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CT Compensation of Numerical Distance Relaying Algorithm-2009

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Algorithm

Abdullah Assuhaimi Mohd Zin , Nur ‘Ain Maiza Ismail , Zaniah Muda and Mohamad Jalalian

1,2,3,4

Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia from Johor, Malaysia

1

abdullah@fke.utm.my, 2 maiza@fke.utm.my, 3 zaniah@fke.utm.my

Abstract— In this paper a prototype algorithm for Numerical saturation condition. Therefore, the mal-operation of

Distance relay is developed in order to pre vent mal -operation distance protection relay can be avoided by preventing the

of relays when Current Transformer (CT) saturation occurs. saturation of CT. Th is can be achieved by constructing

S aturation of CT causes errors in reproduction of the current compro mise algorith ms for the distance protection system,

fundamental harmonic. The design of CT(s), which never

[4, 5].Th is paper describes a design of suitable CT

saturate would end in bulky and expensive units. Therefore

most of the protective CTs that are in service saturate during Co mpensation algorith m for Distance Relay, which is used

severe transients. Distorted secondary current due to CT to overcome the saturation effects and prevents the mal-

saturation is detected and compensated by the algorithm in operation of a Distance Relay. The design algorithms will

order to obtain correct operation of Distance relay in include current co mpensation, anti-aliasing filter, dc-

saturation area. Third-difference function and Auto Regressive removal and digital filter. Besides that, this paper describes

(AR) model are employed in developing the saturation the simu lation test conducted using ATP power simu lator in

detection and compensation algorithm. The algorithm is order to evaluate the proposed designed algorithm

developed using C++ language. Then the performance of the performance under various faults conditions.

algorithm is evaluated through simulation of case studies in

Alternative Transient Program (ATP) simulator. Finally, the II. M ET HODOLOGY

Numerical Distance Relaying algorithm with CT saturation The proposed algorith ms start with the process of voltage

compensation is successfully developed. and current sampling. After samp ling process, inflection

Index Term-- Numerical Distance Relay; CT saturation; CT points are detected by saturation detector. If saturation level

compensation; ATP is sensed to be more than the threshold value and inflection

point detected is the first inflection po int, the current is

compensated by current compensation and return the values

I. INT RODUCT ION

to the main program. Ho wever, if second point of inflection

Nu merical t ransmission line d istance protection systems

is sensed and confirmed by end of saturation detection then

have been widely applied in recent years. This is due to their

the compensation algorith m would end and continue to the

monitoring and commun ications capabilities as a protection

main program. After that, anti-aliasing filter is implemented

system. Typically, t ripping t imes for d igital d istance relays

to remove all harmon ics higher than sixth harmonic and,

range fro m one to three cycles. Meanwhile, relays using

Direct Current (DC) removal is applied to eliminate the DC

analogue signal processing techniques offer tripping times

of one-quarter to one cycle [1]. Recent developments in components in sampling data. The basic fundamentals of

combination of adaptive algorith ms and higher sampling current and voltage are extracted using DFT function.

rates have lead to the develop ment of secured high-speed Calculating the sine and cosine elements of current and

protection, which is not availab le in prev ious distance voltage performs DFT function. Finally, the developed

protection systems [1, 2, 3]. Improvement of the distance program ends with calcu lation of mon itoring point

protection system is made both in the area o f phasor impedance.

calculation and the p rotective algorithm imp lementation [1]. A. Sampling Rates

Improvements are made due to the protective relays demand

on a reasonable accurate replica of the primary current and Generally, dig ital relays sample wavefo rms between 4 and

voltage especially during fau lt event. Therefore, for this 64 t imes per cycle. A high sampling rate will produce more

reason current transformer (CT) is employed in the distance accurate result. However, there must be enough time

protection system in order to perform primary current between samples to perform relay calculation. Normally, the

reduction for the relays usage [2, 3].However, relay implementation of all steps in Distance Relay takes longer

performance is affected by CT installat ion. Rat io error time co mpared to the sampling period in order to let the

becomes severe during CT saturation condition which leads program to analyze all sampling data.

to mal-operation of protective relay. The conventional way

emp loyed by earlier researchers is by over dimensioning the B. Current Saturation Detection and Compensation

core of CT. It is said that the CTs can carry up to 20 times Normally, when CT saturation occur the magnetizing

the rated current without exceeding 10% of rat io correction current increases and causes severe ratio error [4]. The

[3]. On the other hand, the large cross-section area of CT higher ratio error increases the probability of distance relay

creates space and economic problems as it results in bulky to mal-operate. Therefore, the saturation current needs to be

CTs. compensated in order to obtain minimu m ratio error.

