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is) Meet the people who PUA a odern 5 London, New York, ‘Melbourne, Munich, and Dethi Senior editor Jerry Sich art editor Stefan Podborodeck! Project editor givin Kiueana Designer fea Luc Editors Matida Golion, Janes Nitchem, Jesscry Wood ‘Additional designers Angels Ball, Dave Ec ‘Managing editor Linda Esposito ‘Managing art editor Dione Peyton Jones Category publisher Laure Buller Pablishing director Jonathan Netealt Associate publishing director Liz Wheeler Art director Phil Ormerod Jacket editor Manisha Mayithia Jacket designer Yuriko Tabata Design development manager Sophia [M\ Tanpakopoules Turret ture researcher Rcb Nunn DK picture librarian Romaine Werblow Production editor John Gokismid Senior production controller Angela Gract First published in Great Britain in 2012 by Dorling Kindersley Limited, 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley Limited A Penguin Company 24681097531 001-182782 — Feb/12 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced. stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or hy any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying. recording, or otherwise, jout the prior written permission of the copyright owner. A CIP catalogue for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN: 978-1-40539-145.0 Hi-res workflow proofed by MDP, UK Printed and bound by Hung Hing, Hong Kong, China Discover more at wwwdkcom 8 9 12 14 16 18 20 2 24 25 26 2B 2 6 Daring Discoverers Marco Polo Ibn Battuta 10 Christopher Columbus Galileo Galilei Isaac Newton Dmitri Mendeleev Charles Darwin Medical marvels Edward Jenner Louis Pasteur Joseph Lister Wilhelm Roentgen Alexander Fleming Albert Einstein Marie Curie Emest Rutherford Watson and Crick Mary Anning Mary Leakey 32 33 34 36 37 38 Al 42 54 55 30. Inspirational Inventors Cai Lun Johann Gutenberg James Watt Alessandro Volta Michael Faraday Everyday inventions Charies Goodyear Levi Strauss George Easiman Wallace Carothers Alexander Graham Bell ‘Thomas Edison Alfred Nobel Food made easy Peter Durand Clarence Birdseye Percy Spencer Ray Kroc Guglielmo Marconi John Logie Baird The Wright brothers Henry Ford Steve Jobs & Steve Wozniak Tim Berners-Lee Mark Zuckerberg 56 Thoughtful 58 60 62 3 64 65 66 3B 70 72 74 75 76 Thinkers Confucius Aristotle Karl Marx Sigmund Freud Mary Seacole Mother Teresa Joan of Arc Martin Luther King Religious leaders Gautama Buddha Jesus Muhammad ‘Guru Nanak Emmeline Pankhurst Eleanor Roosevelt ‘Aung San Suu Kyi Jane Goodall 78 80 82 84 86 838 94 9% 8 100 102 103 104 Leading Leaders Alexander the Great Augustus Caesar Charlemagne Cool queens Hatshepsut Cleopatra Maria Teresa Catherine the Great Queen Victoria Genghis Khan Saladin Martin Luther Up the revolution Maximilien Robesplerre Simén Bolivar Viadimir Lenin Mao Tse-Tung Fidel Castro Napoleon Bonaparte George Washington Mahatma Gandhi Deng Xiaoping Mikhail Gorbachev Nelson Mandela — 124 Let's applaud... $06) clued These people who made Creatives British history 108. Writers on the block Wiliam Shakespeare Voltaire ‘Aleksanar Pushkin 128 Acknowledgements Ly Xun Virginia Woolf 126 Glossary 127, Index 110 Thomas Cook 112 Walt Disney 114 Gallery of artists Leonardo da Vinci Auguste Rodin Vincent van Gogh Pablo Picasso Frida Kahlo Site “Ts 116 Coco Chanel 117 David Ogi 118 Ole Kirk Kristiansen 120. Musicians Johann Sebastian Bach Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Peter llyich Tchaikovsky All Akbar khan Toru Takematisu & 122. Elvis Presley ‘There are adventurous discoverers who boldy go where no one has gone before, sailing the high seas and finding new lands. Then there are the more stay-at-home types, who toil away in labs and the like and ~ eureka ~ discover something that will save millions of lives. Behind every great discovery is a remarkable person, whose courage and determination — and sometimes plain luck — made Pe the world the place it is today. fo China to trade jewels and met the Mongol ruler. — Marco Polo The man whose journey of a lifetime brought the TAR EAST to Europe Sse = Marco sets off When Marco was 17, he accompanied his father and uncle when they returned to China (see purple line on map). They spent 17 years in the court of the Mongol ruler of China, Kublai Khan. Ue really liked Marco, first making him a diplomat and then the GOVERNOR of the city of