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Words About Figurative Language

Learn Words About a New Subject

Materials Needed

Student Reproducibles, pp. 313–314

Transparency 2, p. 419

Vocabulary Words figure of speech literal metaphor personification simile

Getting Started

Mystery Word of the Week Clue 1

When a poet uses figurative language, the reader has to the meaning.
When a poet uses figurative language, the
reader has to
the meaning.
uses figurative language, the reader has to the meaning. The Mystery Word of the Week is

The Mystery Word of the Week is infer.

Model/Teach

Distribute the Student Reproducible pages 313 and 314

.

Ask a volunteer to read the Word Learning Tip. Explain that content words are not words students see every day. They are words about a specific subject. All content words in this lesson tell about a special way to use words, called figurative language.

Then invite students to read the Vocabulary Building Strategy. Tell them that even though some of the content words seem difficult, students know that they are all about figurative language. Learning the differences in the kinds of figurative language will help them when they encounter these words in their reading.

Next, have students read the directions and look at the four panels

shown on

pages 313 and 314

. Read the text aloud.

Before you read the text a second time, do the

Before you read the text a second time, do the

on

page 307 to model how to find the meaning of the content words.

After you have modeled how to find the meaning of the word literal by associating the word with the topic, read each panel on the page again. This time pause at each boldface word.

Place the transparency on the overhead projector. Ask students what word belongs as the title or the author’s big idea (figurative language). Discuss with students where they have seen figurative language.

Tell students that as you pause at each boldface word, you want them to tell you how the word is connected to the topic of figurative language and/or to one of the other content words. You also want them to tell you

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Content Words

Powerful Vocabulary for Reading Success: Teacher's Edition, Grade 4 © Scholastic Teaching Resources

what it means. For example, metaphor is connected to the idea of figurative language because it is a figure of speech in which one thing is said to be another thing. Then have students tell you the thinking they do to determine the meaning of the content words. Record their responses on the transparency.

After students have discussed each word, allow them to work in small groups using flashcards to reinforce word meanings.

English Language Learners

Help students with the pronunciation and definition of the vocabulary words. Divide the words into syllables and have students clap out the syllables. Point out that the first syllable is accented in literal, metaphor, simile, and figure. Pronounce personification with a stress on the second syllable and the next-to-last syllable. Provide students with a tape of the pronunciations for practice. If this is not possible, demonstrate and practice with students in small groups.

Independent Activity

practice with students in small groups. Independent Activity Make Cartoons Ask students to brainstor m phrases

Make Cartoons Ask students to brainstorm phrases using figures of speech they hear in everyday life. For example: It’s raining cats and dogs. Take the bull by its horns. They should label each sentence as “metaphor,” “simile,” or “personification.”

Think Aloud

I want to share with you my thinking as I try to learn the meaning of these content words. The first thing I do is try to understand what the author’s subject is. The directions tell me that these words are about figurative language. The pictures, the speech balloons, and the text will help me understand the meaning of the vocabulary words. Let’s look at the first panel. I see a girl listening to music through earphones. She is saying: “When I’m feeling lonely, I listen to my music.” Next, I’ll look at the text. It says: “This is a literal statement. It means just what the words say.” So literal must mean “meaning exactly what the words say.” I relate this word to the big idea (figurative language). Since literal statements do not use words in a special way, I think literal statements are the opposite of figurative language.

Answer Key

See page

396

for definitions.

Words About Figurative Language

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Words About Figurative Language

Connect Words and Meanings

Materials Needed

Student Reproducible, p. 315

Think Aloud

Let’s look at the phrase figure of speech and its definition. It is a noun that means “an expression in which words are used in a poetic way.” I remember that figurative lan- guage is made up of figures of speech. There are three kinds of fig- ures of speech I have learned about. They are the simile, the metaphor, and personification. Now let me look at the example: “He is as strong as an ox.” This is not a literal statement. The man is not really as strong as an ox. But the words are a poetic way of saying that the man is very strong. When I read this figure of speech, I see a picture in my mind. I see an ox and I think of how strong an ox is. That helps me imagine how strong this man is. He may not really be as strong as an ox, but he’s very, very strong. I complete the sentence:

The figure of speech ‘as strong as an ox’ means that the person is very strong.”

