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Civil Engineering Department

2 Marks Question and Answer






2 Marks

1. Define a boiler and distinguish between fire tube boiler and water tube boiler

Boiler is equipment used to convert water into steam under high pressure

with the help of heat.

It is otherwise called as steam generator and works at a

pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure.

In fire tube boiler, the water

surrounds the tubes through which the hot gases are passed.

In water tube boiler

the hot gases surround the tubes through which the water is passed.

In fire tube

boiler the output is low. In water tube boiler the output is high.

2. How does fusible plug work is a boiler?

Fusible plug is a device fixed at the surface of the boiler close to the fine

chamber. This device is made up of a gun metal which has low melting point than

the metal of the boiler shell. Under normal working conditions of the cotroller the

water in the boiler will be at the safe level and fusible plug will be immersed is the


When the controller fails the water lend comes down and due to

overheating of boilers the fusible plug melts the steam in the boiler flows to the

fine chamber and puts-off the fine.

Thus a major explosion of boiler and its

accessories is prevented by fusible plug.

3. Distinguish between lift and escalator

Elevators or lifts are generally provided for multi-storeyed buildings. Lifts

are the only mode of transport which are moving truly vertical

Escalators are otherwise known as powered steps Escalators are very useful

to carry more number of people between one floor to the other at any instant.

Usually escalators are operated continuously.

4. What is a buffer and bumper in lift terminologies?

Buffer: - This is placed at the pit to absorb the shock of either the cab or the

counterweight when it lands on it. Oil buffer and spring buffer are generally wed


Bumper: - This is a device which works similar to buffer and replaces buffer if


5. Write at least three special features required at lifts and escalators for

physically handicapped and elderly persons.

1) Lifts should be at the entrance level and should have sufficient space atleast to a

dimension of 1.1 x 15m allowing maneuvering and turning of a wheel chair

2) Internal lift control buttons should be at a height between 900mm and from the


3) Buttons should be easily operated light touch type with visual and tactile

indication of floor selection.

6) What is a hold back in a conveyor?

A holdback is a mechanical device which allows the pullet to matte in only

one direction. This is used when the belt is moved is an inclined position and

during this type of movement whenever the power fails the load in the belt tends

to move it is the reverse direction if the holdback is not provided.


List the different types of vibrators.

There are several types of vibrations available for compacting the connect.

They are

(i) Internal vibrator (Needle vibrator)

(ii) Formwork vibrator (External vibrator)

(iii) Table vibrator

8. What is a batch mixer? What are its types?

The batch mixer is used mostly commonly for ordinary buildings.

The batch mixers are of the following three types

(i) Tilting mixers

(ii) Non-tilting mixers

(iii) Reversing mixers

9. State Fleming’s left hand rule

Fleming’s left hand rule states that if the left hand is held in a way that the

forefinger, middle finger and the thumb are at right angles and if the fore finger

represents the direction of magnetic field and the middle finger represents the

direction of current,

then the

thumb represents the direction of

motion of

conductor under the influence of the force experienced.


What is electromagnetic induction?

According to this principle, whenever a conductor cuts a magnetic flux, an

emf is induced in the conductor causing a current to flow through it when the

circuit is closed. The direction of emf is given by Flemings right handrule.

11. Difference between a motor and a generator.


A motor is a machine which converts electrical energy in to mechanical

energy. When a motor works with a Director current (D.C) supply, it is termed as



A Generator is a machine which converts mechanical energy in to electrical

energy. When it produces a direct current is called D.C. Generator.

12. What is the difference between .C and D.C?

D.C Motor and A.C Motor:

When a motor works with a Direct current (DC) supply, it is termed as DC

motor, when a motor works with Alternate current (AC) supply it is termed as AC


AC Generator and AC generator:

When a generator produces a direct current is called DC generator.


Alternating current is produced from a generator, it is called alternator (or) AC



What do you mean by Escalators?

Escalators are used to carry more number of people between one floor to

the other at any instant.

14. Mention atleast two advantages of hydro electric power plant.

1. Water is a cheap and renewable source of energy where as the fuel used in other

plants is expensive and exhaustible.

