Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 9

Fluorescent-lamp formats - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 1 of 9

Fluorescent-lamp formats
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other types of lightbulb mounts and sockets, see Lightbulb sockets.

Since their introduction as a commercial product in 1939, many different types of fluorescent lamp have
been introduced. Systematic nomenclature identifies mass-market lamps as to overall shape, power
rating, length, color, and other electrical and illuminating characteristics.

Contents
◾ 1 Tube designations
◾ 1.1 Reflectors
◾ 1.2 Slimline lamps
◾ 1.3 High output/very high output lamps
◾ 1.4 Other tube shapes
◾ 1.5 Colors
◾ 2 Common tube ratings
◾ 2.1 European energy-saving tubes
◾ 2.2 US energy-saving tubes
◾ 3 T5 tubes
◾ 4 See also
◾ 5 References

Tube designations
Lamps are typically identified by a code such as FxxTy, where F is for fluorescent, the first number (xx)
indicates either the power in watts or length in inches, the T indicates that the shape of the bulb is
tubular, and the last number (y) is the diameter in eighths of an inch . Typical diameters are T12 or T38
(11⁄2 in or 38.1 mm) for residential lamps with magnetic ballasts, T8 or T26 (1 in) for commercial
energy-saving lamps with electronic ballasts, and T5 or T16 (5⁄8 in) for very small lamps, which may
even operate from a battery-powered device.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescent-lamp_formats 2015-10-13
Fluorescent-lamp formats - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 2 of 9

Fluorescent tube diameter designation comparison


Tube
Extra
Designation diameter
(in) (mm) Socket Notes
Osram's Fluorescent Miniature (FM) tubes
1 only
⁄4
T2 7 WP4.5x8.5d
approx. Sylvania Luxline Slim T2 Linear

Slim lamps. Power ratings and lengths not


1
T4 ⁄2 12.7 G5 bipin standardized (and not the same) between
different manufacturers
Original 4–13 W range from 1950s or earlier.[2]
5 Two newer ranges high efficiency (HE) 14–35
T5 [1] T16 ⁄8 15.9 G5 bipin
W, and high output (HO) 24–80 W introduced
in the 1990s[3]
G13 bipin/single
From the 1930s,[4] more common since the
T8 T26 1 25.4 pin/recessed double
contact 1980s.[5]

T9 T29 11⁄8 28.6 G10q quadpin contact Circular (circline) fluorescent tubes only
T10 11⁄4 31.75 G13 bipin
G13 bipin/single
1 Also from the 1930s, not as efficient as new
T12 T38 1 ⁄2 38.1 pin/recessed double
lamps.[6]
contact
Large size for F90T17 (preheat) and F40T17/IS
T17 21⁄8 54 Mogul bipin
(instant start)
Recessed double
PG17 21⁄8 54 General Electric's Power Groove tubes only
contact

Reflectors

Some lamps have an internal opaque reflector. Coverage of the


reflector ranges from 120° to 310° of the lamp's circumference.
Often, a lamp is marked as a reflector lamp by adding the letter
"R" in the model code, so a F##T## lamp with a reflector would
be coded as "FR##T##". Very high output (VHO) lamps with
reflectors may be coded as VHOR. No such designation exists
for the amount of reflector coverage the lamp has. Cross section of a typical fluorescent
lamp with and without a reflector
Reflector lamps are used when light is only desired to be emitted
in a single direction, or when an application requires the
maximum amount of light. For example, these lamps can be used in tanning beds or in backlighting

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescent-lamp_formats 2015-10-13
Fluorescent-lamp formats - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 9

electronic displays. An internal reflector is more efficient than standard external reflectors. Another
example is color matched aperture lights (with about 30° of opening) used in the food industry for
robotic quality control inspection of cooked goods.

Aperture lamps have a clear break in the phosphor coating, typically of 30°, to concentrate light in one
direction and provide higher brightness in the beam than can be achieved by uniform phosphor coatings.
Aperture lamps include reflectors over the non-aperture area. Aperture lamps were commonly used in
photocopiers in the 1960s and 1970s where a bank of fixed tubes was arranged to light up the image to
be copied, but are rarely found nowadays. Aperture lamps can produce a concentrated beam of light
suitable for edge-lit signs.[7]

Slimline lamps

Slimline lamps operate on an instant start ballast and are recognizable by their single-pin bases.