Yangzhou. All about me ‘BORN: 1254 ‘DIED: 1324 = NATIONALITY: Italian 1 FACTOID: | travelled more than 4,000 km (14,900 miles). IN A NUTSHELL: My father and uncle travelled Return to Venice Niarco brought Khan liked Marco so much that, even the pte though the Polos asked to return home, prepenen he refused to let them leave, Luckily, . in 1292, the Polos were sent to escort a He dice intros Mongol princess to Persia (modern-day Europe to the power . They seized the opportunity, aVanrone? ESCAPED, and returned home after : 24 years (see pink line on map). Marco wrote a book about his adventures The Travels of Mareo Polo. Galileo was an astronomer, physicist, mathematician, and inventor. He is considered to be one of the most famous scientists of all time. From medicine to maths Galileo Galilei was born in 1564 near Pisa, Ttaly. He studied medicine at the University of Pisa, but changed his mind and switched to mathematics, and, in 1589, he became ‘a professor of mathematics, In 1609, Galileo heard about something called a TELESCOPE that had been invented in Holland. | spy with my little eye Amazingly though Galileo had never seen a telescope, he BUILT HIS OWN VERSION that was much better than the original. Using his new telescope, he discovered mountains and valleys on the surface of the Moon, sunspots, ind the moons of Jupiter. His discoveries made him a celebrity. Galivo erisitly sold Wis te For towns to spot approaching enemy Shs escape dG a way Provemy (905168 ee) created ASTRONOMICAL rans chat allowed tpeople to Galeulate the Tocation of the planets, 1 Arcumenés 13 peop x ft suggest that the Basta eS oes SUN RG Order out of chaos Mendeleev believed there must be some kind of order to the elements. Previously, chemists had grouped the elements either by their atomic weight or by how they behaved (what they reacted with), Mendeleev turned it into a game of cards that he called “chemical solitaire”. th element's name and atomic weight on a card and tried them. Eventually, he had a table that listed the elements by their atomic weight and grouped them into nine families, such as metals, non-metals, and noble gases. the periodic table he created in 1869 revealed that there was a PATTERN to the way the elements behaved. NMereleeey lett gaps for elements ‘hal vete STILL UNKNOWN. By looking at the patterns of is table, fre predicted the appearance dnd Vetawicur of the missing cloner He was nt every tine. A science revolution The periodic table of elements) completely revolutionized our understanding of the properties of atoms and led to the discovery of many elements new to science, It also paved the way fora This wetal was digecwered In 1985 ard was naed Nendele um in honour of Mendelees: new branch of science called quantum mechanics The Tustian chensist StANStAO chemical elements was put Canwizzaso (1826-1910) devised /ogetber by the French chemist a way to measure ihe atomic Anromne Lavoisier (1743-1794). J weights of the elements Albert Me L Loree Eee rahe re O ROR R oy eeu toes crated scientist. His theories changed forever POE meio eta te enters eT Waleed Nees u Re ettiee Recon rm Cares Maja, was born in 1879 in Ulm, Germany. Niresee OOM ne ce eee ce office in Switzerland, checking applications for electrical devices. In his spare time, he developed radical theories about LIGHT AND TIME. In 1905, he published five scientific papers that would change the world. et Einstein ec iciaed baaanrpe ea et) Heer eA Rn paid Br rT iden PN ie anata Er cemuScccn anes er ceed eee Om ca a ANS ‘The first NUCLEAR BOMB Wer Ein Time warp In his theory of SPECIAL RELATIVITY, Einstein showed the Universe is a prett weird place. He suggested that space and time are linked and that they are flexible and can change, depending on who is looking at them, He explained that the faster you travel, the slower time passes for you, and that light has a speed limit of 300,000 km second. (186,000 miles) p developed a theory wasters. These are used to read CDs, DVDs, and BARCODES, Credit where credit’s due At the same time as Watson and Crick, two scientists at King’s College, London, ROSALIND FRANKLIN and “4 Maurice Wilkins, were also studying DNA - using X-rays. Wilkins showed Watson a copy of Franklin’s work without her permission. They used Franklin’s findings in their research, but didn’t give her the credit she deserved. Watson, Crick, and