As mention previously, the mal-operation of protection relay Besides that, compensation process is needed to provide

is caused by ratio error wh ich occurs due to the CT correct RMS current during saturation condition. The Auto

I J EN S

International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences IJECS-IJENS Vol:09 No:09 21

compensate the saturation current. (3)

Unfortunately, the saturation area needs to be determined T ABLE I

before compensation process can be performed. The third - T HE ANTI-ALIASING BUTTERWORTH FILTER SP ECIFICATIONS

difference function is emp loyed in determin ing the Selectivity Low-pass

saturation area. The third-difference function converts the Approximation Butterworth

inflection points sensed at the waveform of secondary

current into pulses. The first inflection point indicates the Implementation IIR (digital)

start of saturation condition where co mpensation algorith m Pass band gain (dB) -0.01

will begin. Then, the second inflect ion point sensed by the

Stop band gain (dB) -40.0

compensation algorithm will end the compensation process.

In other words, the point of inflection determines the Pass band freq (Hz) 50.0

saturation area and also starting and ending of co mpensation Stop band freq (Hz) 300.0

algorithm.

Sampling freq (Hz) 3200.0

In this proposed algorithm, the saturation detection area is

identified using equation (1), mean while the RMS current

during saturation is determined fro m equation (2). Equation D. DC Removal

(1) is obtained from third-difference function and equation When faults or disturbances occur, a dc-offset is generated

(2) is computed fro m the simp lified equation of A R model. in an electrical power system. The generated dc-offset will

The last three samples of current are used to compute the affect the accuracy of the DFT algorith m results [8].

value of third differential of samp le (del3[i]) and current Therefore, the DC removal algorith m is designed in o rder to

during saturation condition (I[i]). eliminate the dc-offset. The dc-offset component is assumed

to be in exponential form when a fault occurs.

del3[i]= I[i]-3I[i-1]+3I[i-2]-I[i-3] (1) In this algorith m, the dc-offset is removed by co mputing the

I[i]=2.9683117.I[i-1]-2.94647423.I[i-2]+0.97794999.I[i-3] value of sampled current after anti-aliasing filtering and dc-

(2) removal; I fdc. Value of I fdc is calculated using equation (4)

with an assumption of sampling interval (∆t) of 0.00031 and

C. Anti Aliasing Filter

time constant (τ) of 0.04653.

The anti-aliasing filter of a dig ital relay removes the I fdc[i] yk / an (4)

unwanted frequencies from a sampled waveform. Normally,

the anti-aliasing filter removes harmonics above ω 0 N/2 to Where;

prevent corruption of the desired phasor which is based on I f [i 1]

Nyquist frequency theorem [1, 7]. There are t wo issues that y k I f [i ] ( ), En 1 [1 / e ( t / ) ]. cos( 2n / N ),

need to be considered in selecting the anti-aliasing filter [1]. e ( t / )

The first issue is the frequency response of the filter, and the Fn [1 / e ( t / ) ]. sin(2n / N ), an ( En2 Fn2 ) ,

second issue is the time do main response of the filter. A

sharp frequency response of filter is desirable to completely n tan 1 ( Fn / En)

remove the unwanted harmonics. However, as the frequency

response of a filter beco mes sharper, the time domain 𝐼𝑓𝑑𝑐𝑖=𝑦𝑘𝑎Where, 𝑦𝑘=𝐼𝑓𝑖−𝐼𝑓𝑖−1𝑒E. Discrete

response becomes worse. Therefore a balance must be Fourier Transform (DFT)

achieved between the frequency and time do main response

In a distance relay system, the impedance value detected

of the filter.

will determine the distance relay operation. In this design,

In this proposed algorithm, a fifth order Butterworth filter is

the impedance value is computed fro m the magnitude of

designed as anti-aliasing filter using WFILTER-filter design

basic fundamental of current and voltage. The magnitude of

software. The o rder of the Butterworth filter is obtained

basic fundamental of current and voltage is extracted using

based on the distorted secondary current data. From the

DFT method.

data, the sixth harmonic is determined to be less than 5% of

The complete flow chart of the developed distance relay

the fundamental frequency, which results to 300 Hz of cut

algorith m is shown in Appendix 1. The constructed C++

off frequency. The system is assumed to be operated at 50

language of numerical distance relaying algorith m with

Hz. The other design specifications of Butterworth filter are

current compensation is based on the flow chart.

tabulated in Table I. Meanwh ile, the filtered current

produced by the Butterworth anti-aliasing filter is calculated

based on the last five samples of current as in equation (3).