2. There is no air pollution, radiation hazard, ash disposal problem.

3. Cost of maintenance is less.

15. Explain the concept of flow of wind on earth

Flow of wind is the effect of solar heat. The energy form the sun heats up

the earth surface. As the earth rotates about its own axis and also revolves around

the surface of the earth is subjected to alternate heating and cooling. This change

is temperature results is change in pressure and thus wind starts flowing from

higher pressure zone to low pressure zone.

Thus the earth atmosphere is a

marvelous solar driven heat engine that can generate about 10 million MW of


16. What is a vibrator?

Vibrator is an electric device used to compact the concrete by expelling the

entrapped air.


What are the classification of vibrator?

1. Internal vibrator (needle vibrator)

2. Formwork vibrator (External vibrator)

3. Table vibrator

4. Platform vibrator

5. Surface vibrator

6. Vibratory Roller

18. What is a conveyor?

Conveyor are used to transfer the materials from one place to the other over

a short distance

19. What is a concrete mixer?

Concrete mixer is a machine used to mix the ingredients of concrete so as

to prepare a fresh mixture of concrete.

20. What are the types of concrete mixers?

1. Continuous mixers

2. Batch mixers or Drum mixers


1. What are the various accessories used in Boilers? Explain in detail with

necessary sketches

2. Compare of contrast a Cochran boiler with a Wilcox boiler

3. Write short notes on:-

1) Lift of Escalators

2) Conveyors

3) Vibrators of concrete mixers

4. Give an account on construction of working of A.C. of D.C Generators

5. Explain in detail about construction of working of Hydroelectric power plants

6. Write short notes on:

1) Gas of electrical

2) Air & Electricity


2 Marks

1. Differentiate between conductance and existence

Conductance: It is the property of any substance that allows the flow of current in

it. It is measured in mho

Resistance:- Resistance is the property of any substance that opposes the flow of

current in it. It is denoted by the symbol ' ' and is measured in ohms.

2. Define power give its units

Power is defined as the rate at which the work is done. It is denoted by the

letter ‘p’ and is measured in ‘watts’.

3. Quote some examples for the sources of AC supply and DC supply.

Source of AC supply:- An A.C generator

Source of DC supply: Batteries, DC generators


Draw the circuit symbols for the following



2. Single tube tight


Ceiling fan

4. Three pin socket



Ceiling Fan


1. Lamp 2. Single tube tight 3. Ceiling fan 4. Three pin socket Lamp - Ceiling


Write the SI units for the following electrical quantities


Current density

2. Electric flux


Potential drop

4. Susceptance


Current density

- Ampere / met

Electric flux

- Coulomb (C)

Potential drop

- Volt (V)


- Mho ( )

6. Mention any two locations in a residential building where two way switch is

frequently used

1. Lights at bed rooms

2. Lights at staircases

7. Differentiate between pull switch and push switch

Pull switch:- The pull switches work with the strong mechanical action.



usually operated by a single pull both for ON and OFF. This switch is installed on

the ceiling and a chord is made to hang from the top for operating it.

Push Button switch: This switch is used for calling bells and buzzers. It consists

of a single blade with the insulated cover which is pushed for bath ‘ON’ and

‘OFF’ alternatively.


Define Electricity

It is defined as the flow of electrons in any conductor

9. What is the role of fuse in an electrical installation?

The function of a fuse is to protect the electrical appliances from heavy


Thus whenever

a high

voltage is passed through


fuse wire


automatically melts and breaks the circuits. Fuse is always provided in live wires

and not on neutral and earth.

10. Define earting in an electrical wiring

Earthing is connecting the electrical appliances to the ground so that any

unforeseen current such as leakages, faults etc is immediately discharged to the


The pursose of earthing is to ensure all parts of the system other than live

parts are at earth potential at all times (or) the purpose is to avoid electric shock to

human body.