Answer Key

Student’s responses to questions 1–5 will vary. See page 402 for sample sentences. 6. figure of speech 7. literal 8. figure of speech 9. figure of speech 10. literal

Getting Started

speech 9. figure of speech 10. literal Getting Started Mystery Word of the Week Clue 2

Mystery Word of the Week Clue 2

Some poems have more than one meaning that a reader can

Review and Share Have students share the cartoons they generated for the activity on page 307. Post their Have students share the cartoons they generated for the activity on page 307. Post their work on the bulletin board.

Model/Teach

Distribute the Student Reproducible page 315.

Before students start, do the

After you have modeled completing a sentence, have students finish the rest of the items on their own.

Ask students to share their responses. Make sure they explain their thinking.

.
.

English Language Learners

Encourage English Language Learners to share some figurative language from their own cultures. They can make a list of common similes in their native language and translate them. Have students discuss similar figures of speech across cultures and languages.

Independent Activity

Search for Figures of Speech This would be a good homework assignment. Tell students to look in their reading books, This would be a good homework assignment. Tell students to look in their reading books, library books, and books at home to find examples of similes, metaphors, and personifications. They may also use the Internet. You might also have students use the figures of speech they find as models and write their own.

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Content Words

Powerful Vocabulary for Reading Success: Teacher's Edition, Grade 4 © Scholastic Teaching Resources

Use Content Words

Getting Started

Use Content Words Getting Started Mystery Word of the Week Clue 3 The meanings in figurative

Mystery Word of the Week Clue 3

The meanings in figurative language can

become clear if you between the lines.

and read

Review and Share Have students share the similes , metaphors , and personifications they found for the activity Have students share the similes, metaphors, and personifications they found for the activity on page 309. Discuss the differences among these kinds of figures of speech.

Model/Teach

Before students start, do the

After you have modeled filling in the blank with the word that fits the context, have students complete the rest of the items on their own. Then allow time for them to share their responses.

Distribute the Student Reproducible page 316

.
.

.

Independent Activities

Create Figures of Speech Students may work alone or in pairs to write a simile, a metaphor, and a personification. Students who wish to do so may write a poem.Create Figures of Speech

Knock, Knock Each day, write the word simile, metaphor, or personification on the board. As students ask permission to leave the room, they have to give you an example of that type of figurative language. (You might want to change the word at noon each day.)

Materials Needed

Student Reproducible, p. 316

Think Aloud

Let’s look at the first item: “A poem can express your feelings or tell your thoughts about a topic. But you don’t want your poem to use only language, or language that means exactly what the words say. Use some figurative language, too.” I need to find the vocabulary word that says that the words mean exactly what they say. This word describes language that is the oppo- site of figurative language. I look at the vocabulary words. They all describe figurative language, except for the word literal. I remember that literal means “every word says exactly what it means.” That fits the meaning of the sentence. I write lit- eral in the blank and reread the sen- tence. “But you don’t want your poem to use only literal language.” It fits the meaning of the sentences in item 1.

Answer Key

1.

literal

2.

simile

3.

metaphor

4.

personification

5.

figure of speech

6.

figures of speech

7.

simile

8.

metaphor

9.

Personification

10.

literal

Words About Figurative Language

Powerful Vocabulary for Reading Success: Teacher's Edition, Grade 4 © Scholastic Teaching Resources

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309

Words About Figurative Language

Materials Needed

Student Reproducible, p. 317

Think Aloud

Let’s do the first item together:

“Write a metaphor that expresses your feelings about a rainy day.” A metaphor is a figure of speech. It does not use the word like or as, but makes a direct comparison. Now I am going to think about how a rainy day makes me feel. Sometimes a rainy day makes me feel good, because it gives me an excuse not to do all the little chores that clutter up my life. It frees me up to do anything I want. What else gives me that feeling? Well, when I play Monopoly, I get that feeling when I draw the “get out of jail” card. So my metaphor is: “A rainy day is a ‘get out of jail’ card, freeing me up to do whatever I want.”

Answer Key

Students’ responses to questions 1–5 will vary.

See page

402 for sample sentences.

6.

personification

7.

simile

8.

literal

9.

figure of speech

10.

metaphor

Put Words Into Action

Getting Started

Mystery Word of the Week Clue 4

When someone doesn’t say exactly what they

mean, you have to

what they did and what they meant.

why they said

have to what they did and what they meant. why they said Review and Share Invite

Review and Share Invite students share the similes , metaphors , and personifications or poems they wrote for Invite students share the similes, metaphors, and personifications or poems they wrote for the activity on page 317. Encourage them to write or print them and display them in the classroom.