Wilkins all shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1962, but Franklin received no acknowledgement for her contribution, DNA can copy itself by wiprina ‘the helo and the nucleotides attract new partners, builng two idented helices. Cracking the code of life Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the set of chemical instructions that lives in the cells of every creature on Earth. DNA tells a cell how to behave and grow Watson and Crick discovered that DNA has two strands that are twisted together like a spiral ladder, called the DOUBLE HELIX. Between the strands are special molecules called nucleotides (which had been discovered already), There are four different nucleotides (Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine), and the order they are in determines the DNA‘s instructions. ¢ The police can wenn A.CRIMINAL fr0™ the DNA be or she leaves bebind, his is called FORENSIC Ok GENETIC) ANGERPRINTING, Sefevmists can CLONE an animal by making acopy 4 y marine Dou THe sHEEr, ‘i All about me BORN: SO 1m DIED: 121 = NATIONALITY: Chinese 1 FACTOID: | was an official in the court of Emperor He of Han. IN A NUTSHELL: Bom in Guiyang (modem-day Leiyang), China, | was made an official in charge of manufacturing instruments and weapons. Cailun The man who mashed up tree bark, created PAPER, and changed the world of writing = \ A little heavy reading Before the invention of paper, reading was a heavyweight pastime. Civilizations, such as the Mesopotamians, wrote on heavy clay tablets. In China, books were made of bamboo, which wasn't very flexible, or from very expensive silk, In the West, at that time, people wae were still making notes on wax cme | tablets and using papyrus or vay tod ANIMAL SKINS to write on. xt sno Paper didn» til the *7 er didn’t get to Europe Ul A barking idea BR In 105, Cai invented paper. He took the soft ge inner bark of a mulberry tree, added bamboo ¥ fibres, and mixed in some water. He GAVE THE MIXTURE A GOOD POUNDING, poured it out Paper was made er some woven cloth, and let the water drain in huge ae When it was dry, only the fibres were left 4 MNS! behind... and Cai had a sheet of paper! The invention of paper allowed ideas and knowledge to be spread much faster. a Michael S nANOMAUTY Engh Faraday FACTOID: My face has been on the £20 note. The mah who invented the electric IN A NUTSHELL: I was MOTOR and the electric generator a bom near London, England, My father was a blacksmith, ‘and | had very litle formal education. A notion of motion In 1821, Faraday showed that when you flow electricity through a coil of wire, it creates a magnetic field. He realized that this electromagnetic energy could be used to produce motion, and invented the ELECTRIC MOTOR, which is still used in countless ways today. ate when acore 4 oh foes decree Foray design the ‘est trane fermen Allin a spin Faraday continued to experiment with magnetism, and, in 1831, he realized that if he reversed his process he could produce an electrical current. By spinning a copper disc between the poles of a magnet, he could generate a steady flow of electricity through a ‘araday had invented the first ee ore haw used fo DYNAMO (pictured above), which would hen Bich voltages into ban on eventually become the electric generator. Cr se a pes, In life Nobel invented new ways to blow things up, but in death his name promotes “peace and learning. F “ Young chemist Alfred Nobel was born in 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden. His father was an engineer and inventor. In 1842, his family moved to Russia where his father started an engineering firm that built equipment for the army of the Tsar (Russia's king). When he was 17, Nobel was sent abroad to study FF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING. Fy Making a bang Nobel was fascinated by EXPLOSIVES and wanted to make them safer ~ in particular nitroglycerine, which was very unstable and dangerous (it could explode if you dropped it). He mixed it with a type of silica, which made it much more stable and safer to work with. Nobel called the new explosive “dynamite” and it made him very rich. RaGNar SOHUMAN ( spent five years turning Nobel's WAS 4 PEACE CAMPAIGNER 10 slightly vague will into the influenced Nobel 1o include Nobel Prize we know today’ 4 PRILE FOR PEACE {nt bis will 70-1948) Bestia von Surinek (784637914)