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Earthquake Engineering

Equation of motion of MDOF elastic systems (revisited)

1 – Shear frame model & lumped-mass system

Consider, for example, the two-storey structure model represented in Figure 1 (left). The cross section of the beams is assumed to be much larger than that of the columns, so the beams may be assumed to be rigid. The structure is to be designed for horizontal ground motion. In the model of Figure 1 (right), the mass is lumped at the floor levels with m j denoting the mass at the jth floor. The storey stiffness, damping and displacement are denoted by k j , c j and u j , respectively. The model is considered to be subjected to a horizontal motion.

model is considered to be subjected to a horizontal motion. m 2 u 2 k 2
m 2 u 2 k 2 c 2 m 1 u 1 k 1 c
m 2
u
2
k 2
c 2
m 1
u 1
k 1
c 1

Figure 1 – Two-storey shear frame model (left) and lumped mass model (right).

Due to earthquake loading, assume each floor j is subjected to a horizontal force p j (t). The equation of motion of the two storey building is obtained using Newton’s second law.

For mass m 1 :

For mass m 2 :

p

1

p

k u

1

2

k

1

2

c u&

1

1

+ k

(

u

2

u

1

2

(

)

u

2

u

1

)

c

2

(

u&

+ c

2

(

u&

2

u&

1

2

)

u&

1

)

= m u&&

1

= m u&&

2

2

1

(1)

(2)

Writing the two equations in a matrix form, gives:

m

0

1

0   u &&

1

u &&

2

m

2

+

c

1

+

c

c

2

2

c   u

c

2

2

&

1

u &

2

 

+

k

1

+

k

k

2

2

k   u

k

2

2

 

u

1

2

=

p

1

p

2

(3)

The above system of equations of motion could be written in a compact form as follows:

Mu&& + Cu& + Ku = p

1

(4)

Earthquake Engineering

The matrices M, C and K correspond to the mass, damping and stiffness, respectively, and u is the displacement vector for which differentiation with respect to time gives the velocity and acceleration vectors in the usual manner. Following the model used for SDOF, when the forcing term is expressed in term of the ground acceleration, system (4) becomes

Mu&& + Cu& + Ku = −MI&&

u

g

(t)

(5)

where u && (t) is the ground acceleration given as a function of time and finally I is a vector with all elements equal to 1. First, let us study the free vibration of the undamped system.

g

The mass m j of floor j is determined in a straightforward way but its stiffness k j is computed through the use of the flexural stiffness EI of each column and the floor height h j . It is given by

k

j

=

n

12

j = 1

EI

h

j

3

(6)

where n is the number of columns of floor j, E and I are the Young modulus and second moment of area, respectively, of each column. In expression (6), the flexural rigidity EI is assumed to be identical for all columns of floor j.

2 – Free vibration of undamped MDOF systems

The displacement is assumed to be harmonic in time, that is

Equation (5) then becomes

u = U

e

iω

t

(K

2

ω

M)u = 0

(7)

(8)

This equation has of course the trivial solution u = 0 . For a non trivial solution, the determinant of the left hand side must be zero. That is

K

2

ω

M = 0

(9)

2

This condition leads to a polynomial in terms of ω . The polynomial has n roots, where n is the size of matrices and vectors cited above. If K and M are symmetric, the roots are all real, though they may not be distinct. These roots are the eigenvalues of the matrix of equation (8). Each eigenvalue has a corresponding eigenvector, being a solution of equation (8).

For a given eigenvalue ω , the eigenvector

has to be arbitrarily scaled, because the matrix is now singular, of rank n 1 or less, and so

2

U i which satisfies equation (8) can be found, but it

is

U

i

2

Earthquake Engineering

not uniquely determined. The process of scaling, called normalisation, is usually carried out so

that the largest element of orthogonal, which is to say

U i is 1. The eigenvectors U , corresponding to the eigenvalues, are

i

U

T

i

MU

j

= 0

and

T

U KU

i

j

= 0

for i j

(10)

The classical eigenvalue problem is of the form

(M

1

K

I)u = 0

λ

(11)

where

determination of the eigenvalues of unsymmetrical matrices in fairly complicated. Therefore, special procedures which retain symmetry are used.

is unsymmetrical. The

2

λ = ω and

I

is

the

identity

matrix.

