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School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering

C&ENVENG 3007 / 7007 Section Capacity – Clause 8.3 (Only local plate buckling)
y
STRUCTURAL DESIGN III (STEEL) • Uniaxial bending about the major principal axis (x-axis) – Clause 8.3.2
Semester – I, 2015 • Uniaxial bending about the minor principal axis (y-axis) – Clause 8.3.3
x
• Biaxial bending – Clause 8.3.4

Member Capacity (Clause 8.4) N* M *y N*


M x*
(Local plate buckling and global member buckling)
MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO COMBINED ACTIONS
• In-plane capacity (Elastic analysis) – Clause 8.4.2
(SECTION 8: AS4100)
Beam-columns (uniaxial bending about x axis/y-axis – lateral buckling
of the member in the plane of bending)
• Out-of-plane capacity – Clause 8.4.4
(Uniaxial bending about x axis – out-of plane or lateral
Dr.Mohamed Ali torsional buckling due to bending about x axis)
Office: N234 (Engineering North) • Biaxial bending capacity – Clause 8.4.5
ali.mohamed@adelaide.edu.au (lateral or lateral torsional buckling)
*
M *y *
M x*
1 N N
2

Section capacity – Uniaxial bending about x-axis (Clause 8.3.2) Section capacity – Uniaxial bending about y-axis (Clause 8.3.3)

M x* ≤ φM rx M *y ≤ φM ry

M x* - design bending moment about x axis – applied design action M *y - design bending moment about y axis – applied design action
φ - capacity reduction factor (0.9) – Table 3.4 φ - capacity reduction factor (0.9) – Table 3.4
 *
N  - nominal section moment capacity (bending about x
M rx = M sx 1 −   N *  - nominal section moment capacity (bending about y
 φN s  axis) reduced by axial force (compression/tension) M ry = M sy 1 − 
 φN s 
axis) reduced by axial force (compression/tension)
M sx - nominal section moment capacity (about x) – Clause 5.2
M sy - nominal section moment capacity (about y) – Clause 5.2
Ns - nominal section capacity – Clause 6.2 (For tension: Clause 7.2 – Ns = Nt)

Section capacity – Biaxial bending (Clause 8.3.4)


*
M x*
Bending only (about x axis): M x* ≤ φM sx → M x ≤ 1 1
φM φM N* M x* M *y
1 + + ≤1
Axial force only: N * ≤ φN s → N*
≤1
N* φN s φM sx φM sy
φN s φN s
 N* M *y   N* M x* 
Otherwise M x ≤ φM sx 1 − −  M *y ≤ φM sy 1 − − 
*
M N * *
 N  * Or
+ x
≤ 1 → M x* = φM sx 1 −   φN s φM sy   φN s φM sx 
N s 
Combined bending and axial force:
φM sx φN s  φ 3 4
Member Capacity – In-plane Capacity (Elastic analysis) – Clause 8.4.2 Member Capacity – Out-of-plane Capacity – Clause 8.4.4

M * ≤ φM i M x* ≤ φM ox

 N*  
M i = M s 1 −  - nominal in-plane member moment capacity N * 
 φN c  M ox = M bx 1 −
 φN  - nominal out-of-plane member moment capacity
 cy 

N c - nominal member capacity in axial compression – Clause 6.3 for


lateral (global) buckling in the same plane of the bending M x* - design bending moment about x axis – applied design action

Bending applied about x axis – lateral (global) buckling about same axis/plane: M bx - nominal member moment capacity based on lateral torsional (global)
buckling (Clause 5.6) – plane of buckling is about minor principal axis (y
 N *
M x* ≤ φM ix M ix = M sx 1 −  axis) whereas the plane of bending is about major principal axis (x axis)
 φN cx 
N cy - nominal member capacity in axial compression – Clause 6.3 for
Or, bending applied about y axis – lateral (global) buckling about same axis/plane:
lateral (global) buckling in the minor principal axis (y axis)
 N * 
M ≤ φM iy
*
M iy = M sy 1 −  N* 
y
 φN  Note: For member with axial tension: M ox = M bx 1 +  ≤ M rx
 cy 
 φN t 
Note: It is not applicable for axial tension – use previous clause (section capacity) Clause 7.2 Clause 8.3.2 6
5