III. CASE STUDY

In order to evaluate the performance of the developed

I f [i ] 0.000044529( I [i ] 5I [i 1] 10[i 2] 10 I [i 3] algorith m, t wo case studies have been setup. The case

studies are conducted during normal and saturation

5I [i 4] I [i 5]) 4.41821I f [i 1] 7.8385I f [i 2]

condition for all types of faults. Both of the case studies

6.9779 I f [i 3] 3.1159 I f [i 4] 0.5582 I f [[i 5] emp loyed ATP in generating the transients current and

𝐼𝑓𝑖=0.0000044529.𝐼𝑖+5𝐼𝑖−1+10𝑈𝑖−2+10𝑖−3+5𝐼𝑖−4+ voltage.

𝐼𝑖−5+4.4182𝐼𝑓𝑖−1− 7.8385𝐼𝑓𝑖−2+6.9779𝐼𝑓𝑖−3−3.115 Power system model in Fig. 1 is used to evaluate the

performance of developed algorithm during normal

I J EN S

International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences IJECS-IJENS Vol:09 No:09 22

simu lation is 3200 Hz or 64 samples per cycle in a 50 Hz

system with total length of 200 km. Besides that, the value

of positive and zero sequence of line impedance have been

fixed to Z0 = (30.34+j123.6) Ω and Z1 = (3.347+j56.15) Ω

respectively.

Fig. 2. Power system configurations for CT saturation simulation The voltage waveforms for the three phase faults before and

after the application of anti-aliasing low-pass filtering are

Fig. 2 is used in evaluating the proposed algo rithm shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. The occurrence of h igh harmonic

performance under saturation condition. The saturation components in the voltage waveform can be seen clearly in

condition is created by adding a synchronous generator to an

Fig. 5. But, after the filter is applied, the harmon ics

existing bus to replace a weak source. This is because high components have been filtered out as shown in Fig. 6.

magnitude of fau lt current with DC co mponents is produced Therefore, Fig. 6 reveals the filter effect in removing the

during high X/R rat io, which leads to CT saturation.

high frequency components. The phase delay can be seen

Therefore, a 15750 V synchronous ALESTOM generator from the two figures (Fig. 5 and Fig. 6).

connected to Y-Y step-up transformer has been selected as a

power source. The output voltage subjected to the secondary T ABLE II

MEASURING I MP EDANCE IN NORMAL CONDITION

part of the Y-Y transformer is 132000 V.

Fault Current Voltage Measured Real Z Error

T ype RMS(A) RMS(V) Z(Ω) (Ω) (%)

IV. SIM ULATION RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS

A-B- 61953.8 1056.22 58.6561 56.4040 3.9928

All results obtained for the designed distance relaying C-G

algorithm with current compensation are presented here.

A-G 914.933 66726.3 51.000 56.4040 9.5808

A. During Normal Condition A-B 1889.78 105021 55.5731 56.4040 1.4731

Fig. 3 shows the fault current during the occurrence of

three-phase fault on the system. Meanwhile, the current after

filtering and dc-removal is shown in Fig. 4. Co mparing both

figures (Fig. 3 and Fig. 4), it can be seen that the current has

been smoothen and balanced after the application of an anti-

aliasing filter and dc removal. Therefore, the designed

algorith ms have removed the high frequency and DC-offset

components occurred in the system successfully.

I J EN S

International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences IJECS-IJENS Vol:09 No:09 23

shown in Fig. 9 and Fig. 10 respectively. The waveform is

obtained by DFT algorithm which has extracted the basic

fundamental phasor of current and voltage after the

compensation process has been completed.

previous voltage and current. Meanwhile, Table II indicates

the measured impedance and the error for symmetrical and

unsymmetrical fau lts in normal condition. As it can be seen, Fig. 9. Current phasor for single phase fault in saturation condition

the maximu m error is 9.58%, which occurred during the

single phase faults.