Unfortunately

M

1

K

3 – Uncoupled motion of MDOF linear systems

Suppose now, all eigenvalues

where n is the size of the matrix in equation (8). The displacement u is written as a linear

combination of eigenvectors

i are calculated for i=1,n

λ and corresponding eigenvectors

i

ξ .

i

U

U i multiplied by scalars

u

n

= ξ

i

U

i

i =

1

(12)

Since the mode shapes are not function of time, it follows that

&

u

=

n

i =

1

&

ξ

i

U

i

and

&& u

=

n

&&

i

ξ

U

i

i = 1

(13)

Replacing expressions (12) and (13) in equation (5) gives

M

n

i =

1

&&

ξ

i

U

i

+ C

n

=

1

i

&

ξ

i

U

i

+ K

n

=

1

i

ξ

i

U = −MI u &&

i

g

t

( )

(14)

On pre-multiplying equation (13) by the j th eigenvector U j , it becomes

U

T

j

M

n

i =

1

&&

ξ

i

U

i

+ U

T

j

C

n

=

1

i

&

ξ

i

U

i

+ U

T

j

K

n

=

1

i

ξ

i

U = −U MI &&

u

T

j

i

g

( )

t

(15)

By the orthogonality properties of (9), this equation reduces to

3

&&

ξ

j

T

U MU

j

j

+ U

T

j

C

n

i = 1

&

ξ

i

U

i

+

ξ

j

T

U KU

j

j

T

= −U MI u &&

j

g

( )

t

Earthquake Engineering

(16)

No further progress can be made in decoupling the equations of motion without more information about the matrix C. If this matrix also has an orthogonality property, then the equations can be uncoupled. Rayleigh notes that this will be true if C has the same form as M or K, or indeed is a linear function of them. He goes on to remark ‘The case occurs frequently, in books at any rate …’ as we do not usually know much about structural damping thus ‘Rayleigh damping’ is often adopted. The usual procedure is to write the generalized damping in the j th mode as

c

j

=

U

T CU

j

j = 2ςω

j

U

T MU

j

j

Combining expressions (16) and (17) leads to

&&

ξ

j

+

&

ςω ξ

2

j

j

+ ω

j

2

ξ

j

= −

T

U MI

j

T

U MU

j

j

u &&

g

 

(17)

t

( )

(18)

This is the uncoupled equation of motion, valid for each mode. The true nature of structural damping which is not usually viscous and the construction of a suitable damping matrix are discussed in much more detail in reference [3].

From equation (18), it is shown that each mode ξ , for j=1…n, is assumed to behave independently in the earthquake response and it will respond to input acceleration which is α j times the actual ground acceleration, with

j

α

j

=

T

U MI

j

T

U MU

j

j

(19)

It follows then the maximum displacement, velocity and acceleration read from the design

spectrum are multiplied by this factor to give the maximum values of

ξ ,

j

&

ξ

j

and

&&

ξ

j

respectively.

Expression (19) is also called the participation factor corresponding to each mode.

References

[1] A.K. Chopra, Dynamics of Structures – Theory and Applications to Earthquake Engineering, Prentice Hall, 2001. [2] N. M. Newmark and E. Rosenblueth, Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering. Prentice Hall,

1971.

[3] R.W. Clough and J. Penzien, Dynamics of Structures, McGraw and Hill, 1983 – Second

Edition.

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Exercises

Earthquake Engineering

1. For the example of a 2-storey structure model of Figure 1, the mass, stiffness and damping matrices were determined.

a) Deduce the structure of these matrices for a 3-storey structure model.

b) Deduce the structure of these matrices for n-degrees of freedom.

2. For the 2-storey case of Figure 1, carry out the eigenvalue analysis to determine the eigenfrequencies of the structure as functions of the mass and stiffness of each storey. Then consider the masses and stiffnesses of both levels to be identical.

3. For a two-storey structure model, the mass and stiffness matrices are given in the following form

M =

40000

0

0

40000

kg

K =

23

×

10

6

4.2

×

10

6

4.2

×

10

4.2

×

10

6

6

N/m

a) Find the natural frequencies and the eigenmodes of the structure.

b) Check the orthogonality of the eigenmodes

c) Determine the participation factor for each mode.

4. Consider a two-storey structure with the mass and stiffness matrices given by

M =

32000

0

0

20000

kg

K =

20561

3506

×

×

10

3

10

3

3506

×

10

3506

×

10

3

3

N/m

a) Find the natural frequencies and the eigenmodes of the structure.

b) Check the orthogonality of the eigenmodes.

c) Determine the participation factor for each mode.

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