11. Mention at least two wiring systems that are commonly adopted.

i) Series circuit connection

ii) Parallel circuit connection

12. What is the principle on which the transformer works.

The Principle is “Mutual Induction Principle” Accourding to this, whenever

a current carrying conductor is wounded (primary) on one side of a laminated core

an emf is induced on the conductor wounded (secondary) on the other side of the

laminated core provided the secondary coils lies within the magnetic field of the


13. Define conductance:-

It is the reciprocal of resistance of it is measured in mho

14. Write at least two applications of a transformer, Transformers are used in,

i) Transmission and distribution of electric power,

ii) Radio, Television and Telephone circuits

iii) Step up and step down requirements

iv) Measuring current using current transformer and measuring voltage

using voltage transformer

(v) Special application like furnace transformers and welding transformers.

15. Define switchgear

Switchgear refers to a suitable combination cassembly of switching of

devices for use in connection with generation, transmission, distribution and

conversion of electrical energy.

16. Define magnetic flux:-

It is defined as the amount of magnetic field produced by a magnetic



What are the two types of electrical supply

1. Direct current (DC) supply

2. Alternating current (AC) supply

18. What are the types of iorn clad switch?

1. Double pole iron clad switch (DPIC)

2. Triple pole iron clad switch (TPIC)

3. Triple pole iron clad switch with neutral link (TPNIC)

19. What is a fuse?

Fuse is provided at many places in electrical installations, especially along

with main switch and at distribution fuse board.

20. What do you mean by earthing?

Earthing is connecting the electrical appliances to the ground so that any

unforeseen current such as leakages, faults etc are immediately discharged to the



1. List the various protective devices used in electrical installation of explain each

one in detail.

2. Why is earthing important for any building? Draw neat sketches for various

types of earthing of explain in detail

3. What are the various wiring systems adopted in a building? Explain in detail

4. Draw a neat sketch of layout of electrical feltings in a residential flat & Explain

5. Give an account on Transformer of its applications

6. What are the various features that have to be ensured in locating? Substation in

a building as per NBC?


2 Marks

1. Define Glare least its types

Bright light which interferes with visual perception is called glare. A bright

area in the field of vision reduces the ability to perceive visual information needed

for task performance.


1. Discomfort glare

2. Disability glare

3. Direct glare

4. Indirect glare

2. What are the drawbacks of corpuscular theory?

Corpuscular theory failed to explain partial reflection, partial refraction and

other phenomena such as interference, diffraction and polarization.

3. What is Calorimetry?

Calorimetry is the science of measuring the heat of chemical reactions or

physical changes.

Calorimetry involves the use of calorimeter.

The word

calorimetry from latin word calor meaning heat.


1. Direct calorimetry

4. What is the frequency and wavelength of FM waves?

The frequency of an FM radio wave is about 100MHZ = 100 x10 6 Hz. This

means about that the wavelength is about 3m long.

5. Define the relationship between frequency and wavelength.

The higher the frequency, lesser will be the wavelength and relationship

between frequency and wavelength is given by,











Differentiate between UV radiation and IR radiation.


UV radiation

IR radiation


UV radiation has wavelength slightly less than those of violet light

IR radiation has wavelength slightly grater than those of red light


It is emitted by the sun and also by other objects at high temperature.

It can be felt as heat radiation from the sun and from other heated bodies


These radiation helps to keep the body healthy but excessive amounts can cause damage to the skin and eyes and can be used to kill harmful bacteria on kitchens and hospitals

It is made use of radiant heating devices for detecting patterns of heat emesis ions for seeing in dark for communication links.


What is a social angle? How is it measured?

It is defined as the angle subtended at the centre of the sphere between the

lines joining the opposite edges of a segment of a sphere with the centre. It is

denoted by ‘w’.

Consider an area ‘A’ which is a segment of a sphere of radices 'γ ' . Let ‘C’

be the centre point of the sphere which is joined to every point on the edges of

area, A. Now he solid angle w subtended by this area at the centre of the sphere is

given by.







8. What is M.H.S.C.P?

If the average of the candle power is taken over a hemisphere instead of a

sphere like in M.S.C.P then it is called as mean hemispherical candle power which

is abbreviated as M.H.S.C.P

M.H.S.C.P =

flux emitted in a hemisphere



9. Define inverse square law for illumination

The illumination of a surface is inversely proportional to the square of the

distance of the surface from the source.







Distinguish between colour temperature and colour rendering


Colour temperature

Colour rendering


The colour temperature of a lamp

Colour rendering describes how a light

describes how the light appears when

source makes the colour of an object

human eye looks directly at the

appear to human eyes.

illuminated bulb.


