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Gas-Vapor Mixtures and Air- Conditioning Content: Dry and Atmospheric Air Dew-point Temperature Properties in the

Gas-Vapor Mixtures and Air- Conditioning

Content:

Dry and Atmospheric Air Dew-point Temperature Properties in the Psychrometric Chart Air Conditioning Processes

DDrryy aanndd AAttmmoosspphheerriicc AAiirr

DDrryy aaiirr is a mixture of N 2 , O 2 , and small amount of other gases. Normally, aattmmoosspphheerriicc aaiirr contain moisture (or water vapor).

Atmospheric air = dry air + water vapor

In air-conditioning applications ranges from about – 10 to about 50 o C, tthhee aattmmoosspphheerriicc aaiirr ccaann bbee ttrreeaatteedd aass aann iiddeeaall ggaass with constant specific heats. Taking 0 o C as the reference temperature then

hh ddrryy aaiirr == CC pp ((TT--TT rreeff ))

== CC pp TT

((1144 11aa))

f f ) ) = = C C p p T T ( ( 1 1

hh ddrryy aaiirr == CC pp ((TT 22 TT 11 )) == CC pp

a i i r r = = C C p p ( ( T T 2

TT

((1144 11bb))

T T o o t t a a l l A A t t m

TToottaall AAttmmoosspphheerriicc AAiirrPPrreessssuurree

When the mixture temperature is below 50 o C, the wwaatteerr vvaappoorr iiss aann iiddeeaall ggaass with negligible error (<0.2%). Then, the aattmmoosspphheerriicc aaiirr (Dry air + Water Vapor) can be treated as iiddeeaall ggaass mmiixxttuurree

The total atmospheric air pressure (PP) is sum of partial pressure of dry air (PP aa ) and that of water pressure (PP vv ):

PP == PP aa ++ PP vv

(14.2)

EEnntthhaallppyy ooff WWaatteerrVVaappoorr

For Air conditioning temperature (-10 o C to 50 o C), the eenntthhaallppyy ooff wwaatteerr vvaappoorr in air can be taken to be equal to the eenntthhaallppyy ooff ssaattuurraatteedd vvaappoorr aatt tthhee ssaammee tteemmppeerraattuurree.

hh vv ((TT,, llooww PP)) ~~ hh gg ((TT))

and can be expressed as

hh gg ((TT)) == hh gg ((TT==00 oo CC)) ++ CCpp((TT 22 TT 00 ))

hh gg ((TT)) == 22,,550000

((1144 33))

99

++ 11

8822((TT))

((1144

44))

h g g ( ( T T ) ) = = 2 2 , , 5
S S p p e e c c i i f f i i c

SSppeecciiffiicc HHuummiiddiittyy (( ))

Absolute humidity or ssppeecciiffiicc hhuummiiddiittyy (sometimes called hhuummiiddiittyy rraattiioo,, ) is the ratio of mass of water vapor to mass of dry air.

specific humidity;

m

m

v

PV/R T

v

v

m

P

a

v

/R

v

m

a

PV/R T

a

a

P

a

/R

a

0.622 P

(

P

P

v

)

P

P

a

v

(kg water vapor/kg dry air)

(14.6)

0.622

v

(14.7)

v

(14.8)

RReellaattiivvee HHuummiiddiittyy ( ) Relative humidity ( ) is the ratio of mass of water
RReellaattiivvee HHuummiiddiittyy (
)
Relative humidity ( ) is the ratio of mass of water
vapor at the specified condition to mmaassss ooff wwaatteerr
vvaappoorr iiff ssaattuurraatteedd ccoonnddiittiioonn at
temperature.
the same
m
P
v
v
(14.9)
m
P V/R T
P
g
g
v
g
where
P
P
(14.10)
g
sat
@ T
P
Then;
(14.11a)
0.622 P
g
and
(14.11b)