Fig. 10. Voltage phasor for single phase fault in saturation condition

Fig. 7. Measuring impedance by algorithm for three phase fault values of compensated current and measured impedance are

displayed in Table III and Table IV. These tables display the

B. Saturation Condition results and verify the performance of Distance Relay

Fig. 8 depicts the results obtained after the implementation algorith m. Furthermo re, it shows the valid ity of the

of compensation algorithm with the signal which co mprises proposed algorithm in compensating the saturation current

of the dc-offset and power frequency component. The first for Distance Relay applicat ion. Based on both tables (Table

graph shows the scaled primary current (a) and the III and Table IV), it can be seen that the value of error is

measured secondary current (b). Meanwh ile, the second and very small (1.15% for co mpensated current and 1.1723% for

third graphs show the detection signal and the transient error measured impedance).

compensated secondary current and scaled primary current.

T ABLE III.

Based on the transient error graph, it can be stated that the T HE REAL AND MEASURED CURRENT RMS VALUES ONE AND HALF CYCLE

maximu m transient error is less than 0.2%. AFTER FAULT

Fault T ype Real Current Compensation Error

RMS Current RMS (%)

A-B-C-G 25.8916 25.5919 1.1575

T ABLE IV

T HE REAL AND MEASURED IMPEDANCE FOR THREE PHASE FAULT

ONE AND HALF CYCLE AFTER FAULT

Fault Type Real Z(Ω) Measured Z( Ω) Error (%)

A-B-C-G 39.0158 39.4727 1.1710

CONCLUSIONS

DIST ANCE RELAY OPERATION DEPENDS ON THE VALUE OF

Fig. 8. Compensated current and transient error FAULT CURRENT AND FAULT IMPEDANCE . THE SMALL VALUE

I J EN S

International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences IJECS-IJENS Vol:09 No:09 24

OF IMPEDANCE ERROR SHOWS THE HIGH SENSIT IVITY OF THE [20] H. khorashadi-Zade and H. Daneshi, Evaluation and Performance

PROPOSED NUMERICAL DIST ANCE RELAY ALGORITHM IN Comparisons of Digital Distance Protection Algorithms. IEEE.

2004: 2463-2468

FAULT DETECT ION. M EANWHILE , SMALL CURRENT ERROR [21] M. Khederzade, A. Safarnourollah, M. Mortajeee and M. E.

INDICATES THE ABILITY OF THE PROPOSED ALGORITHM IN Hamedanigolshan, Fundamentals of Power System Protection, Iran.

PREVENTING T HE MAL -OPERATION OF DISTANCE RELAY Power Ministry .2005

[22] Adly. A. Girgis and Christopher. M. Fallon. Fault Location

EVEN DURING SAT URATION CONDITION. THEREFORE , AS A Techniques For Radial And Loop Transmission Systems Using

CONCLUSION, A C++ NUMERIC DISTANCE RELAY Digital Fault Recorded Data. 1992.7(4):1936-1945

ALGORIT HM WHICH IS IMMUNED FROM CT SATURATION

CONDIT ION HAS BEEN SUCCESSFULLY DEVELOPED.

REFERENCES

[1] M.G.Adamaik, G.E.Alexander, Malvern, PA Dr.W.Premerlani and

Schenectady NY. Advancements in Adaptive Algorithms for Secure

High Speed Distance Protection T.S

[2] E. E. CONNER, E. C. WENTZ and D. W. ALLEN. Methods for

Estimating Transient Performance of Practical Current

Transformer for Relaying. IEEE PES Summer Meeting & Energy

Resources Conf. July 14-19, 1974. Anaheim, Cal:IEEE. 1974. 116-

122.

[3] Y. C. Kang, S. H. Kang, J. K. Park, A. T . Johns and R. K. Aggarwal.

Development and hardware implementation of a compensation

algorithm for the secondary current of current transformers .IEE.

1996. 143(1): 41-49.

[4] Sidhu, M.Hfuda and M. S. Sachdev. A Technique for Generating

Computer Models of Microprocessor–Based Relays. Conference on

Communication Power and Computing. May 22-23, 1997.

Winnipeg: IEEE .1997.191-196.