It is measured by a unit called

It is measured by colour rendering




The scale that starts at ab zero (-1273

The scale has value from 0 to 1000

degrees C)



A theoretically perfect radiator called

This ability is measured by comparing

a black body is used as the standard of

the appearance of objects under the


light source with their appearance under

a reference source such as daylight.

11. What is called as spectrum?

Whenever a beam of light passes through a prism it get dispersed into its

component colours of all wavelengths called spectrum which include wavelengths

of visible light.


Explain how the propagation of light is perceived?

Modern theory proposes that light has a dual character. Sometimes it

behaves like a particle or corpuscle. For example when light energy comes from

sun, there are two model of transportation.

(i) This energy may be carried by small material particles travelling with finite

velocity, and each particle possesses kinetic energy = MV2 and no material

medium is required for propagation of these particles. This is the basic form of

Newton’s corpuscular theory.

(ii) The second mode of transportation may be considered that the light energy

moves by wave motion where the actual matter does not travel. This process

requires some intervening medium for transfer of energy. This interpretation was

further supplemented by wave theory of light given by Huygens.

13. Distinguish between down lighters and uplighters

Down lighters:-

Down lighters cast distinct pools of light onto the surface below.

Up lighters:-

Up lighters throw light onto ceiling where it bounces off to create a soft

eight they work best in rooms where ceiling is painted white or a light shade.

They are also perfect for study or home office as the light going upwards avoids



Differentiate between additive colour and subtractive colour.


Additive colour

Subtractive colour


If coloured lights are added

If colours are subtracted from white light

together then they will produce

then other colours will be produced.

other colours


When the three primary additive

When the three primary subtractive colours

colours are combined in equal

are combined in equal propotions they

proportions they add to produce

subtract components of white light to

white light

produce darkness.




Red + Green = Yellow

Green + Blue = cyan

Red + blue = Magenta

Red + Green + Blue = White

Cyan subtracts Red

Magenta subtracts Green yellow subtracts Blue

Cyan subtracts Red Magenta subtracts Green yellow subtracts Blue These pairs are formed as complementary colours

These pairs are formed as complementary colours


They are used for stage lighting,

They are widely used for paint pigments,

colour television and in colour

colour photographs and colour printing.



What is a visual task?

Visual tasks are the tasks (work) that are carried out with the help of vision.


What are the factors affecting visual tasks?


1. Size, 2. Luminance, 3. Contrast,

4. Glare


What is glare?

Bright light which interferes with visual perception is called glare.

18. What are the two types of visual tasks?

i) Paper based tasks

ii) Computer based tasks

19. What are the modern theory of light?

1. Corpuscular theory

2. Ware theory

3. Electromagnetic theory

4. Quantum Theory

20. What are the types of glare

1. Discomfort glare

2. Disability glare

3. Direct glare

4. Indirect glare


1. i) State and explain the factors affecting visual tasks

ii) Write short notes on synthesis of light


Write short notes on

i) Synthesis of colour

ii) Illumination

iii) Utilization and depreciation factor

4. Explain in detail about artificial light source.

5. Write in detail about lighting requirements in various building types.

6. What are the special features to be considered in lighting for physically,

handicapped and elderly people.


2 marks

1. Define Thermodynamics?

The term Thermodynamics stem from Greekwords.

and dynamics means power.

Therme means heat

The term of thermodynamics is a branch of science that deals the study of

heat which is in motion.

2. Distinguish between latent heat of fusion and latent heat of evaporation?


latent heat of fusion


latent heat of evaporation

i) Latent heat of fusion is defined as the

i) The latent heat of evaporation (or)

amount of heat required to convert unit

vaporization is defined as the amount of

mass of the substance from solid to

heat required to convert unit mass of the

liquid at its melting point without any

liquid into its vapour state at the same

rise in temperature.




ii) For example water exists as ice at

ii) For example the water which is in

0 o c.







liquid form starts evaporating (converts











100 o c.




(0 o c)




100 o c more the water is heated more the


amount of time


all the


steam is generated without the change

melts totally.


in temperature.