PV/R T

v

v

PV/R T v v

(0.622

) P

g

P

P

g

P P g
T T o o t t a a l l E E n n t

TToottaall EEnntthhaallppyy ooff AAiirr((WWaatteerrVVaappoorr MMiixxttuurree))

since

H

h v

H

H

a

H

m

a

h then

g

;

v

m h m h a a v v m v h h h v a
m h
m h
a
a
v
v
m
v
h
h
h
v
a
v
m
a
h
h
h
(kJ/kg dry air)
(14.12)
a
g

Note :Temperature of atmospheric air is called

Dry - Bulb Temperature

For an amount of moist air, the mass of dry air is not change but water vapor may condense causing mass of vapor change. Then

enthalpy of moist air is expressed ppeerr uunniitt mmaassss ooff ddrryy aaiirr

instead of per unit mass of air-water vapor mixture.

h

h

a

Example 14.1 A 5-m x 5-m x 3-m room contains air at 25 o C

Example 14.1 A 5-m x 5-m x 3-m room contains air at 25 o C and 100 kPa at a relative humidity of 75 percent. Determine (a) the partial pressure of dry air, (b) the specific humidity (c) the enthalpy per unit mass of dry air, and (d) the masses of dry air and water vapor in the room.

Solution

humidity (c) the enthalpy per unit mass of dry air, and (d) the masses of dry

(a)

 

 

P

v

and

 

P

g

P

sat

@

T

 

P

g

 

P

P

P

 

97.62

 

kPa

answer

(b)

 

a

v

0.622

P

v

 

 
 

(

P

 

P

v

)

 

0.0152

 

kg water/kg

dry air

 

answer

(c)

 

h

h

a

h

g

(kJ/kg

dry air)

 
 

h

C

p, air

T

h

g

63 .8

kJ/kg

dry air

answer

(

d

)

m

P a V

 

85.61

kg

answer

 

a

R

a

T

   
 

m

P

v

V

 

1.30

 

kg

answer

 

v

R

v

T

 

or

 

m

v

m

a

DDeeww PPooiinntt TTeemmppeerraattuurree

Dew-point temperature (T dp ) is the tteemmppeerraattuurree aatt wwhhiicchh ccoonnddeennssaattiioonn bbeeggiinnss wwhheenn tthhee aaiirr iiss ccoooolleedd aatt ccoonnssttaanntt pprreessssuurree or T dp is the saturation temperature of water corresponding to the vapor pressure.

T dp = T sat@Pv

(14.13)

p is the saturation temperature of water corresponding to the vapor pressure. T d p =
Example 14.2 In clod weather, condensation frequently occurs on the inner surfaces of the windows

Example 14.2 In clod weather, condensation frequently occurs on the inner surfaces of the windows due to the lower air temperatures near the window surface. consider a house shown, that contains air at 20 o C and 75 percent relative humidity. At what window temperature will the moisture in the air start condensation on the inner surfaces of the windows?

Solution

condensation on the inner surfaces of the windows? Solution T dp = T sat@Pv P v

T dp = T sat@Pv

P v =

T dp = 15.4 o C

on the inner surfaces of the windows? Solution T dp = T sat@Pv P v =

P g@20C

on the inner surfaces of the windows? Solution T dp = T sat@Pv P v =
A A d d i i a a b b a a t t i

AAddiiaabbaattiicc SSaattuurraattiioonn TTeemmppeerraattuurree

Relative humidity, Specific humidity,

andr a a t t u u r r e e Relative humidity, Specific humidity, (

a t t u u r r e e Relative humidity, Specific humidity, and ( =

(
(

= P v /P g ,

humidity, Specific humidity, and ( = P v /P g , = m v /m a

= m v /m a = 0.622 P v /P a )

dew point temp. P v

(T dp = T sat@Pv )

v /P g , = m v /m a = 0.622 P v /P a )

v /P g , = m v /m a = 0.622 P v /P a )
v /P g , = m v /m a = 0.622 P v /P a )

v /P g , = m v /m a = 0.622 P v /P a )

