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Area Formulas

square = a 2 rectangle = ab

parallelogram = bh trapezoid = h/2 (b1 + b2)

circle = pi r 2 ellipse = pi r1 r2

one half times the base length times


triangle =
the height of the triangle

equilateral triangle =

triangle given SAS (two sides and the opposite angle)


= (1/2) a b sin C

triangle given a,b,c = [s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)] when s = (a+b+c)/2 (Heron's


formula)

regular polygon = (1/2) n sin(360°/n) S2


when n = # of sides and S = length from center to a corner

times 6 feet = 2 square feet. (or 2 sq. ft., or 2 ft2).


Volume Formulas

cube = a 3 rectangular prism = a b c

irregular prism = b h

cylinder = b h = pi r 2 h

pyramid = (1/3) b h

cone = (1/3) b h = 1/3 pi r 2 h

sphere = (4/3) pi r 3

ellipsoid = (4/3) pi r1 r2 r3

Perimeter Formulas

square = 4a rectangle = 2a + 2b

triangle = a + b + c circle = 2pi r

circle = pi d (where d is the diameter)


Surface Area Formulas
Surface Area of a Cube = 6 a 2

(a is the length of the side of each edge of the cube)

Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism = 2ab + 2bc + 2ac

(a, b, and c are the lengths of the 3 sides)

Surface Area of Any Prism

(b is the shape of the ends)

Surface Area = Lateral area + Area of two ends

(Lateral area) = (perimeter of shape b) * L

Surface Area = (perimeter of shape b) * L+ 2*(Area of shape b)

Surface Area of a Sphere = 4 pi r 2

(r is radius of circle)

Surface Area of a Cylinder = 2 pi r 2 + 2 pi r h

(h is the height of the cylinder, r is the radius of the top)

Surface Area = Areas of top and bottom +Area of the side

Surface Area = 2(Area of top) + (perimeter of top)* height


Surface Area = 2(pi r 2) + (2 pi r)* h

Arithmetic progression property:

a1 + an = a2 + an-1 = ... = ak+an-k+1

Formulae for the n-th term can be defined as:

an = 1/2(an-1 + an+1)

If the initial term of an arithmetic progression


is a1 and the common difference of successive
members is d, then the n-th term of the sequence is
given by

an = a1 + (n - 1)d, n = 1, 2, ...

The sum S of the first n values of a finite sequence is


given by the formula:

S = 1/2(a1 + an)n, where a1 is the first term


and an the last.

or

S = 1/2(2a1 + d(n-1))n
For geometric progression:

a, ar, ar², ar³, ....

Let Sn = sum of first n elements in geometric progression. Then


Sn = a + ar + ar² + ... + arⁿ⁻¹ + arⁿ
now multiply both sides by (1-r)
(1-r) Sn = (1-r) (a + ar + ar² + ar³ + ... + aⁿ⁻¹ + aⁿ)
(1-r) Sn = (a-ar) + (ar-ar²) + (ar²-ar³) + ... + (arⁿ⁻¹-arⁿ) + (arⁿ-arⁿ⁺¹)
now every term gets cancelled by a negative term (except first and
last)
(1-r) Sn = a - arⁿ⁺¹
(1-r) Sn = a(1-r ⁿ⁺¹)
now divide both sides by (1-r)
Sn = a(1-r ⁿ⁺¹)/(1-r)

For arithmetic progression:

a, a+d, a+2d, a+3d, ....

Let Sn = sum of first n elements in arithmetic progression. Then


Sn = a + (a+d) + (a+2d) + ... + (a+(n-1)d)
now add first and last terms
a + (a+(n-1)d) = 2a + (n-1)d
add second and second to last terms
(a+d) + (a+(n-2)d) = 2a +d+nd-2d = 2a + nd-d = 2a + (n-1)d
continue like this until you get to centre

If n is even, then we will get (n/2) sums of 2a + (n-1)d, so


Sn = (n/2)(2a+(n-1)d)
Sn = n (2a+(n-1)d) / 2

If n is odd, then we will get (n-1)/2 sums of 2a+(n-1)d plus the middle
term: a+((n-1)/2)d = a+(n-1)d/2, so
Sn = ((n-1)/2)(2a+(n-1)d) + (a+(n-1)d/2)
Sn = (n/2)(2a+(n-1)d) - (1/2)(2a+(n-1)d) + (a+(n-1)d/2)
Sn = n(2a+(n-1)d)/2 - (a+(n-1)d/2) + (a+(n-1)d/2)
Sn = n (2a+(n-1)d) / 2

Since we get same result when n is odd or even, it's best to


remember the method for n even, since this is easier.

As decimal expansions
The square roots of the perfect squares (1, 4, 9, 16, etc.) are integers. In all other cases, the
square roots are irrational numbers, and therefore their decimal representations are non-
repeating decimals.

1.41421356237309504880168872420969807856967187537 1 million digits, 2 million, 5 m


6948073176679737990732478462 illion, 10 million
1.73205080756887729352744634150587236694280525381
1 million digits
0380628055806979451933016909
2
2.23606797749978969640917366873127623544061835961
1 million digits
1525724270897245410520925638
2.44948974278317809819728407470589139196594748065
1 million digits
6670128432692567250960377457
2.64575131106459059050161575363926042571025918308
1 million digits
2450180368334459201068823230
2.82842712474619009760337744841939615713934375075
1 million digits
3896146353359475981464956924
3
3.16227766016837933199889354443271853371955513932
1 million digits
5216826857504852792594438639
3.31662479035539984911493273667068668392708854558
9353597058682146116484642609
3.46410161513775458705489268301174473388561050762
0761256111613958903866033818
3.60555127546398929311922126747049594625129657384
5246212710453056227166948293
3.74165738677394138558374873231654930175601980777
8726946303745467320035156307
3.87298334620741688517926539978239961083292170529
1590826587573766113483091937
4
4.12310562561766054982140985597407702514719922537
3620434398633573094954346338
4.24264068711928514640506617262909423570901562613
0844219530039213972197435386
4.35889894354067355223698198385961565913700392523
2444936890344138159557328203
4.47213595499957939281834733746255247088123671922
3051448541794490821041851276