Model/Teach

Distribute the Student Reproducible page 317.

Use the

After you have modeled how to complete the activity, have students finish it independently.

Finally, tell students to read the directions to the second part of the activity and complete it.

Arrange students in pairs to share their responses.

it. • Arrange students in pairs to share their responses. before students begin the activity. Independent

before students begin the activity.

Independent Activities

Write Figurative and Literal Statements Review the difference between a figurative statement and a literal statement. Then ask students to Review the difference between a figurative statement and a literal statement. Then ask students to choose topics and complete the activity independently.

Share a Poem Have students share their favorite poem containing figurative language with a partner. As they discuss the poem, remind them to use the vocabulary words.

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Content Words

Powerful Vocabulary for Reading Success: Teacher's Edition, Grade 4 © Scholastic Teaching Resources

Review and Extend

Getting Started

Review and Extend Getting Started Mystery Word of the Week Clue 5 The mystery word has

Mystery Word of the Week Clue 5

The mystery word has two syllables and means “to read between lines.” It is
The mystery word has two syllables and means
“to read between lines.” It is

Review and Share Provide time for students to share the figurative and literal statements they wrote for the Provide time for students to share the figurative and literal statements they wrote for the activity on page 310. Then have the class decide which of the figurative statements are examples of similes, of metaphors, and of personification.

Model/Teach

Distribute the Student Reproducible page 318. Read the boxed information aloud and discuss the new bonus content words.

Then use the

After you have modeled completing an item, ask students to finish the rest on their own and share their responses.

to finish the rest on their own and share their responses. to model how to complete

to model how to complete the activity.

Independent Activities

Make a Comparison This is a good activity for students to do for homework. If done in class, have students work in small groups. Give each group two poems to compare. Then have them share their comparisons.Make a Comparison

Write a Poem Invite students to write a poem. Encourage them to use at least one simile, metaphor, or personification. Students who wish to share their poems with the class may give a poetry reading.

Materials Needed

Student Reproducible, p. 318

Think Aloud

Read the first item with me silently as I read it aloud: “Figurative lan-

guage creates

your mind. It helps you see things in new and unusual ways.” I think one of the new bonus words fits here. Vivid describes these pic- tures. It tells me that they are sharp and clear. I know that effec- tive figurative language makes me see things clearly in my mind’s eye. So vivid is the word I choose to write in the blank.

pictures in

Answer Key

Mystery Word of the Week infer (Accept any other words that fit the context.)

1. vivid

2. image

3. simile

4. metaphor

5. personification

6. Literal

Words About Figurative Language

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Words About Figurative Language

Materials Needed

Student Reproducible, p. 319

Student

Self-Assessment

Journal Writing Have students dis- cuss how learning the new way that content words are used (figurative language) can help them better understand poetry and other things they read. Encourage them to describe how the content words in this lesson relate to the big idea of figurative language.

Answer Key

1.

C

2.

C

A

5. 10. B

4.

3.

C

B

A

A

C

6.

7.

8.

9.

B

Check Your Mastery

Give the Test

Distribute the Student Reproducible page 319

.

Read the directions to the Check Your Mastery activity: “Read each item below. Write the vocabulary word that best fits in each sentence.”

Model how to answer a question by writing the following sentence on the board and reading it aloud:

 

A figure of speech is NOT

A. a metaphor

B. a simile

C. literal

Ask students to choose the vocabulary word or words that best fit in the blank (C). Have them explain their choice by telling which context clues helped them select the correct answer.

Tell students that after they finish, they should read over the page and check their answers.

Review Check Your Mastery orally with the students.

 

Have students work with a partner to talk about the questions they got wrong. Ask them to write a new sentence using the correct vocabulary word for each item they missed.

Ask them to discuss how the Word Learning Tip and Vocabulary Building Strategy helped them find the correct response.

Tally students’ correct responses.

 
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Content Words

Powerful Vocabulary for Reading Success: Teacher's Edition, Grade 4 © Scholastic Teaching Resources

Words About Figurative Language

Learn Words About a New Subject

Vocabulary Words
Vocabulary Words

figure of speech literal metaphor personification simile

Word Learning Tip!
Word Learning Tip!