T, P

Consider an Adiabatic Saturation Process MassBalance : m m m (dry air) a 1 a
Consider an Adiabatic Saturation Process
MassBalance : m
m
m
(dry air)
a
1
a
2
a
and :
m
m
m
(Water & Vapor)
w
1
f
w
2
or :
m
m
m
a
1
f
a
2
thus :
m
m
(
-
)
f
a
2
1
Energy Balance:SSSF Q
0, W
0
m
h
m
h
m
h
a
1
f
f
a
2
devided by
m
:
h
(
-
)
h
h
a
1
2
1
f
2
(C
T
h
)
(
-
)
h
(C
T
h
)
p
1
1
g
1
2
1
f
2
p
2
2
g
2
C
(
T
T
)
h
p
2
1
2
fg
2
which yield,
(14.14)
1
h
h
g
1
f
2
from (14.11b) for state 2, where
1.0 ,
0.622 P
g2
SSoo,, jjuusstt mmeeaassuurree TT 11 ,, TT 22
(14.15)
2
P
P
aanndd PP ttoottaall ,, wwee ccaann ggeett
g 2
11
W W e e t t - - B B u u l l b

WWeett--BBuullbb TTeemmppeerraattuurree (experiment)

To make exit stream saturated, it need a very long channel or spray mechanism. At normal atmospheric WWeett--BBuullbb TTeemmppeerraattuurree and AAddiiaabbaattiicc SSaattuurraattiioonn TTeemmppeerraattuurree of air and water vapor mixture are approximately equal.

a a t t i i o o n n T T e e m m
 

Example 14.3

The Specific and Relative Humidity of Air

 

The dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures of atmospheric air at 1 atm (101.325 kPa) pressure are measured with a sling psychrometer and determined to be 25 and 15 o C, respectively. Determine (a) the specific humidity, (b) the relative humidity, and (c) the enthalpy of the air.

Solution

 

T db =T 1 ; T wb =T 2 ; P atm = P 2

 
 

C

 

(

T

2

T

)

2

h

 

P

 

(a)

p

 

1

g

2

0.00653kg water/kg dry air

g1 =P sat@Tdb

1

 
 

h

g

1

h

f

2

 

P

g2 =P sat@Twb

(b) eqn.(14.11a) :

P

1

2

 

0.332 or 33.2%

h

g1 =h g@Tdb

1

(0.622

1

) P

 

h

g2 =h g@Twb

 

g

1

 

(c)

 

h

1

h

a

1

1

h

v

C

p

T

1

1

h

g

1

41.8 kJ/kg dry air

PPrrooppeerrttiieess iinn tthhee PPssyycchhrroommeettrriicc CChhaarrtt
PPrrooppeerrttiieess iinn tthhee PPssyycchhrroommeettrriicc CChhaarrtt

1. What is a dry bulb temperature?

It is measured with an ordinary thermometer. It is independent of moisture. It is located on the “X” axis of a psychometric chart.

of moisture. It is located on the “X” axis of a psychometric chart. 0 o C

0 o C

dry bulb temperature

50 o C

2. What is absolute humidity (humidity ratio)? It is the ratio of the weight of

2. What is absolute humidity (humidity ratio)?

It is the ratio of the weight of moisture contained in 1 kg of dry air. It is the kg water / kg of dry air. It is located on the “Y” axis of the chart. It is also called Humidity Ratio or Specific Humidity

.003 .002 .001 .000
.003
.002
.001
.000

3. What is the saturation curve?

It includes the wet bulb and dew point temperatures. It completes the psychrometric chart outline.

Saturation Curve “Y” Axis “X” Axis
Saturation Curve
“Y”
Axis
“X” Axis

4. What is the wet bulb temperature?

The temperature at which an equilibrium exists between an air-vapor mixture and water. It is dependent on moisture in the air. Values are on the saturation curve. The lines slope downward to the “X” axis.