Member Capacity – Biaxial Bending Capacity – Clause 8.4.5 Member Capacity (Biaxial Bending) Tension Member (Clause 8.4.5.2):
Compression Member (Clause 8.4.5.1): 1.4
M x*  M x* 
1.4
 M *y 
φM cx
1
  +   ≤1
 φM 
1. 4 1. 4  φM tx   ry 
 M x*   M* 
  +  y  ≤ 1 1
 φM 
 φM cx   iy   N *  - nominal section moment capacity (about y) modified
M ry = M sy 1 + 
 φN t 
by axial tension (Clause 8.3.3)
M *y
 N *  - nominal in-plane member moment capacity
M iy = M sy 1 − φM iy
 φN  about y axis (Clause 8.4.2) M tx is lower of M rx (Clause 8.3.2) and M ox (Clause 8.4.4.2)
 cy 

M cx is lower of M ix (Clause 8.4.2) and M ox (Clause 8.4.4)  N* 


M ox = M bx 1 +  ≤ M rx - nominal out-of-plane member moment capacity
 φN t 
(Clause 8.4.4,2)

 N *  - nominal out-of-plane member moment capacity


M ox = M bx 1 −
 φN  (Clause 8.4.4)
 cy 

7 8
Example 1: A 5 m long braced member having a cross-section as shown in the y 308 × (10)3 500 × (8)3
10 J = 2× + = 2907 × 102 mm 4
figure is subjected to an axial compression of 800 kN and end moments causing 3 3
bending of the member about x axis having single curvature. If the end moments 150 150
are equal in magnitude, calculate its maximum value which can be applied safely. 10 × (308)3 × (500) 2
Iw = = 3044 × 109 mm 6
Take the member ends as pinned for bending under transverse load in any 24
8 8
direction whereas these ends and fully restrained for out-of-plane buckling.
x x 500 M Px = (10 × 308 × 400 × 510
Section properties:
y
10 + 250 × 8 × 400 × 250) × 10−6 = 828.3 kNm
Ag = An = 2 × 308 × 10 + 500 × 8 = 10160 mm 2 f y = 400 MPa
150 150 S x = 828.3 × 106 / 400 = 2071 × 103 mm 3
308 × (520) 300 × (500)
3 3
Ix = − = 4839 × 105 mm 4 10 M Py = (10 × 154 × 400 × 154 × 2
8 8 12 12 y
x x 500 10 × (308)3 500 × (8)3 + 500 × 4 × 400 × 4) × 10−6 = 192.9 kNm
Iy = 2× + = 4872 × 104 mm 4 S y = 192.9 × 106 / 400 = 4823 × 10 2 mm 3
welded section 12 12
f y = 400 MPa
Nominal section capacity (axial compression)
(stress relieved) 4839 × 105
rx = = 218.2 mm
10160 b f y 150 400
10 4872 × 104 Flange plate: λe = = = 19
y ry = = 69.25 mm t 250 10 250
10160
4839 × 105 4872 × 104 λ  16
Zx = = 1861 × 103 mm3 Zy = = 3164 × 102 mm3 Table 6.2.4: λey = 16 λe > λey be = b ey  = 150 × = 126.3 mm
260 154 9
 λe  19 10

y
10 Flange plate: be = 126.3 mm k f = 0.737 lex = 5 m
l   f y  5000 400 rx = 218.2 mm
150 150 b f y 500 400 λn =  ex  k f   = × 0.737 × = 24.88
Web plate : λe = = = 79  rx   250  218.2 250
t 250 8 250 f y = 400 MPa
8 8
Table 6.2.4: λey = 45 λe > λey From Table 6.33 (2): α b = 0 .5 From Table 6.3.3(3): α c = 0.942
x x 500
λ  45 Nominal member capacity: N cx = α c N s = 0.942 × 2995 = 2821 kN
f y = 400 MPa be = b ey  = 500 × = 284.8 mm
λ
 e 79
Effective cross-sectional area: Nominal member capacity about y axis (Axial compression)
y 10
Ae = 10160 − 4 × [(150 − 126.3) × 10] ley = keyl = 1 × 5 = 5 m key = 1 - from Figure 4.6.3.2 (pin at both ends)
Form factor: k f =
Ae 7490.4
= = 0.737 − (500 − 284.8) × 8 = 7490.4 mm2
Ag 10160  ley   f y  5000 400 ry = 69.25 mm
λn =   kf

  = × 0.737 × = 78.41
Nominal section capacity: N s = k f An f y = 0.737 × 10160 × 400 / 1000 = 2995 kN  ry   250  69.25 250