When you read about a new subject, you may see words you have not seen before in your everyday reading. These words are often the longest and most difficult in the text. They tell you something specific about the subject. To learn these new words, think about the big idea or subject about which you are reading. In this lesson, all content words deal with figurative language, a special way to use words.

Vocabulary Building Strategy
Vocabulary
Building Strategy

To learn the meaning of content words that tell about a new subject, make connections between the unknown word and the big idea or subject. The new word will tell something specific about that big idea or subject. Tie together the big idea and the meanings of other content words that you know in the text. This will help you determine the exact meaning of the unknown content words.

Directions As you look at the pictures below and on page 153, think about how the boldface words are connected to the topic of figurative language. Use the examples and the words below them to learn the exact meaning of each vocabulary word.

When I’m feeling lonely, I listen to my music.
When
I’m feeling
lonely, I listen to
my music.

This is a literal statement. It means just what the words say.

Music is good company!
Music is good
company!

This is a figure of speech. It says the same thing as the literal statement. But it says it in a poetic or imaginative way by putting two words together that don’t usually connect to the same big idea, like music and company.

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Content Words

Powerful Vocabulary for Reading Success: Student's Edition, Grade 4 © Scholastic Teaching Resources

L

Words About Figurative Language

A simile is one kind of figure of speech. It compares two very different content words by saying one word is like another. “Music is like a friend” is a simile. A simile uses the word as or like to make this comparison between two words.

Music is like a friend who understands how you feel. Music is my best friend.
Music is like a
friend who understands
how you feel.
Music is my
best friend.

A metaphor is another kind of figure of

speech. It compares two very different words by saying that one is another. “Music

is my best friend” is a metaphor. The words

are not literal. They do not mean exactly what they say. Instead, they create an imaginative picture that shows an emotion,

thought, or thing. This metaphor shows how much the boy enjoys music.

Hi! Can I come in and stay for a while?
Hi! Can I
come in and stay
for a while?

In this scene, a musical note acts like a person. It walks into a room and talks. Making a thing, idea, or word into a person is called personification. It’s another kind of figure of speech.

Words About Figurative Language

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Words About Figurative Language

Connect Words and Meanings

figure of speech literal metaphor personification simile

figure of speech

literal

metaphor

personification

simile

figure of speech literal metaphor personification simile

Directions Read each definition and example below. Then complete the sentence that follows.

1. figure of speech (noun): an expression in which words are used in a poetic way Example: He is as strong as an ox. Sentence: The figure of speech “as strong as an ox” means

2. literal (adjective): meaning exactly what the words say Example: He is a very strong man. Sentence: It is important to write the literal truth when

3. simile (noun): a figure of speech that uses the word like or as in which two very different things are said to be similar Example: Her eyes are as blue as the sky. Sentence: “The baby is as sweet as sugar” is a simile because

4. metaphor (noun): a figure of speech in which one thing is said to be another thing Example: My love is a rose. Sentence: A metaphor is different from a simile because

5. personification (noun): a figure of speech in which a nonliving thing acts like a human being Example: The soft breeze ran its fingers through the leaves of the tree. Sentence: The breeze is acting like a person because

Directions Write literal or figure of speech next to each statement below.

6. My love is as deep as the

7. The depth of the water is 36

8. The sun took pity on the old man and warmed him with her

9. A book is food for the

10. The book costs $21

Words About Figurative Language

Use Content Words

figure of speech literal metaphor personification simile

figure of speech

literal

metaphor

personification

simile

figure of speech literal metaphor personification simile

Directions Read these instructions for how to write a poem. Fill each blank with the vocabulary word or phrase that fits best. You will use each word twice. (The plural of figure of speech is figures of speech.)

1. A poem can express your feelings or tell your thoughts about a topic. But you don’t want

language, or language that means exactly

your poem to use only

what the words say. Use some figurative language, too.

2. Try to use some figures of speech. Don’t just say, “I feel angry.” Use a such as “I could roar like a lion.”

3. If you are feeling angry a lot, you might use a roaring with anger.”

such as “ I am a lion,

4. Or you could try

For example, you could say, “Anger walked the streets of the city and made everyone afraid.” 5. A poem can be like a song. It can have a regular rhythm. The lines can rhyme. These poems use word pictures called similes, metaphors, or personification. Each one is a

You could take a feeling and make it act like a person.