Define refrigeration what is the principle refrigeration?

Refrigeration is defined as the process of cooling and maintaining a

temperature well below that of the surrounding atmospheric temperature.

Principle of refrigeration












thermodynanics which states that heat cannot flow from a cold body to a hot body

unless an external force acts on it.

Figure representation given below











4. Write at least two advantages of fan coil systems.

1. The system can accommodate upto 100% outside air capability.

2. Zones can be individually controlled.

5. Define cooling towers?

The cooling towers in an air conditioning system is the means by which the

heat from the condenser of the refrigeration system is rejected to the atmosphere.

Cooling towers are used for controlling the temperature of water usually in big

plants of above 100 tons capacity.

6. Why is air conditioning in hospital more significant?

Air conditioning in hospitals assume greater significance.

In many cases

proper air conditioning can be a factor in the therapy of the patient and insome

instances part of the major treatment.


Write at least two precautions to prevent fire caused AC system?

Escape routes like staircase common corridors, lift lobbies etc should not be

used as return air passage.

Some dampers should be provided fro buildings with more than 24m


The air handling unit

combustible materials.

room should

not be

used for


of any

8. Write atleast three design consideration on water piping?

i) The material used for pipes are generally steel with welded or flanged

joints as other materials are more prone to corrosion.

ii) The water velocity in the pipe are normally in the range of 1m/s to 3m/s.

iii) Main headers in the plant room are designed fro very low velocity

around 1 m/s.

9. How is chilled water plant different from other system?





















organization (or) institutions having several buildings across the campus.


advantage of having centralized water plant over individual units in each building

includes improved efficiency, ability to cycle easily between alternate energy

resources reduced maintenance and long term capital cost reduction.


Define cooling loads?

Buildings are built to provide a safe and comfortable internal environment despite variations in external conditions. The extent to which the desired interior conditions can be economically maintained is one important measure of success of

a building design. Since the control of inside conditions is usually to the active

heating and cooling system they have to be designed based on the proper ovalution

of the thermal characteristics of the surroundings.

11. Differentiate between condenser and evaporation





The condenser is attached to one out of

It is the component which is actually fitted at the cooling portiong of the refrigerator (freezer) because is actual cooling device.

two leads (pipes) compressor.





is U shaped

12. What are the various modes of heat transfer?

It can happen in three forms

1. Conduction

2. Convection

3. Radiation

13. What is a Starter?

Starters are used to establish the starting circuit for starting the motor.

14. What are the types of starter

1. Current starting relay

2. Hot wire starting relay

3. Voltage starting relay


What do you mean by air handling units?

Air heading units are the equipments that deals with the hot and cold air

which air used to condition the air inside a room.

16. What are the two types of air handling units

1. Single duct units

2. Double or dual duct units

17. What do you mean by hydronic system?

Piping systems for water & pumps for inducing the flow of water is called

hydronic systems.

18. What do you mean by far coil systems?

It is an air conditioning system used in buildings.

19. What are the two basic piping arrangements that are widely practiced?

1. Direct return plan

2. Reversed return plan

20. What are the classification of a cooling towers?

1. Natural draft atmospheric spray tower.

2. Natural draft deck type tower.

3. Forced draft cooling tower.

4. Induced draft cooling tower.


1. Define temperature. Explain in detail it measurements.

2. Explain he construction and working of a refrigerator.

3. Give a detailed account on electric motors and starters.

4. Write short notes on

a) Air handling units

b) Cooling towers.

c) Packaged air conditioners.

5. Write short notes on

a)Window air conditioner

b) Chilled water plant

c) Fan coil systems.

6. Give an account on air conditioning systems suitable for various types of



2 Marks

1. List the significant toxic gases that are produced during fire

a) Carbon monoxide

b) Carbon dioxide

c) Hydrogen sulphide

d) Nitrogen dioxide

2. Give at least two recommendations of NBC with respect to fire safety.

1. A building or portion of the building may be occupied only if all means

of exit and fire protection measures are in place and continuously

maintained for the occupied part of the building.

2. Lifts and escalators should not be considered as fire exit.

3. How can be timber made fire resistant?

The structural elements made of timber ignite and rapidly destroyed in case

of fire.