High output/very high output lamps

High-output lamps are brighter and are driven at a higher electric current, have different ends on the pins
so they cannot be used in the wrong fixture, and are labeled F##T##HO, or F##T##VHO for very high
output. Since about the early to mid-1950s to today, General Electric developed and improved the
Power Groove lamp with the label F##PG17. These lamps are recognizable by their large diameter
(21/8"), grooved tube shape and an R17d cap on each end.

Other tube shapes

U-shaped tubes are FB##T##, with the B meaning "bent". Most commonly, these have the same
designations as linear tubes. Circular bulbs are FC##T#, with the outer diameter of the circle (not
circumference or watts) in centimeters being the first number and the second number referring to the
tube size.

Colors

Color is usually indicated by WW for warm white, EW for enhanced (neutral) white, CW for cool white
(the most common), and DW for the bluish daylight white. BL is used for ultraviolet lamps commonly
used in bug zappers. BLB is used for blacklight-blue lamps employing a woods glass envelope to filter
out most visible light, commonly used in nightclubs. Other non-standard designations apply for plant
lights or grow lights.

Philips and Osram use numeric color codes for the colors. On tri-phosphor and multi-phosphor tubes,
the first digit indicates the color rendering index (CRI) of the lamp. If the first digit on a lamp says 8,
then the CRI of that lamp will be approximately 85. The last two digits indicate the color temperature of
the lamp in kelvins (K). For example, if the last two digits on a lamp say 41, that lamp's color
temperature will be 4100 K, which is a common tri-phosphor cool white fluorescent lamp.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescent-lamp_formats 2015-10-13
Fluorescent-lamp formats - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 9

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescent-lamp_formats 2015-10-13
Fluorescent-lamp formats - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 5 of 9

Halophosphate tubes
Numeric color code Color Approximate CRI Color temperature (K)
29 Warm white ~54 3000
35 White ~56 3500
33 Daylight/Cool White ~67 4300
25 Natural/Universal White ~75 4000
54 Tropical Daylight ~75 6500
Deluxe halophosphate tubes
Numeric color code Color Approximate CRI Color temperature (K)
27 Deluxe Extra Warm White ~95 2700
32 Deluxe Warm White ~85 3000
34 Deluxe White ~85 3850
79 Deluxe Natural ~93 3600
38 Deluxe Cool White/°Kolor-rite ~92 4000
55 Northlight/Colour Matching ~94 6500
Tri-phosphor tubes
Numeric color code Color Approximate CRI Color temperature (K)
827 Warm white ~85 2700
835 White ~85 3500
841 Cool white ~85 4100
850 Sunlight ~85 5000
865 Cool daylight ~85 6500
880 Skywhite ~85 8000
Multi-phosphor tubes
Numeric color code Color Approximate CRI Color temperature (K)
927 Warm white ~95 2700
941 Cool white ~95 4100
950 Sunlight ~98 5000
965 Cool daylight ~95 6500
Special purpose tubes
Fluorescent
Numeric code Notes
lamp type

05 Germicidal lamps No phosphors used at all,

using an envelope of fused quartz.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescent-lamp_formats 2015-10-13
Fluorescent-lamp formats - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 6 of 9

08 Black-light lamps
09 Sun-tanning lamps

Common tube ratings


This section lists the more common tube ratings for general lighting. Many more tube ratings exist, often
country-specific. The Nominal Length may not exactly match any measured dimension of the tube. For
some tube sizes, the nominal length (in feet) is the required spacing between centers of the lighting
fixtures to create a continuous run, so the tubes are a little shorter than the nominal length.

Tube diameter in 1⁄8 in (3.175 mm) Nominal length Nominal power (W)
T5 6 in, 150 mm 4
T5 9 in, 225 mm 6
T5 12 in, 300 mm 8
T5 21 in, 525 mm 13
T8 18 in, 450 mm 14
T8 2 ft, 600 mm 18
T8 3 ft, 900 mm 30
T8 4 ft, 1200 mm 32
T8 5 ft, 1500 mm 58
T12 18 in, 450 mm 15
T12 2 ft, 600 mm 20
T12 4 ft, 1200 mm 40
T12 5 ft, 1500 mm 65, 80
T12 6 ft, 1800 mm 75, 85
T12 8 ft, 2400 mm 125

European energy-saving tubes

In the 1970s, Thorn Lighting introduced an energy-saving 8 ft retrofit tube in Europe. Designed to run
on the existing 125 W (240 V) series ballast but with a different gas fill and operating voltage, the tube
operated at only 100 W. Increased efficiency meant that the tube produced only 9% lumen reduction for
a 20% power reduction.[8] This first energy-saving tube design remains a T12 tube even today. However,
follow-on retrofit replacements for all the other original T12 tubes were T8, which helped with creating
the required electrical characteristics and saving on the then new (and more expensive)
polyphosphor/triphosphor coatings, and these were even more efficient. Note that because these tubes
were all designed as retrofit tubes to be fitted in T12 fittings running on series ballasts on 220–240 V
supplies, they could not be used in 120 V mains countries with inherently different control gear designs.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescent-lamp_formats 2015-10-13
Fluorescent-lamp formats - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 7 of 9