6.

Other poems can be in free verse. These poems don’t rhyme. The rhythm is the same as

ordinary talking. But these are still poems because they use word pictures and express thoughts poetically.

to create

7.

A

uses the word like or as to show that two things are alike or

similar. An example is: “ I feel as swift as the wind when I run.”

8.

A

is a stronger way to say that two things are alike.

An example is: “When I run, I am the wind.” Can you see the difference?

9.

creates a word picture that can be fun to read. Take a thing

or idea and make it act like a person. For example: “The clouds are weeping today.” 10. Similes, metaphors, and personification are all ways for poets to express their ideas.

These figures of speech are not

exactly what the words say. But word pictures make a poem have more meaning than just saying the literal truth. So use your imagination and see what word pictures you can create.

statements. They don’t mean

Words About Figurative Language

Put Words Into Action

figure of speech literal metaphor personification simile

figure of speech

literal

metaphor

personification

simile

figure of speech literal metaphor personification simile

Directions Read each item below. Pay special attention to the vocabulary word in the instructions. Then complete the sentence. Write your answer in the blank.

1. Write a metaphor that expresses your feelings about a rainy day.

2. Write a simile that shows how you feel about eating ice cream.

3. Write a figure of speech that imaginatively tells your ideas about winning a big game.

4. Use literal language to tell how you feel after you win a big game.

5. Use personification to show what your refrigerator thinks every time you open the door.

Directions Help Carlotta complete this composition about a poem she read. Choose the correct vocabulary word from the two in parentheses. Write the missing vocabulary word in the blank. Use each word once.

I liked the way the poet used (6)

(simile,

personification) to describe

the moon. He made the moon seem so shy that she often hid her light so people couldn’t find

her. There was one (7)

of the moon was as gentle as a cat’s purr.” I know these words were not meant to have their

(8)

moon and a cat’s purr are two very different things. But this (9)

(figure of speech, personification) created an interesting word picture in my mind. Another figure

of speech I liked a lot was this (10) is a silver coin tossed in the sky.”

(metaphor, simile) I liked a lot. It is “The light

(literal, figure of speech), or exact, meaning, because the light of the

(metaphor, literal): “The moon

Words About Figurative Language

Review and Extend

figure of speech literal metaphor personification simile

figure of speech

literal

metaphor

personification

simile

figure of speech literal metaphor personification simile

BONUS WORDS Here are two new words. Remember that these words all deal with the same big idea as your vocabulary words. That means that even if you have never seen these words before, you know that they have to do with figurative language. You can use what you already know about figurative language to understand the meanings of these words.

image a word picture vivid sharp and clear

image a word picture

vivid sharp and clear

image a word picture vivid sharp and clear

Directions Read each item below. Choose the vocabulary word or the new content word that best fits the context. Write it in the blank.

1. Figurative language creates your mind. It helps you see things in new and unusual ways.

pictures in

2. Sometimes the

, or picture, may surprise you. For example,

thinking of a cat as a comma on a rug makes you see the cat in an unexpected way.

3. You can identify a(n)

because it always contains the word

like or as. When you say, “He is as clever as a fox,” you are using this figure of speech.

4. A “He is a fox,” you are using a metaphor.

is more direct. When you say

5. “The car hummed happily as we drove along a country road.” This is an example of

, or making a thing act like a person.

6. language is the opposite of figurative language. When you use this type of language, you mean exactly what you say.

Words About Figurative Language

Check Your Mastery

Directions Read each item below. Write the vocabulary word that best fits in each sentence.

1. “Her eyes are like stars” is a

 

It makes a comparison using like or as.

A.

personification

B. metaphor

C. simile

2. “Her eyes are stars” is a

It says that one thing is another.

A.

personification

B. metaphor

C. simile

3. If you were writing a recipe telling how to make pizza, you would use language instead of figurative language.

B. simile

A. literal

C. figure of speech

4. “A flower opened her petals and smiled at me” is an example of

A. personification

5. A

A. literal

6. “I’m hungry” is a

A. figure of speech

B. metaphor

B. personification

B. personification

7. “I’m as hungry as a bear” is a

A. metaphor

B. simile

C. simile

can be a simile or a metaphor. C. figure of speech

C. literal

statement.