35 0 30 0 “ Y” 25 0 Axis 10 0 5 0 “ X”
35 0
30 0
“ Y”
25 0
Axis
10 0
5 0
“ X” Axis

5. What is dew point?

It is the temperature at which condensation occurs as heat is removed from an air-vapor mixture. The answer is read on the saturation curve horizontally to the left of the point where the dry bulb andwet bulb meet.

80 65 50
80
65
50
H H o o w w t t o o F F i i n

HHooww ttoo FFiinndd DDeeww PPooiinntt TTeemmpp ??

H H o o w w t t o o F F i i n n

6. What is relative humidity?

It is the ratio of actual pressure of water vapor in the air to the
It is the ratio of actual pressure of water
vapor in the air to the pressure if the air were
saturated and with a constant temperature.
60%
30%
100%
20%

7. What are enthalpy lines?

Enthalpy is a thermal (heat) property. It is the heat in an air vapor mixture. Lines are parallel to the wet bulb temp. lines. Values are in kJ per kg dry air.

kJ per kg dry air 40 60 50
kJ per kg
dry air 40
60
50

8. What is specific volume?

The volume occupied by 1 kg of dry air. It represents the m 3 / kg of dry air. The values are read below the dry bulb readings.

0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92
0.80
0.84
0.88
0.92

Specific Volume = m3 / kg of dry air

P P s s y y c c h h r r o o m

PPssyycchhrroommeettrriicc CChhaarrtt

The psychrometric chart has seven lines.

P P s s y y c c h h r r o o m m

Example 14.4

The Use of t he Psychromet ric Chart

Consider a room t hat cont ains air at

35 o C, and 40% relat ive humidit y. Using t he psychromet ric chart , det ermine (a) t he specif ic humidit y, (b) t he ent halpy (c) of wet -bulb t emperat ure, (d) t he dew-point t emperat ure, and (e) t he specif ic volume of t he air

1 at m (101.325 kPa)

Solut ion

= 0.0142 kg water/kg.da. h = 71.5 kJ/kg.da. T w b = 24 o C

= 0.0142 kg water/kg.da.

h = 71.5 kJ/kg.da. T wb = 24 o C T dp = 19.4 o C

v = 0.893 m 3 /kg.da.

0.0142 kg water/kg.da. h = 71.5 kJ/kg.da. T w b = 24 o C T d

HHuummaann CCoommffoorrtt

Human wants:

Not hot, not cold, not humid, not dry just COMFORTABLE Air-conditioning. Typical comfort conditions:

2222 –– 2277 oo CC aanndd 4400 –– 6600 %%RRHH AAiirr mmoottiioonn also effect human feeling (body heat loss).

A A i i r r - - C C o o n n d

AAiirr--CCoonnddiittiioonniinngg PPrroocceesssseess

Maintaining space desired temperature and humidity requires aaiirr--ccoonnddiittiioonniinngg pprroocceesssseessincluding simple heating, cooling, humidifying and dehumidifying.

i n n g g p p r r o o c c e e s
A A i i r r - - C C o o n n d

AAiirr--CCoonnddiittiioonniinngg PPrroocceesssseess

TThhee pprroocceesssseess aarree nnoorrmmaallllyy ccoonnssiiddeerreedd aass SSSSSSFF pprroocceessss;; ** mmaassss ooff ddrryy aaiirr rreemmaaiinnss tthhee ssaammee ** wwaatteerr vvaappoorr aaddddeedd//rreemmoovveedd ** 11 sstt llaaww ttrreeaatt ddrryy aaiirr aanndd wwaatteerr vvaappoorr sseeppaarraatteellyy