Nominal member capacity about x axis (Axial compression) From Table 6.33 (2): α b = 0 .5 From Table 6.3.3(3): α c = 0.623
lex = kexl = 1 × 5 = 5 m kex = 1 - from Figure 4.6.3.2 (pin at both ends) 11
Nominal member capacity: N cy = α c N s = 0.623 × 2995 = 1866 kN 12
Nominal section moment capacity about x axis y Nominal section moment capacity about y axis y
10 10
Elastic section modulus : Z x = 1861× 10 mm
3 3
Elastic section modulus : Z y = 3164 × 10 mm
2 3
150 150 150 150
Plastic section modulus : S x = 2071× 103 mm 3 Plastic section modulus : S y = 4823× 102 mm 3
8 8 8 8
Section modulus of compact section: Section modulus of compact section:
x x 500 x x 500
Z cx = min(1.5Z x , S x ) = 2071× 103 mm3 f y = 400 MPa
Z cy = min(1.5Z y , S y ) = 4746 × 102 mm3 f y = 400 MPa
(1.5Z x = 1.5 ×1861×103 = 2792 ×103 mm3 ) (1.5Z y = 1.5 × 3164 ×102 = 4746 ×102 mm3 )

Plate slenderness and their limits:- y 10 Plate slenderness and their limits:- y 10

b f y 150 400
Compression flange: λe = = = 19 Table 5.2: λep = 10 λey = 16 Flange plate: λe =
b f y 150 400
= = 19 Table 5.2: λep = 10 λey = 25
t 250 10 250 t 250 10 250
- slender based on this plate element - non-compact based on this plate element

Web plate : λe =
b f y 500 400
= = 79 Table 5.2: λep = 82 λey = 115 Web plate will not be considered as it passes through the neutral axis
t 250 8 250
 λ − λe  
 (Z − Z y )
- compact based on this plate element
Effective section modulus : Z ey = Z y +  ey
 λ ey   λ − λ  cy
16  ey ep  
Effective section modulus : Z ex = Z x   = 1861× 103 × = 1567 × 103 mm3
λ
 e  19
25 − 19
−6 Z ey = 3164 ×102 + × (4746 ×102 − 3164 ×102 ) = 3797 ×102 mm3
Nominal section moment capacity: M sx = Z ex f y = 1567 × 10 × 400 / 10 = 626.8 kNm
3
13 25 − 10 14

le = 5 m
Nominal section moment capacity: Z ey = 3797×102 mm3
J = 2907 ×10 2 mm 4
M sy = Z ey f y = 3797 × 102 × 400 / 10−6 = 151.9 kNm  π 2 EI y    π 2 EI w 
Reference buckling moment: M 0 =  
 l 2  GJ +  l 2 
  I w = 3044× 109 mm 6
 e   e 
≤ (80 + 50 β m )
l 250
Nominal member moment capacity (about x axis) I y = 4872×10 4 mm 4
ry fy
Maximum permissible length to have full lateral restraints: M min
βm = = −1  π 2 × 200,000 × 4872 × 10 4    π 2 × 200,000 × 3044 × 109 
M max =  
 80, 000 × 2907 × 10 2
+  
 (5000) 2   (5000) 2 
l ≤ 69.25 × (80 − 50 × 1)
250
= 1642 mm = 1.642 m ry = 69.25 mm
400
f y = 400 MPa = 1008 × 106 Nmm = 1008 kNm
M sx = 626.8 kNm
Member does not have full lateral restraints → M bx = α mα s M sx Slenderness reduction factor:

From Table 5.6.1: α m = 1


  2
  M    626.8  2   626.8 
 M sx 
α s = 0.6    + 3 −  sx  = 0.6    + 3 −   = 0.731
Effective length factors:-   M 0    M 0    1008    1008 
   
From Table 5.6.3(1) - FF: kt = 1 From Table 5.6.3(2) – FF (shear centre): kl = 1
Nominal member moment capacity:
From Table 5.6.3(3) – FF (no lateral rotational restraint): kr = 1
M bx = α mα s M sx = 1 × 0.731 × 626.8 = 458 kNm
Effective length: le = kt kl kr l = 1 × 1 × 1 × 5 = 5 m 15 16
Maximum design moment based on different criterions Nominal out-of-plane member moment capacity:

Nominal section moment capacity (about x axis) reduced by axial force:  N *   800 
M ox = M bx 1 − = 4581 −  = 239.8 kNm
 N*   φN   0.9 × 1866 
 = 626.8 × 1 −
800   cy 
M rx = M sx 1 −  = 440.8 kNm
 φN s   0.9 × 2995  Maximum moment based on out-of-plane member moment capacity (Clause 8.4.4):