C. personification

8. “Kindness whispered in her ear and told her to help needy people.” This sentence is a figure of speech called a

A. simile

B. metaphor

C. personification

9. “She is wearing her heart on her sleeve” is a

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319

A. figure of speech

B. personification

10. “You are my shining star” is a

A. simile

Content Words

B. metaphor

C. literal statement

C. personification

Powerful Vocabulary for Reading Success: Student's Edition, Grade 4 © Scholastic Teaching Resources

DEFINITIONS

The words in this program were chosen for their importance and to illustrate specific Word Learning Principles and Vocabulary Building Strategies. The definitions of the words as they are used in the lessons are given below.

Lesson 21

figure of speech noun: an expression in which words are used in a poetic way

literal (lit-ur-uhl) adjective: meaning exactly what the words say

metaphor (met-uh-for or met-uh-fur) noun: a figure of speech in which one thing is said to be another thing

personification (pur-son-eh-fi-kay-shuhn) noun: a figure of speech in which a nonliving thing acts like a human being

simile (sim-uh-lee) noun: a figure of speech in which two things are said to be similar, often using like or as

There are no symbols used in this pronunciation system (Scholastic Children’s Dictionary, copyright © 2002, 1996 Scholastic Inc.). Instead letters and letter combinations are used to stand for different sounds.

Powerful Vocabulary for Reading Success: Teacher's Edition, Grade 4 © Scholastic Teaching Resources

396
396

T

P

= Teacher’s

Pages

. S

P

= Student’s

Pages

SAMPLE SENTENCES

Lesson 21

Connect Words and Meanings,

page

1. The figure of speech “as strong as an ox” means that the person is very strong.

2. It is important to write the literal truth when someone asks you how to do something.

3. “The baby is as sweet as sugar” is a simile because the baby and sugar are described as similar, and the statement contains the word as.

4. A metaphor is different from a simile because with a metaphor you say the two things are the same. You may use the verb to be in a metaphor. In a simile, you use like or as.

5. The breeze is acting like a person because it has fingers and it is running its fingers through the leaves of the tree.

308

(TP),

315

(SP)

Put Words Into Action, page

310

(TP),

317

(SP)

1. A rainy day is a “get out of jail” card, freeing me up to do whatever I want.

2. Eating ice cream is like celebrating your birthday 365 days of the year.

3. Winning the big game made me as happy as a dog with a new bone.

4. After the big game I felt very happy.

5. The refrigerator is grumpy every time I open the door and growls at me for letting out its cool air.

Powerful Vocabulary for Reading Success: Teacher's Edition, Grade 4 © Scholastic Teaching Resources

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402

GLOSSARY

F

figure of speech noun: an expression in which words are used in a poetic way

L

literal (lit-ur-uhl) adjective: meaning exactly what the words say

M

metaphor (met-uh-for or met-uh-fur) noun: a figure of speech in which one thing is said to be another thing

P

personification (pur-son-eh-fi-kay-shuhn) noun:

a figure of speech in which a nonliving thing acts like a human being

S

simile (sim-uh-lee) noun: a figure of speech in which two things are said to be similar, often using like or as

Powerful Vocabulary for Reading Success: Student's Edition, Grade 4 © Scholastic Teaching Resources

404
404

Powerful Vocabulary for Reading Success

because

idea of

is connected to the

Author’s Big Idea or Subject is

because

is connected to the idea of

is connected to the

Transparency 2

because

idea of

is connected to the

 

because

idea of

is connected to the

 

because

idea of

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419

Powerful Vocabulary for Reading Success: Teacher's Edition, Grade 4 © Scholastic Teaching Resources

Powerful Vocabulary for Reading Success: Teacher's Edition, Grade 4 © Scholastic Teaching Resources

Lesson 21

metaphor
443

(met-uh-for or met-uh-fur)

Lesson 21

figure of speech

Lesson 21

personification

(pur-son-eh-fi-kay-shuhn)

Lesson 21

literal

(lit-ur-uhl)

Lesson 21

simile

(sim-uh-lee)

Powerful Vocabulary for Reading Success: Teacher's Edition, Grade 4 © Scholastic Teaching Resources

adjective: meaning exactly what the words say

noun: a figure of speech in which two things are said to be similar, often using like or as

noun: an expression in which words are used in a poetic way

noun: a figure of speech in which a nonliving thing acts like a human being

noun: a figure of speech in which one thing is said to be another thing

444