The use of timber cannot be totally avoided as a construction

material, the surface of the timber is coated with paints and / or certain

chemicals such as a ammonium phosphate, ammonium sulphate, borax,

boric acid, zinc chloride etc to make if fire resistant.

the fuel to the fire.

More over it acts as


Describe the quality of concrete with respect of fire resistance.

This material is a bad conductor of

heat and





material for fire resisting construction.

The concrete offers a much higher

resistance to a fire than any other material.

The actual behaviour of

concrete in case of a fire depends on the quality of cement and type of

aggregate forming the concrete and in case of reinforced and prestressed

structures is also depends on the position of steel in concrete.

5. List at least three fire escape elements in buildings

1. A separate fire life should be provided for use of fire bridge in the event

of fire.

2. Every tall building should have a minimum of 2 staircases.

3. The lifts and escalators should not be considered as exits.

6. Write at least three special design considerations to be considered for

physically handicapped and elderly people with respect to fire safety.

1. Flashing lights can be activated simultaneously with an audible alarm

system to alert persons with hearing impairments.

2. Old age and disabled person need to be included in all fire drills.

3. Flashing lights vibrating beds or variable velocity fans can alert deaf

and blind people.


What is smoke detector? Give example

It is a device that’s detects smoke commercial, industrial and mass

residential devices issue a signal to a fire alarm system while household

detectors, known as smoke alarms, generally issue a local audible and/or

visual alarm from the detector itself. Example : optical smoke detector.

8. What are the various fire alarm systems?

The fire alarm systems are of two types

a) Automatic Alarm Systems

b) Manual Alarm Systems.

9. Explain the significance of fire lighting.

Emergency lighting should be powered from a source independent of

that supply the normal lighting.








unambiguously the escape routes.



10. Distinguish between dry riser and wet riser


Wet riser


Dry riser







hydrant riser

It is also called dry hydrant riser which is installed in a building with the height in the range of 18-40m.







maximum height 60m.


2. It is almost similar to dry riser except that the riser is always charged with pressurized supply of water

It is not changed with pressurized supply of water.

11. Define sprinkler head

In the automatic sprinklers the heat actuated devices known as the sprinkler

heads are fitted at regular usually 3m along the pipes.

12. List the various types of sprinkler heads that are commonly used

a) Fusible link

b) Chemical Head

c) Glass Bulb

d) Open Sprinkle Heads (Debug System)

13. List the various types of sprinkler systems

Three types of sprinkler system

1. Residential sprinkler system

2. Domestic sprinkler system

3. Commercial sprinkler system

14. List the various structures where automatic sprinkler systems are

commonly installed.

1. High rise buildings

2. Multi strayed buildings

3. Shopping malls

4. Theatres

15. What are the various precautions to be taken in the arrangement of automatic sprinkler system?

1. The pipes should be fitted on the ceiling of the room at a height not

more than 4 meters.

2. In order to make the system more effective, the arrangement should be made to cause an automatic alarm in case of a fire.

16. What do you mean by a lobby?

Lobby is an open area inside the entrance of a public building.

17. What is a dry riser?

It is an arrangement of fire fighting within the building by means of vertical rising mains not less than 100mm internal diameter with landing valves on each floor which is dry but is capable of being charged with water usually by pumping from fire service appliances. 18. What is a wet riser?

The riser is always charged with pressurized supply of water.

19. What

are considerations for design?



1. Walls & Column




2. Floors & roofs

3. Wall openings

4. Building fire escape element staircase.

20. What is a visible smoke detector?




A source of light is directed at a receiving photocell. In case of fire, smoke

scatters the light and an alarm is triggered.


1. Describe in detail about the causes and effects of fire.

2. List out the various recommendations of National Building code with

respect to fire safety.

3. Describe the characteristics of materials and technology of construction

with respect to fire safety.

4. Write short notes on

Fire lifts and lobbies

AC system and means of fire escape

Special features for physically handicapped and elderly people with

respect to fire safety.

5. Write short notes on

Fire alarm systems

Smoke Detector

Fire lightings

Water storage and pumps

6. Give an account on automatic sprinkler systems.