Diameter (in, Nominal length (ft, Nominal power


Type Notes
mm) m) (W)
Retrofit replacement for 2 ft T12
T8 1.0, 25 2, 0.6 18
20 W
Retrofit replacement for 4 ft T12
T8 1.0, 25 4, 1.2 36
40 W
Retrofit replacement for 5 ft T12
T8 1.0, 25 5, 1.5 58
65 W
Retrofit replacement for 6 ft T12
T8 1.0, 25 6, 1.8 70
75 W
Retrofit replacement for 8 ft T12
T12 1.5, 38 8, 2.4 100
125 W

By around 1980 (in the UK, at least), most new fluorescent fittings were designed to take only the
newer, retrofit tubes (the lamp holders are designed not to take T12 tubes, except for 8 ft length). The
earlier T12 halophosphate tubes still remained available as spares until 2012 but only fit in older fittings
and some modern fittings (they often fit in fittings employing twist lock lamp holders even though the
fittings themselves, were not electrically designed for them).

US energy-saving tubes

In the 1990s, various energy-saving tubes were introduced in the US, but unlike the T8 tubes introduced
in Europe, they are not retrofits and require new matching ballasts to drive them. Running a T8 tube
with a ballast for T12 will reduce lamp life and can increase energy consumption.[9] The tube type
should always match the markings on the light fixture.

Type Diameter (in, mm) Nominal length (ft) Nominal power (W) Notes
T12 1.5, 38 2 17
T12 1.5, 38 4 34
T12 1.5, 38 5 40
T12 1.5, 38 8 59
T8 1.0, 25 4 25 Shoplite

T5 tubes
In the 1990s, longer T5 tubes were designed in Europe (making it to North America in the 2000s), in
addition to the shorter ones (mentioned above) already in use worldwide.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescent-lamp_formats 2015-10-13
Fluorescent-lamp formats - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 8 of 9

Nominal power (W)


Tube diameter is 5⁄8 in
Length High- High Notes
(15.875 mm)
efficiency output
563 mm Fits within a 0.6 m
T5 14 24
(22.2 in) modular unit
863 mm Fits within a 0.9 m
T5 21 39
(34.0 in) modular unit
1,163 mm Fits within a 1.2 m
T5 28 54
(45.8 in) modular unit
1,463 mm Fits within a 1.5 m
T5 35 80, 49
(57.6 in) modular unit

T5 lamps are approximately 40% smaller than T8 lamps and almost 60% smaller than T12 lamps. T5
lamps have a G5 base (bi-pin with 5 mm spacing).[10]

See also
◾ Compact fluorescent lamp
◾ List of light sources
◾ Fluorescent lamp recycling
◾ T5 retrofit conversion

References
1. [1] (http://www.t5fixtures.com/), T5Fixtures.com - Everything you need to know about T5 grow lights.
2. Funke and Oranje, "Gas Discharge Lamps"; N.V Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken (1951)
3. "EC&M: The T5 Fluorescent Lamp: Coming on Strong". 2003-09-01. Retrieved 2008-09-28.
4. "Covington, E. J. The Story Behind This Account of Fluorescent Lamp Development". Retrieved
2008-09-28.
5. "Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: T-8 lamp retrofits". Retrieved 2008-09-28.
6. "Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: History and problems of T12 fluorescent lamps". Retrieved
2008-09-28.
7. "Aperture lamps". Retrieved 2009-11-15.
8. Thorn Lighting Technical Handbook
9. "Lighting Design Lab: http://www.lightingdesignlab.com/commercial/articles/Energy_Code.htm". 1995-11-
01. Retrieved 2009-07-06.
10. Lighting Research Center, "T5 Fluorescent Systems", [2]
(http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/nlpip/lightingAnswers/lat5/abstract.asp), accessed 11-30-2009.

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fluorescent-


lamp_formats&oldid=682081834"

Categories: Gas discharge lamps

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescent-lamp_formats 2015-10-13
Fluorescent-lamp formats - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page 9 of 9

◾ This page was last modified on 21 September 2015, at 12:26.


◾ Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms
may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a
registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescent-lamp_formats 2015-10-13