MassBalanc e for dry air : a m m (14 -16) a in out 1-in
MassBalanc e for dry air :
a
m
m
(14 -16)
a
in
out
1-in and 1- out
m
m
m
a
1
a
2
a
MassBalanc e for water :
w
m
w
m
(14 -17)
in
out
1-in and 1- out
m
m
m
w
1
f
w
2
or :
m
m
m
a
1
f
a
2
thus :
m
m
(
-
)
f
a
2
1
A A i i r r - - C C o o n n d

AAiirr--CCoonnddiittiioonniinngg PPrroocceesssseess

Energy Balance :SSSF Q mh W mh (14 18) cv cv in out if, W
Energy Balance :SSSF
Q
mh
W
mh
(14
18)
cv
cv
in
out
if, W
0 :
Q
m h
m
h
m h
cv
a
1
f
f
a
2

SSiimmppllee HHeeaattiinngg aanndd ccoooolliinngg ((

== ccoonnsstt ))SSiimmppllee HHeeaattiinngg aanndd ccoooolliinngg ((

HHeeaattiinngg aanndd ccoooolliinngg (( == ccoonnsstt )) air mass balance : m m m a 1
air mass balance : m m m a 1 a 2 a Water mass balance
air mass balance :
m
m
m
a
1
a
2
a
Water mass balance :
m
m
m
w
1
f
w
2
or :
m
m
m
a
1
f
a
2
but
m
0
m
(
-
)
f
a
2
1
1
2
Energy Balance :SSSF
Q
m
(
h
h
)
cv
a
2
1
1 2 Energy Balance :SSSF Q m ( h h ) cv a 2 1 W

WWHHYY

cc h h a a n n g g e e a a n n chhaannggee aanndd HHOOWW

HHeeaattiinngg wwiitthh HHuummiiddiiffiiccaattiioonn (( == iinnccrreeaasseess)) air mass balance: Control Volume
HHeeaattiinngg wwiitthh HHuummiiddiiffiiccaattiioonn ((
== iinnccrreeaasseess))
air mass balance:
Control Volume Heating Section
m
m
m
a
1
a
2
a
Water mass balance:
m
m
then
w
1
w
2
1
2
Energy Balance:SSSF
Q
m
(
h
h
)
cv
a
2
1
air mass balance :
Control Volume Humidifyin g Section
m
m
m
a
1
a
2
a
Water mass balance :
m
m
m
w
1
w
2
w
3
then
m
m
(
)
w
2
a
3
2
Energy Balance :SSSF
Q
m
(
h
h
)
0
cv
a
3
2

Example 14.5

Heating and Humidification of Air

An air-conditioning is to take in outdoor air at 10 o C, and 30% relative humidity at a steady rate of 45 m 3 /min and to condition it to 22 o C, and 60% relative humidity. The outdoor air is first heated to 22 o C in the heating section and then humidified by the injection of hot steam in the humidifying section. Assuming the entire process takes place at a pressure of 100 kPa, determine (a) the rate of heat supply in the heating section, and (b) the mass flow rate of the steam required in the humidifying section.

Solution (a) = 673 kJ/min; (b) = 0.539 kg/min
Solution
(a) = 673 kJ/min; (b)
= 0.539 kg/min

Example 14.6

Cooling and Dehumidif icat ion of Air

Air ent ers a window t ype air condit ioner at 1 at m, 30 o C, and 80% relat ive humidit y at a rat e of 10 m 3 / min and leaves as sat urat ed air at 14 o C det ermine t he rat e of heat and

moist ure removal f rom t he air.

(a) = 511 kJ/min; (b)

= 0.131kg/min

Solut ion

o C det ermine t he rat e of heat and moist ure removal f rom

EEvvaappoorraattiivvee CCoooolliinngg

EEvvaappoorraattiivvee CCoooolliinngg • – – • • • Evaporat ive cooling process: As wat er evaporat
EEvvaappoorraattiivvee CCoooolliinngg • – – • • • Evaporat ive cooling process: As wat er evaporat

• Evaporat ive cooling process: As

wat er evaporat es, t he lat en heat of vaporisat ion is absorbed f rom t he

wat er body and t he surrounding air. As a result , bot h of t hem are cooled.