Maximum moment based on section capacity (Clause 8.3.2): M x* ≤ φM rx = 0.9 × 239.8 = 215.8 kNm
M x* ≤ φM rx = 0.9 × 440.8 = 396.7 kNm
Maximum design moment (minimum of the values obtained from three criterions) :
Nominal in-plane member moment capacity (about x):
M x* ≤ 215.8 kNm - this will be the amplified moment M x* =
cm M m*
N*
 N* 
 = 626.8 × 1 −
800  1−
M ix = M sx 1 −  = 429.3 kNm Applied member end moments N ombx
 φN cx   0.9 × 2821 
Elastic buckling load:
Maximum moment based on in-plane member moment capacity Clause 8.4.2):
π 2 EI x π 2 × 200 × 106 × 4839 × 105 × 10−12
N ombx = = = 38207 kN
M x* ≤ φM rx = 0.9 × 429.3 = 386.37 kNm (lex )2 (5)2
17 Effective length: lex = kex l = 1 × 5 = 5 m kex = 1 as ends are pinned 18

M x* ≤ 215.8 kNm N ombx = 38207 kN N * = 800 kN Example 2: If the member considered in the previous example is subjected
additional end moments of 40 kNm (same at both ends) about y axis causing
cm M m* N* single curvature, determine the maximum end moments about x axis which can
Amplified moment (about x): M x =
*
M1 be applied safely to the braced member.
N*
1− M1 cm M m*
N ombx Amplified moment (about y) M *y =
N*
1−
M1
βm = − = −1 M x*
N omby
cm = 0.6 − 0.4 β m = 1 M2
key = 1 as ends are pinned
- single curvature Elastic buckling load:
Effective length: ley = key l = 1 × 5 = 5 m
M2
Maximum member end moments (about x): π 2 EI y π 2 × 200 × 106 × 4872 × 104 × 10 −12 I y = 4872×10 4 mm 4
M2 N omby = = = 3847 kN
M x*  N*  N * (l )
ey
2
(5)2

M 1 = M 2 = M m* = 1 − 
cm  N ombx  N * = 800 kN
M 1 = M 2 = M m*
cm M m* 1 × 40 M 1 = M 2 = M m* = 40 kNm
215.8  800 
M *y = = = 50.5 kNm
≤ 1 −  = 211 kNm N* 1−
800
βm = −
M1
= −1
1  38207  1− - single curvature
N omby 3847 M2
19 cm = 0.6 − 0.4β m = 1 20
Maximum design moment (about x) based on section capacity (Clause 8.3.4) Maximum moment (about x) based on member capacity (Clause 8.4.5):

1. 4 1. 4
N* M x* M *y  M x*   M* 
+ + ≤1 (Use the values of the previous example)   +  y  ≤ 1
φN s φM sx φM sy  φM cx 
 φM 
 iy 

 N* M *y  (1 / 1.4 )
 = 0.9 × 626.8 × 1 − 50.5    M* 
1.4 (1 / 1.4 )
800    50.5  
M x* ≤ φM sx 1 −
1. 4
−  −  = 188 kNm M ≤ φM cx 1 − 
* y
  = 0.9 × 239.8 × 1 −   = 109.3 kNm
 φN s φM sy   0 .9 × 2995 0 .9 × 151.9  x  φM     0.9 x79.5  
  iy    
Maximum design moment (about x) based on member capacity (Clause 8.4.5)
Maximum design moment about x (minimum of the above two) :
Nominal in-plane member moment capacity about y axis (Clause 8.4.2):
cm M m*
M = 109.3 kNm
*
- this is the amplified moment M x* =

x
N*
N *   800  1−
M iy = M sy 1 − = 151.9 × 1 −  = 79.5 kNm N ombx
 φN   0.9 × 1866 
 cy  Maximum member end moments (about x) that can be
safely applied are:
M 1 = M 2 = M m*
Nominal in-plane (8.4.2)/out-of-plane (8.4.4) member moment capacity about x axis:
M x*  N*  109.3  800 
M 1 = M 2 = M m* = 1 −  ≤ 1 −  = 107 kNm
M cx = 239.8 kNm M cx is lower of M ix ( = 429.3 kNm) and M ox (= 239.8 kNm) cm  N ombx  1  38207 
21 22

Submit Soft Copy only. (b) Also calculate the maximum safe value of this distributed
Assignment No.4 (Total: 1 problem) Due by 11th May 2015-11.55pm.
(Full document available in MyUni). load if the axially loaded member is subjected an additional
Problem:1 point load of 50 kN at the mid-span which will cause
A 3.5 m long braced member having a cross-section as bending of the member about major principal axis. Take G =
shown in the Figure below is subjected to an 80 GPa & E = 200 GPa.
compression load of 400 kN. The top end of the
member is pinned and its bottom end is fixed for
bending. For the out-of-plane buckling of the member,
the top end is partially restrained and the bottom end is
fully restrained.
(a) If the axially loaded member is subjected a
uniformly distributed transverse load over its entire
length causing bending of the member about its minor
principal axis, calculate the maximum value of the
distributed load which can be applied safely. 23 24

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