[5] Yong-Cheol Kang, Sang-Hee Kang and Peter Crossley. An

algorithm for detecting CT saturation using the secondary current

third-difference function. IEEE. Bogotá , Italy. IEEE:2003

[6] S. H. Kang, D. K. Lee S. H. Hyun and Y. C. Kang, A Compensation

Algorithm For The Distored Secondary Current Of A Current

T ransformer. IEE, 2004:140-143

[7] Chul-Hwan Kim. Myung-Hee Lee. Raj K. Aggarwal and Allan

.T .Johns. Educational Use of EMTP MODELS for the study of

Distance Relaying Algorithm for protecting Transmission Lines.

IEEE. 2000. 15(1): 9-15.

[8] T.S.Sidhu, X.Zhang, F.Albasri and M.S.Sachdev. Discrete-Fourier-

Transform Based Technique for Removal Of Decaying Dc Offset

From Phasor Estimates, IEEE Proc-Gener. Transm. Distrib, 2003.

150(6): 745-752

[9] Les Thede. PRACTICAL ANALOG AND DIGIT AL FILTER

DESIGN. Norwood,MA:Artech House, INC. 2005

[10] Gabriel Bermonouyal. Removal Of DC-Offset In Current Waveforms

Using Digital Mimic Filtering. IEEE Transactions on power

Delivery, 1995. 10(2): 621-630

[11] Li-Cheng Wu, Chih-Wen Liu and Ching-Shan Chen. Modeling and

Testing of a Digital Distance Relay Using

MAT LAB/SIMULINK.IEEE.2005:253-259

[12] T Rasheek M. Rifaat. Considerations in Applying EMTP to Evaluate

Current Transformer Performance under Transient and High

Current Fault Conditions. International Conference on Power

systems Transients. June 19-23, 2005. Montreal, Canada: IEEE.

2005. 206.

[13] Hector J Altuve,Ismael Diaz and Jose A .de la O. A New Digital

Filter for Phasor Computation .IEEE .1998. 13(3): 1032-1037

[14] R. K. Aggarwal, D. v Coury, A.T. Johns and A.Kalam. A Practical

Approach to Accurate Fault Location on Extra High Voltage T eed

Feeders. IEEE. 1993. 8(3): 874-883

[15] H. khorashadi-Zade and H. Daneshi, Evaluation and Performance

Comparisons of Digital Distance Protection Algorithms. IEEE.

2004: 2463-2468

[16] M. Khederzade, A. Safarnourollah, M. Mortajeee and M. E.

Hamedanigolshan, Fundamentals of Power System Protection, Iran.

Power Ministry .2005

[17] Adly. A. Girgis and Christopher. M. Fallon. Fault Location

Techniques For Radial And Loop Transmission Systems Using

Digital Fault Recorded Data. 1992.7(4):1936-1945

[18] M. KEZUNOVIC, M. Lj. KoJoVIC, A. ABUR, C. W. Fromen and

F.Pillips. Experimental Evaluation Of EMTP-Based Current

[19] R. K. Aggarwal, D. v Coury, A.T. Johns and A.Kalam. A Practical

Approach to Accurate Fault Location on Extra High Voltage T eed

Feeders. IEEE. 1993. 8(3): 874-883

I J EN S

International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences IJECS-IJENS Vol:09 No:09 25

Current

detection level>TH Inflection

compensation

point

DC Removal

End of

saturatio

Enter new sample and remove the old one n

𝑉𝑛=𝑉𝑛+1

𝐼𝑛=𝐼(𝑛+1)

YES YES

voltage and current

𝑉1𝑠=1𝑛Σ𝑤𝑛𝑠 𝑉1𝑐=1𝑛Σ𝑤𝑛𝑐

𝐼1𝑠=1𝑛Σ𝑤𝑛𝑠 YES 𝐼1𝑐=1𝑛Σ𝑤𝑛𝑐

NO

𝑉<𝜙𝑣=𝑉1𝑠2+𝑉1𝑐2∠𝛼 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑉1𝑠𝑉1𝑐

𝐼<𝜙𝐼=𝐼1𝑠2+𝐼1𝑐2∠𝛼 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝐼1𝑠𝐼1𝑐

nded

𝑍=𝑉𝐼 ; ∅=∅𝑉−∅𝐼

𝑋= 𝑍𝑠𝑖𝑛∅ ; 𝑅=𝑍𝑐𝑜𝑠∅

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