• Evaporat ive cooling process ~

Adiabat ic sat urat ion process:

TT wwbb ~~ ccoonnsstt,,

aanndd hh ~~ ccoonnsstt

Example 14.7

Evaporat ive cooling

Air ent ers an evaporat ive cooler at 1 at m, 35 o C, and 20% relat ive humidit y and it exit s at 80% relat ive humidit y det ermine (a) t he exit t emperat ure of air, and (b) t he lowest t emperat ure t o which t he air can becooled by t his evaporat ive cooler.

Solut ion

(a)

21.3 o C (b)

18.9 o C

emperat ure t o which t he air can becooled by t his evaporat ive cooler.
emperat ure t o which t he air can becooled by t his evaporat ive cooler.

AAddiiaabbaattiicc MMiixxiinngg ooff AAiirrssttrreeaammss

•Many air-conditioning applications require the mixing of two airstream. •ie. Fresh air + Return air.
•Many air-conditioning applications require
the mixing of two airstream.
•ie. Fresh air + Return air.
•Normally Q very small, no work, and
KE
and
PE =0
air mass balance :
m
m
m
(14.21)
a
1
a
2
a
3
Water mass balance :
m
m
m
(14.22)
1
a
1
2
a
2
3
a
3
Energy Balance :SSSF
m
h
m
h
m
h
(14.23)
a
1
1
a
2
2
a
3
3
Elminating
m
:
a 3
m
-
h
- h
a 1
2
3
2
3
(14.24)
m
-
h
- h
a 2
3
1
3
1

Example 14.8

Mixing of Conditioned Air with Outdoor Air

Satureated air leaving the cooling section of an air conditioning system at 14 o C with a rate of 50 m 3 /min is mixed adiabatically with the outside air at 32 o C, and 60% relative humidity at a rate of 20 m 3 /min. Assuming that the mixing occure at 1 atm, determine, the specific humidity, the relative humidity, the dry-bulb temperature, and the volume flow rate of the mixture.

Solution
Solution

= 0.0122 kg/kg da,= 89%; T b d 3 = 19.0 o C ; V 3 = 70.1

= 89%; T b d 3 = 19.0 o C ; V 3 = 70.1 m 3 /min bd3 = 19.0 o C ; V 3 = 70.1 m 3 /min

W W e e t t C C o o o o l l i

WWeett CCoooolliinngg TToowweerr

•Power plant, large A-C system, some industrial process need to reject a large amount of waste heat. •A wet cooling tower ~ semi-closed evaporative cooling cooler. •Type of cooling tower: Mechanical draft (Induced, Forced), Natural draft •Other cooling method: Spray pond, Cooling pond

of cooling tower: Mechanical draft (Induced, Forced), Natural draft •Other cooling method: Spray pond, Cooling pond
of cooling tower: Mechanical draft (Induced, Forced), Natural draft •Other cooling method: Spray pond, Cooling pond
of cooling tower: Mechanical draft (Induced, Forced), Natural draft •Other cooling method: Spray pond, Cooling pond

Example 14.9

Cooling of a Power Plant by a Cooling Tower

Cooling water leaves the condenser of a power plant and enters a wet cooling tower at 35 o C at a rate of 100 kg/s. Water is cooled to 22 o C in the cooling tower by air that enters the tower at 1 atm, 20 o C, and 60% relative humidity and leaves satureted at 30 o C. Neglecting power input to the fan, determine (a) the volume flow rate of the air into the cooling tower, (b) the mass flow rate of the required makeup water.

Solution (a) V a = 81.6 m 3 /s, (b) m f = 1.80 kg/s
Solution
(a) V a = 81.6 m 3 /s,
(b) m f = 1.80 kg/s