background) then simply go to: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colors > Reverse Video

12/09/2017

ANSYS 2D Plane Strain Tutorial: Analysis of a Pressure Vessel - Online Finite Element Analysis Consultancy Service

Step 6: Mesh the Geometry

1. In the Main Menu click on Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool

2. This will open the Mesh Tool window.

3. We are now going to use the Mesh Tool to set the size of the elements to all be a constant size before we begin the meshing process. In the Mesh Tool click on Areas > Set as shown in the figure below:

4. Use your mouse to click on the plate geometry. Once you have clicked on it, the Element Size at Picked Areasdialog box will appear. Enter 0.001 m for the Element Edge Length to define the size of each element, as shown below:

5. Click on OK to close the dialog box.

6. Now we must divide the plate up into elements. In the Mesh Tool window make sure that Mapped meshing is selected and then click on Mesh.

7. Your finite element model should look like this:

12/09/2017

ANSYS 2D Plane Strain Tutorial: Analysis of a Pressure Vessel - Online Finite Element Analysis Consultancy Service

Step 7: Apply the Boundary Conditions

1. In the Main Menu click on Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B.C. > On Lines

2. Pick the vertical line on the left hand side of the annulus and the horizontal line at the bottom of the annuals, then click OK in the picker dialog box.

3. You should notice small "S" symbols appear near the lines to indicate that a symmetry boundary condition has been applied.

Step 8: Apply the Internal Pressure Load

1. In the Main Menu click on Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines

2. Click on the curved line representing the internal wall of the pressure vessel and then click on OK in the picker dialog box.

3. The "Apply Pres on a Line" dialog box will now appear. Enter 10000 as the pressure value as shown below:

4. Click on OK to close the dialog box.

5. You should notice a red arrow appearing on your model as shown below:

12/09/2017

ANSYS 2D Plane Strain Tutorial: Analysis of a Pressure Vessel - Online Finite Element Analysis Consultancy Service

Step 9: Solve the Problem

1. In the Main Menu select Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis

2. Make sure that Static is selected in the dialog box that pops up and then click on OK to dismiss the dialog.

3. Select Solution > Solve > Current LS to solve the problem

4. A new window and a dialog box will pop up. Take a quick look at the infromation in the window ( /STATUS Command) before closing it.

5. Click on OK in the dialog box to solve the problem.

6. Once the problem has been solved you will get a message to say that the solution is done, close this window when you are ready.

Step 10: Examine the Results

1. In the Main Menu select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape

2. Select Def + undef edge in order to show both the deformed and undeformed shapes.

3. Your screen should look something like this:

12/09/2017

ANSYS 2D Plane Strain Tutorial: Analysis of a Pressure Vessel - Online Finite Element Analysis Consultancy Service

4. Notice that, as expected, the pressure vessel has expanded uniformly due to the applied internal pressure. The maximum displacement is approximately 2 x 10 -6 m which is well below the yield stress for steel - meaning our assumption of a linear elastic material is valid.

5. Now let's examine the principal stresses: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > 1st Principal Stress, click on OK to display the plot, which should look like this:

6. Notice that the maximum stress is 55453 Pa and this occurs at the inner wall of the vessel. This is clearly the hoop stress and compares reasonably well to our analytical prediciton of 55,455 Pa using Thick Walled theory. Let's check the other principal stresses:

7. General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > 2nd Principal Stress, click on OK to display the plot, which should look like this:

12/09/2017

ANSYS 2D Plane Strain Tutorial: Analysis of a Pressure Vessel - Online Finite Element Analysis Consultancy Service

8. In this case a constant stress of 12,272 Pa has been predicted throughout the model. This is the plane strain model's attempt to predict the axial stress and this is clearly inaccurate.

9. Finally, let's examine the 3rd principal stress: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > 2nd Principal Stress, click on OK to display the plot, which should look like this:

10. A maximum radial stress of -9,999 Pa has been predicted. The minus sign indicates that this stress is compressive. This is as expected due to the fact that the internal pressure would cause the vessel wall to thin slightly as it expands in the hoop (i.e. circumferential) direction. This compares very well to the value of -10,000 Pa predicted by the analytical theory for Thick Walled cylinders subjected to internal pressure.